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Sample records for active mri implants

  1. Safety of active implantable devices during MRI examinations: a finite element analysis of an implantable pump.

    PubMed

    Büchler, Philippe; Simon, Anne; Burger, Jürgen; Ginggen, Alec; Crivelli, Rocco; Tardy, Yanik; Luechinger, Roger; Olsen, Sigbjørn

    2007-04-01

    The goal of this study was to propose a general numerical analysis methodology to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-safety of active implants. Numerical models based on the finite element (FE) technique were used to estimate if the normal operation of an active device was altered during MRI imaging. An active implanted pump was chosen to illustrate the method. A set of controlled experiments were proposed and performed to validate the numerical model. The calculated induced voltages in the important electronic components of the device showed dependence with the MRI field strength. For the MRI radiofrequency fields, significant induced voltages of up to 20 V were calculated for a 0.3T field-strength MRI. For the 1.5 and 3.0OT MRIs, the calculated voltages were insignificant. On the other hand, induced voltages up to 11 V were calculated in the critical electronic components for the 3.0T MRI due to the gradient fields. Values obtained in this work reflect to the worst case situation which is virtually impossible to achieve in normal scanning situations. Since the calculated voltages may be removed by appropriate protection circuits, no critical problems affecting the normal operation of the pump were identified. This study showed that the proposed methodology helps the identification of the possible incompatibilities between active implants and MR imaging, and can be used to aid the design of critical electronic systems to ensure MRI-safety.

  2. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants: 2. Defects on active MRI implants causing hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Martin HJ; Vollmann, Wolfgang; Grönemeyer, Dietrich HW

    2006-01-01

    Background Active magnetic resonance imaging implants, for example stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters, are constructed as wireless inductively coupled transmit and receive coils. They are built as a resonator tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system. The resonator can be added to or incorporated within the implant. This technology can counteract the shielding caused by eddy currents inside the metallic implant structure. This may allow getting diagnostic information of the implant lumen (in stent stenosis or thrombosis for example). The electro magnetic rf-pulses during magnetic resonance imaging induce a current in the circuit path of the resonator. A by material fatigue provoked partial rupture of the circuit path or a broken wire with touching surfaces can set up a relatively high resistance on a very short distance, which may behave as a point-like power source, a hot spot, inside the body part the resonator is implanted to. This local power loss inside a small volume can reach ¼ of the total power loss of the intact resonating circuit, which itself is proportional to the product of the resonator volume and the quality factor and depends as well from the orientation of the resonator with respect to the main magnetic field and the imaging sequence the resonator is exposed to. Methods First an analytical solution of a hot spot for thermal equilibrium is described. This analytical solution with a definite hot spot power loss represents the worst case scenario for thermal equilibrium inside a homogeneous medium without cooling effects. Starting with this worst case assumptions additional conditions are considered in a numerical simulation, which are more realistic and may make the results less critical. The analytical solution as well as the numerical simulations use the experimental experience of the maximum hot spot power loss of implanted resonators with a definite volume during magnetic resonance imaging investigations. The finite

  3. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants.

    PubMed

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-21

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient's anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant's RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B(1)(+) field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient's anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  4. Convex optimization of MRI exposure for mitigation of RF-heating from active medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2015-09-01

    Local RF-heating of elongated medical implants during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may pose a significant health risk to patients. The actual patient risk depends on various parameters including RF magnetic field strength and frequency, MR coil design, patient’s anatomy, posture, and imaging position, implant location, RF coupling efficiency of the implant, and the bio-physiological responses associated with the induced local heating. We present three constrained convex optimization strategies that incorporate the implant’s RF-heating characteristics, for the reduction of local heating of medical implants during MRI. The study emphasizes the complementary performances of the different formulations. The analysis demonstrates that RF-induced heating of elongated metallic medical implants can be carefully controlled and balanced against MRI quality. A reduction of heating of up to 25 dB can be achieved at the cost of reduced uniformity in the magnitude of the B1+ field of less than 5%. The current formulations incorporate a priori knowledge of clinically-specific parameters, which is assumed to be available. Before these techniques can be applied practically in the broader clinical context, further investigations are needed to determine whether reduced access to a priori knowledge regarding, e.g. the patient’s anatomy, implant routing, RF-transmitter, and RF-implant coupling, can be accepted within reasonable levels of uncertainty.

  5. Brain Activation in Response to Visceral Stimulation in Rats with Amygdala Implants of Corticosterone: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthony C.; Myers, Brent; Lazovic, Jelena; Towner, Rheal; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    Background Although visceral pain of gastrointestinal (GI) origin is the major complaint in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) it remains poorly understood. Brain imaging studies suggest a defect in brain-gut communication in IBS with a greater activation of central arousal circuits including the amygdala. Previously, we found that stereotaxic implantation of corticosterone (CORT) onto the amygdala in rats induced anxiety and colonic hypersensitivity. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify specific brain sites activated in a rat model characterized by anxiety and colonic hypersensitivity. Methodology/Principal Findings Anesthetized male rats received micropellets (30 µg each) of either CORT or cholesterol (CHOL), to serve as a control, implanted stereotaxically on the dorsal margin of each amygdala. Seven days later, rats were anesthetized and placed in the fMRI magnet (7T). A series of isobaric colorectal balloon distensions (CRD - 90s ‘off’, 30s ‘on’, 8 replicates) at two pressures (40 and 60 mmHg) were performed in a standard block-design. Cross correlation statistical analysis was used to determine significant differences between distended and non-distended states in CORT and CHOL-treated animals. Analysis of the imaging data demonstrated greater overall brain activation in response to CRD in rats with CORT implants compared to CHOL controls. Additionally, CORT implants produced significant positive bilateral increases in MRI signal in response to CRD in specific nuclei known as integration sites important in anxiety and pain perception. Conclusions and Significance These data indicate that chronic exposure of the amygdala to elevated levels of CORT enhances overall brain activation in response to CRD, and identified other specific brain regions activated in response to mechanical distension of the colon. These results demonstrate the feasibility of performing fMRI imaging in a rodent model that

  6. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants with cylindrical symmetry: 1. Properly working devices

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Martin HJ; Vollmann, Wolfgang; Schnorr, Jörg; Grönemeyer, Dietrich HW

    2005-01-01

    Background Active Magnetic Resonance Imaging implants are constructed as resonators tuned to the Larmor frequency of a magnetic resonance system with a specific field strength. The resonating circuit may be embedded into or added to the normal metallic implant structure. The resonators build inductively coupled wireless transmit and receive coils and can amplify the signal, normally decreased by eddy currents, inside metallic structures without affecting the rest of the spin ensemble. During magnetic resonance imaging the resonators generate heat, which is additional to the usual one described by the specific absorption rate. This induces temperature increases of the tissue around the circuit paths and inside the lumen of an active implant and may negatively influence patient safety. Methods This investigation provides an overview of the supplementary power absorbed by active implants with a cylindrical geometry, corresponding to vessel implants such as stents, stent grafts or vena cava filters. The knowledge of the overall absorbed power is used in a finite volume analysis to estimate temperature maps around different implant structures inside homogeneous tissue under worst-case assumptions. The "worst-case scenario" assumes thermal heat conduction without blood perfusion inside the tissue around the implant and mostly without any cooling due to blood flow inside vessels. Results The additional power loss of a resonator is proportional to the volume and the quality factor, as well as the field strength of the MRI system and the specific absorption rate of the applied sequence. For properly working devices the finite volume analysis showed only tolerable heating during MRI investigations in most cases. Only resonators transforming a few hundred mW into heat may reach temperature increases over 5 K. This requires resonators with volumes of several ten cubic centimeters, short inductor circuit paths with only a few 10 cm and a quality factor above ten. Using MR

  7. Central nervous system MRI and cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Cadieu, Romain; Peron, Marilyne; Le Ven, Florent; Kerdraon, Sébastien; Boutet, Claire; Mansourati, Jacques; Ben Salem, Douraied

    2017-02-01

    As the population ages and indications for MRI increase, it is estimated that 50 to 75% of patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) - pacemaker (PM) or implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD) - will need an MRI during their CIED's lifetime. Three categories of materials are defined: MRI compatible, MRI non-compatible, and MRI conditional. MRI compatible CIEDs without electrodes have been developed, but do not allow battery changes, so that they are exclusively indicated for patients whose life expectancy is less than that of the battery (6-7years). For MRI conditional CIEDs, all manufacturers publish restrictions. These restrictions can relate to the patient (size, position in the MRI, body temperature), the MRI parameters (magnetic field), or the examination in itself (gradients, specific absorption rate, duration, isocenter). The neuroradiologist can expect to be confronted with the issue of MRI in patients with a CIED. The purpose of this review is to provide them with updated information on MRI and CIEDs.

  8. [How do metallic middle ear implants behave in the MRI?].

    PubMed

    Kwok, P; Waldeck, A; Strutz, J

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained in frequency and importance as a diagnostic procedure. In respect to the close anatomical relationship in the temporal bone it is necessary to know whether it is hazardous to patients with metallic middle ear implants regarding displacement and rise in temperature. For the MR image quality artefacts caused by metallic prostheses should be low. Four different stapes prostheses made from titanium, gold, teflon/platinum and teflon/steel, a titanium total ossicular reconstruction prosthesis (TORP) and two ventilation tubes (made from titanium and gold) were tested in a 1.5 Tesla MRI machine regarding their displacement. All objects were first placed in a petri dish, then suspended from a thread and finally immersed in a dish filled with Gadolinium. Temperature changes of the implants were recorded by a pyrometer. None of the implants moved when they were placed in the petri dish or suspended from the thread. On the water surface the teflon/platinum and the teflon/steel pistons adjusted their direction with their axis longitudinally to the MRI scanner opening and the teflon/steel piston floated towards the MRI-machine when put close enough to the scanner opening. No rise in temperature was recorded. All implants showed as little artefacts that would still make an evaluation of the surrounding tissue possible. Patients with any of the metallic middle ear implants that were examined in this study may undergo MRI-investigations without significant adverse effects.

  9. Transapical Perceval S Sutureless Aortic Valve Implantation under MRI guidance: Acute and Short-term Results

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Keith A.; Mazilu, Dumitru; Cai, Junfeng; Kindzelski, Bogdan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite the increasing success and applicability of TAVR, two critical issues remain unanswered; the durability of the valves and the ideal imaging to aid implantation. This study was designed to investigate the transapical implantation of a device of known durability using rtMRI guidance. Methods The Sorin Perceval S valve employs a self-expanding nitinol stent and is amenable to transapical delivery. A 1.5T MRI was used to identify the anatomic landmarks in 60kg Yucatan swine. Prostheses were loaded into an MRI compatible delivery device with an active guidewire to enhance visualization. A series of acute feasibility experiments were conducted (n=10). Additional animals (n=6) were allowed to survive and had follow-up MRI scans and echocardiography at 90-days postoperatively. Postmortem gross examination was then performed. Results The Perceval S valve is MRI compatible and creates no significant MRI artifacts. The three commissural struts were visible on short axis view, therefore coronary ostia obstruction was easily avoided. The average implantation time was 65 seconds. Final results demonstrated stability of the implants with preservation of myocardial perfusion and function over 90 days: EF was 48±15%; peak gradient was 17.3±11.3 mm Hg; mean gradient was 9.8±7.2 mm Hg. Mild aortic regurgitation was seen in 4 cases, trace in 1 case, and severe central jet in 1 case. Prosthesis positioning was evaluated during gross examination. Conclusions We demonstrated that the Perceval S valve can be safely and expeditiously implanted through a transapical approach under rtMRI guidance. Post-implantation results showed a well-functioning prosthesis with minimal regurgitation and stability over time. PMID:25466854

  10. Safety of MRI with metallic middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Souheil M; Karkas, Alexandre A; Romanos, Bassam H

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of magnetic resonance fields on commonly used metallic middle ear implants. Nine middle ear prostheses (seven containing stainless steel and two made of pure gold used as control) were tested in vitro and one stainless steel stapedectomy prosthesis was tested on a cadaveric temporal bone. Each metallic prosthesis was placed in an empty Petri dish and introduced into a 1.5-tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. Most of the prostheses were then placed in a water-filled Petri dish and reintroduced into the MRI unit. Eventual in vitro displacement was assessed visually by two means. In situ testing was done by implanting a piston in a cadaveric temporal bone and performing MR sequences ; any possible displacement was then assessed by CT scan and under microscopic vision. None of the prostheses was displaced in the empty Petri dish. However, while in the water-filled Petri dish, three of these moved with the flux. The implanted piston in the temporal bone did not move. The displacement of three of the prostheses in water is not relevant in real clinical situations. MRI can thus be considered safe in usual clinical settings, as far as our studied implants are concerned.

  11. Correlation between MRI results and intraoperative findings in patients with silicone breast implants

    PubMed Central

    Lindenblatt, Nicole; El-Rabadi, Karem; Helbich, Thomas H; Czembirek, Heinrich; Deutinger, Maria; Benditte-Klepetko, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Background Silicone gel breast implants may silently rupture without detection. This has been the main reason for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the augmented or reconstructed breast. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of MRI for implant rupture. Methods Fifty consecutive patients with 85 silicone gel implants were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 51 (range 21–72) years, with a mean duration of implantation of 3.8 (range 1–28) years. All patients underwent clinical examination and breast MRI. Intraoperative implant rupture was diagnosed by the operating surgeon. Results Nineteen of the 50 patients suffered from clinical symptoms. An implant rupture was diagnosed by MRI in 22 of 85 implants (26%). In seven of 17 removed implants (41%), the intraoperative diagnosis corresponded with the positive MRI result. However, only 57% of these patients were symptomatic. Ultrasound imaging of the harvested implants showed signs of interrupted inner layers of the implant despite integrity of the outer shell. By microsurgical separation of the different layers of the implant shell, we were able to reproduce this phenomenon and to produce signs of implant rupture on MRI. Conclusion Our results show that rupture of only the inner layers of the implant shell with integrity of the outer shell leads to a misdiagnosis on MRI. Correlation with clinical symptoms and the specific wishes of the patient should guide the indication for implant removal. PMID:25114595

  12. Use of brain MRI after deep brain stimulation hardware implantation.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Jules M; Lyons, Kelly E; Wetzel, Louis H; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the experience with and safety of brain 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients. This was a retrospective review of brain MRI scanning performed on DBS patients at the University of Kansas Medical Center between January 1995 and December 2007. A total of 249 DBS patients underwent 445 brain 1.5 T MRI scan sessions encompassing 1,092 individual scans using a transmit-receive head coil, representing the cumulative scanning of 1,649 DBS leads. Patients with complete implanted DBS systems as well as those with externalized leads underwent brain imaging. For the majority of scans, specific absorption rates localized to the head (SAR(H)) were estimated and in all cases SAR(H) were higher than that specified in the present product labeling. There were no clinical or hardware related adverse events secondary to brain MRI scanning. Our data should not be extrapolated to encourage MRI scanning beyond the present labeling. Rather, our data may contribute to further defining safe MRI scanning parameters that might ultimately be adopted in future product labeling as more centers report in detail their experiences.

  13. MRI interactions of a fully implantable pressure monitoring device.

    PubMed

    Stehlin, Ellyce F; McCormick, Daniel; Malpas, Simon C; Pontré, Beau P; Heppner, Peter A; Budgett, David M

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the potential patient risk and interactions between a prototype implantable pressure monitoring device and a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine to guide device design towards MR Conditional safety approval. The pressure monitor device contained a catheter-mounted piezo-resistive pressure sensor, rechargeable battery, wireless communication system, and inductive pickup coil. Standard testing methods were used to guide experiments to investigate static field induced force and torque, radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating, image artifacts, and the MR's effect on device function. The specific clinical application of intracranial pressure monitoring was considered. RF-induced heating experiments were supported by numerical modeling of the RF body coil, the device, and experimental phantom. Sensing catheter lead length and configuration was an important component of the device design. A short 150 mm length catheter produced a heating effect of less than 2°C and a long 420 mm length catheter caused heating of 7.2°C. Static magnetic field interactions were below standard safety risk levels and the MR did not interfere with device function; however, artifacts have the potential to interfere with image quality. Investigation of MR interactions at the prototype stage provides useful implantable device design guidance and confidence that an implantable pressure monitor may be able to achieve MR Conditional safety approval. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Automated extraction of subdural electrode grid from post-implant MRI scans for epilepsy surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdin, Maksym A.; Skrinjar, Oskar

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents an automated algorithm for extraction of Subdural Electrode Grid (SEG) from post-implant MRI scans for epilepsy surgery. Post-implant MRI scans are corrupted by the image artifacts caused by implanted electrodes. The artifacts appear as dark spherical voids and given that the cerebrospinal fluid is also dark in T1-weigthed MRI scans, it is a difficult and time-consuming task to manually locate SEG position relative to brain structures of interest. The proposed algorithm reliably and accurately extracts SEG from post-implant MRI scan, i.e. finds its shape and position relative to brain structures of interest. The algorithm was validated against manually determined electrode locations, and the average error was 1.6mm for the three tested subjects.

  15. Scientists Design Heat-Activated Penis Implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... implant, Le used a heat-activated exoskeleton of nitinol, a metal known for its elasticity. A urologist could do a simplified operation to insert the nitinol implant, which would remain flaccid at body temperature ...

  16. Magnet dislocation: an increasing and serious complication following MRI in patients with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hassepass, F; Stabenau, V; Arndt, S; Beck, R; Bulla, S; Grauvogel, T; Aschendorff, A

    2014-07-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) represents the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and postlingually deafened adults. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was contraindicated in CI users. Meanwhile, there are specific recommendations concerning MRI compatibility depending on the type of CI system and the device manufacturer. Some CI systems are even approved for MRI with the internal magnet left in place. The aim of this study was to analyze all magnet revision surgeries in CI patients at one CI center and the relationship to MRI scans over time. Between 2000 and 2013, a total of 2027 CIs were implanted. The number of magnet dislocation (MD) surgeries and their causes was assessed retrospectively. In total 12 cases of MD resulting from an MRI scan (0.59 %) were observed, accounting for 52.2 % of all magnetic revision surgeries. As per the labeling, it was considered safe to leave the internal magnet in place during MRI while following specific manufacturer recommendations: MRI intensity of 1.5 Tesla (T) and compression head bandage during examination. A compression head bandage in a 1.5 T MRI unit does not safely prevent MD and the related serious complications in CI recipients. We recommend a Stenvers view radiograph after MRI with the internal magnet in place for early identification of MD, at least in the case of pain during or after MRI examination. MRI in CI patients should be indicated with restraint and patients should be explicitly informed about the possible risks. Recommendations regarding MRI compatibility and the handling of CI patients issued with MRI for the most common CI systems are summarized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. MRI image characteristics of materials implanted at sellar region after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bladowska, Joanna; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sokolska, Violetta; Badowski, Roman; Moroń, Krzysztof; Bonicki, Wiesław; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change in anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of the tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of implanted materials and time of its resorption. The purpose was to demonstrate the characteristics of the implanted materials on MRI performed after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours and to identify imaging criteria helpful in differential diagnosis of masses within the sellar region. Material/Methods: One hundred and fifty-four patients after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumours were included in the study. In general, 469 MRI examinations were performed with a 1.5T scanner. We obtained T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images. In 102 cases, additional T2-weighted coronal, unenhanced images with 1.5 T unit were obtained as well. Results: The implanted materials appeared in 95 patient: fat in 86 and muscle with fascia in 3 patients. We could recognise implanted muscle and fascia in T2-weighted images, because of high signal intensity of the degenerating muscle and the line of low signal representing fascia. The implanted titanium mesh was found in 4 patients. Haemostatic materials were visible only in 2 patients in examinations performed at an early postoperative stage (1 month after the procedure). Conclusions: The knowledge of MRI characteristics of the materials implanted at the sellar region is very important in postoperative diagnosis of pituitary tumours and may help discriminate between tumorous and non-tumorous involvement of the sellar region. Some implanted materials, like fat, could be seen on MRI for as long as 10 years after the operation, others, like haemostatic materials, for only 1 month after surgery. T2-weighted imaging is a useful assessment method of the implanted muscle and fascia for a long time after surgery. PMID

  18. MRI during cochlear implant assessment: Should we image the whole brain?

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robin D; Gawne-Cain, Mary L; Eyles, Julie; Mitchell, Timothy E; Batty, Vincent B

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a standard part of a cochlear implant assessment in most centres. While there is ample literature on the temporal bone-specific imaging that is required, the role of whole brain imaging has not been as fully studied. We present the first report of the incidence of associated brain abnormalities in the whole cochlear implant population, including adults and consider their significance. We retrospectively reviewed 51 (12 adults and 39 children) sequential cases since we added whole brain MRI sequences to our cochlear implant assessment protocol. We reviewed the scans for abnormalities of the cochlea and cochlear nerve and a neuroradiologist reviewed the images of the whole brain sequences for further abnormalities. We identified abnormalities on the whole brain sequences in 21 (41%) of these patients, 5 of 12 adults (42%) and 16 of 39 children (41%). Thirty-six (71%) patients subsequently had at least one implant inserted, 13 with abnormalities on whole brain MRI (36%) and 23 without. Of the 15 patients who did not undergo subsequent implantation, 8 had positive findings on their whole brain MRI sequence (53%). There was no statistical difference in the probability of finding an abnormality on the whole brain MRI between those who did and those who did not go on to have an implant (P = 0.35). There were abnormalities within the inner ear in five patients. The abnormalities detected on the whole brain images are heterogenous and of wide ranging clinical significance ranging from truly incidental findings to abnormalities that are so severe that they may predict a very poor prognosis such that an implant may contribute little.

  19. Magnet removal and reinsertion in a cochlear implant recipient undergoing brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Wolf, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in cochlear implants (CIs) and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have led to increasing numbers of implanted patients who have undergone brain MRIs for various reasons. This paper first describes the surgical procedure for removing the magnet before an MRI and its subsequent reinsertion immediately afterwards in a CI recipient. After the administration of local anesthesia, the magnet was removed by a surgical incision made along the posterior margin of the receiver-stimulator. The flap was elevated and the capsule over the implant was incised. The magnet was removed, maintained under sterile conditions and reinserted immediately after the completion of the 1.5-Tesla MRI. The patient was able to wear her device immediately after surgery. Large CI-associated artifacts were observed on the MRIs irrespective of sequences. The function of the device was not altered by either the MRI or the surgical procedure. The proposed surgical incision that follows the posterior margins of the receiver-stimulator allows the wearing of the device immediately after the surgical procedure. An MRI has limited diagnostic value for lesions located on the implanted side due to unavoidable artifacts, even after the magnet has been removed. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. MRI brain abnormalities in cochlear implant candidates: how common and how important are they?

    PubMed

    Jonas, N E; Ahmed, J; Grainger, J; Jephson, C G; Wyatt, M E; Hartley, B E; Saunders, Dawn; Cochrane, L A

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the incidence of abnormal findings on brain MRI in paediatric cochlear implantation candidates. Retrospective review of brain MRI scans of cochlear implant patients between 2000 and 2009 who underwent MRI brain as part of their pre-operative work-up. MRI scans of 162 patients were reviewed (76 female patients and 86 male patients). The mean age at time of MRI scan was 3 years 8 months. Abnormalities were detected/ reported in 49 patients (30%). The total number of abnormalities detected was 51 (two patients had two separate abnormalities each). Of the abnormalities 82% could be related to known pre-existing conditions. 18% of the abnormalities were incidental/unexpected. Incidental/unexpected abnormalities were found in 9 patients (6%). Four of the patients with incidental abnormalities required referral and further investigations (2.5%). The most common abnormality detected was white matter changes (70%). All the white matter changes were related to pre-existing known medical conditions. At our institution abnormalities detected by pre-operative brain MRI scans on cochlear implant candidates are common (30%). The majority of abnormalities are related to known pre-existing medical conditions. Incidental findings are rare (4%) and approximately half of them required further investigation or referral. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. fMRI as a Preimplant Objective Tool to Predict Postimplant Oral Language Outcomes in Children with Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aniruddha K; Tan, Lirong; Lu, Long J; Altaye, Mekibib; Holland, Scott K

    2016-01-01

    Despite the positive effects of cochlear implantation, postimplant variability in speech perception and oral language outcomes is still difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of postimplant speech perception and oral language performance in children with hearing loss who receive a cochlear implant. The authors hypothesized positive correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in brain regions related to auditory language processing and attention and scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Early Speech Perception Test for Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children (ESP), in children with congenital hearing loss. Eleven children with congenital hearing loss were recruited for the present study based on referral for clinical MRI and other inclusion criteria. All participants were <24 months at fMRI scanning and <36 months at first implantation. A silent background fMRI acquisition method was performed to acquire fMRI during auditory stimulation. A voxel-based analysis technique was utilized to generate z maps showing significant contrast in brain activation between auditory stimulation conditions (spoken narratives and narrow band noise). CELF-P2 and ESP were administered 2 years after implantation. Because most participants reached a ceiling on ESP, a voxel-wise regression analysis was performed between preimplant fMRI activation and postimplant CELF-P2 scores alone. Age at implantation and preimplant hearing thresholds were controlled in this regression analysis. Four brain regions were found to be significantly correlated with CELF-P2 scores. These clusters of positive correlation encompassed the temporo-parieto-occipital junction, areas in the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus. For the story versus silence contrast, CELF-P2 core language score demonstrated significant positive correlation with

  2. A semi-supervised Support Vector Machine model for predicting the language outcomes following cochlear implantation based on pre-implant brain fMRI imaging.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lirong; Holland, Scott K; Deshpande, Aniruddha K; Chen, Ye; Choo, Daniel I; Lu, Long J

    2015-12-01

    We developed a machine learning model to predict whether or not a cochlear implant (CI) candidate will develop effective language skills within 2 years after the CI surgery by using the pre-implant brain fMRI data from the candidate. The language performance was measured 2 years after the CI surgery by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2). Based on the CELF-P2 scores, the CI recipients were designated as either effective or ineffective CI users. For feature extraction from the fMRI data, we constructed contrast maps using the general linear model, and then utilized the Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach that we previously published to convert the contrast maps into feature vectors. We trained both supervised models and semi-supervised models to classify CI users as effective or ineffective. Compared with the conventional feature extraction approach, which used each single voxel as a feature, our BoW approach gave rise to much better performance for the classification of effective versus ineffective CI users. The semi-supervised model with the feature set extracted by the BoW approach from the contrast of speech versus silence achieved a leave-one-out cross-validation AUC as high as 0.97. Recursive feature elimination unexpectedly revealed that two features were sufficient to provide highly accurate classification of effective versus ineffective CI users based on our current dataset. We have validated the hypothesis that pre-implant cortical activation patterns revealed by fMRI during infancy correlate with language performance 2 years after cochlear implantation. The two brain regions highlighted by our classifier are potential biomarkers for the prediction of CI outcomes. Our study also demonstrated the superiority of the semi-supervised model over the supervised model. It is always worthwhile to try a semi-supervised model when unlabeled data are available.

  3. Localization of neurosurgically implanted electrodes via photograph-MRI-radiograph coregistration.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Sarang S; Edwards, Erik; Kirsch, Heidi E; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Knight, Robert T; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2008-09-15

    Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) is clinically indicated for medically refractory epilepsy and is a promising approach for developing neural prosthetics. These recordings also provide valuable data for cognitive neuroscience research. Accurate localization of iEEG electrodes is essential for evaluating specific brain regions underlying the electrodes that indicate normal or pathological activity, as well as for relating research findings to neuroimaging and lesion studies. However, electrodes are frequently tucked underneath the edge of a craniotomy, inserted via a burr hole, or placed deep within the brain, where their locations cannot be verified visually or with neuronavigational systems. We show that one existing method, registration of postimplant computed tomography (CT) with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can result in errors exceeding 1cm. We present a novel method for localizing iEEG electrodes using routinely acquired surgical photographs, X-ray radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Known control points are used to compute projective transforms that link the different image sets, ultimately allowing hidden electrodes to be localized, in addition to refining the location of manually registered visible electrodes. As the technique does not require any calibration between the different image modalities, it can be applied to existing image databases. The final result is a set of electrode positions on the patient's rendered MRI yielding locations relative to sulcal and gyral landmarks on individual anatomy, as well as MNI coordinates. We demonstrate the results of our method in eight epilepsy patients implanted with electrode grids spanning the left hemisphere.

  4. Cranio-orbital reconstruction: safety and image quality of metallic implants on CT and MRI scanning.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P K; Smith, J F; Rozzelle, A A

    1994-10-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of metallic implants used in cranio-orbital reconstruction (stainless steel wire and titanium and Vitallium plates) and also to compare the degree of artifact created on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and MRI by each material. Samples of each material were tested for deflection (movement) in a 1.5-T MRI field and for temperature change under conditions simulating a clinical MRI scan. None of the materials exhibited any deflection, and none exhibited any significant temperature change compared with water. Standardized bars of each material and commonly used, commercially available titanium and Vitallium implants (plates, mesh) were evaluated for artifact. On blinded evaluation by three radiologists and on quantitative computer analysis of the CT images, the stainless steel produced the most artifact on both CT scan and MRI, followed by the Vitallium, with the least artifact caused by titanium. All the titanium images were felt to be acceptable to detect orbital pathology, while only the images with the thinnest Vitallium (micromesh) implant were acceptable.

  5. MRI induced torque and demagnetization in retention magnets for a bone conduction implant.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Taghavi, Hamidreza; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2014-06-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in patients who use implantable medical devices involve safety risks both for the patient and the implant. Hearing implants often use two permanent magnets, one implanted and one external, for the retention of the external transmitter coil to the implanted receiver coil to achieve an optimal signal transmission. The implanted magnet is subjected to both demagnetization and torque, magnetically induced by the MRI scanner. In this paper, demagnetization and a comparison between measured and simulated induced torque is studied for the retention magnet used in a bone conduction implant (BCI) system. The torque was measured and simulated in a uniform static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The magnetic field was generated by a dipole electromagnet and permanent magnets with two different types of coercive fields were tested. Demagnetization and maximum torque for the high coercive field magnets was 7.7% ± 2.5% and 0.20 ± 0.01 Nm, respectively and 71.4% ± 19.1% and 0.18 ± 0.01 Nm for the low coercive field magnets, respectively. The simulated maximum torque was 0.34 Nm, deviating from the measured torque in terms of amplitude, mainly related to an insufficient magnet model. The BCI implant with high coercive field magnets is believed to be magnetic resonance (MR) conditional up to 1.5 T if a compression band is used around the skull to fix the implant. This is not approved and requires further investigations, and if removal of the implant is needed, the surgical operation is expected to be simple.

  6. An implanted 8-channel array coil for high-resolution macaque MRI at 3T.

    PubMed

    Janssens, T; Keil, B; Farivar, R; McNab, J A; Polimeni, J R; Gerits, A; Arsenault, J T; Wald, L L; Vanduffel, W

    2012-09-01

    An 8-channel receive coil array was constructed and implanted adjacent to the skull in a male rhesus monkey in order to improve the sensitivity of (functional) brain imaging. The permanent implant was part of an acrylic headpost assembly and only the coil element loop wires were implanted. The tuning, matching, and preamplifier circuitry was connected via a removable external assembly. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared to single-, 4-, and 8-channel external receive-only coils routinely used for macaque fMRI. In vivo measurements showed significantly improved SNR within the brain for the implanted versus the external coils. Within a region-of-interest covering the cerebral cortex, we observed a 5.4-, 3.6-fold, and 3.4-fold increase in SNR compared to the external single-, 4-, and 8-channel coils, respectively. In the center of the brain, the implanted array maintained a 2.4×, 2.5×, and 2.1× higher SNR, respectively compared to the external coils. The array performance was evaluated for anatomical, diffusion tensor and functional brain imaging. This study suggests that a stable implanted phased-array coil can be used in macaque MRI to substantially increase the spatial resolution for anatomical, diffusion tensor, and functional imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An implanted 8-channel array coil for high-resolution macaque MRI at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, T.; Keil, B.; Farivar, R.; McNab, J.A.; Polimeni, J. R.; Gerits, A.; Arsenault, J.T.; Wald, L. L.; Vanduffel, W.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-channel receive coil array was constructed and implanted adjacent to the skull in a male rhesus monkey in order to improve the sensitivity of (functional) brain imaging. The permanent implant was part of an acrylic headpost assembly and only the coil element loop wires were implanted. The tuning, matching, and preamplifier circuitry was connected via a removable external assembly. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging were compared to a single-, 4-, and 8-channel external receive-only coil routinely used for macaque fMRI. In vivo measurements showed significantly improved SNR within the brain for the implanted versus the external coils. Within a region-of-interest covering the cerebral cortex, we observed a 5.4-, 3.6-fold, and 3.4-fold increase in SNR compared to the external single-, 4-, and 8-channel coil, respectively. In the center of the brain, the implanted array maintained a 2.4×, 2.5×, and 2.1× higher SNR, respectively compared to the external coils. The array performance was evaluated for anatomical, diffusion tensor and functional brain imaging. This study suggests that a stable implanted phased-array coil can be used in macaque MRI to substantially increase the spatial resolution for anatomical, diffusion tensor, and functional imaging. PMID:22609793

  8. Using bimodal MRI/fluorescence imaging to identify host angiogenic response to implants

    PubMed Central

    Berdichevski, Alexandra; Simaan Yameen, Haneen; Dafni, Hagit; Neeman, Michal; Seliktar, Dror

    2015-01-01

    Therapies that promote angiogenesis have been successfully applied using various combinations of proangiogenic factors together with a biodegradable delivery vehicle. In this study we used bimodal noninvasive monitoring to show that the host response to a proangiogenic biomaterial can be drastically affected by the mode of implantation and the surface area-to-volume ratio of the implant material. Fluorescence/MRI probes were covalently conjugated to VEGF-bearing biodegradable PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel implants and used to document the in vivo degradation and liberation of bioactive constituents in an s.c. rat implantation model. The hydrogel biodegradation and angiogenic host response with three types of VEGF-bearing implant configurations were compared: preformed cylindrical plugs, preformed injectable microbeads, and hydrogel precursor, injected and polymerized in situ. Although all three were made with identical amounts of precursor constituents, the MRI data revealed that in situ polymerized hydrogels were fully degraded within 2 wk; microbead degradation was more moderate, and plugs degraded significantly more slowly than the other configurations. The presence of hydrogel degradation products containing the fluorescent label in the surrounding tissues revealed a distinct biphasic release profile for each type of implant configuration. The purported in vivo VEGF release profile from the microbeads resulted in highly vascularized s.c. tissue containing up to 16-fold more capillaries in comparison with controls. These findings demonstrate that the configuration of an implant can play an important role not only in the degradation and resorption properties of the materials, but also in consequent host angiogenic response. PMID:25825771

  9. SU-E-J-257: Image Artifacts Caused by Implanted Calypso Beacons in MRI Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Amro, H; Chetty, I; Gordon, J; Wen, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The presence of Calypso Beacon-transponders in patients can cause artifacts during MRI imaging studies. This could be a problem for post-treatment follow up of cancer patients using MRI studies to evaluate metastasis and for functional imaging studies.This work assesses (1) the volume immediately surrounding the transponders that will not be visualized by the MRI due to the beacons, and (2) the dependence of the non-visualized volume on beacon orientation, and scanning techniques. Methods: Two phantoms were used in this study (1) water filled box, (2) and a 2300 cc block of pork meat. Calypso beacons were implanted in the phantoms both in parallel and perpendicular orientations with respect to the MR scanner magnetic field. MR image series of the phantom were obtained with on a 1.0T high field open MR-SIM with multiple pulse sequences, for example, T1-weighted fast field echo and T2-weighted turbo spin echo. Results: On average, a no-signal region with 2 cm radius and 3 cm length was measured. Image artifacts are more significant when beacons are placed parallel to scanner magnetic field; the no-signal area around the beacon was about 0.5 cm larger in orthogonal orientation. The no-signal region surrounding the beacons slightly varies in dimension for the different pulse sequences. Conclusion: The use of Calypso beacons can prohibit the use of MRI studies in post-treatment assessments, especially in the immediate region surrounding the implanted beacon. A characterization of the MR scanner by identifying the no-signal regions due to implanted beacons is essential. This may render the use of Calypso beacons useful for some cases and give the treating physician a chance to identify those patients prior to beacon implantation.

  10. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore.

  11. [MRI investigations in patients with problems due to metal-on-metal implants].

    PubMed

    Parsons, T M; Satchithananda, K; Berbe, R; Siddiqui, I A; Robinson, E; Hart, A J; Hart, A

    2013-08-01

    Until recently, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants were commonly used for joint replacement and resurfacings. Their use has rapidly declined following reports of Frühversagen and soft tissue disease caused by the release of metal debris from the prosthesis. Detection of these soft tissue lesions has proven difficult using conventional imaging techniques and blood metal ion tests. Current guidelines recommend the use of imaging modalities including metal artefact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography and ultrasound but provide little indication which is best. MARS significantly reduces the susceptibility artefact induced by the presence of metal objects, thereby producing diagnostic quality images that can be shared with other physicians and compared over time. The clinical interpretation of MRI findings of solid pseudotumours and severe muscle atrophy is straightforward: revision is usually recommended. However, the most common MRI findings are of a cystic pseudotumour and minor muscle wasting. In these cases decision-making is difficult and we currently use multi-disciplinary and multi-colleague based meetings to make decisions regarding patient management. This article presents a comparison of imaging modalities and an update on the interpretation of MARS MRI for the investigation of patients with MoM hip implants.The English full-text version of this article is available at Springer Link (under "Supplemental").

  12. Focused tight dressing does not prevent cochlear implant magnet migration under 1.5 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Cuda, D; Murri, A; Succo, G

    2013-04-01

    We report a retrospective case of inner magnet migration, which occurred after 1.5 Tesla MRI scanning in an adult recipient of a bilateral cochlear implant (CI) despite a focused head dressing. The patient, bilaterally implanted with Nucleus 5 CIs (Cochlear LTD, Sydney, Australia), underwent a 1.5 Tesla cholangio-MRI scan for biliary duct pathology. In subsequent days, a focal skin alteration appeared over the left inner coil. Plain skull radiographs showed partial magnet migration on the left side. Surgical exploration confirmed magnet twisting; the magnet was effectively repositioned. Left CI performance was restored to pre-migration level. The wound healed without complications. Thus, focused dressing does not prevent magnet migration in CI recipients undergoing 1.5 Tesla MRI. All patients should be counselled on this potential complication. A minor surgical procedure is required to reposition the magnet. Nevertheless, timely diagnosis is necessary to prevent skin breakdown and subsequent device contamination. Plain skull radiograph is very effective in identifying magnet twisting; it should be performed systematically after MRI or minimally on all suspected cases.

  13. Ensuring Safety of Implanted Devices under MRI using Reversed RF Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Overall, William R.; Pauly, John M.; Stang, Pascal P.; Scott, Greig C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with long-wire medical implants are currently prevented from undergoing MRI scans due to the risk of RF heating. We have developed a simple technique for determining the heating potential for these implants using reversed RF polarization. This technique could be used on a patient-to-patient basis as a part of the standard pre-scan procedure to ensure that the subject’s device does not pose a heating risk. By using reversed quadrature polarization, the MR scan can be sensitized exclusively to the potentially dangerous currents in the device. Here, we derive the physical principles governing the technique and explore the primary sources of inaccuracy. These principles are verified through finite-difference simulations and through phantom scans of implant leads. These studies demonstrate the potential of the technique for sensitively detecting potentially dangerous coupling conditions before they can do harm. PMID:20593374

  14. Feasibility of Structural and Functional MRI Acquisition with Unpowered Implants in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Patients: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Samantha I.; Shi, Yonggang; Weiland, James D.; Falabella, Paulo; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C.; Zacks, David N.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can measure the effects of vision loss and recovery on brain function and structure. In this case study, we sought to determine the feasibility of acquiring anatomical and functional MRI data in recipients of the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system. Methods Following successful implantation with the Argus II device, two retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients completed MRI scans with their implant unpowered to measure primary visual cortex (V1) functional responses to a tactile task, whole-brain morphometry, V1 cortical thickness, and diffusion properties of the optic tract and optic radiation. Measurements in the subjects with the Argus II implant were compared to measurements obtained previously from RP patients and sighted individuals. Results The presence of the Argus II implant resulted in artifacts that were localized around the patient's implanted eye and did not extend into cortical regions or white matter tracts associated with the visual system. Structural data on V1 cortical thickness and the retinofugal tract obtained from the two Argus II subjects fell within the ranges of sighted and RP groups. When compared to the RP and sighted subjects, Argus II patients' tactile-evoked cross-modal functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in V1 also fell within the range of either sighted or RP groups, apparently depending on time since implantation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that successful acquisition and quantification of structural and functional MR images are feasible in the presence of the inactive implant and provides preliminary information on functional changes in the brain that may follow sight restoration treatments. Transitional Relevance Successful MRI and fMRI acquisition in Argus II recipients demonstrates feasibility of using MRI to study the effect of retinal prosthesis use on brain structure and function. PMID:26693097

  15. Feasibility of Structural and Functional MRI Acquisition with Unpowered Implants in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Patients: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Samantha I; Shi, Yonggang; Weiland, James D; Falabella, Paulo; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Zacks, David N; Tjan, Bosco S

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can measure the effects of vision loss and recovery on brain function and structure. In this case study, we sought to determine the feasibility of acquiring anatomical and functional MRI data in recipients of the Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system. Following successful implantation with the Argus II device, two retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients completed MRI scans with their implant unpowered to measure primary visual cortex (V1) functional responses to a tactile task, whole-brain morphometry, V1 cortical thickness, and diffusion properties of the optic tract and optic radiation. Measurements in the subjects with the Argus II implant were compared to measurements obtained previously from RP patients and sighted individuals. The presence of the Argus II implant resulted in artifacts that were localized around the patient's implanted eye and did not extend into cortical regions or white matter tracts associated with the visual system. Structural data on V1 cortical thickness and the retinofugal tract obtained from the two Argus II subjects fell within the ranges of sighted and RP groups. When compared to the RP and sighted subjects, Argus II patients' tactile-evoked cross-modal functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in V1 also fell within the range of either sighted or RP groups, apparently depending on time since implantation. This study demonstrates that successful acquisition and quantification of structural and functional MR images are feasible in the presence of the inactive implant and provides preliminary information on functional changes in the brain that may follow sight restoration treatments. Successful MRI and fMRI acquisition in Argus II recipients demonstrates feasibility of using MRI to study the effect of retinal prosthesis use on brain structure and function.

  16. Tracking the Fate of Stem Cell Implants with Fluorine-19 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Jeffrey M.; Ribot, Emeline J.; Chen, Yuhua; Gilbert, Kyle M.; Foster, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study we used cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) labeled with a Fluorine-19 (19F) agent. 19F-MRI offers unambiguous detection and in vivo quantification of labeled cells. Methods We investigated two common stem cell transplant mouse models: an immune competent, syngeneic transplant model and an immune compromised, xenograft transplant model. 19F labelled stem cells were implanted intramuscularly into the hindlimb of healthy mice. The transplant was then monitored for up to 17 days using 19F-MRI, after which the tissue was excised for fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemisty. Results Immediately following transplantation, 19F-MRI quantification correlated very well with the expected cell number in both models. The 19F signal decreased over time in both models, with a more rapid decrease in the syngeneic model. By endpoint, only 2/7 syngeneic mice had any detectable 19F signal. In the xenograft model, all mice had detectable signal at endpoint. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to show that the 19F signal was related to the presence of bystander labeled macrophages, and not original MSC. Conclusions Our results show that 19F-MRI is an excellent tool for verifying the delivery of therapeutic cells early after transplantation. However, in certain circumstances the transfer of cellular label to other bystander cells may confuse interpretation of the long-term fate of the transplanted cells. PMID:25767871

  17. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Frequency-specific electrocorticographic correlates of working memory delay period fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Faraz; Tandon, Nitin; Tertel, Kathrin; Pieters, Thomas A; Disano, Michael A; Ellmore, Timothy M

    2011-06-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) and functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) have been used previously to measure brain activity during working memory delay periods. These studies have separately reported oscillation changes in the theta (4-8 Hz) band and BOLD-fMRI increases during delay periods when information is maintained in memory. However, it is not known how intracranial cortical field potential (CFP) changes relate to BOLD-fMRI responses during delay periods. To answer this question, fMRI was obtained from six epilepsy patients during a visual working memory task. Then, following subdural macroelectrode implant, continuous ECoG was used to record CFPs during the same task. Time-frequency analyses showed delay period gamma band oscillation amplitude increases on electrodes located near fMRI activity, while in the theta band changes were higher for electrodes located away from fMRI activation. The amplitude of the ECoG gamma band response was significantly positively correlated with the fMRI response, while a negative correlation was found for the theta band. The findings are consistent with previous reports of local field potential (LFP) coupling in the gamma band with BOLD-fMRI responses during visual stimulation in monkeys, but are novel in that the relationship reported here persists after the disappearance of visual stimuli while information is being maintained in memory. We conclude that there is a relationship between BOLD-fMRI increases and human working memory delay period gamma oscillation increases and theta decreases. The spectral profile change provides a basis for comparison of working memory delay period BOLD-fMRI with field potential recordings in animals and other human intracranial EEG studies.

  19. [Influence of implants on human body during MRI examinations: fundamental experiment using metal balls].

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Osamu; Usui, Shuji; Ueda, Yoshitake; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2005-07-20

    It is increasingly the case that patients who have implants feel pain during high-field MRI examinations. A probable reason for the pain is the generation by irradiation of RF pulses and changing of the magnetic field gradient. As a fundamental study on the effect of implants on the human body under MRI procedures, temperature measurements were obtained from metal balls incorporated into gel-filled phantoms by using two kinds of measuring instruments, a copper-constantan thermocouple and a fluorescence fiber thermometer. At first we pursued a correlation between a copper-constantan thermocouple (absolute measurement) and fluoroptic thermometer and confirmed the precision and stability of the fluoroptic thermometer under MRI procedures. When a stainless steel ball with or without a loop antenna was used, only in the former case did the temperature rise during RF pulse irradiation. There was no significant difference between the magnetic field gradient ON and OFF. Furthermore, differences in metal (steel, aluminum, brass, stainless steel, copper) and size (5, 10, 20 mmPhi) were affected according to the increase of temperature. In conclusion, both RF pulse irradiation and a loop antenna are necessary for heat generation on the surface of metals.

  20. Functional MRI in conscious rats using a chronically implanted surface coil.

    PubMed

    Martin, Chris J; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Berwick, Jason; Port, Michael; Mayhew, John E W

    2013-09-01

    To establish procedures for functional MRI (fMRI) in rats without the need for anesthetic agents. Rats were trained to habituate to restraint in a harness and scanner noise. Under anesthesia, rats were then prepared with a cranial implant that permitted stabilization of the head during subsequent imaging experiments. The cranial implant included an radiofrequency (RF) coil that was used to transmit and receive radiofrequency signals during imaging. Further training was then conducted to habituate the animals to head fixation whilst in the MR scanner. Using this method, we were able to successfully and repeatedly record BOLD fMRI responses to hypercapnia and whisker stimulation in awake rats. Electrical stimulation of the whisker pad produced a ∼7% increase in BOLD signal in the corresponding barrel cortex as well as adjacent negative BOLD responses, whilst hypercapnia produced larger increases in BOLD signal amplitude. This methodology leaves the face and limbs free from obstruction, making possible a range of behavioral or sensory stimulation protocols. Further development of this animal model could enable traditional behavioral neuroscience techniques to be combined with modern functional neuroimaging. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  1. Deformable registration of x-ray to MRI for post-implant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seyoun; Song, Danny Y.; Lee, Junghoon

    2016-03-01

    Post-implant dosimetric assessment in prostate brachytherapy is typically performed using CT as the standard imaging modality. However, poor soft tissue contrast in CT causes significant variability in target contouring, resulting in incorrect dose calculations for organs of interest. CT-MR fusion-based approach has been advocated taking advantage of the complementary capabilities of CT (seed identification) and MRI (soft tissue visibility), and has proved to provide more accurate dosimetry calculations. However, seed segmentation in CT requires manual review, and the accuracy is limited by the reconstructed voxel resolution. In addition, CT deposits considerable amount of radiation to the patient. In this paper, we propose an X-ray and MRI based post-implant dosimetry approach. Implanted seeds are localized using three X-ray images by solving a combinatorial optimization problem, and the identified seeds are registered to MR images by an intensity-based points-to-volume registration. We pre-process the MR images using geometric and Gaussian filtering. To accommodate potential soft tissue deformation, our registration is performed in two steps, an initial affine transformation and local deformable registration. An evolutionary optimizer in conjunction with a points-to-volume similarity metric is used for the affine registration. Local prostate deformation and seed migration are then adjusted by the deformable registration step with external and internal force constraints. We tested our algorithm on six patient data sets, achieving registration error of (1.2+/-0.8) mm in < 30 sec. Our proposed approach has the potential to be a fast and cost-effective solution for post-implant dosimetry with equivalent accuracy as the CT-MR fusion-based approach.

  2. Positive Contrast MRI Techniques for Visualization of Iron-Loaded Hernia Mesh Implants in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ciritsis, Alexander; Truhn, Daniel; Hansen, Nienke L.; Otto, Jens; Kuhl, Christiane K.; Kraemer, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Object In MRI, implants and devices can be delineated via susceptibility artefacts. To discriminate susceptibility voids from proton-free structures, different positive contrast techniques were implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pulse sequence-based positive contrast technique (PCSI) and a post-processing susceptibility gradient mapping algorithm (SGM) for visualization of iron loaded mesh implants in patients. Material and Methods Five patients with iron-loaded MR-visible inguinal hernia mesh implants were examined at 1.5 Tesla. A gradient echo sequence (GRE; parameters: TR: 8.3ms; TE: 4.3ms; NSA:2; FA:20°; FOV:350mm²) and a PCSI sequence (parameters: TR: 25ms; TE: 4.6ms; NSA:4; FA:20°; FOV:350mm²) with on-resonant proton suppression were performed. SGM maps were calculated using two algorithms. Image quality and mesh delineation were independently evaluated by three radiologists. Results On GRE, the iron-loaded meshes generated distinct susceptibility-induced signal voids. PCSI exhibited susceptibility differences including the meshes as hyperintense signals. SGM exhibited susceptibility differences with positive contrast. Visually, the different algorithms presented no significant differences. Overall, the diagnostic value was rated best in GRE whereas PCSI and SGM were barely “sufficient”. Conclusion Both “positive contrast” techniques depicted implanted meshes with hyperintense signal. SGM comes without additional acquisition time and can therefore be utilized in every patient. PMID:27192201

  3. [Batteries Used in Active Implantable Medical Devices].

    PubMed

    Ma, Bozhi; Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming

    2015-03-01

    In recent years active implantable medical devices(AIMD) are being developed rapidly. Many battery systems have been developed for different AIMD applications. These batteries have the same requirements which include high safety, reliability, energy density and long service life, discharge indication. History, present and future of batteries used in AIMD are introduced in the article.

  4. Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) and functional MRI in awake rabbits during somatosensory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Matthew P.; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Wang, Lei; Disterhoft, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is a powerful tool to track system-wide neural activity using high resolution, quantitative T1-weighted MRI in animal models and has significant advantages for investigating neural activity over other modalities including BOLD fMRI. With AIM-MRI, Mn2+ ions enter neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels preferentially active during the time of experimental exposure. A broad range of AIM-MRI studies using different species studying different phenomena have been performed, but few of these studies provide a systematic evaluation of the factors influencing the detection of Mn2+ such as dosage and the temporal characteristics of Mn2+ uptake. We identified an optimal dose of Mn2+ (25 mg/kg, s.c.) in order to characterize the time-course of Mn2+ accumulation in active neural regions in the rabbit. T1-weighted MRI and functional MRI were collected 0–3, 6–9, and 24–27 h post-Mn2+ injection while the vibrissae on the right side were vibrated. Significant BOLD activation in the left somatosensory (SS) cortex and left ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus was detected during whisker vibration. T1-weighted signal intensities were extracted from these regions, their corresponding contralateral regions and the visual cortex (to serve as controls). A significant elevation in T1-weighted signal intensity in the left SS cortex (relative to right)was evident 6–9 and 24–27 h post-Mn2+ injection while the left VPM thalamus showed a significant enhancement (relative to the right) only during the 24–27 h session. Visual cortex showed no hemispheric difference at any timepoint. Our results suggest that studies employing AIM-MRI would benefit by conducting experimental manipulations 6–24 h after subcutaneous MnCl2 injections to optimize the concentration of contrast agent in the regions active during the exposure. PMID:26589332

  5. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  6. Cardiac MRI in patients with complex CHD following primary or secondary implantation of MRI-conditional pacemaker system.

    PubMed

    Al-Wakeel, Nadya; O h-Ici, Darach; Schmitt, Katharina R; Messroghli, Daniel R; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-02-01

    In patients with CHD, cardiac MRI is often indicated for functional and anatomical assessment. With the recent introduction of MRI-conditional pacemaker systems, cardiac MRI has become accessible for patients with pacemakers. The present clinical study aims to evaluate safety, susceptibility artefacts, and image reading of cardiac MRI in patients with CHD and MRI-conditional pacemaker systems. Material and methods CHD patients with MRI-conditional pacemaker systems and a clinical need for cardiac MRI were examined with a 1.5-T MRI system. Lead function was tested before and after MRI. Artefacts and image readings were evaluated using a four-point grading scale. A total of nine patients with CHD (mean age 34.0 years, range 19.5-53.6 years) received a total of 11 cardiac MRI examinations. Owing to clinical indications, seven patients had previously been converted from conventional to MRI-conditional pacemaker systems. All MRI examinations were completed without adverse effects. Device testing immediately after MRI and at follow-up showed no alteration of pacemaker device and lead function. Clinical questions could be addressed and answered in all patients. Cardiac MRI can be performed safely with high certainty of diagnosis in CHD patients with MRI-conditional pacemaker systems. In case of clinically indicated lead and box changing, CHD patients with non-MRI-conditional pacemaker systems should be considered for complete conversion to MRI-conditional systems.

  7. Correlation of histological findings with gadolinium enhanced MRI scans during healing of a PHEMA orbital implant in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, C.; Morris, I.; Vijayasekaran, S.; Fallon, M.; McAllister, J.; Clayton, A.; Chirila, T.; Crawford, G.; Constable, I.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—To investigate a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) orbital implant with a spongy anterior hemisphere and a smooth gel posterior hemisphere, by histology correlated with magnetic resonance images.
METHODS—Following enucleation, eight rabbits received PHEMA implants to which the muscles were directly sutured, and underwent gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 3 to 52 weeks. After the rabbits were killed, the implants were removed, cut in a plane corresponding to the scan, and processed for light and electron microscopy.
RESULTS—All eight rabbits retained their implant to the end of the study period without complications. The scans demonstrated muscle attachment to the anterior half of the implant, and enhancement was seen on injection of gadolinium chelate. Histology confirmed muscle attachment, and cellular and vascular ingrowth. Over time, a transformation from reactive inflammatory to relatively non-vascular scar tissue was seen within the implant. Calcium deposits in one implant were detected by imaging and histology.
CONCLUSION—The implants are readily visualised on MRI. Muscle attachment and fibrovascular ingrowth into the anterior hemisphere are seen, while encapsulation of the posterior hemisphere is minimal. Histological findings confirm the progress of the healing response, with initial inflammation and marked vascularisation, developing later into quiescent scar tissue predominantly of fibroblasts.

 PMID:10216066

  8. Osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of zinc ion implanted titanium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guodong; Cao, Huiliang; Qiao, Yuqin; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used as orthopedic and dental implants. In this work, zinc (Zn) was implanted into oxalic acid etched titanium using plasma immersion ion implantation technology. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface morphology and composition of Zn-implanted titanium. The results indicate that the depth profile of zinc in Zn-implanted titanium resembles a Gaussian distribution, and zinc exists in the form of ZnO at the surface whereas in the form of metallic Zn in the interior. The Zn-implanted titanium can significantly stimulate proliferation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as well as initial adhesion, spreading activity, ALP activity, collagen secretion and extracellular matrix mineralization of the rat mesenchymal stem cells. The Zn-implanted titanium presents partly antibacterial effect on both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The ability of the Zn-implanted titanium to stimulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation as well as the antibacterial effect on E. coli can be improved by increasing implantation time even to 2 h in this work, indicating that the content of zinc implanted in titanium can easily be controlled within the safe concentration using plasma immersion ion implantation technology. The Zn-implanted titanium with excellent osteogenic activity and partly antibacterial effect can serve as useful candidates for orthopedic and dental implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI-Based Multiscale Model for Electromagnetic Analysis in the Human Head with Implanted DBS

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Maria Ida; Makris, Nikos; Mainardi, Luca; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established procedure for the treatment of movement and affective disorders. Patients with DBS may benefit from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate injuries or comorbidities. However, the MRI radio-frequency (RF) energy may cause excessive tissue heating particularly near the electrode. This paper studies how the accuracy of numerical modeling of the RF field inside a DBS patient varies with spatial resolution and corresponding anatomical detail of the volume surrounding the electrodes. A multiscale model (MS) was created by an atlas-based segmentation using a 1 mm3 head model (mRes) refined in the basal ganglia by a 200 μm2 ex-vivo dataset. Four DBS electrodes targeting the left globus pallidus internus were modeled. Electromagnetic simulations at 128 MHz showed that the peak of the electric field of the MS doubled (18.7 kV/m versus 9.33 kV/m) and shifted 6.4 mm compared to the mRes model. Additionally, the MS had a sixfold increase over the mRes model in peak-specific absorption rate (SAR of 43.9 kW/kg versus 7 kW/kg). The results suggest that submillimetric resolution and improved anatomical detail in the model may increase the accuracy of computed electric field and local SAR around the tip of the implant. PMID:23956789

  10. SU-C-17A-02: Sirius MRI Markers for Prostate Post-Implant Assessment: MR Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Kudchadker, R; Stafford, R; Bathala, T; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Frank, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently, CT is used to visualize prostate brachytherapy sources, at the expense of accurate structure contouring. MRI is superior to CT for anatomical delineation, but the sources appear as voids on MRI images. Previously we have developed Sirius MRI markers (C4 Imaging) to replace spacers to assist source localization on MRI images. Here we develop an MRI pulse sequence protocol that enhances the signal of these markers to enable MRI-only post-implant prostate dosimetric analysis. Methods: To simulate a clinical scenario, a CIRS multi-modality prostate phantom was implanted with 66 markers and 86 sources. The implanted phantom was imaged on both 1.5T and 3.0T GE scanners under various conditions, different pulse sequences (2D fast spin echo [FSE], 3D balanced steadystate free precession [bSSFP] and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo [FSPGR]), as well as varying amount of padding to simulate various patient sizes and associated signal fall-off from the surface coil elements. Standard FSE sequences from the current clinical protocols were also evaluated. Marker visibility, marker size, intra-marker distance, total scan time and artifacts were evaluated for various combinations of echo time, repetition time, flip angle, number of excitations, bandwidth, slice thickness and spacing, fieldof- view, frequency/phase encoding steps and frequency direction. Results: We have developed a 3D FSPGR pulse sequence that enhances marker signal and ensures the integrity of the marker shape while maintaining reasonable scan time. For patients contraindicated for 3.0T, we have also developed a similar sequence for 1.5T scanners. Signal fall-off with distance from prostate to coil can be compensated mainly by decreasing bandwidth. The markers are not visible using standard FSE sequences. FSPGR sequences are more robust for consistent marker visualization as compared to bSSFP sequences. Conclusion: The developed MRI pulse sequence protocol for Sirius MRI markers assists source

  11. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  12. Biophysics of cochlear implant/MRI interactions emphasizing bone biomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Robert E; Wackym, Phillip A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Firszt, Jill B; Prost, Robert W; Pintar, Frank A

    2002-10-01

    The forces exerted during a 1.5-Tesla MRI evaluation on the internal magnet of a cochlear implant (CI) raise concern about the safety for CI recipients. This study determines the magnitude of force required to fracture the floor of a CI receiver bed. Recessed CI beds were drilled to maximum uniform thinness into formalin-fixed and fresh-frozen human calvaria specimens. A Med-El stainless steel CI template mounted to the piston of an electrohydraulic testing device was used to fracture the floor of the implant beds. Force and displacement were measured as a function of time using a digital data acquisition system. Mean force to first failure, displacement to first failure, and minimum thickness, respectively, were: group 1 (formalin-fixed, 0.3-0.4-mm thick [n = 22]), 34.08 N (8.21-59.64 N, standard deviation [SD] 15.41 N), 1.09 mm (0.40-2.16 mm, SD 0.51 mm), 0.36 mm (0.3-0.4 mm, SD 0.05 mm); group 2 (formalin-fixed, 0.5-0.9 mm thick [n = 21]), 52.82 N (20.28-135.53 N, SD 25.29 N), 1.08 mm (0.50-2.28 mm, SD 0.47 mm), 0.58 mm (0.5-0.9 mm, SD 0.12 mm); group 3 (fresh-frozen [n = 9]), 134.13 N (86.44-190.70 N, SD 34.92 N), 1.96 mm (1.47-2.46 mm, SD 0.35 mm), 0.42 mm (0.3-0.6 mm, SD 0.11 mm). The mean magnitude of force required to fracture the floor of a CI bed is significantly greater than those that are generated when a Med-El Combi 40+, CII Bionic Ear CI, or Nucleus Contour CI is placed into a 1.5-Tesla MRI unit.

  13. Activation Detection in fMRI Using Jeffrey Divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouane, Abd-Krim

    2009-12-01

    A statistical test for detecting activated pixels in functional MRI (fMRI) data is proposed. For the derivation of this test, the fMRI time series measured at each voxel is modeled as the sum of a response signal which arises due to the experimentally controlled activation-baseline pattern, a nuisance component representing effects of no interest, and Gaussian white noise. The test is based on comparing the dimension of the voxels fMRI time series fitted data models with and without controlled activation-baseline pattern. The Jeffrey divergence is used for this comparison. The test has the advantage of not requiring a level of significance or a threshold to be provided.

  14. Effect of implant angulation and impression technique on impressions of NobelActive implants.

    PubMed

    Alexander Hazboun, Gillian Brewer; Masri, Radi; Romberg, Elaine; Kempler, Joanna; Driscoll, Carl F

    2015-05-01

    How the configuration of the NobelActive internal conical connection affects implant impressions is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect in vitro of closed and open tray impression techniques for NobelActive implants placed at various angulations. Six NobelActive implants were placed in a master maxillary cast as follows: 0 degrees of angulation to a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane in the first molar area, 15 degrees of angulation to a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane in the first premolar area, and 30 degrees of angulation to a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane in the lateral incisor area. Twelve open tray and 12 closed tray impressions were made. Occlusal, lateral, and frontal view photographs of the resulting casts were used to measure the linear and angular displacement of implant analogs. Statistical analysis was performed with a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). No significant difference was found in the impressions made of NobelActive implants with the open or closed tray technique (linear displacement: F=0.93, P=.34; angular displacement: F=2.09, P=.15). In addition, implant angulation (0, 15, or 30 degrees) had no effect on the linear or angular displacement of impressions (linear displacement: F=2.72, P=.07; angular displacement: F=0.86, P=.43). Finally, no significant interaction was found between impression technique and implant angulation on NobelActive implants (F=0.25, P=.77; F=1.60, P=.20). Within the limitations of this study, impression technique (open vs closed tray) and implant angulation (0, 15, and 30 degrees) had no significant effect on in vitro impressions of NobelActive implants. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Patient with a Novel MRI-Compatible Auditory Brainstem Implant

    PubMed Central

    Shew, Matthew; Bertsch, Judson; Camarata, Paul; Staecker, Hinrich

    2017-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implantation has become a key technique for the rehabilitation of hearing in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. The nature of this devastating genetic disease requires ongoing MRI for the patient's lifespan. Today, most auditory brainstem implants require removal of the magnet that connects the internal device to the external speech processor to undergo imaging as their disease progresses. Patients have the option of having a short procedure to have the magnet taken out and replaced each time, or alternately using a headband to secure the processor over the receiver coil of the internal device. Novel magnet technology has led to the development of a freely rotating magnet that can be used inside the magnetic field of an MRI scanner without losing magnet strength and without being displaced from the body of the device. We report one of the first patients implanted with a Med-El Synchrony ABI in the United States who subsequently underwent successful imaging with MRI 1.5 tesla to follow for other existing schwannomas. PMID:28210535

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Patient with a Novel MRI-Compatible Auditory Brainstem Implant.

    PubMed

    Shew, Matthew; Bertsch, Judson; Camarata, Paul; Staecker, Hinrich

    2017-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implantation has become a key technique for the rehabilitation of hearing in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. The nature of this devastating genetic disease requires ongoing MRI for the patient's lifespan. Today, most auditory brainstem implants require removal of the magnet that connects the internal device to the external speech processor to undergo imaging as their disease progresses. Patients have the option of having a short procedure to have the magnet taken out and replaced each time, or alternately using a headband to secure the processor over the receiver coil of the internal device. Novel magnet technology has led to the development of a freely rotating magnet that can be used inside the magnetic field of an MRI scanner without losing magnet strength and without being displaced from the body of the device. We report one of the first patients implanted with a Med-El Synchrony ABI in the United States who subsequently underwent successful imaging with MRI 1.5 tesla to follow for other existing schwannomas.

  17. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  18. Halofuginone inhibits angiogenesis and growth in implanted metastatic rat brain tumor model--an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Rinat; Itzik, Anna; Harel, Hila; Nagler, Arnon; Vlodavsky, Israel; Siegal, Tali

    2004-01-01

    Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Halofuginone (HF) is a potent inhibitor of collagen type alpha1(I). In solid tumor models, HF has a potent antitumor and antiangiogenic effect in vivo, but its effect on brain tumors has not yet been evaluated. By employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we monitored the effect of HF on tumor progression and vascularization by utilizing an implanted malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic rat brain tumor model. Here we demonstrate that treatment with HF effectively and dose-dependently reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis. On day 13, HF-treated tumors were fivefold smaller than control (P < .001). Treatment with HF significantly prolonged survival of treated animals (142%; P = .001). In HF-treated rats, tumor vascularization was inhibited by 30% on day 13 and by 37% on day 19 (P < .05). Additionally, HF treatment inhibited vessel maturation (P = .03). Finally, in HF-treated rats, we noticed the appearance of a few clusters of satellite tumors, which were distinct from the primary tumor and usually contained vessel cores. This phenomenon was relatively moderate when compared to previous reports of other antiangiogenic agents used to treat brain tumors. We therefore conclude that HF is effective for treatment of metastatic brain tumors.

  19. MRI scanning in patients implanted with a round window or stapes coupled floating mass transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Daniel; Ernst, Arne; Todt, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion MRI examinations in patients with an alternatively coupled VSB can lead to unpleasant side-effects. However, the residual hearing was not impaired, whereas the hearing performance with the VSB was decreased in one patient which could be fixed by a surgical revision. Different experiences for the VSB 503 can be expected. Objective To investigate the in vivo effects of MRI scanning on the Vibrant Soundbridge system (VSB) with an alternatively coupled Floating Mass Transducer (FMT). Method Sixty-five VSB (502) implantees were included in this study. Of them, 42 questionnaires could be evaluated with the patients' statements about their medical, otological, and general condition before, during, and after an MRI scan which was indicated for different medical reasons, despite the previous implantation of an alternatively coupled Vibrant Soundbridge System. Results In four patients (9.5%), five MRI examinations were performed. These were done for different indications (e.g. knee and shoulder joint diagnostics). During the scanning, noise and subjectively perceived distortion of the implant were described. A deterioration of the hearing gain with the VSB in place was found in one patient. A decrease of the hearing threshold was not observed.

  20. Spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor of two-dimensional selective excitation pulses for MRI of objects containing conductive implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Taeseong; Kim, Dongmin; Someya, Takao; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    A quantitative diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be disturbed by radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity induced by the conductive implants. This inhomogeneity causes a local decrease of the signal intensity around the conductor, resulting in a deterioration of the accurate quantification. In a previous study, we developed an MRI imaging method using a two-dimensional selective excitation pulse (2D pulse) to mitigate signal inhomogeneity induced by metallic implants. In this paper, the effect of 2D pulse was evaluated quantitatively by numerical simulation and MRI experiments. We introduced two factors for evaluation, spatial resolution and maximum compensation factor. Numerical simulations were performed with two groups. One group was composed of four models with different signal loss width, to evaluate the spatial resolution of the 2D pulse. The other group is also composed of four models with different amounts of signal loss for evaluating maximum compensation factor. In MRI experiments, we prepared phantoms containing conductors, which have different electrical conductivities related with the amounts of signal intensity decrease. The recovery of signal intensity was observed by 2D pulses, in both numerical simulations and experiments.

  1. [Botulinum toxin to treat sweat caused sequelae in patients with hearing aids, active middle ear implants and cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Laskawi, R; Winterhoff, J; Blum, J; Matthias, C

    2012-11-01

    The production of sweat in the temporal skin region may be a serious problem for patients with hearing aids, active middle ear implants or cochlear implants. We report on two patients suffering from a loss of function of their hearing aid and a reduction of the "wear comfort" of an active middle ear implant. The patients underwent intracutaneous botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment of the temporal skin region. In both patients a distinct improvement of their complaints occurred, enabling them to use their hearing aids and active middle ear implants continuously. BTX injections are suited to improve sweat-caused complaints in patients with hearing aids, active middle ear implants and cochlear implants.

  2. Active implant for optoacoustic natural sound enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrdiek, S.; Fretz, M.; Jose James, R.; Spinola Durante, G.; Burch, T.; Kral, A.; Rettenmaier, A.; Milani, R.; Putkonen, M.; Noell, W.; Ortsiefer, M.; Daly, A.; Vinciguerra, V.; Garnham, C.; Shah, D.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an EU project called ACTION: ACTive Implant for Optoacoustic Natural sound enhancement. The project is based on a recent discovery that relatively low levels of pulsed infrared laser light are capable of triggering activity in hair cells of the partially hearing (hearing impaired) cochlea and vestibule. The aim here is the development of a self-contained, smart, highly miniaturized system to provide optoacoustic stimuli directly from an array of miniature light sources in the cochlea. Optoacoustic compound action potentials (oaCAP) are generated by the light source fully inserted into the unmodified cochlea. Previously, the same could only be achieved with external light sources connected to a fiber optic light guide. This feat is achieved by integrating custom made VCSEL arrays at a wavelength of about 1550 nm onto small flexible substrates. The laser light is collimated by a specially designed silicon-based ultra-thin lens (165 um thick) to get the energy density required for the generation of oaCAP signals. A dramatic miniaturization of the packaging technology is also required. A long term biocompatible and hermetic sapphire housing with a size of less than a 1 cubic millimeter and miniature Pt/PtIr feedthroughs is developed, using a low temperature laser assisted process for sealing. A biofouling thin film protection layer is developed to avoid fibrinogen and cell growth on the system.

  3. High dielectric material in MRI: Numerical assessment of the reduction of the induced local power on implanted cardiac leads.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Lucano, Elena; Censi, Federica; Angelone, Leonardo M; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    High dielectric materials (HDM) have been proposed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the images acquired while reducing the radiofrequency (RF) absorption in tissue. The aim of this study is to assess the potential merit of using HDM to reduce power induced at the tip of an endocardial lead in patients undergoing MRI. Numerical simulations were performed using a commercial finite-differences time-domain (FDTD) software to model the RF field generated by a birdcage body coil at 64 MHz on a human body model. Two HDM pads were placed between the coil and the body model, and their effect was evaluated in terms of local induced power at the tip of a pacemaker lead. Two different patient imaging positions inside the coil (i.e., head & thorax) were studied. In both cases, the use of HDM allowed reducing the induced power (i.e., 57% reduction with head landmark, 68% with thorax landmark), while maintaining the same magnitude of B1 RMS at the isocenter of the coil. Additionally, when the HDM pads were placed at the head landmark, there was a significant decrease in the local-induced power at the tip of the implant path (58%). Conversely, there was only a 9% decrease when pads were placed at the thorax landmark. In conclusion, the study shows that when the implant is not included in the volume surrounded by the HDM, pads placed between the RF coil and the patient allow obtaining the same magnitude of B1-field with a lower input power of the RF coil, reducing significantly the local induced power around the implant. Conversely, if the implant is included in the volume surrounded by the HDM, the use of HDM can still reduce the input power necessary to obtain the same magnitude of B1-field, but the effect on the local induce power at the implant is lower in magnitude.

  4. Implantation activation annealing of Si-implanted gallium nitride at temperatures > 1,100 C

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Han, J.; Biefeld, R.M.

    1997-06-01

    The activation annealing of Si-implanted GaN is reported for temperatures from 1,100 to 1,400 C. Although previous work has shown that Si-implanted GaN can be activated by a rapid thermal annealing at {approximately}1,100 C, it was also shown that significant damage remained in the crystal. Therefore, both AlN-encapsulated and uncapped Si-implanted GaN samples were annealed in a metal organic chemical vapor deposition system in a N{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} ambient to further assess the annealing process. Electrical Hall characterization shows increases in carrier density and mobility for annealing up to 1,300 C before degrading at 1,400 C due to decomposition of the GaN epilayer. Rutherford backscattering spectra show that the high annealing temperatures reduce the implantation induced damage profile but do not completely restore the as-grown crystallinity.

  5. Energetics of neuronal signaling and fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Maandag, Natasja J G; Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Herman, Peter; Smith, Arien J; Blumenfeld, Hal; Shulman, Robert G; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2007-12-18

    Energetics of resting and evoked fMRI signals were related to localized ensemble firing rates (nu) measured by electrophysiology in rats. Two different unstimulated, or baseline, states were established by anesthesia. Halothane and alpha-chloralose established baseline states of high and low energy, respectively, in which forepaw stimulation excited the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1). With alpha-chloralose, forepaw stimulation induced strong and reproducible fMRI activations in the contralateral S1, where the ensemble firing was dominated by slow signaling neurons (SSN; nu range of 1-13 Hz). Under halothane, weaker and less reproducible fMRI activations were observed in the contralateral S1 and elsewhere in the cortex, but ensemble activity in S1 was dominated by rapid signaling neurons (RSN; nu range of 13-40 Hz). For both baseline states, the RSN activity (i.e., higher frequencies, including the gamma band) did not vary upon stimulation, whereas the SSN activity (i.e., alpha band and lower frequencies) did change. In the high energy baseline state, a large majority of total oxidative energy [cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMR(O2))] was devoted to RSN activity, whereas in the low energy baseline state, it was roughly divided between SSN and RSN activities. We hypothesize that in the high energy baseline state, the evoked changes in fMRI activation in areas beyond S1 are supported by rich intracortical interactions represented by RSN. We discuss implications for interpreting fMRI data where stimulus-specific DeltaCMR(O2) is generally small compared with baseline CMR(O2).

  6. Image-guided tissue engineering of anatomically shaped implants via MRI and micro-CT using injection molding.

    PubMed

    Ballyns, Jeffery J; Gleghorn, Jason P; Niebrzydowski, Vicki; Rawlinson, Jeremy J; Potter, Hollis G; Maher, Suzanne A; Wright, Timothy M; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2008-07-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time the development of engineered tissues based on anatomic geometries derived from widely used medical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computer-aided design and tissue injection molding techniques have demonstrated the ability to generate living implants of complex geometry. Due to its complex geometry, the meniscus of the knee was used as an example of this technique's capabilities. MRI and microcomputed tomography (microCT) were used to design custom-printed molds that enabled the generation of anatomically shaped constructs that retained shape throughout 8 weeks of culture. Engineered constructs showed progressive tissue formation indicated by increases in extracellular matrix content and mechanical properties. The paradigm of interfacing tissue injection molding technology can be applied to other medical imaging techniques that render 3D models of anatomy, demonstrating the potential to apply the current technique to engineering of many tissues and organs.

  7. On the estimation of the worst-case implant-induced RF-heating in multi-channel MRI.

    PubMed

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2017-03-02

    The increasing use of multiple radiofrequency (RF) transmit channels in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems makes it necessary to rigorously assess the risk of RF-induced heating. This risk is especially aggravated with inclusions of medical implants within the body. The worst-case RF-heating scenario is achieved when the local tissue deposition in the at-risk region (generally in the vicinity of the implant electrodes) reaches its maximum value while MRI exposure is compliant with predefined general specific absorption rate (SAR) limits or power requirements. This work first reviews the common approach to estimate the worst-case RF-induced heating in multi-channel MRI environment, based on the maximization of the ratio of two Hermitian forms by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. It is then shown that the common approach is not rigorous and may lead to an underestimation of the worst-case RF-heating scenario when there is a large number of RF transmit channels and there exist multiple SAR or power constraints to be satisfied. Finally, this work derives a rigorous SAR-based formulation to estimate a preferable worst-case scenario, which is solved by casting a semidefinite programming relaxation of this original non-convex problem, whose solution closely approximates the true worst-case including all SAR constraints. Numerical results for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 RF channels in a 3T-MRI volume coil for a patient with a deep-brain stimulator under a head imaging exposure are provided as illustrative examples.

  8. Torque measurements of the ossicular chain: implication on the MRI safety of the hearing implant Vibrant Soundbridge.

    PubMed

    Jesacher, Marco Otto; Kiefer, Jan; Zierhofer, Clemens; Fauser, Claudius

    2010-06-01

    Is the human ossicular chain stabile enough to withstand the torque of a Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear hearing implant in the magnetic field of a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system? The Vibrant Soundbridge is a semi-implantable hearing device in which a tiny electromechanical transducer, called floating mass transducer (FMT), is clipped to the ossicular chain within the middle ear. The FMT contains a permanent magnet, which can generate a torque when exposed to a static magnetic field of MRI systems. Since the transducer is routinely attached to the long process of the incus, this torque could affect or even disrupt the ossicular chain. This study investigates the likelihood of a middle ear injury by an FMT in an MRI system. Torque measurements were performed on 10 unpreserved human temporal bones. A brass fork was attached to the long process of the incus via a posterior tympanotomy, and a defined torque was applied by a calibrated torque meter. The torque was increased stepwise until an injury of the middle ear was observed. The mean torque at which the middle ear was injured was 4.3 mN.m +/- 1.7 mN.m. The lowest value measured was 1.5 mN.m, and the highest was 6.5 mN.m. Even the lowest torque measured is more than 1.5 times higher than the "worst-case" torque affecting the FMT during a 1.5 T MRI examination. The torque on an FMT crimped to the long process of the incus should therefore not harm the human middle ear.

  9. On the estimation of the worst-case implant-induced RF-heating in multi-channel MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córcoles, Juan; Zastrow, Earl; Kuster, Niels

    2017-06-01

    The increasing use of multiple radiofrequency (RF) transmit channels in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems makes it necessary to rigorously assess the risk of RF-induced heating. This risk is especially aggravated with inclusions of medical implants within the body. The worst-case RF-heating scenario is achieved when the local tissue deposition in the at-risk region (generally in the vicinity of the implant electrodes) reaches its maximum value while MRI exposure is compliant with predefined general specific absorption rate (SAR) limits or power requirements. This work first reviews the common approach to estimate the worst-case RF-induced heating in multi-channel MRI environment, based on the maximization of the ratio of two Hermitian forms by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. It is then shown that the common approach is not rigorous and may lead to an underestimation of the worst-case RF-heating scenario when there is a large number of RF transmit channels and there exist multiple SAR or power constraints to be satisfied. Finally, this work derives a rigorous SAR-based formulation to estimate a preferable worst-case scenario, which is solved by casting a semidefinite programming relaxation of this original non-convex problem, whose solution closely approximates the true worst-case including all SAR constraints. Numerical results for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 RF channels in a 3T-MRI volume coil for a patient with a deep-brain stimulator under a head imaging exposure are provided as illustrative examples.

  10. Imaging brain neuronal activity using functionalized magnetonanoparticles and MRI.

    PubMed

    Akhtari, Massoud; Bragin, Anatol; Moats, Rex; Frew, Andrew; Mandelkern, Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the use of non-radioactive 2-deoxy glucose (2DG)-labeled magnetonanoparticles (MNP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect functional activity during rest, peripheral stimulation, and epileptic seizures, in animal models. Non-radioactive 2DG was covalently attached to magnetonanoparticles composed of iron oxide and dextran and intravenous (tail) injections were performed. 2DG-MNP was injected in resting and stimulated naïve rodents and the subsequent MRI was compared to published (14)C-2DG autoradiography data. Reproducibility and statistical significance was established in one studied model. Negative contrast enhancement (NCE) in acute seizures and chronic models of epilepsy were investigated. MRI NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles was compared to that of plain (unconjugated) MNP in one animal. NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles at 3 T, which is approved for human use, was also investigated. Histology showed presence of MNP (following intravenous injection) in the brain tissues of resting naïve animal. 2DG-MNP intraparenchymal uptake was visible on MRI and histology. The locations of NCE agreed with published results of 2DG autoradiography in resting and stimulated animals and epileptic rats. Localization of epileptogenicity was confirmed by subsequent depth-electrode EEG (iEEG). Non-radioactive 2DG-MNP can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may accurately localize areas of increased activity. Although, this proof-of-principle study involves only a limited number of animals, and much more research and quantification are necessary to demonstrate that 2DG-MNP, or MNPs conjugated with other ligands, could eventually be used to image localized cerebral function with MRI in humans, this MNP-MRI approach is potentially applicable to the use of many bioactive molecules as ligands for imaging normal and abnormal localized cerebral functions.

  11. Compressed Sensing SEMAC: 8-fold Accelerated High Resolution Metal Artifact Reduction MRI of Cobalt-Chromium Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jan; Ahlawat, Shivani; Demehri, Shadpour; Thawait, Gaurav K; Raithel, Esther; Gilson, Wesley D; Nittka, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively test the hypothesis that a compressed sensing-based slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) turbo spin echo (TSE) pulse sequence prototype facilitates high-resolution metal artifact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cobalt-chromium knee arthroplasty implants within acquisition times of less than 5 minutes, thereby yielding better image quality than high-bandwidth (BW) TSE of similar length and similar image quality than lengthier SEMAC standard of reference pulse sequences. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. Twenty asymptomatic subjects (12 men, 8 women; mean age, 56 years; age range, 44-82 years) with total knee arthroplasty implants underwent MRI of the knee using a commercially available, clinical 1.5 T MRI system. Two compressed sensing-accelerated SEMAC prototype pulse sequences with 8-fold undersampling and acquisition times of approximately 5 minutes each were compared with commercially available high-BW and SEMAC pulse sequences with acquisition times of approximately 5 minutes and 11 minutes, respectively. For each pulse sequence type, sagittal intermediate-weighted (TR, 3750-4120 milliseconds; TE, 26-28 milliseconds; voxel size, 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm) and short tau inversion recovery (TR, 4010 milliseconds; TE, 5.2-7.5 milliseconds; voxel size, 0.8 × 0.8 × 4 mm) were acquired. Outcome variables included image quality, display of the bone-implant interfaces and pertinent knee structures, artifact size, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Statistical analysis included Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen weighted k tests. Bonferroni-corrected P values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. Image quality, bone-implant interfaces, anatomic structures, artifact size, SNR, and CNR parameters were statistically similar between the compressed sensing-accelerated SEMAC prototype and SEMAC

  12. Antibacterial effects of electrically activated vertebral implants.

    PubMed

    Secinti, Kutsal Devrim; Ayten, Murat; Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Kaygusuz, Gulsah; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Attar, Ayhan

    2008-04-01

    Bio-implants in the human body act as passive surfaces that are prone to bacterial adhesion potentially leading to deep body infections. Pedicle screws made of uncoated or silver-coated titanium alloy were used both in vitro and in vivo to determine whether silver-coated materials have antimicrobial properties when they are anodized. Twenty-four New Zealand Albino rabbits were divided into four groups with six in each. In Group 1, the rabbits were exposed to 8 muA direct current (DC) via silver-coated screws. In Group 2, the rabbits were not exposed to any electrical current, but silver-coated screws were used. In Group 3, the rabbits were exposed to 8 muA DC using uncoated screws. In Group 4, the rabbits were not exposed to any electrical current, but uncoated screws were used. Staphylococcus aureus (106 cfu) was inoculated into the rabbits before any electrical current was applied. All the animals were killed, and the areas surrounding the screws were histologically and microbiologically examined. Silver-coated titanium screws prevented implant-associated deep bone infections when they were polarized anodically. The antibacterial effects of the same screws with the same bacterium were confirmed in in vitro experiments on agar plates. When the screws were anodized with the same electrical parameters in vitro, a marked inhibition zone was detected around the silver-coated screws but not around the uncoated screws. Our findings suggest that silver-coated titanium implants can be used to prevent implant-associated deep bone infections when they are polarized anodically.

  13. MRI Compatibility of Microfabricated Magnetic Actuators for Implantable Catheters: Mechanical Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyowon; Xu, Qing; Ephrati, Jeremy; Bergsneider, Marvin; Judy, Jack W.

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the mechanical robustness of microfabricated torsional magnetic actuators in withstanding the magnetic fields produced by a 7 T MRI magnet. The static and dynamic mechanical characteristics of 30 devices were quantitatively measured before and after exposure to both uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields. The results show no statistically significant change in both the static and dynamic mechanical performance, which mitigates concerns about the mechanical compatibility of our devices with MRI scanners. Additional experiments are required to quantify the potential image-artifact size and radio-frequency-induced heating caused by the magnetic microactuators inside an MRI scanner. PMID:21096979

  14. Active MRI tracking for robotic assisted FUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xu; Huang, Zhihong; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    MR guided FUS is a noninvasive method producing thermal necrosis at the position of tumors with high accuracy and temperature control. Because the typical size of the ultrasound focus is smaller than the area of interested treatment tissues, focus repositioning become necessary to achieve multiple sonications to cover the whole targeted area. Using MR compatible mechanical actuators could help the ultrasound beam to reach a wider treatment range than using electrical beam steering technique and more flexibility in position the transducer. An active MR tracking technique was combined into the MRgFUS system to help locating the position of the mechanical actuator and the FUS transducer. For this study, a precise agar reference model was designed and fabricated to test the performance of the active tracking technique when it was used on the MR-compatible robotics InnoMotion™ (IBSMM, Engineering spol. s r.o. / Ltd, Czech Republic). The precision, tracking range and positioning speed of the combined robotic FUS system were evaluated in this study. Compared to the existing MR guided HIFU systems, the combined robotic system with active tracking techniques provides a potential that allows the FUS treatment to operate in a larger spatial range and with a faster speed, which is one of the main challenges for organ motion tracking.

  15. EEG-correlated fMRI of human alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Laufs, H; Kleinschmidt, A; Beyerle, A; Eger, E; Salek-Haddadi, A; Preibisch, C; Krakow, K

    2003-08-01

    Electroencephalography-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) can be used to identify blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes associated with both physiological and pathological EEG events. Here, we implemented continuous and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to identify BOLD signal changes related to spontaneous power fluctuations in the alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz), the dominant EEG pattern during relaxed wakefulness. Thirty-two channels of EEG were recorded in 10 subjects during eyes-closed rest inside a 1.5-T magnet resonance (MR) scanner using an MR-compatible EEG recording system. Functional scanning by echoplanar imaging covered almost the entire cerebrum every 4 s. Off-line MRI artifact subtraction software was applied to obtain continuous EEG data during fMRI acquisition. The average alpha power over 1-s epochs was derived at several electrode positions using a Fast Fourier Transform. The power time course was then convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function, down-sampled, and used for statistical parametric mapping of associated signal changes in the image time series. At all electrode positions studied, a strong negative correlation of parietal and frontal cortical activity with alpha power was found. Conversely, only sparse and nonsystematic positive correlation was detected. The relevance of these findings is discussed in view of the current theories on the generation and significance of the alpha rhythm and the related functional neuroimaging findings.

  16. Randomized study on the effect of single-implant versus two-implant retained overdentures on implant loss and muscle activity: a 12-month follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Alqutaibi, A Y; Kaddah, A F; Farouk, M

    2017-02-22

    The objective was to evaluate and compare single- and two-implant retained overdentures for the rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible. Fifty-six edentulous subjects were eligible for inclusion. Using a random sampling system, a single implant or two implants were placed in the mandible. After 3 months, locator attachments were connected to the implants and the denture delivered with the retentive components incorporated in the denture base. Implant failure and muscle activity were evaluated at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The study sample comprised 56 patients (32 male, 24 female), with a mean age of 58.2 years. A total of 84 implants were placed (28 in the single-implant group and 56 in the two-implant group). All patients completed the 12 months of follow-up. No significant differences were found between subjects in the two groups with respect to implant failure. With regard to improvements in muscle activity, the two-implant group showed statistically significant but perhaps not clinically important differences. Single-implant mandibular overdentures may be suggested as an alternative treatment modality for the rehabilitation of edentulous patients who cannot afford the cost of a two-implant overdenture.

  17. Construction and modeling of a reconfigurable MRI coil for lowering SAR in patients with deep brain stimulation implants.

    PubMed

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Iacono, Maria Ida; Keil, Boris; Angelone, Leonardo M; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fox, Michael D; Herrington, Todd; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; LaPierre, Cristen; Mareyam, Azma; Wald, Lawrence L

    2017-02-15

    Post-operative MRI of patients with deep brain simulation (DBS) implants is useful to assess complications and diagnose comorbidities, however more than one third of medical centers do not perform MRIs on this patient population due to stringent safety restrictions and liability risks. A new system of reconfigurable magnetic resonance imaging head coil composed of a rotatable linearly-polarized birdcage transmitter and a close-fitting 32-channel receive array is presented for low-SAR imaging of patients with DBS implants. The novel system works by generating a region with low electric field magnitude and steering it to coincide with the DBS lead trajectory. We demonstrate that the new coil system substantially reduces the SAR amplification around DBS electrodes compared to commercially available circularly polarized coils in a cohort of 9 patient-derived realistic DBS lead trajectories. We also show that the optimal coil configuration can be reliably identified from the image artifact on B1(+) field maps. Our preliminary results suggest that such a system may provide a viable solution for high-resolution imaging of DBS patients in the future. More data is needed to quantify safety limits and recommend imaging protocols before the novel coil system can be used on patients with DBS implants.

  18. PET/MRI in the Presence of Metal Implants: Completion of the Attenuation Map from PET Emission Data.

    PubMed

    Fuin, Niccolo; Pedemonte, Stefano; Catalano, Onofrio A; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Heberlein, Keith; Hooker, Jacob M; Van Leemput, Koen; Catana, Ciprian

    2017-05-01

    We present a novel technique for accurate whole-body attenuation correction in the presence of metallic endoprosthesis, on integrated non-time-of-flight (non-TOF) PET/MRI scanners. The proposed implant PET-based attenuation map completion (IPAC) method performs a joint reconstruction of radioactivity and attenuation from the emission data to determine the position, shape, and linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) of metallic implants. Methods: The initial estimate of the attenuation map was obtained using the MR Dixon method currently available on the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. The attenuation coefficients in the area of the MR image subjected to metal susceptibility artifacts are then reconstructed from the PET emission data using the IPAC algorithm. The method was tested on 11 subjects presenting 13 different metallic implants, who underwent CT and PET/MR scans. Relative mean LACs and Dice similarity coefficients were calculated to determine the accuracy of the reconstructed attenuation values and the shape of the metal implant, respectively. The reconstructed PET images were compared with those obtained using the reference CT-based approach and the Dixon-based method. Absolute relative change (aRC) images were generated in each case, and voxel-based analyses were performed. Results: The error in implant LAC estimation, using the proposed IPAC algorithm, was 15.7% ± 7.8%, which was significantly smaller than the Dixon- (100%) and CT- (39%) derived values. A mean Dice similarity coefficient of 73% ± 9% was obtained when comparing the IPAC- with the CT-derived implant shape. The voxel-based analysis of the reconstructed PET images revealed quantification errors (aRC) of 13.2% ± 22.1% for the IPAC- with respect to CT-corrected images. The Dixon-based method performed substantially worse, with a mean aRC of 23.1% ± 38.4%. Conclusion: We have presented a non-TOF emission-based approach for estimating the attenuation map in the presence of metallic implants, to

  19. The Safety of Using Body-Transmit MRI in Patients with Implanted Deep Brain Stimulation Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Joshua; Papadaki, Anastasia; White, Mark; Mancini, Laura; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Tom; Thornton, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with movement disorders. Patients receiving chronic DBS provide a unique opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms of DBS using functional MRI. It has been shown that the main safety concern with MRI in these patients is heating at the electrode tips – which can be minimised with strict adherence to a supervised acquisition protocol using a head-transmit/receive coil at 1.5T. MRI using the body-transmit coil with a multi-channel receive head coil has a number of potential advantages including an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Study outline We compared the safety of cranial MRI in an in vitro model of bilateral DBS using both head-transmit and body-transmit coils. We performed fibre-optic thermometry at a Medtronic ActivaPC device and Medtronic 3389 electrodes during turbo-spin echo (TSE) MRI using both coil arrangements at 1.5T and 3T, in addition to gradient-echo echo-planar fMRI exposure at 1.5T. Finally, we investigated the effect of transmit-coil choice on DBS stimulus delivery during MRI. Results Temperature increases were consistently largest at the electrode tips. Changing from head- to body-transmit coil significantly increased the electrode temperature elevation during TSE scans with scanner-reported head SAR 0.2W/kg from 0.45°C to 0.79°C (p<0.001) at 1.5T, and from 1.25°C to 1.44°C (p<0.001) at 3T. The position of the phantom relative to the body coil significantly impacted on electrode heating at 1.5T; however, the greatest heating observed in any position tested remained <1°C at this field strength. Conclusions We conclude that (1) with our specific hardware and SAR-limited protocol, body-transmit cranial MRI at 1.5T does not produce heating exceeding international guidelines, even in cases of poorly positioned patients, (2) cranial MRI at 3T can readily produce heating exceeding international guidelines, (3) patients with ActivaPC Medtronic systems are safe

  20. The Safety of Using Body-Transmit MRI in Patients with Implanted Deep Brain Stimulation Devices.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Joshua; Papadaki, Anastasia; White, Mark; Mancini, Laura; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Tom; Thornton, John

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for patients with movement disorders. Patients receiving chronic DBS provide a unique opportunity to explore the underlying mechanisms of DBS using functional MRI. It has been shown that the main safety concern with MRI in these patients is heating at the electrode tips - which can be minimised with strict adherence to a supervised acquisition protocol using a head-transmit/receive coil at 1.5T. MRI using the body-transmit coil with a multi-channel receive head coil has a number of potential advantages including an improved signal-to-noise ratio. We compared the safety of cranial MRI in an in vitro model of bilateral DBS using both head-transmit and body-transmit coils. We performed fibre-optic thermometry at a Medtronic ActivaPC device and Medtronic 3389 electrodes during turbo-spin echo (TSE) MRI using both coil arrangements at 1.5T and 3T, in addition to gradient-echo echo-planar fMRI exposure at 1.5T. Finally, we investigated the effect of transmit-coil choice on DBS stimulus delivery during MRI. Temperature increases were consistently largest at the electrode tips. Changing from head- to body-transmit coil significantly increased the electrode temperature elevation during TSE scans with scanner-reported head SAR 0.2W/kg from 0.45°C to 0.79°C (p<0.001) at 1.5T, and from 1.25°C to 1.44°C (p<0.001) at 3T. The position of the phantom relative to the body coil significantly impacted on electrode heating at 1.5T; however, the greatest heating observed in any position tested remained <1°C at this field strength. We conclude that (1) with our specific hardware and SAR-limited protocol, body-transmit cranial MRI at 1.5T does not produce heating exceeding international guidelines, even in cases of poorly positioned patients, (2) cranial MRI at 3T can readily produce heating exceeding international guidelines, (3) patients with ActivaPC Medtronic systems are safe to be recruited to future fMRI experiments

  1. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.; Lewine, J.D.; Caprihan, A.

    1993-12-31

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make such measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.

  2. Optimization of Scan Time in MRI for Total Hip Prostheses: SEMAC Tailoring for Prosthetic Implants Containing Different Types of Metals.

    PubMed

    Deligianni, X; Bieri, O; Elke, R; Wischer, T; Egelhof, T

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Müller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2-23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm(3) ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting. Five of the most common total hip prostheses have been investigated in vitro. Tailored SEMAC protocols - in terms of

  3. Optogenetic Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peter; Fang, Zhongnan; Liu, Jia; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the functional connectivity of precise neural circuits across the entire intact brain can be achieved through optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), which is a novel technique that combines the relatively high spatial resolution of high-field fMRI with the precision of optogenetic stimulation. Fiber optics that enable delivery of specific wavelengths of light deep into the brain in vivo are implanted into regions of interest in order to specifically stimulate targeted cell types that have been genetically induced to express light-sensitive trans-membrane conductance channels, called opsins. fMRI is used to provide a non-invasive method of determining the brain's global dynamic response to optogenetic stimulation of specific neural circuits through measurement of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal, which provides an indirect measurement of neuronal activity. This protocol describes the construction of fiber optic implants, the implantation surgeries, the imaging with photostimulation and the data analysis required to successfully perform ofMRI. In summary, the precise stimulation and whole-brain monitoring ability of ofMRI are crucial factors in making ofMRI a powerful tool for the study of the connectomics of the brain in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:27167840

  4. Work activity in patients treated with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Huarte, Alicia; Martínez-López, Marta; Manrique-Huarte, Raquel; Erviti, Sandra; Calavia, Diego; Alonso, Cora; Manrique, Manuel

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact that the cochlear implant (CI) had in the working life of individuals implanted, using the first version of a questionnaire developed in the cochlear implant program at the University Clinic of Navarre. Its purpose was to demonstrate that the CI significantly affected the working lives of these patients. This was a retrospection study on a population of 60 patients (mean age, 48 years old) with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss treated with CI and to whom a questionnaire on working life satisfaction was given. Of the patients completing the questionnaire, 94.23% were currently satisfied at work. Almost all of them (93.05%) were more motivated to go to work after the implantation. The majority (79.31%) considered themselves more competent after surgery and device activation. Social relations at work were considered to have improved after cochlear implantation by 67.23% of patients. The CI provided positive support in the professional sphere as well as in social abilities by improving communication skills of implanted patients. The development of tools to assess the degree of job satisfaction of patients treated with a CI is of great interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  5. Implanted, inductively-coupled, radiofrequency coils fabricated on flexible polymeric material: Application to in vivo rat brain MRI at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginefri, J.-C.; Rubin, A.; Tatoulian, M.; Woytasik, M.; Boumezbeur, F.; Djemaï, B.; Poirier-Quinot, M.; Lethimonnier, F.; Darrasse, L.; Dufour-Gergam, E.

    2012-11-01

    Combined with high-field MRI scanners, small implanted coils allow for high resolution imaging with locally improved SNR, as compared to external coils. Small flexible implantable coils dedicated to in vivo MRI of the rat brain at 7 T were developed. Based on the Multi-turn Transmission Line Resonator design, they were fabricated with a Teflon substrate using copper micromolding process and a specific metal-polymer adhesion treatment. The implanted coils were made biocompatible by PolyDimethylSiloxane (PDMS) encapsulation. The use of low loss tangent material achieves low dielectric losses within the substrate and the use of the PDMS layer reduces the parasitic coupling with the surrounding media. An implanted coil was implemented in a 7 T MRI system using inductive coupling and a dedicated external pick-up coil for signal transmission. In vivo images of the rat brain acquired with in plane resolution of (150 μm)2 thanks to the implanted coil revealed high SNR near the coil, allowing for the visualization of fine cerebral structures.

  6. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  7. Implantation and Activation of High Concentrations of Boron in Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Suh,Y.; Carroll, M.; Levy, R.; Sahiner, A.; King, C.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of Ge-based devices. Implantation and dopant activation are critical process steps for future Ge devices fabrication. Boron is a common p-type dopant, which remarkably is active immediately after implantation in Ge at low doses. This paper examines the effect of increasing dose (i.e., 5/spl times/10/sup 13/-5/spl times/10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/) and subsequent annealing (400/spl deg/C-800/spl deg/C for 3 h in nitrogen) on activation and diffusion of boron in Ge. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spreading resistance profiling (SRP), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are used to characterize the implants before and after annealing. It is found that very high fractions of the boron dose (/spl sim/5%-55%) can be incorporated substitutionally immediately after implantation leading to very high hole concentrations, /spl ges/2/spl times/10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/, deduced from SRP. Small increases in activation after annealing are observed, however, 100% activation is not indicated by either SRP or NRA. Negligible diffusion after annealing at either 400/spl deg/C or 600/spl deg/C for 3 h was, furthermore, observed.

  8. Defining active sacroiliitis on MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: update by the ASAS MRI working group.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Robert G W; Bakker, Pauline A C; van der Heijde, Désirée; Weber, Ulrich; Rudwaleit, Martin; Hermann, K G; Sieper, Joachim; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Bennett, Alex; Braun, Jürgen; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Dougados, Maxime; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Maksymowych, Walter P; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Østergaard, Mikkel; Poddubnyy, Denis; Reijnierse, Monique; van den Bosch, Filip; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene; Landewé, Robert

    2016-11-01

    To review and update the existing definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). The Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) MRI working group conducted a consensus exercise to review the definition of a positive MRI for inclusion in the ASAS classification criteria of axial SpA. Existing definitions and new data relevant to the MRI diagnosis and classification of sacroiliitis and spondylitis in axial SpA, published since the ASAS definition first appeared in print in 2009, were reviewed and discussed. The precise wording of the existing definition was examined in detail and the data and a draft proposal were presented to and voted on by the ASAS membership. The clear presence of bone marrow oedema on MRI in subchondral bone is still considered to be the defining observation that determines the presence of active sacroiliitis. Structural damage lesions seen on MRI may contribute to a decision by the observer that inflammatory lesions are genuinely due to SpA but are not required to meet the definition. The existing definition was clarified adding guidelines and images to assist in the application of the definition. The definition of a positive MRI for classification of axial SpA should continue to primarily depend on the imaging features of 'active sacroiliitis' until more data are available regarding MRI features of structural damage in the sacroiliac joint and MRI features in the spine and their utility when used for classification purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Clinical routine implantation of a dual chamber pacemaker system designed for safe use with MRI: a single center, retrospective study on lead performance of Medtronic lead 5086MRI in comparison to Medtronic leads 4592-53 and 4092-58.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, C G; Thudt, K; Vock, P; Globits, S; Mayr, H

    2011-12-01

    We report our experience concerning lead performance and re-surgery rate of the Medtronic EnRhythm MRI SureScan pacemaker system (MRI-PM) in comparison to standard pacemaker (PM) systems and leads used at our institution. All patients (except patients with transvenous left ventricular leads) with successful PM implantation performed at our institution from 1 March 2009 to 31 October 2009 were included in this analysis and followed until mid January 2010. Lead measurements (assessed at implantation, prehospital discharge interrogation (1st follow-up) and at the first scheduled out-patient follow-up (2nd follow-up) were compared between atrial leads 4592-53 cm and 5086MRI-52 cm (lead group 1), and between ventricular leads 4092-58 cm and 5086MRI-52 cm/-58 cm (lead group 2), respectively. Causes for re-operations were assessed and compared between patients with standard dual chamber PM (DC-PM) and the MRI-PM. A total of 140 patients (VVI-PM: 36 patients; DDD-PM: 102 patients; biventricular PM: 1 patient) were successfully implanted with a PM within the implantation period. Two patients with transvenous left ventricular leads were excluded from further analysis. In an atrial position, lead 4592 was implanted in 51 patients and lead 5086MRI-52 cm was implanted in 40 patients, respectively. Ventricular leads were lead 4092-58 cm (64 patients) and lead 5086MRI (41 patients), respectively. Patients were followed for 26 ± 11 weeks. Comparison of lead measurements of lead group 1 showed significant differences for pacing impedance and pacing threshold at implantation, and for sensing at the 2nd follow-up. Comparison of lead measurements within lead group 2 showed significant differences for pacing impedance at implantation, for pacing threshold at the 1st follow-up, and for sensing, pacing threshold, and impedance at the 2nd follow-up. All assessed mean values were favorable for all leads at any follow-up. The number of re-operations was high in

  10. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  11. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  12. Cerebral embolization during percutaneous valve implantation does not occur during balloon inflation valvuloplasty: prospective diffusion-weighted brain MRI study.

    PubMed

    Astarci, Parla; Price, Joel; Glineur, David; D'Hoore, William; Kefer, Joelle; Elkhoury, Gébrine; Grandin, Cécile; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to define the timing of cerebral embolization events during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and to determine if events were more closely associated with valve implantation or with balloon inflation. Between January 2008 and November 2011, a total of 114 patients underwent TAVI at the author's institution. Of these patients, 44 had previously undergone imaging before and after TAVI, and were included in the study (26 transfemoral (TF); 18 transapical (TA)). Eleven patients who had only balloon valvuloplasty (BV) during the same period were included, as were 22 patients who had open aortic valve replacement (AVR), as controls. All 77 patients underwent neurological examination, and all had cerebral MRIs before and after their procedures. Fifty of the 77 patients who underwent postprocedural MRI had new cerebral lesions, as follows: 24/26 (92%) in TF patients; 17/18 (94%) in TA patients; 3/11 (27%) in BV patients; and 6/22 (27%) in AVR patients (TF and TA versus BV and AVR, p < 0.0001). The mean number and volume of embolic lesions per patient were respectively 5.4/438 mm3 for TF, 11.6/3414 mm3 for TA, 0.7/46 mm3 for BV, and 0.4/48 mm3 for AVR (TF versus TA and BV versus AVR, p = NS; TF and TA versus BV and AVR, p < 0.0001). No association was found between either the EuroSCORE or patient age and the number of events. In the present study, an incidence of silent cerebral embolic lesions after TAVI was identified which was significantly higher than that for BV or AVR. This indicated an association of embolism with valve implantation rather than with balloon inflation.

  13. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  14. MRI-induced heating of selected thin wire metallic implants-- laboratory and computational studies-- findings and new questions raised.

    PubMed

    Bassen, H; Kainz, W; Mendoza, G; Kellom, T

    2006-01-01

    We performed experiments and computer modeling of heating of a cardiovascular stent and a straight, thin wire by RF fields in a 1.5 T MRI birdcage coil at 64 MHz. We used ASTM F2182-02a standard and normalized results to 4 W/kg whole body average. We used a rectangular saline-gel filled phantom and a coiled, double stent (Intracoil by ev3 Inc) 11 cm long. The stent had thin electrical insulation except for bare ends (simulating drug eluting coating). The stent and phantom were placed close to the wall of the RF Coil and had approximately 0.5 degrees C initial temperature rise at the ends (local SAR = 320 W/kg). We exposed a wire (24.1 cm, 0.5 mm diameter) with 0.5 mm insulation and saw an 8.6 degrees C temperature rise (local SAR = 5,680 W/kg) at the bare ends. All heating was within 1 mm3 of the ends, so the position of our fiber optic temperature probe was critical for repeatability. Our computational study used finite difference time domain software with a thermodynamics solver. We modeled a coiled bare-wire stent as a spiral with a rectangular cross section and found a maximum increase of 0.05 degrees C induced at the tips for plane wave exposures. A maximum local SAR of up to 200 W/kg occurred in a volume of only 8 x 10(-3) mm. We developed improved computational exposure sources-- optimized birdcage coils and quasi-MRI fields that may eliminate the need to model an RF coil. We learned that local (point) SAR (initial linear temperature rise) is the most reliable indicator of the maximum heating of an implant. Local SAR depends greatly on implant length, insulation and shape, and position in the MRI coil. Accurate heating must be measured with sensors or software having millimeter resolution. Many commercially available fiber optic temperature probes do meet this requirement.

  15. B activation enhancement in submicron confined implants in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S.; Impellizzeri, G.; Priolo, F.; Giannazzo, F.; Raineri, V.; Napolitani, E.

    2005-09-01

    We implanted 3keV B ions into a crystalline Si film, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and masked by SiO2 stripes with opening widths ranging from 3.2μm down to 0.38μm. Thermal anneals were performed at 800°C for several times. By quantitative high-resolution scanning capacitance microscopy, we demonstrated that the electrical reactivation of inactive B after postimplant annealing is obtained at faster rates as the window width decreases. Total electrical activation is gained first in the narrowest window, with times shorter by nearly a factor of 4 compared to the widest one. In addition, since inactive B seems to be caused by B clustering induced by implantation, our results put in evidence a strong effect of implantation confinement also on B clusters dissolution mechanism. These results have a strong impact on the modern silicon-based device engineering.

  16. Effective dopant activation by susceptor-assisted microwave annealing of low energy boron implanted and phosphorus implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhao; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Alford, T. L.; David Theodore, N.; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Lanz, A.

    2013-12-28

    Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion result from susceptor-assisted microwave (MW) annealing, making this technique an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants within ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Susceptor-assisted MW annealing, of ion-implanted Si, enables more effective dopant activation and at lower temperatures than required for rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raman spectroscopy and ion channeling analyses are used to monitor the extent of ion implantation damage and recrystallization. The presence and behavior of extended defects are monitored by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Phosphorus implanted Si samples experience effective electrical activation upon MW annealing. On the other hand, when boron implanted Si is MW annealed, the growth of extended defects results in reduced crystalline quality that hinders the electrical activation process. Further comparison of dopant diffusion resulting from MW annealing and rapid thermal annealing is performed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. MW annealed ion implanted samples show less end-of-range diffusion when compared to RTA samples. In particular, MW annealed P{sup +} implanted samples achieve no visible diffusion and equivalent electrical activation at a lower temperature and with a shorter time-duration of annealing compared to RTA. In this study, the peak temperature attained during annealing does not depend on the dopant species or dose, for susceptor-assisted MW annealing of ion-implanted Si.

  17. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  18. Grading Crohn disease activity with MRI: interobserver variability of MRI features, MRI scoring of severity, and correlation with Crohn disease endoscopic index of severity.

    PubMed

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A W; Makanyanga, Jesica C; Bipat, Shandra; Pendsé, Doug A; Nio, C Yung; Vos, Frans M; Taylor, Stuart A; Stoker, Jaap

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the interobserver variability for scoring MRI features of Crohn disease activity and to correlate two MRI scoring systems to the Crohn disease endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS). Thirty-three consecutive patients with Crohn disease undergoing 3-T MRI examinations (T1-weighted with IV contrast medium administration and T2-weighted sequences) and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month were independently evaluated by four readers. Seventeen MRI features were recorded in 143 bowel segments and were used to calculate the MR index of activity and the Crohn disease MRI index (CDMI) score. Multirater analysis was performed for all features and scoring systems using intraclass correlation coefficient (icc) and kappa statistic. Scoring systems were compared with ileocolonoscopy with CDEIS using Spearman rank correlation. Thirty patients (median age, 32 years; 21 women and nine men) were included. MRI features showed fair-to-good interobserver variability (intraclass correlation coefficient or kappa varied from 0.30 to 0.69). Wall thickness in millimeters, presence of edema, enhancement pattern, and length of the disease in each segment showed a good interobserver variability between all readers (icc = 0.69, κ = 0.66, κ = 0.62, and κ = 0.62, respectively). The MR index of activity and CDMI scores showed good reproducibility (icc = 0.74 and icc = 0.78, respectively) and moderate CDEIS correlation (r = 0.51 and r = 0.59, respectively). The reproducibility of individual MRI features overall is fair to good, with good reproducibility for the most commonly used features. When combined into the MR index of activity and CDMI score, overall reproducibility is good. Both scores show moderate agreement with CDEIS.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  20. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients.

  1. Stability and optical activity of Er implanted MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. V.; da Silva, R. C.; Alves, E.; Soares, M. J.; Monteiro, T.; González, R.

    2004-06-01

    MgO single crystals were implanted with Er ions to a fluence of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The implantations were carried out at room temperature with an energy of 150 keV. Despite the large amount of damage produced during the implantation the Er ions are incorporated in optically active sites. Photoluminescence measurements at 77 K reveal the presence of the fingerprint Er 3+ emission at 1.54 μm due to 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition. Angular scans performed through the main axes show complete overlap between Er and magnesium curves. Subsequent annealing in a reducing atmosphere at 1000 °C for 1 h leads to the recovery of the implantation damage. During the annealing the fraction of Er in Mg sites decreases from 100% to 53%. This movement of the Er ions is accompanied by changes in the optical spectra. Further annealing for 2 h at the same temperature leads to more precipitation of Er into random sites, whereby the fraction of Er in Mg lattice sites decreases to 20% while there is an enhancement of optical activity.

  2. In vivo Overhauser-enhanced MRI of proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Koonjoo, Neha; Parzy, Elodie; Massot, Philippe; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Marque, Sylvain R A; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudiere, Eric; Mellet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing novel imaging strategies for sensing proteolytic activities in intact organisms in vivo. Overhauser-enhanced MRI (OMRI) offers the possibility to reveal the proteolysis of nitroxide-labeled macromolecules thanks to a sharp decrease of the rotational correlation time of the nitroxide moiety upon cleavage. In this paper, this concept is illustrated in vivo at 0.2 T using nitroxide-labeled elastin orally administered in mice. In vitro, this elastin derivative was OMRI-visible and gave rise to high Overhauser enhancements (19-fold at 18 mm nitroxide) upon proteolysis by pancreatic porcine elastase. In vivo three-dimensional OMRI detection of proteolysis was carried out. A keyhole fully balanced steady-state free precession sequence was used, which allowed 3D OMRI acquisition within 20 s at 0.125 mm(3) resolution. About 30 min after mouse gavage, proteolysis was detected in the duodenum, where Overhauser enhancements were 7.2 ± 2.4 (n = 7) and was not observed in the stomach. Conversely, orally administered free nitroxides or pre-digested nitroxide-labeled elastin were detected in the mouse's stomach by OMRI. Combined with specific molecular probes, this Overhauser-enhanced MRI technique can be used to evaluate unregulated proteolytic activities in various models of experimental diseases and for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ultrasound images of implanted tumors in nude mice using Sono-CT correlated with MRI appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Sarcone, Anita; Pirollo, Kathleen F.; Lin, Chin-Shoou; Chang, Esther

    2001-05-01

    Monitoring the effect of novel cancer chemotherapeutic agents in nude mice is now commonly done by external direct measurement and by autopsy. The development of small animal imaging has focused on micro-MRI, micro-CT and micro-PET -- each a highly expensive and highly valuable method. Far less work has been done with ultrasound imaging. We wish to demonstrate a new method of ultrasound imaging of living mice named Sono-CTR, Sono-CTR provides a compound image by combining the images obtained by electronically directing the transducer to scan from multiple angles.

  4. Feasibility of using linearly polarized rotating birdcage transmitters and close-fitting receive arrays in MRI to reduce SAR in the vicinity of deep brain simulation implants.

    PubMed

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Keil, Boris; Angelone, Leonardo M; Bonmassar, Giorgio; Mareyam, Azma; Wald, Lawrence L

    2017-04-01

    MRI of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) implants is strictly limited due to safety concerns, including high levels of local specific absorption rate (SAR) of radiofrequency (RF) fields near the implant and related RF-induced heating. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a rotating linearly polarized birdcage transmitter and a 32-channel close-fit receive array to significantly reduce local SAR in MRI of DBS patients. Electromagnetic simulations and phantom experiments were performed with generic DBS lead geometries and implantation paths. The technique was based on mechanically rotating a linear birdcage transmitter to align its zero electric-field region with the implant while using a close-fit receive array to significantly increase signal to noise ratio of the images. It was found that the zero electric-field region of the transmitter is thick enough at 1.5 Tesla to encompass DBS lead trajectories with wire segments that were up to 30 degrees out of plane, as well as leads with looped segments. Moreover, SAR reduction was not sensitive to tissue properties, and insertion of a close-fit 32-channel receive array did not degrade the SAR reduction performance. The ensemble of rotating linear birdcage and 32-channel close-fit receive array introduces a promising technology for future improvement of imaging in patients with DBS implants. Magn Reson Med 77:1701-1712, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of residual breast tissue following mastectomy and reconstruction with silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Zippel, Douglas; Tsehmaister-Abitbol, Vered; Rundstein, Arie; Shalmon, Anat; Zbar, Andrew; Nardini, Gil; Novikov, Ilya; Sklair-Levy, Miri

    2015-01-01

    We present our use of magnetic resonance (MR) measurement to determine the amount of residual breast tissue (RBT) following total mastectomy with reconstruction. Breast MR images of 45 women who underwent surgery between January and November 2011 were reviewed. The cohort included therapeutic and prophylactic mastectomies. RBT was evaluated at four points with a digital caliper assessing T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. Patients undergoing mastectomy for carcinoma tended to have less RBT than in prophylactic surgery. Greater age and recent surgery both correlated with larger RBT. Variable thickness of RBT is demonstrable following mastectomy and implant reconstruction using MR imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Harmankaya, N; Igawa, K; Stenlund, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that ozone ultraviolet (UVO) illumination of titanium (Ti) implants improves bone-implant anchorage by altering the physico-chemical and immune activating properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layer. In the present rat tibia model, the authors compared the early events of inflammation and bone formation around UVO-treated Ti and complement activating immunoglobin g (IgG)-coated Ti. Machined Ti and machined Ti coated with a physical vapour-deposited Ti layer were used as references. Screw-shaped test and reference implants were implanted into rat tibia and harvested after 1, 7 and 28 days. Messenger RNA expression of implant adhered cells and peri-implant tissue ~250 μm from the surface were subsequently analysed with regard to IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, cathepsin K, BMP-2 and PDGF. Separate implants were retrieved after 7 and 28 days for removal torque measurements, and histological staining and histomorphometric analysis of bone area and bone-to-implant contact. While enhanced expression of inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β, was observed on IgG-coated surfaces throughout the observation time, UVO-treated surfaces indicated a significantly lower early inflammatory response. In the early phases (1 and 7 days), the UVO-treated surfaces displayed a significantly higher expression of osteoblast markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin. In summary, complement activating Ti implants elicited a stronger inflammatory response than UVO-treated Ti, with low complement activation during the first week of healing. In spite of this, the UVO-treated Ti induced only marginally more bone growth outside the implants.

  7. rf enhancement and shielding in MRI caused by conductive implants: dependence on electrical parameters for a tube model.

    PubMed

    Graf, Hansjörg; Steidle, Günter; Lauer, Ulrike A; Schick, Fritz

    2005-02-01

    Radio frequency (rf) eddy-currents induced in implants made of conductive material might cause significant image artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) such as shielding of the lumen of vascular stents. rf alteration near metal parts was assessed theoretically in the approximation of alternating current electrodynamics: The implant was modeled as tube with diameter d(o), resistance R, and reactance Y, constituting the secondary winding of a transformer. The transmitter coil of the scanner acted as primary winding and generated the linearly polarized rf field B1,app. Tube axis was assumed parallel to B1,app. The results of the calculations were as follows: Ninety percent of the applied rf-field amplitude is reached in the lumen at a ratio chi=R/Y approximately 2. A rapid drop occurs with the reduction of chi, whereas a further increase of chi causes only a small effect. With chi approximately 1/d(o)(Y approximately d2o,R approximately d(o)), conditions for rf alteration clearly depend on the diameter of the tube. Inside tubes with smaller diameter, rf shielding is less pronounced. rf alteration increases in good approximation with the square root of the strength of the static field B0. The following experiments were carried out: Tubes of similar diameter (d(o) approximately 8 mm) made of material of different conductivity (Cu, Nitinol, carbon fiber reinforced plastic with three different fiber structures) were examined at B0=0.2 and 1.5 T in water phantoms. Tube axis was aligned perpendicular to B0 and spin-echo technique was applied. Local rf enhancement near the outer surface of the metal tubes was detected applying manual reduction of the transmitter amplitude. Shielding inside a carbon fiber tube with d(o) approximately 8 mm and inside a smaller tube with d(o)=3.3 mm was compared. Both tubes showed the same wall structure and thickness (d(w)=0.4 mm). All measurements confirmed the theoretical results. Consequences for the construction of vascular stents

  8. SU-D-207B-04: Morphological Features of MRI as a Correlate of Capsular Contracture in Breast Cancer Patients with Implant-Based Reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, N; Sutton, E; Hunt, M; Apte, A; Zhang, J; Oh, J; Mechalakos, J; Mehrara, B; Matros, E; Ho, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Capsular contracture (CC) is a serious complication in patients receiving implant-based reconstruction for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to identify image-based correlates of CC using MRI imaging in breast cancer patients who received both MRI and clinical evaluation following reconstructive surgery. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective dataset of 50 patients who had both a diagnostic MR and a plastic surgeon’s evaluations of CC score (Baker’s score) within a six month period following mastectomy and reconstructive surgery. T2w sagittal MRIs (TR/TE = 3500/102 ms, slice thickness = 4 mm) were used for morphological shape features (roundness, eccentricity, solidity, extent and ratio-length) and histogram features (median, skewness and kurtosis) of the implant and the pectoralis muscle overlying the implant. Implant and pectoralis muscles were segmented in 3D using Computation Environment for Radiological Research (CERR) and shape and histogram features were calculated as a function of Baker’s score. Results: Shape features such as roundness and eccentricity were statistically significant in differentiating grade 1 and grade 2 (p = 0.009; p = 0.06) as well as grade 1 and grade 3 CC (p = 0.001; p = 0.006). Solidity and extent were statistically significant in differentiating grade 1 and grade 3 CC (p = 0.04; p = 0.04). Ratio-length was statistically significant in differentiating all grades of CC except grade 2 and grade 3 that showed borderline significance (p = 0.06). The muscle thickness, median intensity and kurtosis were significant in differentiating between grade 1 and grade 3 (p = 0.02), grade 1 and grade 2 (p = 0.03) and grade 1 and grade 3 (p = 0.01) respectively. Conclusion: Morphological shape features described on MR images were associated with the severity of CC. MRI may be important in objectively evaluating outcomes in breast cancer patients who undergo implant reconstruction.

  9. Advanced metal artifact reduction MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty implants: compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jan; Fritz, Benjamin; Thawait, Gaurav K; Raithel, Esther; Gilson, Wesley D; Nittka, Mathias; Mont, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) acceleration has been theorized for slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), but has not been shown to be feasible. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CS-SEMAC is feasible for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants. Following prospective institutional review board approval, 22 subjects with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants underwent 1.5 T MRI. We compared CS-SEMAC prototype, high-bandwidth TSE, and SEMAC sequences with acquisition times of 4-5, 4-5 and 10-12 min, respectively. Outcome measures included bone-implant interfaces, image quality, periprosthetic structures, artifact size, and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR). Using Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen's weighted kappa tests, Bonferroni-corrected p-values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. There was no statistical difference of outcomes measures of SEMAC and CS-SEMAC images. Visibility of implant-bone interfaces and pseudocapsule as well as fat suppression and metal reduction were "adequate" to "good" on CS-SEMAC and "non-diagnostic" to "adequate" on high-BW TSE (p < 0.001, respectively). SEMAC and CS-SEMAC showed mild blur and ripple artifacts. The metal artifact size was 63 % larger for high-BW TSE as compared to SEMAC and CS-SEMAC (p < 0.0001, respectively). CNRs were sufficiently high and statistically similar, with the exception of CNR of fluid and muscle and CNR of fluid and tendon, which were higher on intermediate-weighted high-BW TSE (p < 0.005, respectively). Compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants when compared to high-BW TSE and image quality similar to conventional SEMAC.

  10. Muscular activity may improve in edentulous patients after implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Schimmel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesMedline via Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to September 2013. This was complemented by a manual search of the magazines Deutsche Zahnaerztliche Zeitung, Quintessenz, Zeitschrift für Zahnärztliche Implantologie, Schweizerische Monatszeitschrift and Implantologie. Additionally, the list of reference s of all selected full-text articles and related reviews were further scrutinised for potential included studies in English or German.Study selectionThree review authors independently searched for clinical trials that assessed the muscular activity in the intervention groups: edentulous patients treated with implant-overdentures (IODs) and implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (ISFDPs) and the comparison groups: dentates and edentulous patients treated with mucosa-borne complete removable dental prostheses (CRDPs).Data extraction and synthesisThe primary outcome was the muscular activity (measured by electromyography [EMG]) in masseter or temporalis muscle of the participants during clenching and chewing. The data extraction of each included study consisted of author, year, age range, treatment, number of participants, number of implants inserted, arch treated, opposite jaw, kind and side of the muscles that were measured. EMG gain or loss (unit measured: volt) was considered by using the effect size. For the meta-analyses only the studies that included masseter muscle measured separately from temporalis were considered. Concerning the side of measurement (right and left side measured together or right and left side measured separately), only the dominant type in each category was included.ResultsSixteen articles, out of the initial 646 retrieved abstracts, were analysed. The muscular activity of edentulous subjects increased after implant support therapy during clenching (effect size [ES]: 2.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14, 3.23]) and during chewing (ES: 1.45 [95 % CI: 1.21, 1.69]). In addition, the pooled EMG

  11. Matrix Vesicle Enzyme Activity and Phospholipid Content in Endosteal Bone Following Implantation of Osseointegrating and Non-Osseointegrating Implant Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    marrow space of the treatment leg was ablated. Evacuation of the marrow cavity prior to implant placement has been shown to activate endosteal bone...was collected to compare the matrix vesicle enzyme and lipid activities in both the treatment and contralateral limbs. A previous study (Schwartz et al...Microsomes Isolated from Endosteal Bone in the Treatment Tibia following Implantation of Glass Ceramic Materials ......................... 41 Note

  12. Matrix Vesicle Enzyme Activity and Phospholipid Content in Endosteal Bone Following Implantation of Osseointegrating and Non-Osseointegrating Implant Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    of the treatment leg was ablated. Evacuation of the marrow cavity prior to implant placement has been shown to activate endosteal bone repair. Five...to compare the matrix vesicle enzyme and lipid activities in both the treatment and contralateral limbs. A previous study (Schwartz et al., 1989) has...of Matrix Vesicle-Enriched Micrusomes Isolated from Endosteal Bone in the Treatment Tibia following Implantation of Glass Ceramic Materials

  13. Fibroblastic activities post implantation of cobalt chromium alloy and pure germanium in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Carter, J M; Natiella, J R; Baier, R E; Natiella, R R

    1984-02-01

    Different preimplantation surface finishes were applied to surgical vitallium discs and germanium prisms implanted for 20 days within the back muscles of adult rabbits. Histopathologic analysis of the numbers of nuclei of active fibroblasts immediately adjacent to the implants was carried out. The mean apparent volume fractions (MAVF) for the subdermal implant sites were found to depend on the surface cleanliness of the implant, the cleanest or highest-surface-energy surfaces giving the highest MAVF values for active fibroblasts.

  14. CARDIAC MRI SCAR PATTERNS DIFFER BY GENDER IN AN IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR AND CARDIAC RESYNCHRONIZATION COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Loring, Zak; Strauss, David G.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Weiss, Robert G.; Wu, Katherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent meta-analyses suggest that the effectiveness of cardiac devices may differ between genders. Compared to men, women may not benefit as much from implantable defibrillators (ICDs), yet benefit more from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Myocardial scar burden is associated with increased incidence of appropriate ICD shocks but decreased response to CRT and may explain gender differences in device benefit. Objective To test the hypothesis that the extent of myocardial scar is less in women than men. Methods In 235 patients referred for primary prevention ICDs who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we compared scar size by gender. Analyses were performed for all patients (ICD cohort) and those receiving biventricular pacemakers (CRT subgroup). Results In the ICD cohort, women (vs. men) had a higher prevalence of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM, 64% vs. 39%, p<0.001) which accounted for a smaller overall scar burden (0.5% vs 13%, p<0.01). Likewise, in the CRT subgroup, the higher prevalence of NICM in women (83% vs. 46%, p=0.01) also contributed to a smaller scar size (0 vs 13%, p<0.01). Women also had significantly less scarring of the inferolateral LV wall. Conclusions In a cohort of patients undergoing clinically indicated ICD and CRT, women had less myocardial scar than men. This difference was primarily driven by a higher prevalence of NICM in women. These findings may have important implications for the future study of gender disparities in ICD and CRT outcomes. PMID:23313802

  15. Chronotype Modulates Language Processing-Related Cerebral Activity during Functional MRI (fMRI)

    PubMed Central

    Warbrick, Tracy; Shah, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Based on individual daily physiological cycles, humans can be classified as early (EC), late (LC) and intermediate (IC) chronotypes. Recent studies have verified that chronotype-specificity relates to performance on cognitive tasks: participants perform more efficiently when tested in the chronotype-specific optimal time of day than when tested in their non-optimal time. Surprisingly, imaging studies focussing on the underlying neural mechanisms of potential chronotype-specificities are sparse. Moreover, chronotype-specific alterations of language-related semantic processing have been neglected so far. Methods 16 male, healthy ECs, 16 ICs and 16 LCs participated in a fast event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm probing semantic priming. Subjects read two subsequently presented words (prime, target) and were requested to determine whether the target word was an existing word or a non-word. Subjects were tested during their individual evening hours when homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian alertness levels are high to ensure equal entrainment. Results Chronotype-specificity is associated with task-performance and brain activation. First, ECs exhibited slower reaction times than LCs. Second, ECs showed attenuated BOLD responses in several language-related brain areas, e.g. in the left postcentral gyrus, left and right precentral gyrus and in the right superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, increased BOLD responses were revealed for LCs as compared to ICs in task-related areas, e.g. in the right inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral gyrus. Conclusions These findings reveal that even basic language processes are associated with chronotype-specific neuronal mechanisms. Consequently, results might change the way we schedule patient evaluations and/or healthy subjects in e.g. experimental research and adding “chronotype” as a statistical covariate. PMID:26397824

  16. Influence of BOLD Contributions to Diffusion fMRI Activation of the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca J.; Reutens, David C.; Hocking, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on the hemodynamic response as a surrogate marker of neural activity imposes an intrinsic limit on the spatial specificity of functional MRI. An alternative approach based on diffusion-weighted functional MRI (DfMRI) has been reported as a contrast less reliant on hemodynamic effects, however current evidence suggests that both hemodynamic and unique neural sources contribute to the diffusion signal. Here we compare activation patterns obtained with the standard blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to DfMRI in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the BOLD proportion contributes to the observable diffusion signal. Both individual and group-level activation patterns obtained with DfMRI and BOLD to a visual field stimulation paradigm were analyzed. At the individual level, the DfMRI contrast showed a strong, positive relationship between the volumes of cortex activated in response to quadrant- and hemi-field visual stimulation. This was not observed in the corresponding BOLD experiment. Overall, the DfMRI response indicated less between-subject variability, with random effects analyses demonstrating higher statistical values at the peak voxel for DfMRI. Furthermore, the spatial extent of the activation was more restricted to the primary visual region for DfMRI than BOLD. However, the diffusion signal was sensitive to the hemodynamic response in a manner dependent on experimental manipulation. It was also limited by its low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), demonstrating lower sensitivity than BOLD. Together these findings both support DfMRI as a contrast that bears a closer spatial relationship to the underlying neural activity than BOLD, and raise important caveats regarding its utilization. Models explaining the DfMRI signal change need to consider the dynamic vascular contributions that may vary with neural activity. PMID:27445654

  17. Growth Inhibition of Tumour Implants by Associated Surface Active Agents

    PubMed Central

    Altman, R. F. A.; Spoladore, L. G.; Esch, E. L.

    1970-01-01

    Whereas dilute solutions of surface active agents modify the properties of cell membranes, particularly in relation to their electrical behaviour, moderate and strong solutions provoke more serious structural damage of the membrane, leading to an increase of its permeability and, finally, to cytolysis. These phenomena have inspired some authors to apply detergents as possible cancer chemotherapeuticals so far, however, with only poor results. The disintegrating effect of tumour emboli into single cells by certain detergents, and the ingenious discovery that the mutual adhesiveness between cancer cells is much less than between normal cells, have led the present authors to investigate the action of some biological surface active agents, alone as well as in some of their associations on the “take” of Yoshida sarcoma implants. Certain associations showed, in contradistinction to the separately applied components, surprisingly favourable activity. It could be established that a correlation actually exists between inhibitory effect and surface activity. PMID:4394469

  18. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient

  19. A novel approach to image neural activity directly by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manbir; Sungkarat, Witaya

    2005-04-01

    Though an approach to image the electrical activity of neurons directly by detecting phase shifts in MRI was first reported in 1991, results to-date remain equivocal due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. The objective of this work was to develop a stimulus-presentation and data acquisition strategy specially geared to detect phase-dispersion effects of neuronal currents within 10-100 ms following stimulation. The key feature is to set the repeated MR data acquisition time TR and the stimulus presentation interval (TI) slightly different from each other so that the time at which images are acquired shifts gradually from one acquisition to the next with respect to stimulus onset. For example, at TR=275ms and 4 Hz stimulus presentation (TI=250ms), initial synchronization of the stimulus onset and MR acquisition would result in the first image being acquired at a latency of 0+/- (temporal width of data acquisition window), second image at a latency of 25ms, third image at a latency of 50ms and so on up to a latency of 250ms, at which time the stimulus and data acquisition times would become re-synchronized to once again acquire an image at latency=0. Human data were acquired on a 1.5T GE EXCITE scanner from two 8mm thick contiguous slices bracketing the calcarine fissure during a checkerboard flashing at 4 Hz. Preliminary results show activity in the visual cortex at latencies consistent with EEG studies, suggesting the potential of this methodology to image neural activity directly.

  20. Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-06

    Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

  1. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, E; Symonds-Tayler, R; Collins, D J; McDonald, F; McNair, H A; Scurr, E; Koh, D-M; Leach, M O

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment. PMID:25633183

  2. First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaza, E.; Symonds-Tayler, R.; Collins, D. J.; McDonald, F.; McNair, H. A.; Scurr, E.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.

    2015-02-01

    A commercial active breathing coordinator (ABC) device, employed to hold respiration at a specific level for a predefined duration, was successfully adapted for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use for the first time. Potential effects of the necessary modifications were assessed and taken into account. Automatic MR acquisition during ABC breath holding was achieved. The feasibility of MR-ABC thoracic and abdominal examinations together with the advantages of imaging in repeated ABC-controlled breath holds were demonstrated on healthy volunteers. Five lung cancer patients were imaged under MR-ABC, visually confirming the very good intra-session reproducibility of organ position in images acquired with the same patient positioning as used for computed tomography (CT). Using identical ABC settings, good MR-CT inter-modality registration was achieved. This demonstrates the value of ABC, since application of T1, T2 and diffusion weighted MR sequences provides a wider range of contrast mechanisms and additional diagnostic information compared to CT, thus improving radiotherapy treatment planning and assessment.

  3. Does functional MRI detect activation in white matter? A review of emerging evidence, issues, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Gawryluk, Jodie R.; Mazerolle, Erin L.; D'Arcy, Ryan C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that allows for visualization of activated brain regions. Until recently, fMRI studies have focused on gray matter. There are two main reasons white matter fMRI remains controversial: (1) the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal depends on cerebral blood flow and volume, which are lower in white matter than gray matter and (2) fMRI signal has been associated with post-synaptic potentials (mainly localized in gray matter) as opposed to action potentials (the primary type of neural activity in white matter). Despite these observations, there is no direct evidence against measuring fMRI activation in white matter and reports of fMRI activation in white matter continue to increase. The questions underlying white matter fMRI activation are important. White matter fMRI activation has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of brain connectivity research, as well as improve the assessment and diagnosis of white matter and connectivity disorders. The current review provides an overview of the motivation to investigate white matter fMRI activation, as well as the published evidence of this phenomenon. We speculate on possible neurophysiologic bases of white matter fMRI signals, and discuss potential explanations for why reports of white matter fMRI activation are relatively scarce. We end with a discussion of future basic and clinical research directions in the study of white matter fMRI. PMID:25152709

  4. Whole-body MRI in the assessment of disease activity in juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Malattia, Clara; Damasio, Maria Beatrice; Madeo, Annalisa; Pistorio, Angela; Providenti, Anna; Pederzoli, Silvia; Viola, Stefania; Buoncompagni, Antonella; Mattiuz, Chiara; Beltramo, Agnese; Consolaro, Alessandro; Ravelli, Angelo; Ruperto, Nicolino; Picco, Paolo; Magnano, Gian Michele; Martini, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) with clinical examination in the assessment of disease activity in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). WB-MR images were obtained from 41 JDM patients and 41 controls using a 1.5 T MRI scanner and short τ inversion recovery sequences. 18 patients had follow-up WB-MRI. Muscle, subcutaneous tissue and myofascial signal abnormalities were scored in 36 muscular groups and on proximal and distal extremities. WB-MRI and clinical assessments were performed concurrently and results compared. Validation procedures included analysis of feasibility, reliability, construct validity, discriminative ability and responsiveness. WB-MRI revealed distal legs (26/41 patients) and forearm (19/41 patients) muscle inflammation undetected during clinical examination and allowed an accurate assessment of subcutaneous (23/41 patients) and myofascial involvement (13/41 patients). 27 patients showed a patchy distribution of muscle inflammation while in seven the abnormal hyperintense areas tended to be homogeneously distributed. The inter-reader agreement for muscular, subcutaneous and myofascial WB-MRI scores was excellent. Correlations between WB-MRI muscle score and disease activity measures were excellent (Manual Muscle Test: rs=-0.84, Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale: rs=-0.81). WB-MRI score was higher in JDM active patients when compared with the control group (pB<0.0001) and the inactive patients (pB=0.004), and showed an excellent responsiveness (standardised response mean=1.65). Follow-up WB-MRI showed resolution of inflammation in nine patients whereas clinical criteria for remission were satisfied in five. WB-MRI provides additional information to clinical evaluation and represents a promising tool to estimate total inflammatory burden, tailor treatment and monitor its efficacy.

  5. Neural Activity Elicited by a Cognitive Task can be Detected in Single-Trials with Simultaneous Intracerebral EEG-fMRI Recordings.

    PubMed

    Saignavongs, Mani; Ciumas, Carolina; Petton, Mathilde; Bouet, Romain; Boulogne, Sébastien; Rheims, Sylvain; Carmichael, David W; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is feasible to record simultaneously intracerebral EEG (icEEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with epilepsy. While it has mainly been used to explore the hemodynamic changes associated with epileptic spikes, this approach could also provide new insight into human cognition. However, the first step is to ensure that cognitive EEG components, that have lower amplitudes than epileptic spikes, can be appropriately detected under fMRI. We compared the high frequency activities (HFA, 50-150[Formula: see text]Hz) elicited by a reading task in icEEG-only and subsequent icEEG-fMRI in the same patients ([Formula: see text]), implanted with depth electrodes. Comparable responses were obtained, with 71% of the recording sites that responded during the icEEG-only session also responding during the icEEG-fMRI session. For all the remaining sites, nearby clusters (distant of 7[Formula: see text]mm or less) also demonstrated significant HFA increase during the icEEG-fMRI session. Significant HFA increases were also observable at the single-trial level in icEEG-fMRI recordings. Our results show that low-amplitude icEEG signal components such as cognitive-induced HFAs can be reliably recorded with simultaneous fMRI. This paves the way for the use of icEEG-fMRI to address various fundamental and clinical issues, notably the identification of the neural correlates of the BOLD signal.

  6. Visual activation patterns in patients with optic neuritis: an fMRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, S A; Lazeron, R H; Scheltens, P; Uitdehaag, B M; Sprenger, M; Valk, J; Barkhof, F

    1998-06-01

    We studied the use of functional MRI (fMRI) with visual stimulation in nine patients with unilateral optic neuritis. Eight healthy subjects served as controls. Patients showed reduced activation upon stimulation of the affected eye, on average 33% (range 0 to 156%) of the average monocular activation in the control group. Decreased activation was also seen for the unaffected eye (61% of control values, range 3 to 133%). We conclude that fMRI with visual stimulation is feasible in patients with optic neuritis and deserves future study.

  7. Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0441 TITLE: Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Risk Assessment...COVERED 1 Sep 2015 - 31 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active ...purpose of this research is to improve the baseline and longitudinal risk assessment of prostate cancer patients electing active surveillance (AS) as their

  8. Joint sparse representation of brain activity patterns in multi-task fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, M; Marble, K; Trang, H; Johnsrude, I S; Abolmaesumi, P

    2015-01-01

    A single-task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment may only partially highlight alterations to functional brain networks affected by a particular disorder. Multivariate analysis across multiple fMRI tasks may increase the sensitivity of fMRI-based diagnosis. Prior research using multi-task analysis in fMRI, such as those that use joint independent component analysis (jICA), has mainly assumed that brain activity patterns evoked by different tasks are independent. This may not be valid in practice. Here, we use sparsity, which is a natural characteristic of fMRI data in the spatial domain, and propose a joint sparse representation analysis (jSRA) method to identify common information across different functional subtraction (contrast) images in data from a multi-task fMRI experiment. Sparse representation methods do not require independence, or that the brain activity patterns be nonoverlapping. We use functional subtraction images within the joint sparse representation analysis to generate joint activation sources and their corresponding sparse modulation profiles. We evaluate the use of sparse representation analysis to capture individual differences with simulated fMRI data and with experimental fMRI data. The experimental fMRI data was acquired from 16 young (age: 19-26) and 16 older (age: 57-73) adults obtained from multiple speech comprehension tasks within subjects, where an independent measure (namely, age in years) can be used to differentiate between groups. Simulation results show that this method yields greater sensitivity, precision, and higher Jaccard indexes (which measures similarity and diversity of the true and estimated brain activation sources) than does the jICA method. Moreover, superiority of the jSRA method in capturing individual differences was successfully demonstrated using experimental fMRI data.

  9. Assessing the sensitivity of diffusion MRI to detect neuronal activity directly.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ruiliang; Stewart, Craig V; Plenz, Dietmar; Basser, Peter J

    2016-03-22

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used to study brain function in the neurosciences. Unfortunately, conventional fMRI only indirectly assesses neuronal activity via hemodynamic coupling. Diffusion fMRI was proposed as a more direct and accurate fMRI method to detect neuronal activity, yet confirmative findings have proven difficult to obtain. Given that the underlying relation between tissue water diffusion changes and neuronal activity remains unclear, the rationale for using diffusion MRI to monitor neuronal activity has yet to be clearly established. Here, we studied the correlation between water diffusion and neuronal activity in vitro by simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and diffusion MR acquisition. We used organotypic cortical cultures from rat brains as a biological model system, in which spontaneous neuronal activity robustly emerges free of hemodynamic and other artifacts. Simultaneous fluorescent calcium images of neuronal activity are then directly correlated with diffusion MR signals now free of confounds typically encountered in vivo. Although a simultaneous increase of diffusion-weighted MR signals was observed together with the prolonged depolarization of neurons induced by pharmacological manipulations (in which cell swelling was demonstrated to play an important role), no evidence was found that diffusion MR signals directly correlate with normal spontaneous neuronal activity. These results suggest that, whereas current diffusion MR methods could monitor pathological conditions such as hyperexcitability, e.g., those seen in epilepsy, they do not appear to be sensitive or specific enough to detect or follow normal neuronal activity.

  10. Assessing the sensitivity of diffusion MRI to detect neuronal activity directly

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ruiliang; Stewart, Craig V.; Plenz, Dietmar; Basser, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is widely used to study brain function in the neurosciences. Unfortunately, conventional fMRI only indirectly assesses neuronal activity via hemodynamic coupling. Diffusion fMRI was proposed as a more direct and accurate fMRI method to detect neuronal activity, yet confirmative findings have proven difficult to obtain. Given that the underlying relation between tissue water diffusion changes and neuronal activity remains unclear, the rationale for using diffusion MRI to monitor neuronal activity has yet to be clearly established. Here, we studied the correlation between water diffusion and neuronal activity in vitro by simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and diffusion MR acquisition. We used organotypic cortical cultures from rat brains as a biological model system, in which spontaneous neuronal activity robustly emerges free of hemodynamic and other artifacts. Simultaneous fluorescent calcium images of neuronal activity are then directly correlated with diffusion MR signals now free of confounds typically encountered in vivo. Although a simultaneous increase of diffusion-weighted MR signals was observed together with the prolonged depolarization of neurons induced by pharmacological manipulations (in which cell swelling was demonstrated to play an important role), no evidence was found that diffusion MR signals directly correlate with normal spontaneous neuronal activity. These results suggest that, whereas current diffusion MR methods could monitor pathological conditions such as hyperexcitability, e.g., those seen in epilepsy, they do not appear to be sensitive or specific enough to detect or follow normal neuronal activity. PMID:26941239

  11. Simultaneous measurement of T1 /B1 and pharmacokinetic model parameters using active contrast encoding (ACE)-MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Winters, Kerryanne; Reynaud, Olivier; Kim, Sungheon Gene

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of combining dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with the measurement of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit field B1 and pre-contrast longitudinal relaxation time T10 . A novel approach has been proposed to simultaneously estimate B1 and T10 from a modified DCE-MRI scan that actively encodes the washout phase of the curve with different amounts of T1 and B1 weighting using multiple flip angles and repetition times, hence referred to as active contrast encoding (ACE)-MRI. ACE-MRI aims to simultaneously measure B1 and T10 , together with contrast kinetic parameters, such as the transfer constant K(trans) , interstitial space volume fraction ve and vascular space volume fraction vp . The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and in vivo studies with mouse models of breast cancer implanted in the flank and mammary fat pad, and glioma in the brain. In the numerical simulation study with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, both B1 and T10 were estimated accurately with errors of 5.1 ± 3.5% and 12.3 ± 8.8% and coefficients of variation (CV) of 14.9 ± 8.6% and 15.0 ± 5.0%, respectively. Using the same ACE-MRI data, the kinetic parameters K(trans) , ve and vp were also estimated with errors of 14.2 ± 8.3% (CV = 13.5 ± 4.6%), 14.7 ± 9.9% (CV = 13.3 ± 4.5%) and 14.0 ± 9.3% (CV = 14.0 ± 4.5%), respectively. For the in vivo tumor data from 11 mice, voxel-wise comparisons between ACE-MRI and DCE-MRI methods showed that the mean differences for the five parameters were as follows: ΔK(trans)  = 0.006 (/min), Δve  = 0.016, Δvp  = 0.000, ΔB1  = -0.014 and ΔT1  = -0.085 (s), which suggests a good agreement between the two methods. When compared with separately measured B1 and T10 , and DCE-MRI estimated kinetic parameters as a reference, the mean relative errors of ACE-MRI estimation were B1  = -0.3%, T10  = -8.5%, K(trans)  = 11.4%, ve

  12. Cyclodextrin modified PLLA parietal reinforcement implant with prolonged antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Vermet, G; Degoutin, S; Chai, F; Maton, M; Flores, C; Neut, C; Danjou, P E; Martel, B; Blanchemain, N

    2017-02-12

    The use of textile meshes in hernia repair is widespread in visceral surgery. Though, mesh infection is a complication that may prolong the patient recovery period and consequently presents an impact on public health economy. Such concern can be avoided thanks to a local and extended antibiotic release on the operative site. In recent developments, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) has been used in complement of polyethyleneterephthalate (Dacron®) (PET) or polypropylene (PP) yarns in the manufacture of semi-resorbable parietal implants. The goal of the present study consisted in assigning drug reservoir properties and prolonged antibacterial effect to a 100% PLLA knit through its functionalization with a cyclodextrin polymer (polyCD) and activation with ciprofloxacin. The study focused i) on the control of degree of polyCD functionalization of the PLLA support and on its physical and biological characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and cell viability, ii) on the understanding of drug/meshes interaction using mathematic model and iii) on the correlation between drug release studies in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and microbiological evaluation of meshes and release medium against E. coli and S. aureus. All above mentioned tests highlighted the contribution of polyCD on the improved performances of the resulting antibacterial implantable material.

  13. Clinical safety of an MRI conditional implantable cardioverter defibrillator system: A prospective Monocenter ICD-Magnetic resonance Imaging feasibility study (MIMI).

    PubMed

    Kypta, Alexander; Blessberger, Hermann; Hoenig, Simon; Saleh, Karim; Lambert, Thomas; Kammler, Juergen; Fellner, Franz; Lichtenauer, Michael; Steinwender, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Lumax 740(®) Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) system in patients undergoing a defined 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI. Between November 2013 and April 2014, eighteen patients (age range, 41-78 years; mean age, 64 years) implanted with a Lumax 740(®) ICD system for at least 6 weeks before an MRI were enrolled into this single-center feasibility study. The local ethics committee approved the study before patients gave written informed consent. Patients underwent defined MRI 1.5T of the brain and lower lumbar spine with three safety follow-up evaluations obtained during the 3-month study period. Data were analyzed descriptively. Study endpoints were the absence of either MRI and pacing system related serious adverse device effects (SADE), or of a ventricular pacing threshold increase >0.5V, or of an R-wave amplitude attenuation < 50%, or of an R-wave amplitude < 5.0 mV at 1-month follow-up. The assessment of safety and efficacy was supported by recording of all adverse events, changes in pacing threshold, R-wave sensing, pacing impedances and in battery status. Sixteen patients completed the MRI and the follow-up period. As no SADE occurred, the SADE free rate was 100%. Freedom from ventricular pacing threshold increase was 100% (16/16; 95%CI: 82.9%; 100.0%). There were no significant differences between baseline and follow-up measurements of sensing amplitudes (-0.58 ± 2.07 mV, P = 0.239, -0.41 ± 1.04 mV, P = 0.133, and -0.25 ± 1.36 mV, P = 0.724, for immediately after, 1 month and 3 months after MRI scan, respectively) and pacing thresholds (-0.047 ± 0.18 V, P = 0.317, -0.019 ± 0.11 V, P = 0.490, and 0.075 ± 0.19 V, P = 0.070, for immediately after, 1 month and 3 months after MRI scan, respectively). Lead impedances after the MRI scan were significantly lower as compared with baseline values (-22.8 ± 21.69 Ω, P = 0

  14. Object categories specific brain activity classification with simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Reza, Faruque

    2015-01-01

    Any kind of visual information is encoded in terms of patterns of neural activity occurring inside the brain. Decoding neural patterns or its classification is a challenging task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and Electroencephalography (EEG) are non-invasive neuroimaging modalities to capture the brain activity pattern in term of images and electric potential respectively. To get higher spatiotemporal resolution of human brain from these two complementary neuroimaging modalities, simultaneous EEG-fMRI can be helpful. In this paper, we proposed a framework for classifying the brain activity patterns with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. We have acquired five human participants' data with simultaneous EEG-fMRI by showing different object categories. Further, combined analysis of EEG and fMRI data was carried out. Extracted information through combine analysis is passed to support vector machine (SVM) classifier for classification purpose. We have achieved better classification accuracy using simultaneous EEG-fMRI i.e., 81.8% as compared to fMRI data standalone. This shows that multimodal neuroimaging can improve the classification accuracy of brain activity patterns as compared to individual modalities reported in literature.

  15. Chewing-induced regional brain activity in edentulous patients who received mandibular implant-supported overdentures: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yumie; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Otsuka, Takero; Ohno, Akinori; Yamaya, Katsuhiko; Obata, Takayuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2011-04-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the change in brain regional activity during gum chewing when edentulous subjects switched from mandibular complete dentures to implant-supported removable overdentures. Four edentulous patients (3 males and 1 female, aged 64 to 79 years) participated in the study. All subjects received a set of new maxillary and mandibular complete dentures (CD), followed by a maxillary complete denture and a new mandibular implant-supported removable overdentures (IOD). A 3-T fMRI scanner produced images of the regional brain activity for each subject that showed changes in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in the axial orientation during gum-chewing with CD and IOD. Region-of-interest analysis showed that IOD treatment significantly suppressed chewing-induced brain activity in the prefrontal cortex. The chewing-induced brain activities in the primary sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum tended to decrease with IOD treatment, however they did not reach to significance level. There was no change in brain activity in the supplementary motor area, thalamus and insula between gum chewing with CD and IOD. Group comparison using statistical parametrical mapping further showed that, within the prefrontal cortex, the neural activity of the frontal pole significantly decreased during gum-chewing with IOD when compared to that with CD (P<0.05). Despite the limitation of a small sample size, these results suggest that the gum-chewing task in elderly edentulous patients resulted in differential neural activity in the frontal pole within the prefrontal cortex between the 2 prosthodontic therapies-mandibular CD and IOD. Copyright © 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Different dynamic resting state fMRI patterns are linked to different frequencies of neural activity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Garth John; Pan, Wen-Ju; Keilholz, Shella Dawn

    2015-07-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) results have indicated that network mapping can contribute to understanding behavior and disease, but it has been difficult to translate the maps created with rsfMRI to neuroelectrical states in the brain. Recently, dynamic analyses have revealed multiple patterns in the rsfMRI signal that are strongly associated with particular bands of neural activity. To further investigate these findings, simultaneously recorded invasive electrophysiology and rsfMRI from rats were used to examine two types of electrical activity (directly measured low-frequency/infraslow activity and band-limited power of higher frequencies) and two types of dynamic rsfMRI (quasi-periodic patterns or QPP, and sliding window correlation or SWC). The relationship between neural activity and dynamic rsfMRI was tested under three anesthetic states in rats: dexmedetomidine and high and low doses of isoflurane. Under dexmedetomidine, the lightest anesthetic, infraslow electrophysiology correlated with QPP but not SWC, whereas band-limited power in higher frequencies correlated with SWC but not QPP. Results were similar under isoflurane; however, the QPP was also correlated to band-limited power, possibly due to the burst-suppression state induced by the anesthetic agent. The results provide additional support for the hypothesis that the two types of dynamic rsfMRI are linked to different frequencies of neural activity, but isoflurane anesthesia may make this relationship more complicated. Understanding which neural frequency bands appear as particular dynamic patterns in rsfMRI may ultimately help isolate components of the rsfMRI signal that are of interest to disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder.

  17. Different dynamic resting state fMRI patterns are linked to different frequencies of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Garth John; Pan, Wen-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) results have indicated that network mapping can contribute to understanding behavior and disease, but it has been difficult to translate the maps created with rsfMRI to neuroelectrical states in the brain. Recently, dynamic analyses have revealed multiple patterns in the rsfMRI signal that are strongly associated with particular bands of neural activity. To further investigate these findings, simultaneously recorded invasive electrophysiology and rsfMRI from rats were used to examine two types of electrical activity (directly measured low-frequency/infraslow activity and band-limited power of higher frequencies) and two types of dynamic rsfMRI (quasi-periodic patterns or QPP, and sliding window correlation or SWC). The relationship between neural activity and dynamic rsfMRI was tested under three anesthetic states in rats: dexmedetomidine and high and low doses of isoflurane. Under dexmedetomidine, the lightest anesthetic, infraslow electrophysiology correlated with QPP but not SWC, whereas band-limited power in higher frequencies correlated with SWC but not QPP. Results were similar under isoflurane; however, the QPP was also correlated to band-limited power, possibly due to the burst-suppression state induced by the anesthetic agent. The results provide additional support for the hypothesis that the two types of dynamic rsfMRI are linked to different frequencies of neural activity, but isoflurane anesthesia may make this relationship more complicated. Understanding which neural frequency bands appear as particular dynamic patterns in rsfMRI may ultimately help isolate components of the rsfMRI signal that are of interest to disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder. PMID:26041826

  18. EEG-fMRI Bayesian framework for neural activity estimation: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, Pierpaolo; Basti, Alessio; Marzetti, Laura; Zappasodi, Filippo; Del Gratta, Cosimo

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Due to the complementary nature of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and given the possibility of simultaneous acquisition, the joint data analysis can afford a better understanding of the underlying neural activity estimation. In this simulation study we want to show the benefit of the joint EEG-fMRI neural activity estimation in a Bayesian framework. Approach. We built a dynamic Bayesian framework in order to perform joint EEG-fMRI neural activity time course estimation. The neural activity is originated by a given brain area and detected by means of both measurement techniques. We have chosen a resting state neural activity situation to address the worst case in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio. To infer information by EEG and fMRI concurrently we used a tool belonging to the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods: the particle filter (PF). Main results. First, despite a high computational cost, we showed the feasibility of such an approach. Second, we obtained an improvement in neural activity reconstruction when using both EEG and fMRI measurements. Significance. The proposed simulation shows the improvements in neural activity reconstruction with EEG-fMRI simultaneous data. The application of such an approach to real data allows a better comprehension of the neural dynamics.

  19. Learned regulation of spatially localized brain activation using real-time fMRI.

    PubMed

    deCharms, R Christopher; Christoff, Kalina; Glover, Gary H; Pauly, John M; Whitfield, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2004-01-01

    It is not currently known whether subjects can learn to voluntarily control activation in localized regions of their own brain using neuroimaging. Here, we show that subjects were able to learn enhanced voluntary control over task-specific activation in a chosen target region, the somatomotor cortex. During an imagined manual action task, subjects were provided with continuous direction regarding their cognitive processes. Subjects received feedback information about their current level of activation in a target region of interest (ROI) derived using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI), and they received automatically-adjusted instructions for the level of activation to achieve. Information was provided both as continously upated graphs and using a simple virtual reality interface that provided an image analog of the level of activation. Through training, subjects achieved an enhancement in their control over brain activation that was anatomically specific to the target ROI, the somatomotor cortex. The enhancement took place when rtfMRI-based training was provided, but not in a control group that received similar training without rtfMRI information, showing that the effect was not due to conventional, practice-based neural plasticity alone. Following training, using cognitive processes alone subjects could volitionally induce fMRI activation in the somatomotor cortex that was comparable in magnitude to the activation observed during actual movement. The trained subjects increased fMRI activation without muscle tensing, and were able to continue to control brain activation even when real-time fMRI information was no longer provided. These results show that rtfMRI information can be used to direct cognitive processes, and that subjects are able to learn volitionally regulate activation in an anatomically-targeted brain region, surpassing the task-driven activation present before training.

  20. Optically active surfaces formed by ion implantation and thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.; Evans, H.M.; Zuhr, R.

    1996-08-01

    Embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates have been formed in single-crystal sapphire by the ion co-implantation of vanadium and oxygen and subsequent thermal annealing. The embedded VO{sub 2} particles have been shown to exhibit an optical switching behavior that is comparable to that of continuous thin films. In this work, the mechanisms of formation of these optically active particles are investigated. It is shown that precipitation of the vanadium dioxide phase is favored when the thermal treatment is performed on an ion-damaged but still crystalline (rather than amorphized) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The best optical switching behavior is observed in this case, and this behavior is apparently correlated with a more-favorable dispersion of VO{sub 2} small particles inside the matrix.

  1. Control over brain activation and pain learned by using real-time functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    deCharms, R. Christopher; Maeda, Fumiko; Glover, Gary H.; Ludlow, David; Pauly, John M.; Soneji, Deepak; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Mackey, Sean C.

    2005-01-01

    If an individual can learn to directly control activation of localized regions within the brain, this approach might provide control over the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate behavior and cognition and could potentially provide a different route for treating disease. Control over the endogenous pain modulatory system is a particularly important target because it could enable a unique mechanism for clinical control over pain. Here, we found that by using real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) to guide training, subjects were able to learn to control activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), a region putatively involved in pain perception and regulation. When subjects deliberately induced increases or decreases in rACC fMRI activation, there was a corresponding change in the perception of pain caused by an applied noxious thermal stimulus. Control experiments demonstrated that this effect was not observed after similar training conducted without rtfMRI information, or using rtfMRI information derived from a different brain region, or sham rtfMRI information derived previously from a different subject. Chronic pain patients were also trained to control activation in rACC and reported decreases in the ongoing level of chronic pain after training. These findings show that individuals can gain voluntary control over activation in a specific brain region given appropriate training, that voluntary control over activation in rACC leads to control over pain perception, and that these effects were powerful enough to impact severe, chronic clinical pain. PMID:16352728

  2. Simulation Study on Active Noise Control for a 4 Tesla MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfeng; Lim, Teik C.; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study computationally the possibility of the application of a hybrid active noise control technique for MRI acoustic noise reduction. A hybrid control system combined with both feedforward and feedback loops embedded is proposed for potential application on active MRI noise reduction. A set of computational simulation studies were performed. Sets of MRI acoustic noise emissions measured at the patient's left ear location were recorded and used in the simulation study. By comparing three different control systems, namely the feedback, the feedforward and the hybrid control, our results revealed that the hybrid control system is the most effective. The hybrid control system achieved approximately a 20 dB reduction at the principal frequency component. We concluded that the proposed hybrid active control scheme could have a potential application for MRI scanner noise reduction. PMID:18060719

  3. Simulation study on active noise control for a 4-T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingfeng; Lim, Teik C; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study computationally the possibility of the application of a hybrid active noise control technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acoustic noise reduction. A hybrid control system combined with both feedforward and feedback loops embedded is proposed for potential application on active MRI noise reduction. A set of computational simulation studies were performed. Sets of MRI acoustic noise emissions measured at the patient's left ear location were recorded and used in the simulation study. By comparing three different control systems, namely, the feedback, the feedforward and the hybrid control, our results revealed that the hybrid control system is the most effective. The hybrid control system achieved approximately a 20-dB reduction at the principal frequency component. We concluded that the proposed hybrid active control scheme could have a potential application for MRI scanner noise reduction.

  4. Combined EEG-fMRI and tractography to visualise propagation of epileptic activity

    PubMed Central

    Hamandi, K; Powell, H W R; Laufs, H; Symms, M R; Barker, G J; Parker, G J M; Lemieux, L; Duncan, J S

    2008-01-01

    In a patient with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, EEG-fMRI showed activation in association with left anterior temporal interictal discharges, in the left temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Dynamic causal modelling suggested propagation of neural activity from the temporal focus to the area of occipital activation. Tractography showed connections from the site of temporal lobe activation to the site of occipital activation. This demonstrates the principle of combining EEG-fMRI and tractography to delineate the pathways of propagation of epileptic activity. PMID:18096681

  5. Test-Retest Reliability of fMRI Brain Activity during Memory Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, David J.; Sommer, Jens; Krach, Sören; Bedenbender, Johannes; Kircher, Tilo; Paulus, Frieder M.; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying hemispheric specialization of memory are not completely understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to develop and test models of hemispheric specialization. In particular for memory tasks however, the interpretation of fMRI results is often hampered by the low reliability of the data. In the present study we therefore analyzed the test-retest reliability of fMRI brain activation related to an implicit memory encoding task, with a particular focus on brain activity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Fifteen healthy subjects were scanned with fMRI on two sessions (average retest interval 35 days) using a commonly applied novelty encoding paradigm contrasting known and unknown stimuli. To assess brain lateralization, we used three different stimuli classes that differed in their verbalizability (words, scenes, fractals). Test-retest reliability of fMRI brain activation was assessed by an intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC), describing the stability of inter-individual differences in the brain activation magnitude over time. We found as expected a left-lateralized brain activation network for the words paradigm, a bilateral network for the scenes paradigm, and predominantly right-hemispheric brain activation for the fractals paradigm. Although these networks were consistently activated in both sessions on the group level, across-subject reliabilities were only poor to fair (ICCs ≤ 0.45). Overall, the highest ICC values were obtained for the scenes paradigm, but only in strongly activated brain regions. In particular the reliability of brain activity of the MTL was poor for all paradigms. In conclusion, for novelty encoding paradigms the interpretation of fMRI results on a single subject level is hampered by its low reliability. More studies are needed to optimize the retest reliability of fMRI activation for memory tasks. PMID:24367338

  6. SU-E-J-214: MR Protocol Development to Visualize Sirius MRI Markers in Prostate Brachytherapy Patients for MR-Based Post-Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Frank, S; Stafford, R; Bruno, T; Bathala, T; Mahmood, U; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Kudchadker, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current CT-based post-implant dosimetry allows precise seed localization but limited anatomical delineation. Switching to MR-based post-implant dosimetry is confounded by imprecise seed localization. One approach is to place positive-contrast markers (Sirius) adjacent to the negative-contrast seeds. This patient study aims to assess the utility of a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence to visualize Sirius markers for post-implant dosimetry. Methods: MRI images were acquired in prostate implant patients (n=10) on Day 0 (day-of-implant) and Day 30. The post-implant MR protocol consisted of 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE), T2-weighted 2D-FSE (axial) and T1-weighted 2D-FSE (axial/sagittal/coronal). We incorporated a 3D-FSPGR sequence into the post-implant MR protocol to visualize the Sirius markers. Patients were scanned with different number-of-excitations (6, 8, 10), field-of-view (10cm, 14cm, 18cm), slice thickness (1mm, 0.8mm), flip angle (14 degrees, 20 degrees), bandwidth (122.070 Hz/pixel, 325.508 Hz/pixel, 390.625 Hz/pixel), phase encoding steps (160, 192, 224, 256), frequency-encoding direction (right/left, anterior/posterior), echo-time type (minimum-full, out-of-phase), field strength (1.5T, 3T), contrast (with, without), scanner vendor (Siemens, GE), coil (endorectal-coil only, endorectal-and-torso-coil, torsocoil only), endorectal-coil filling (30cc, 50cc) and endorectal-coil filling type (air, perfluorocarbon [PFC]). For post-implant dosimetric evaluation with greater anatomical detail, 3D-FSE images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. For comparison with CT-based post-implant dosimetry, CT images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. Results: The 3D-FSPGR sequence facilitated visualization of markers in patients. Marker visualization helped distinguish signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks for more definitive MR-based post-implant dosimetry. On the CT-MR fused images, the distance between the seed on CT to MR images was 3

  7. A Novel Operative Procedure for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Utilizing a MRI-Visible Mesh Implant: Safety and Outcome of Modified Laparoscopic Bilateral Sacropexy

    PubMed Central

    Meyberg-Solomayer, Gabriele; Radosa, Julia; Bader, Werner; Schneider, Guenther; Solomayer, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sacropexy is a generally applied treatment of prolapse, yet there are known possible complications of it. An essential need exists for better alloplastic materials. Methods. Between April 2013 and June 2014, we performed a modified laparoscopic bilateral sacropexy (MLBS) in 10 patients using a MRI-visible PVDF mesh implant. Selected patients had prolapse POP-Q stages II-III and concomitant OAB. We studied surgery-related morbidity, anatomical and functional outcome, and mesh-visibility in MRI. Mean follow-up was 7.4 months. Results. Concomitant colporrhaphy was conducted in 1/10 patients. Anatomical success was defined as POP-Q stage 0-I. Apical success rate was 100% and remained stable. A recurrent cystocele was seen in 1/10 patients during follow-up without need for intervention. Out of 6 (6/10) patients with preoperative SUI, 5/6 were healed and 1/6 persisted. De-novo SUI was seen in 1/10 patients. Complications requiring a relaparoscopy were seen in 2/10 patients. 8/10 patients with OAB were relieved postoperatively. The first in-human magnetic resonance visualization of a prolapse mesh implant was performed and showed good quality of visualization. Conclusion. MLBS is a feasible and safe procedure with favorable anatomical and functional outcome and good concomitant healing rates of SUI and OAB. Prospective data and larger samples are required. PMID:25961042

  8. Cruciate Retaining Implant With Biomimetic Articular Surface to Reproduce Activity Dependent Kinematics of the Normal Knee.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Kartik Mangudi M; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Rubash, Harry E; Malchau, Henrik; Li, Guoan; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2015-12-01

    Alterations in normal knee kinematics following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) arise in part from the non-anatomic articular geometry of contemporary implants. In this study, the kinematics of a novel posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) implant with anatomic (biomimetic) articular surface, were compared to that of contemporary CR implants during various simulated activities. Across different simulated activities the biomimetic-CR mimicked normal kinematic patterns more closely than contemporary CR implants. In particular, during deep knee bend and chair-sit, the biomimetic-CR showed medial pivot motion, while other CR implants showed abnormal motion including lateral pivot or no pivot, and paradoxical anterior sliding. Further in vivo and clinical studies are needed to determine whether such biomimetic implants can truly help to achieve a more normal feeling knee and improved patient satisfaction.

  9. Application of mean-shift clustering to Blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI activation detection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis is commonly done with cross-correlation analysis (CCA) and the General Linear Model (GLM). Both CCA and GLM techniques, however, typically perform calculations on a per-voxel basis and do not consider relationships neighboring voxels may have. Clustered voxel analyses have then been developed to improve fMRI signal detections by taking advantages of relationships of neighboring voxels. Mean-shift clustering (MSC) is another technique which takes into account properties of neighboring voxels and can be considered for enhancing fMRI activation detection. Methods This study examines the adoption of MSC to fMRI analysis. MSC was applied to a Statistical Parameter Image generated with the CCA technique on both simulated and real fMRI data. The MSC technique was then compared with CCA and CCA plus cluster analysis. A range of kernel sizes were used to examine how the technique behaves. Results Receiver Operating Characteristic curves shows an improvement over CCA and Cluster analysis. False positive rates are lower with the proposed technique. MSC allows the use of a low intensity threshold and also does not require the use of a cluster size threshold, which improves detection of weak activations and highly focused activations. Conclusion The proposed technique shows improved activation detection for both simulated and real Blood Oxygen Level Dependent fMRI data. More detailed studies are required to further develop the proposed technique. PMID:24495795

  10. Temperature Activated Diffusion of Radicals through Ion Implanted Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, Edgar A; Davies, Michael J; Bilek, Marcela M M; McKenzie, David R

    2015-12-02

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a promising technique for immobilizing biomolecules on the surface of polymers. Radicals generated in a subsurface layer by PIII treatment diffuse throughout the substrate, forming covalent bonds to molecules when they reach the surface. Understanding and controlling the diffusion of radicals through this layer will enable efficient optimization of this technique. We develop a model based on site to site diffusion according to Fick's second law with temperature activation according to the Arrhenius relation. Using our model, the Arrhenius exponential prefactor (for barrierless diffusion), D0, and activation energy, EA, for a radical to diffuse from one position to another are found to be 3.11 × 10(-17) m(2) s(-1) and 0.31 eV, respectively. The model fits experimental data with a high degree of accuracy and allows for accurate prediction of radical diffusion to the surface. The model makes useful predictions for the lifetime over which the surface is sufficiently active to covalently immobilize biomolecules and it can be used to determine radical fluence during biomolecule incubation for a range of storage and incubation temperatures so facilitating selection of the most appropriate parameters.

  11. Ambient temperature and activation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinn, L.; Hajat, S.; Wilkinson, P.; Armstrong, B.; Anderson, H. R.; Monk, V.; Harrison, R.

    2013-09-01

    The degree to which weather influences the occurrence of serious cardiac arrhythmias is not fully understood. To investigate, we studied the timing of activation of implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) in relation to daily outdoor temperatures using a fixed stratum case-crossover approach. All patients attending ICD clinics in London between 1995 and 2003 were recruited onto the study. Temperature exposure for each ICD patient was determined by linking each patient's postcode of residence to their nearest temperature monitoring station in London and the South of England. There were 5,038 activations during the study period. Graphical inspection of ICD activation against temperature suggested increased risk at lower but not higher temperatures. For every 1 °C decrease in ambient temperature, risk of ventricular arrhythmias up to 7 days later increased by 1.2 % (95 % CI -0.6 %, 2.9 %). In threshold models, risk of ventricular arrhythmias increased by 11.2 % (0.5 %, 23.1 %) for every 1° decrease in temperature below 2 °C. Patients over the age of 65 exhibited the highest risk. This large study suggests an inverse relationship between ambient outdoor temperature and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. The highest risk was found for patients over the age of 65. This provides evidence about a mechanism for some cases of low-temperature cardiac death, and suggests a possible strategy for reducing risk among selected cardiac patients by encouraging behaviour modification to minimise cold exposure.

  12. Active-passive gradient shielding for MRI acoustic noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, William A; Kidane, Tesfaye K; Taracila, Victor; Baig, Tanvir N; Eagan, Timothy P; Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Brown, Robert W; Mallick, John A

    2005-05-01

    An important source of MRI acoustic noise-magnet cryostat warm-bore vibrations caused by eddy-current-induced forces-can be mitigated by a passive metal shield mounted on the outside of a vibration-isolated, vacuum-enclosed shielded gradient set. Finite-element (FE) calculations for a z-gradient indicate that a 2-mm-thick Cu layer wrapped on the gradient assembly can decrease mechanical power deposition in the warm bore and reduce warm-bore acoustic noise production by about 25 dB. Eliminating the conducting warm bore and other magnet parts as significant acoustic noise sources could lead to the development of truly quiet, fully functioning MRI systems with noise levels below 70 dB.

  13. Electronic security systems and active implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Irnich, Werner

    2002-08-01

    How do active implantable medical devices react in the presence of strong magnetic fields in the frequency range between extremely low frequency (ELF) to radiofrequency (RF) as they are emitted by electronic security systems (ESS)? There are three different sorts of ESSs: electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices, metal detector (MDS) devices, and radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. Common to all is the production of magnetic fields. There is an abundance of literature concerning interference by ESS gates with respect to if there is an influence possible and if such an influence can bear a risk for the AIMD wearers. However, there has been no attempt to study the physical mechanism nor to develop a model of how and under which conditions magnetic fields can influence pacemakers and defibrillators and how they could be disarmed by technological means. It is too often assumed that interference of AIMD with ESS is inevitable. Exogenous signals of similar intensity and rhythm to heart signals can be misinterpreted and, thus, confuse the implant. Important for the interference coupling mechanism is the differentiation between a "unipolar" and a "bipolar" system. With respect to magnetic fields, the left side implanted pacemaker is the most unfavorable case as the lead forms approximately a semicircular area of maximum 225 cm2 into which a voltage can be induced. This assumption yields an interference coupling model that can be expressed by simple mathematics. The worst-case conditions for induced interference voltages are a coupling area of 225 cm2 that is representative for a large human, a homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to the area formed by the lead, and a unipolar ventricular pacemaker system that is implanted on the left side of the thorax and has the highest interference sensitivity. In bipolar systems the fields must be 17 times larger when compared to a unipolar system to have the same effect. The magnetic field for interfering with ICDs

  14. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  15. iNOS Activity Modulates Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Fibrosis in Polyether-Polyurethane Synthetic Implants.

    PubMed

    Cassini-Vieira, Puebla; Araújo, Fernanda Assis; da Costa Dias, Filipi Leles; Russo, Remo Castro; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Barcelos, Luciola Silva

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in implantation techniques and scaffolds for tissue engineering and, for safety and biocompatibility reasons, inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis need to be determined. The contribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the regulation of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implantation of a synthetic matrix was never investigated. Here, we examined the role of iNOS in angiogenesis, inflammation, and collagen deposition induced by polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants, using mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. The hemoglobin content and number of vessels were decreased in the implants of iNOS(-/-) mice compared to WT mice 14 days after implantation. VEGF levels were also reduced in the implants of iNOS(-/-) mice. In contrast, the iNOS(-/-) implants exhibited an increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. However, no alterations were observed in levels of CXCL1 and CCL2, chemokines related to neutrophil and macrophage migration, respectively. Furthermore, the implants of iNOS(-/-) mice showed boosted collagen deposition. These data suggest that iNOS activity controls inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants and that lack of iNOS expression increases foreign body reaction to implants in mice.

  16. Comparison of Carina active middle-ear implant with conventional hearing aids for mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Savaş, V A; Gündüz, B; Karamert, R; Cevizci, R; Düzlü, M; Tutar, H; Bayazit, Y A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the auditory outcomes of Carina middle-ear implants with those of conventional hearing aids in patients with moderate-to-severe mixed hearing loss. The study comprised nine patients (six males, three females) who underwent middle-ear implantation with Carina fully implantable active middle-ear implants to treat bilateral moderate-to-severe mixed hearing loss. The patients initially used conventional hearing aids and subsequently received the Carina implants. The hearing thresholds with implants and hearing aids were compared. There were no significant differences between: the pre-operative and post-operative air and bone conduction thresholds (p > 0.05), the thresholds with hearing aids and Carina implants (p > 0.05), or the pre-operative (mean, 72.8 ± 19 per cent) and post-operative (mean, 69.9 ± 24 per cent) speech discrimination scores (p > 0.05). One of the patients suffered total sensorineural hearing loss three months following implantation despite an initial 38 dB functional gain. All except one patient showed clinical improvements after implantation according to quality of life questionnaire (Glasgow Benefit Inventory) scores. Acceptance of Carina implants is better than with conventional hearing aids in patients with mixed hearing loss, although both yield similar hearing amplification. Cosmetic reasons appear to be critical for patient acceptance.

  17. Micro- to Macroroughness of Additively Manufactured Titanium Implants in Terms of Coagulation and Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Klingvall Ek, Rebecca; Hong, Jaan; Thor, Andreas; Bäckström, Mikael; Rännar, Lars-Erik

    This study aimed to evaluate how as-built electron beam melting (EBM) surface properties affect the onset of blood coagulation. The properties of EBM-manufactured implant surfaces for placement have, until now, remained largely unexplored in literature. Implants with conventional designs and custom-made implants have been manufactured using EBM technology and later placed into the human body. Many of the conventional implants used today, such as dental implants, display modified surfaces to optimize bone ingrowth, whereas custom-made implants, by and large, have machined surfaces. However, titanium in itself demonstrates good material properties for the purpose of bone ingrowth. Specimens manufactured using EBM were selected according to their surface roughness and process parameters. EBM-produced specimens, conventional machined titanium surfaces, as well as PVC surfaces for control were evaluated using the slide chamber model. A significant increase in activation was found, in all factors evaluated, between the machined samples and EBM-manufactured samples. The results show that EBM-manufactured implants with as-built surfaces augment the thrombogenic properties. EBM that uses Ti6Al4V powder appears to be a good manufacturing solution for load-bearing implants with bone anchorage. The as-built surfaces can be used "as is" for direct bone contact, although any surface treatment available for conventional implants can be performed on EBM-manufactured implants with a conventional design.

  18. iNOS Activity Modulates Inflammation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Fibrosis in Polyether-Polyurethane Synthetic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cassini-Vieira, Puebla; Araújo, Fernanda Assis; da Costa Dias, Filipi Leles; Russo, Remo Castro; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Barcelos, Luciola Silva

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in implantation techniques and scaffolds for tissue engineering and, for safety and biocompatibility reasons, inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis need to be determined. The contribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the regulation of the foreign body reaction induced by subcutaneous implantation of a synthetic matrix was never investigated. Here, we examined the role of iNOS in angiogenesis, inflammation, and collagen deposition induced by polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants, using mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene (iNOS−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. The hemoglobin content and number of vessels were decreased in the implants of iNOS−/− mice compared to WT mice 14 days after implantation. VEGF levels were also reduced in the implants of iNOS−/− mice. In contrast, the iNOS−/− implants exhibited an increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. However, no alterations were observed in levels of CXCL1 and CCL2, chemokines related to neutrophil and macrophage migration, respectively. Furthermore, the implants of iNOS−/− mice showed boosted collagen deposition. These data suggest that iNOS activity controls inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in polyether-polyurethane synthetic implants and that lack of iNOS expression increases foreign body reaction to implants in mice. PMID:26106257

  19. An EEG Finger-Print of fMRI deep regional activation.

    PubMed

    Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Kinreich, Sivan; Podlipsky, Ilana; Hendler, Talma; Intrator, Nathan

    2014-11-15

    This work introduces a general framework for producing an EEG Finger-Print (EFP) which can be used to predict specific brain activity as measured by fMRI at a given deep region. This new approach allows for improved EEG spatial resolution based on simultaneous fMRI activity measurements. Advanced signal processing and machine learning methods were applied on EEG data acquired simultaneously with fMRI during relaxation training guided by on-line continuous feedback on changing alpha/theta EEG measure. We focused on demonstrating improved EEG prediction of activation in sub-cortical regions such as the amygdala. Our analysis shows that a ridge regression model that is based on time/frequency representation of EEG data from a single electrode, can predict the amygdala related activity significantly better than a traditional theta/alpha activity sampled from the best electrode and about 1/3 of the times, significantly better than a linear combination of frequencies with a pre-defined delay. The far-reaching goal of our approach is to be able to reduce the need for fMRI scanning for probing specific sub-cortical regions such as the amygdala as the basis for brain-training procedures. On the other hand, activity in those regions can be characterized with higher temporal resolution than is obtained by fMRI alone thus revealing additional information about their processing mode.

  20. 7T MRI in natalizumab-associated PML and ongoing MS disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Sinnecker, Tim; Othman, Jalal; Kühl, Marc; Mekle, Ralf; Selbig, Inga; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kunkel, Annett; Wienecke, Peter; Kern, Peter; Faiss, Juergen; Wuerfel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the ability of ultra-high-field MRI to distinguish early progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) from multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in a rare case of simultaneous presentation of natalizumab–associated PML and ongoing MS activity. Methods: Advanced neuroimaging including 1.5T, 3T, and 7T MRI with a spatial resolution of up to 0.08 mm3 was performed. Results: 7T MRI differentiated between PML-related and MS-related brain damage in vivo. Ring-enhancing MS plaques displayed a central vein, whereas confluent PML lesions were preceded by punctate or milky way–like T2 lesions. Conclusions: Given the importance of early diagnosis of treatment-associated PML, future systematic studies are warranted to assess the value of highly resolving MRI in differentiating between early PML- and MS-induced brain parenchymal lesions. PMID:26568970

  1. The Responses of Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants to Musical Activities: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn E.; Chen-Hafteck, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical experiences of preschool cochlear implant users. Research objectives were to examine: (1) musical, social and emotional responses to activities; and (2) whether length of experience with the implant influenced responses. Participants were three prelingually deafened children, age 4,…

  2. The Responses of Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants to Musical Activities: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn E.; Chen-Hafteck, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical experiences of preschool cochlear implant users. Research objectives were to examine: (1) musical, social and emotional responses to activities; and (2) whether length of experience with the implant influenced responses. Participants were three prelingually deafened children, age 4,…

  3. An artificial immune-activated neural network applied to brain 3D MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Younis, Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kabuka, Mansur; John, Nigel

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a new neural network model inspired by the biological immune system functions is presented. The model, termed Artificial Immune-Activated Neural Network (AIANN), extracts classification knowledge from a training data set, which is then used to classify input patterns or vectors. The AIANN is based on a neuron activation function whose behavior is conceptually modeled after the chemical bonds between the receptors and epitopes in the biological immune system. The bonding is controlled through an energy measure to ensure accurate recognition. The AIANN model was applied to the segmentation of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the brain and a contextual basis was developed for the segmentation problem. Evaluation of the segmentation results was performed using both real MRI data obtained from the Center for Morphometric Analysis at Massachusetts General Hospital and simulated MRI data generated using the McGill University BrainWeb MRI simulator. Experimental results demonstrated that the AIANN model attained higher average results than those obtained using published methods for real MRI data and simulated MRI data, especially at low levels of noise.

  4. Functional MRI activation in white matter during the Symbol Digit Modalities Test.

    PubMed

    Gawryluk, Jodie R; Mazerolle, Erin L; Beyea, Steven D; D'Arcy, Ryan C N

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can detect activation in white matter (WM). Such advances have important implications for understanding WM dysfunction. A key step in linking neuroimaging advances to the evaluation of clinical disorders is to examine whether WM activation can be detected at the individual level during clinical tests associated with WM function. We used an adapted Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in a 4T fMRI study of healthy adults. RESULTS from 17 healthy individuals revealed WM activation in 88% of participants (15/17). The activation was in either the corpus callosum (anterior and/or posterior) or internal capsule (left and/or right). The findings link advances in fMRI to an established clinical test of WM function. Future work should focus on evaluating patients with WM dysfunction.

  5. Discovering Structure in the Space of Activation Profiles in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Danial; Vul, Ed; Kanwisher, Nancy; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for discovering patterns of activation observed through fMRI in experiments with multiple stimuli/tasks. We introduce an explicit parameterization for the profiles of activation and represent fMRI time courses as such profiles using linear regression estimates. Working in the space of activation profiles, we design a mixture model that finds the major activation patterns along with their localization maps and derive an algorithm for fitting the model to the fMRI data. The method enables functional group analysis independent of spatial correspondence among subjects. We validate this model in the context of category selectivity in the visual cortex, demonstrating good agreement with prior findings based on hypothesis-driven methods. PMID:18979845

  6. Quantitative MRI reveals decelerated fatty infiltration in muscles of active FSHD patients.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Barbara; Voet, Nicoline; Geurts, Alexander; van Engelen, Baziel; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-05-03

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), directed towards an increase in daily physical activity, on the progression of fatty infiltration and edema in skeletal muscles of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) type 1 by T2 MRI. Quantitative T2 MRI (qT2 MRI) and fat-suppressed T2 MRI of the thigh were performed at 3T on 31 patients, 13 of whom received usual care (UC), 9 AET, and 9 CBT. Muscle-specific fat fractions (%), derived from qT2 MRI, were recorded pretreatment and posttreatment. Intervention effects were analyzed by comparing fat fraction progression rates of the UC with the treated groups using Mann-Whitney tests, and intermuscle differences by a linear mixed model. Edematous hyperintense lesions were identified on the fat-suppressed T2 MRI. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reproducibility of qT2 MRI fat assessment was 0.99. In the UC group, the fat fraction increased by 6.7/year (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3 to 9.1). This rate decreased to 2.9/year (95% CI 0.7 to 5.2) in the AET (p = 0.03) and 1.7/year (95% CI -0.2 to 3.6) in the CBT group (p = 0.00015). The treatment effect differed among individual muscles. Fewer new edematous lesions occurred after therapy. Fat fraction derived from qT2 MRI is a reproducible and sensitive biomarker to monitor the effects of increased physical activity in individual muscles. This biomarker reports a favorable effect of AET and CBT on the rate of muscular deterioration in FSHD as reflected in decelerated fat replacement. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with FSHD type 1, both AET and CBT decrease the rate of fatty infiltration in muscles. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Active Microelectronic Neurosensor Arrays for Implantable Brain Communication Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Song, Y.-K.; Borton, D. A.; Park, S.; Patterson, W. R.; Bull, C. W.; Laiwalla, F.; Mislow, J.; Simeral, J. D.; Donoghue, J. P.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have built a wireless implantable microelectronic device for transmitting cortical signals transcutaneously. The device is aimed at interfacing a microelectrode array cortical to an external computer for neural control applications. Our implantable microsystem enables presently 16-channel broadband neural recording in a non-human primate brain by converting these signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses for transmission through the skin. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate onto which we have integrated ultra-low power amplification with analog multiplexing, an analog-to-digital converter, a low power digital controller chip, and infrared telemetry. The scalable 16-channel microsystem can employ any of several modalities of power supply, including via radio frequency by induction, or infrared light via a photovoltaic converter. As of today, the implant has been tested as a sub-chronic unit in non-human primates (~ 1 month), yielding robust spike and broadband neural data on all available channels. PMID:19502132

  8. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique.

    PubMed

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI centers. With the settlement of a reliable cost accounting system

  9. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives: The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). Materials and Methods: We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results: Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion: As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI

  10. Unexpected global impact of VTA dopamine neuron activation as measured by opto-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lohani, S; Poplawsky, A J; Kim, S-G; Moghaddam, B

    2017-04-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are strongly implicated in cognitive and affective processing as well as in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse disorders. In human studies, dopamine-related functions are routinely assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of blood oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals during the performance of dopamine-dependent tasks. There is, however, a critical void in our knowledge about whether and how activation of VTA dopamine neurons specifically influences regional or global fMRI signals. Here, we used optogenetics in Th::Cre rats to selectively stimulate VTA dopamine neurons while simultaneously measuring global hemodynamic changes using BOLD and cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI. Phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons increased BOLD and CBVw fMRI signals in VTA-innervated limbic regions, including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Surprisingly, basal ganglia regions that receive sparse or no VTA dopaminergic innervation, including the dorsal striatum and the globus pallidus, were also activated. In fact, the most prominent fMRI signal increase in the forebrain was observed in the dorsal striatum that is not traditionally associated with VTA dopamine neurotransmission. These data establish causation between phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons and global fMRI signals. They further suggest that mesolimbic and non-limbic basal ganglia dopamine circuits are functionally connected and thus provide a potential novel framework for understanding dopamine-dependent functions and interpreting data obtained from human fMRI studies.

  11. Unexpected global impact of VTA dopamine neuron activation as measured by opto-fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Sweyta; Poplawsky, Alexander John; Kim, Seong-Gi; Moghaddam, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are strongly implicated in cognitive and affective processing as well as in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, ADHD and substance abuse disorders. In human studies, dopamine-related functions are routinely assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signals during the performance of dopamine-dependent tasks. There is, however, a critical void in our knowledge about if and how activation of VTA dopamine neurons specifically influences regional or global fMRI signals. Here we used optogenetics in Th::Cre rats to selectively stimulate VTA dopamine neurons while simultaneously measuring global hemodynamic changes using BOLD and cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI. Phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons increased BOLD and CBVw fMRI signals in VTA-innervated limbic regions, including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Surprisingly, basal ganglia regions that receive sparse or no VTA dopaminergic innervation, including the dorsal striatum and the globus pallidus, were also activated. In fact, the most prominent fMRI signal increase in the forebrain was observed in the dorsal striatum that is not traditionally associated with VTA dopamine neurotransmission. These data establish causation between phasic activation of VTA dopamine neurons and global fMRI signals. They further suggest that mesolimbic and non-limbic basal ganglia dopamine circuits are functionally connected and, thus, provide a potential novel framework for understanding dopamine-dependent functions and interpreting data obtained from human fMRI studies. PMID:27457809

  12. Spatial correspondence of brain alpha activity component in fMRI and EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Kim, Sung-Heon; Singh, Manbir

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach to investigate the spatial correlation of brain alpha activity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). To avoid potential problems of simultaneous fMRI and EEG acquisitions in imaging brain alpha activity, data from each modality were acquired separately under a "three conditions" setup where one of the conditions involved closing eyes and relaxing, thus making it conducive to generation of alpha activity. The other two conditions -- eyes open in a lighted room or engaged in a mental arithmetic task, were designed to attenuate alpha activity. Using the Mixture Density Independent Component Analysis (MD-ICA) that incorporates flexible non-linearity functions into the conventional ICA framework, we could identify the spatiotemporal components of fMRI activations and EEG activities associated with the alpha rhythm. The sources of the individual EEG alpha activity component were localized by a Maximum Entropy (ME) method that solves an inverse problem in the framework of a classical four-sphere head model. The resulting dipole sources of EEG alpha activity were spatially transformed to 3D MRIs of the subject and compared to fMRI ICA-determined alpha activity maps.

  13. Benefits of active middle ear implants in mixed hearing loss: Stapes versus round window.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Jung, Jinsei; Moon, In Seok; Kim, Sung Huhn; Choi, Jae Young

    2017-06-01

    We compared the audiologic benefits of active middle ear implants with those of passive middle ear implants with hearing aids in mixed hearing loss, and also compared the outcomes of stapes vibroplasty with those of round window vibroplasty. Retrospective chart review. Thirty-four patients with mixed hearing loss due to chronic otitis media were treated with a middle ear implant. Of these, 15 were treated with a passive middle ear implant (conventional ossiculoplasty with a partial ossicular replacement prosthesis), nine with an active middle ear implant coupling to the stapes, and 10 with an active middle ear implant coupling to the round window. Patients underwent pure-tone/free-field audiograms and speech discrimination tests before surgery and 6 months after surgery, and the results of these tests were compared. The active middle ear implant resulted in better outcomes than the passive middle ear implant with hearing aids at mid to high frequencies (P < .05). Patients who received either a stapes vibroplasty or a round window vibroplasty showed comparable hearing gain except at 8,000 Hz (48.9 dB vs. 31.0 dB, P < .05). Patients who received a stapes vibroplasty showed an improvement even in bone conduction at 1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz (both P < .05). Active middle ear implantation could be a better option than treatment with passive middle ear implants with hearing aids for achieving rehabilitation in patients with mixed hearing loss. Vibroplasty via either oval window or round window stimulation shares similar good results. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1435-1441, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Evidence of healing of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears following arthroscopic augmentation with a collagen implant: a 2-year MRI follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bokor, Desmond John; Sonnabend, David; Deady, Luke; Cass, Ben; Young, Allan; Van Kampen, Craig; Arnoczky, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background partial-thickness rotator cuff tears frequently enlarge due to increased local strain and often progress to full-thickness tears. Studies suggest the addition of new tendinous tissue to injured cuff tendons would significantly decrease peak strain, possibly protecting against tear progression. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a highly-porous collagen implant to induce new tissue formation and limit tear progression when placed on the bursal surface of partial-thickness cuff tears. Methods following arthroscopic subacromial decompression, the implant was attached to the bursal surface of the supraspinatus tendon in a prospective series of 13 consecutive patients with intermediate – (3–6 mm) to high-grade (>6 mm) partial – thickness cuff tears (5 articular, 3 bursal, 5 intra-substance). Tendon thickness, defect size, and tendon quality were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Constant and American Shoulder and Elbow Society scores at the same preoperative and follow-up times. All 13 patients completed all follow-up exams (mean length of follow-up 27.0 months, range 23.3–32.0); no patients were lost to follow-up. Results the implant induced significant new tissue formation in all patients by 3 months (mean increase in tendon thickness 2.2 ± 0.26 mm). This tissue matured over time and became radiologically indistinguishable from the underlying tendon. The partial-thickness cuff tears showed consistent filling of the defects, with complete healing in 7 patients at 12 months, and a progressive improvement in tendon quality in the remaining patients. No tear progression was observed by MRI in any of the patients at 24 months. All clinical scores improved significantly over time. At 24 months, 12 of 13 patients (92%) had satisfactory or better results. Conclusions the results of this clinical study demonstrated

  15. Carbamazepine reduces memory induced activation of mesial temporal lobe structures: a pharmacological fMRI-study

    PubMed Central

    Jokeit, Hennric; Okujava, Michael; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2001-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is not known whether carbamazepine (CBZ; a drug widely used in neurology and psychiatry) influences the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast changes induced by neuronal activation and measured by functional MRI (fMRI). We aimed to investigate the influence of CBZ on memory induced activation of the mesial temporal lobes in patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Material and Methods Twenty-one individual patients with refractory symptomatic TLE with different CBZ serum levels and 20 healthy controls were studied using BOLD fMRI. Mesial temporal lobe (MTL) activation was induced by a task that is based on the retrieval of individually familiar visuo-spatial knowledge. The extent of significant MTL fMRI activation was measured and correlated with the CBZ serum level. Results In TLE patients, the extent of significant fMRI activation over both MTL was negatively correlated to the CBZ serum level (Spearman r = -0.654, P < 0.001). Activation over the supposedly normal MTL, i.e. contralateral to the seizure onset of TLE patients, was smaller than the averaged MTL activation in healthy controls (P < 0.005). Age, duration of epilepsy, side of seizure onset, and intelligence were not correlated to the extent of the significant BOLD-response over both MTL in patients with TLE. Conclusions In TLE patients, carbamazepine reduces the fMRI-detectable changes within the mesial temporal lobes as induced by effortful memory retrieval. FMRI appears to be suitable to study the effects of chronic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy. PMID:11710962

  16. Health service costs of paediatric cochlear implantation: influence of the scale and scope of activity.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Bloor, Karen E; Marshall, David H; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2004-01-01

    The health service cost of paediatric cochlear implantation (CI) varies among hospitals in the UK. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the variation is associated with differences in the scale and scope of activity in CI programmes. The health service cost of CI was estimated for 908 children implanted in 12 hospitals between 1989 and 1998. Annual levels of activity in implanting children and adults were monitored in the same hospitals. Costs of paediatric CI were lower in hospitals implanting larger numbers of children and adults, thereby benefiting from economies of scale and scope, respectively. These economies arose from lower per-child staff costs in larger programmes, and were estimated to be exhausted when a hospital implanted more than nine children and more than 20 adults each year. Accommodating increased numbers of children in an existing programme is predicted to cost less than setting up a new programme.

  17. Effect of Unpleasant Loud Noise on Hippocampal Activities during Picture Encoding: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Niwa, Masami; Takahashi, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Ido, Yasushi; Tomida, Mihoko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The functional link between the amygdala and hippocampus in humans has not been well documented. We examined the effect of unpleasant loud noise on hippocampal and amygdaloid activities during picture encoding by means of fMRI, and on the correct response in humans. The noise reduced activity in the hippocampus during picture encoding, decreased…

  18. Effect of Unpleasant Loud Noise on Hippocampal Activities during Picture Encoding: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Niwa, Masami; Takahashi, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Ido, Yasushi; Tomida, Mihoko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The functional link between the amygdala and hippocampus in humans has not been well documented. We examined the effect of unpleasant loud noise on hippocampal and amygdaloid activities during picture encoding by means of fMRI, and on the correct response in humans. The noise reduced activity in the hippocampus during picture encoding, decreased…

  19. A living thick nanofibrous implant bifunctionalized with active growth factor and stem cells for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sandy; Keller, Laetitia; Schiavi, Jessica; Huck, Olivier; Jacomine, Leandro; Fioretti, Florence; Gauthier, Christian; Sebastian, Victor; Schwinté, Pascale; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    New-generation implants focus on robust, durable, and rapid tissue regeneration to shorten recovery times and decrease risks of postoperative complications for patients. Herein, we describe a new-generation thick nanofibrous implant functionalized with active containers of growth factors and stem cells for regenerative nanomedicine. A thick electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous implant (from 700 μm to 1 cm thick) was functionalized with chitosan and bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7 as growth factor using layer-by-layer technology, producing fish scale-like chitosan/BMP-7 nanoreservoirs. This extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold enabled in vitro colonization and bone regeneration by human primary osteoblasts, as shown by expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein (BSPII), 21 days after seeding. In vivo implantation in mouse calvaria defects showed significantly more newly mineralized extracellular matrix in the functionalized implant compared to a bare scaffold after 30 days’ implantation, as shown by histological scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microscopy study and calcein injection. We have as well bifunctionalized our BMP-7 therapeutic implant by adding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The activity of this BMP-7-functionalized implant was again further enhanced by the addition of hMSCs to the implant (living materials), in vivo, as demonstrated by the analysis of new bone formation and calcification after 30 days’ implantation in mice with calvaria defects. Therefore, implants functionalized with BMP-7 nanocontainers associated with hMSCs can act as an accelerator of in vivo bone mineralization and regeneration. PMID:25709432

  20. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M. A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  1. Radial {sup 32}P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, M.A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as {sup 32}P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the {sup 32}P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the {sup 32}P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  2. Visual activation of auditory cortex reflects maladaptive plasticity in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Pascale; Dillier, Norbert; Eichele, Tom; Meyer, Martin; Kegel, Andrea; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto Domingo; Marcar, Valentine Leslie; Jäncke, Lutz; Debener, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Cross-modal reorganization in the auditory cortex has been reported in deaf individuals. However, it is not well understood whether this compensatory reorganization induced by auditory deprivation recedes once the sensation of hearing is partially restored through a cochlear implant. The current study used electroencephalography source localization to examine cross-modal reorganization in the auditory cortex of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant users. We analysed visual-evoked potentials to parametrically modulated reversing chequerboard images between cochlear implant users (n = 11) and normal-hearing listeners (n = 11). The results revealed smaller P100 amplitudes and reduced visual cortex activation in cochlear implant users compared with normal-hearing listeners. At the P100 latency, cochlear implant users also showed activation in the right auditory cortex, which was inversely related to speech recognition ability with the cochlear implant. These results confirm a visual take-over in the auditory cortex of cochlear implant users. Incomplete reversal of this deafness-induced cortical reorganization might limit clinical benefit from a cochlear implant and help explain the high inter-subject variability in auditory speech comprehension.

  3. Inhibition of Stat3 activation in the endometrium prevents implantation: a nonsteroidal approach to contraception.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Rob D; Johnson, Martin H; Campbell, Elizabeth A; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Stephen K; Sharkey, Andrew M

    2005-06-14

    Activation of the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and IL-11 is essential for embryo attachment and decidualization in mice. Both receptors induce activation of the Stat family of signal transducers via the Jak/Stat pathway. Here, we aimed to establish whether activation of Stat3 in maternal endometrium is essential for successful implantation. Functional blockade of Stat3 before implantation, by injection into the uterine lumen of a cell-permeable Stat3 peptide inhibitor, reduced embryo implantation specifically by 70% (P < 0.001). Stat3 is phosphorylated in the luminal epithelium (LE) in response to LIF, and this phosphorylation was significantly reduced both in vitro and in vivo by the Stat3 inhibitor. The inhibitor also blocked induction by LIF of several LIF-regulated genes in the LE including Irg1, which has been shown previously to be essential for implantation. Successful implantation is therefore dependent on phosphorylation and activation of Stat3 in the endometrium before implantation. This finding provides a target for contraceptive development, based on selective blockade of signal transduction pathways essential for implantation. This study demonstrates that cell-permeable peptide inhibitors can be used effectively to target intracellular signaling pathways in the uterine LE.

  4. Fast fMRI can detect oscillatory neural activity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Laura D.; Setsompop, Kawin; Rosen, Bruce R.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity. We hypothesized that the recent development of fast fMRI techniques, combined with the extra sensitivity afforded by ultra-high-field systems, could enable precise localization of neural oscillations. We tested whether fMRI can detect neural oscillations using human visual cortex as a model system. We detected small oscillatory fMRI signals in response to stimuli oscillating at up to 0.75 Hz within single scan sessions, and these responses were an order of magnitude larger than predicted by canonical linear models. Simultaneous EEG–fMRI and simulations based on a biophysical model of the hemodynamic response to neuronal activity suggested that the blood oxygen level-dependent response becomes faster for rapidly varying stimuli, enabling the detection of higher frequencies than expected. Accounting for phase delays across voxels further improved detection, demonstrating that identifying vascular delays will be of increasing importance with higher-frequency activity. These results challenge the assumption that the hemodynamic response is slow, and demonstrate that fMRI has the potential to map neural oscillations directly throughout the brain. PMID:27729529

  5. A family of locally constrained CCA models for detecting activation patterns in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhengshi; Curran, Tim; Byrd, Richard; Nandy, Rajesh; Cordes, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been used in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for improved detection of activation by incorporating time series from multiple voxels in a local neighborhood. To improve the specificity of local CCA methods, spatial constraints were previously proposed. In this study, constraints are generalized by introducing a family model of spatial constraints for CCA to further increase both sensitivity and specificity in fMRI activation detection. The proposed locally-constrained CCA (cCCA) model is formulated in terms of a multivariate constrained optimization problem and solved efficiently with numerical optimization techniques. To evaluate the performance of this cCCA model, simulated data are generated with a Signal-To-Noise Ratio of 0.25, which is realistic to the noise level contained in episodic memory fMRI data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods are used to compare the performance of different models. The cCCA model with optimum parameters (called optimum-cCCA) obtains the largest area under the ROC curve. Furthermore, a novel validation method is proposed to validate the selected optimum-cCCA parameters based on ROC from simulated data and real fMRI data. Results for optimum-cCCA are then compared with conventional fMRI analysis methods using data from an episodic memory task. Wavelet-resampled resting-state data are used to obtain the null distribution of activation. For simulated data, accuracy in detecting activation increases for the optimum-cCCA model by about 43% as compared to the single voxel analysis with comparable Gaussian smoothing. Results from the real fMRI data set indicate a significant increase in activation detection, particularly in hippocampus, para-hippocampal area and nearby medial temporal lobe regions with the proposed method.

  6. Brain activity and perceived exertion during cycling exercise: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Eduardo B; Okano, Alexandre H; De Guio, François; Schabort, Elske J; Min, Li Li; Basset, Fabien A; Stein, Dan J; Noakes, Timothy D

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the equipment and techniques available to assess brain function during dynamic exercise are limited, which has restricted our knowledge of how the brain regulates exercise. This study assessed the brain areas activated during cycling by making use of a novel cycle ergometer, constructed to measure functional MRI (fMRI) brain images during dynamic exercise. Furthermore, we compared brain activation at different levels of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) generated during the exercise. Seven healthy adults performed cycling exercise in a novel MRI compatible cycle ergometer while undergoing brain  fMRI. Participants completed a cycling block protocol comprising six trials of 2 min cycling with 16-s intervals between trials. Participants reported their RPE every minute through an audio link. The MRI cycling ergometer transferred the torque generated on the ergometer through a cardan system to a cycling ergometer positioned outside the MRI room. For data analysis, the effects of cycling as opposed to rest periods were examined after motion correction. The multiparticipant analysis revealed in particular the activation of the cerebellar vermis and precentral and postcentral gyrus when periods of cycling versus rest were compared. Single participant analysis in four participants revealed that activation of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus occurred in cycling blocks perceived as 'hard' compared with exercise blocks that were less demanding. The present study offers a new approach to assess brain activation during dynamic cycling exercise, and suggests that specific brain areas could be involved in the sensations generating the rating of perceived exertion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The simulation of the recharging method of active medical implant based on Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianyue; Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Dai, Pantao; Li, Wansong

    2014-11-01

    The recharging of Active Medical Implant (AMI) is an important issue for its future application. In this paper, a method for recharging active medical implant using wearable incoherent light source has been proposed. Firstly, the models of the recharging method are developed. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated by using Monte Carlo (MC) method. Finally, some important conclusions have been reached. The results indicate that the proposed method will help to result in a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method of AMI, which will promote the application of this kind of implantable device.

  8. Auditory Cortical Activity During Cochlear Implant-Mediated Perception of Spoken Language, Melody, and Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Anne T.; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Braun, Allen R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the significant advances in language perception for cochlear implant (CI) recipients, music perception continues to be a major challenge for implant-mediated listening. Our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie successful implant listening remains limited. To our knowledge, this study represents the first neuroimaging investigation of music perception in CI users, with the hypothesis that CI subjects would demonstrate greater auditory cortical activation than normal hearing controls. H215O positron emission tomography (PET) was used here to assess auditory cortical activation patterns in ten postlingually deafened CI patients and ten normal hearing control subjects. Subjects were presented with language, melody, and rhythm tasks during scanning. Our results show significant auditory cortical activation in implant subjects in comparison to control subjects for language, melody, and rhythm. The greatest activity in CI users compared to controls was seen for language tasks, which is thought to reflect both implant and neural specializations for language processing. For musical stimuli, PET scanning revealed significantly greater activation during rhythm perception in CI subjects (compared to control subjects), and the least activation during melody perception, which was the most difficult task for CI users. These results may suggest a possible relationship between auditory performance and degree of auditory cortical activation in implant recipients that deserves further study. PMID:19662456

  9. Active two-channel 0.035'' guidewire for interventional cardiovascular MRI.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Ozgur; Kim, Ann H; Saikus, Christina E; Guttman, Michael A; Faranesh, Anthony Z; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Lederman, Robert J

    2009-08-01

    To develop an "active" (receiver-coil) clinical-grade guidewire with enhanced visibility for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and favorable mechanical characteristics for interventional MRI procedures that require conspicuous intravascular instruments distinguishable from surrounding tissues. We designed a 0.035-inch guidewire combining two antenna designs on separate channels. A loop antenna visualizes the tip and a dipole antenna visualizes the whole shaft. We compared mechanical characteristics of this guidewire with x-ray alternatives and tested MRI performance at 1.5T in vitro and in vivo in swine. Images reflected tip position within 0.97 +/- 0.42 mm and afforded whole-shaft visibility under expected conditions without sacrificing device size or handling. We report tip stiffness, torquability, and pushability comparable to commercial interventional guidewires. Our clinical-grade 0.035-inch active guidewire is conspicuous under MRI and has mechanical performance comparable to x-ray interventional guidewires. This may enable a range of interventional procedures using real-time MRI. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Simultaneous PET-MRI reveals brain function in activated and resting state on metabolic, hemodynamic and multiple temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Wehrl, Hans F; Hossain, Mosaddek; Lankes, Konrad; Liu, Chih-Chieh; Bezrukov, Ilja; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Reischl, Gerald; Pichler, Bernd J

    2013-09-01

    Combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new tool to study functional processes in the brain. Here we study brain function in response to a barrel-field stimulus simultaneously using PET, which traces changes in glucose metabolism on a slow time scale, and functional MRI (fMRI), which assesses fast vascular and oxygenation changes during activation. We found spatial and quantitative discrepancies between the PET and the fMRI activation data. The functional connectivity of the rat brain was assessed by both modalities: the fMRI approach determined a total of nine known neural networks, whereas the PET method identified seven glucose metabolism-related networks. These results demonstrate the feasibility of combined PET-MRI for the simultaneous study of the brain at activation and rest, revealing comprehensive and complementary information to further decode brain function and brain networks.

  11. Self-Regulation of Amygdala Activation Using Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bellgowan, Patrick; Drevets, Wayne C.; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) with neurofeedback allows investigation of human brain neuroplastic changes that arise as subjects learn to modulate neurophysiological function using real-time feedback regarding their own hemodynamic responses to stimuli. We investigated the feasibility of training healthy humans to self-regulate the hemodynamic activity of the amygdala, which plays major roles in emotional processing. Participants in the experimental group were provided with ongoing information about the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity in the left amygdala (LA) and were instructed to raise the BOLD rtfMRI signal by contemplating positive autobiographical memories. A control group was assigned the same task but was instead provided with sham feedback from the left horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) region. In the LA, we found a significant BOLD signal increase due to rtfMRI neurofeedback training in the experimental group versus the control group. This effect persisted during the Transfer run without neurofeedback. For the individual subjects in the experimental group the training effect on the LA BOLD activity correlated inversely with scores on the Difficulty Identifying Feelings subscale of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The whole brain data analysis revealed significant differences for Happy Memories versus Rest condition between the experimental and control groups. Functional connectivity analysis of the amygdala network revealed significant widespread correlations in a fronto-temporo-limbic network. Additionally, we identified six regions — right medial frontal polar cortex, bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral superior frontal gyrus — where the functional connectivity with the LA increased significantly across the rtfMRI neurofeedback runs and the Transfer run. The findings demonstrate that healthy subjects can learn to regulate their amygdala

  12. Self-regulation of human brain activity using simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Yuan, Han; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-15

    Neurofeedback is a promising approach for non-invasive modulation of human brain activity with applications for treatment of mental disorders and enhancement of brain performance. Neurofeedback techniques are commonly based on either electroencephalography (EEG) or real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). Advances in simultaneous EEG-fMRI have made it possible to combine the two approaches. Here we report the first implementation of simultaneous multimodal rtfMRI and EEG neurofeedback (rtfMRI-EEG-nf). It is based on a novel system for real-time integration of simultaneous rtfMRI and EEG data streams. We applied the rtfMRI-EEG-nf to training of emotional self-regulation in healthy subjects performing a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. The participants were able to simultaneously regulate their BOLD fMRI activation in the left amygdala and frontal EEG power asymmetry in the high-beta band using the rtfMRI-EEG-nf. Our proof-of-concept results demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous self-regulation of both hemodynamic (rtfMRI) and electrophysiological (EEG) activities of the human brain. They suggest potential applications of rtfMRI-EEG-nf in the development of novel cognitive neuroscience research paradigms and enhanced cognitive therapeutic approaches for major neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression.

  13. Investigation of fMRI neurofeedback of differential primary motor cortex activity using kinesthetic motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Chiew, Mark; LaConte, Stephen M; Graham, Simon J

    2012-05-15

    Functional MRI neurofeedback (fMRI NF) is an emerging technique that trains subjects to regulate their brain activity while they manipulate sensory stimulus representations of fMRI signals in "real-time". Here we report an fMRI NF study of brain activity associated with kinesthetic motor imagery (kMI), analyzed using partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analysis technique. Thirteen healthy young adult subjects performed kMI involving each hand separately, with NF training targeting regions of interest (ROIs) in the left and right primary motor cortex (M1). Throughout, subjects attempted to maximize a laterality index (LI) of brain activity-the difference in activity between the contralateral ROI (relative to the hand involved in kMI) and the ipsilateral M1 ROI-while receiving real-time updates on a visual display. Six of 13 subjects were successful in increasing the LI value, whereas the other 7 were not successful and performed similarly to 5 control subjects who received sham NF training. Ability to suppress activity in the ipsilateral M1 ROI was the primary driver of successful NF performance. Multiple PLS analyses depicted activated networks of brain regions involved with imagery, self-awareness, and feedback processing, and additionally showed that activation of the task positive network was correlated with task performance. These results indicate that fMRI NF of kMI is capable of modulating brain activity in primary motor regions in a subset of the population. In the future, such methods may be useful in the development of NF training methods for enhancing motor rehabilitation following stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved thermostable α-amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by low-energy ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Zhang, J L; Zhu, S W

    2011-09-23

    Thermostable α-amylase is of great importance in the starch fermentation industry; it is extensively used in the manufacture of beverages, baby foods, medicines, and pharmaceuticals. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens produces thermostable α-amylase; however, production of thermostable α-amylase is limited. Ion-beam implantation is an effective method for mutation breeding in microbes. We conducted ion-beam implantation experiments using two different ions, Ar(+) and N(+), to determine the survival rate of and dose effect on a high α-amylase activity strain of B. amyloliquefaciens that had been isolated from soil samples. N(+) implantation resulted in a higher survival rate than Ar(+) implantation. The optimum implantation dose was 2.08 × 10(15) ions/cm(2). Under this implantation condition, we obtained a thermally and genetically stable mutant α-amylase strain (RL-1) with high enzyme activity for degrading α-amylase. Compared to the parental strain (RL), the RL-1 strain had a 57.1% increase in α-amylase activity. We conclude that ion implantation in B. amyloliquefaciens can produce strains with increased production of thermostable α-amylase.

  15. Concurrent tACS-fMRI Reveals Causal Influence of Power Synchronized Neural Activity on Resting State fMRI Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Bächinger, Marc; Zerbi, Valerio; Moisa, Marius; Polania, Rafael; Liu, Quanying; Mantini, Dante; Ruff, Christian; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-05-03

    signals synchronize across brain areas and that the topography of this activity is spatially correlated to resting state networks derived from rs-fMRI. Here we take a novel approach to address this problem and establish a causal link between the power fluctuations of electrophysiological signals and rs-fMRI via a new neuromodulation paradigm, which exploits these power synchronization mechanisms. These novel mechanistic insights bridge different scientific domains and are of broad interest to researchers in the fields of Medical Imaging, Neuroscience, Physiology, and Psychology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/374766-12$15.00/0.

  16. Improving mechanical properties of polyethylene orthopaedic implants by high frequency cold plasma surface activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudoran, Cristian D.; Vlad, Iulia E.; Dadarlat, Dorin N.; Anghel, Sorin D.

    2013-11-01

    Although a tremendous progress has been made in developing new methods and materials for manufacturing orthopaedic implants, the new technology still faces various problems. Polyethylene implants are relatively easy to manufacture and at lower cost compared to metallic or ceramic implants, but they present a fundamental problem: during usage and in time, due to their manufacturing technology, the material suffers from pitting and delamination which leads to crack propagation and finally to sudden fracture. Our studies and tests performed on polyethylene showed that, using cold plasma surface activation during the manufacturing process of the orthopaedic implants made from polyethylene can significantly increase their mechanical properties. The breaking tests revealed an increase of the tensile strength in the laminated polyethylene samples by a factor of 4 after plasma activation. "Aging" tests have been also performed to investigate how the cold plasma treated samples maintain their properties in time, after the surface activation process.

  17. Pre-implant modeling of depth lead placement in white matter for maximizing the extent of cortical activation during direct neurostimulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Cendejas Zaragoza, Leopoldo; Byrne, Richard W; Rossi, Marvin A

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon. The AF was extrapolated to describe the three-dimensional activation of axon bundles facilitated by patient-specific diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The modeling process consisted of the following steps: (1) acquisition of structural MRI and DTI; (2) computation of the electric potential using the finite element method; (3) analysis of the effect of the modeled electric field on depolarizing axon bundles using the AF; (4) predicting distant cortical activation by strategically placing the AF seeds for creating a modulated circuit tractography (MCT) map; and finally, (5) post-implant in vivo validation using Subtracted Activated SPECT (SAS). The pre-implant simulation calculated non-spherical volumetric regions around the contacts representing areas of hyperpolarization and depolarization. Furthermore, the generated MCT map predicted the extent to which white matter connected epileptic sources were influenced during direct stimulation therapy. Validation of this map was demonstrated post-implantation employing RNS electrocorticography and SAS. The latter technique captured transient alterations in blood flow synched to neural metabolism potentially distant to the stimulated contacts. This pre-implant modeling system offers the potential for predicting optimal depth lead implant sites with a limited set of contacts for modulating the maximal extent of a refractory epileptogenic network.

  18. Contrast-enhanced MRI compared with the physical examination in the evaluation of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario; van Veenendaal, Mira; Dolman, Koert M; van Rossum, Marion A J; van den Berg, J Merlijn; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2014-02-01

    To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in discriminating between active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and to compare physical examination outcomes with MRI outcomes in the assessment of disease status in JIA patients. Consecutive JIA patients with knee involvement were prospectively studied using an open-bore MRI. Imaging findings from 146 JIA patients were analysed (59.6% female; mean age, 12.9 years). Patients were classified as clinically active or inactive. MRI features were evaluated using the JAMRIS system, comprising validated scores for synovial hypertrophy, bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions and bone erosions. Inter-reader reliability was good for all MRI features (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.87-0.94). No differences were found between the two groups regarding MRI scores of bone marrow oedema, cartilage lesions or bone erosions. Synovial hypertrophy scores differed significantly between groups (P = 0.016). Nonetheless, synovial hypertrophy was also present in 14 JIA patients (35.9%) with clinically inactive disease. Of JIA patients considered clinically active, 48.6% showed no signs of MRI-based synovitis. MRI can discriminate between clinically active and inactive JIA patients. However, physical examination is neither very sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity compared with MRI. Subclinical synovitis was present in >35% of presumed clinically inactive patients. • MRI is sensitive for evaluating juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) disease activity. • Contrast-enhanced MRI can distinguish clinically active and inactive JIA patients. • Subclinical synovitis is present in 35.9 % of presumed clinically inactive patients. • Physical examination is neither sensitive nor specific in evaluating JIA disease activity.

  19. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  20. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  1. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    MedlinePlus

    ... be inserted at the same time. If an MRI scan detects an implant rupture but you don't ... require additional, specialized views. You might need routine MRI scans. The Food and Drug Administration recommends monitoring silicone ...

  2. Reinforced active middle ear implant fixation in incus vibroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Dalhoff, Ernst; Heyd, Andreas; Wildenstein, Daniela; Hagen, Rudolf; Gummer, Anthony W; Schraven, Sebastian P

    2015-01-01

    The active middle ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge® was originally designed to treat mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing losses. The floating mass transducer (FMT) is crimped onto the long incus process. The procedure is termed incus vibroplasty to distinguish from other attachment sites or stimulus modi for treating conductive and mixed hearing losses. Rare but possible complications are difficult incus anatomy, necrosis of the long incus process, secondary detachment, and loosening of the FMT with concomitant amplification loss. The aim of this study was to functionally evaluate reinforcement of the standard attachment of the FMT to the long incus process. The head of a Soft CliP® stapes prosthesis was used for reinforcement. Functional evaluation was performed in temporal-bone preparations and in clinical practice. A subtotal mastoidectomy and a posterior tympanotomy were performed in ten fresh human temporal bones. As a control for normal middle-ear function, the tympanic membrane was stimulated acoustically and the vibration of the stapes footplate and the round-window (RW) membrane, respectively, were measured by laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). FMT-induced vibration responses of the stapes and RW were then measured for standard attachment and attachment reinforced with the head of a Soft CliP® stapes prosthesis. Additionally, the outcome in two groups of patients with incus vibroplasty using standard and the reinforced FMT attachment were compared. Eleven patients were treated by standard coupling; nine patients obtained reinforcement with the head of the Soft CliP® stapes prosthesis. Three to six months postoperatively, auditory thresholds for frequency-modulated (warble) tones and vibroplasty thresholds for pure tones were measured. In temporal bone, laser Doppler vibrometer measurements showed significantly enhanced vibration amplitudes of the stapes footplate and the RW membrane for the reinforced attachment compared with those for the standard

  3. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  4. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition.

  5. The effect of excimer laser pretreatment on diffusion and activation of boron implanted in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-11-07

    We have investigated the effect of excimer laser annealing (ELA) on transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and activation of boron implanted in Si during subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). It is observed that ELA with partial melting of the implanted region causes reduction of TED in the region that remains solid during ELA, where the diffusion length of boron is reduced by a factor of {approx}4 as compared to the as-implanted sample. This is attributed to several mechanisms such as liquid-state annealing of a fraction of the implantation induced defects, introduction of excess vacancies during ELA, and solid-state annealing of the defects beyond the maximum melting depth by the heat wave propagating into the Si wafer. The ELA pretreatment provides a substantially improved electrical activation of boron during subsequent RTA.

  6. Fixed rehabilitation of severely atrophic jaws using immediately loaded basal disk implants after in situ bone activation.

    PubMed

    Odin, Guillaume; Misch, Carl E; Binderman, Itzak; Scortecci, Gerard

    2012-10-01

    Rehabilitation of severely atrophic jaws is facilitated when basal disk implants are used after activation of the future bony implant bed with a purpose-designed instrument (Osteotensor) 45 to 90 days before implant surgery. Fabrication of a highly rigid, screw-secured fixed prosthesis that acts as an external orthopedic fixator permits immediate functional loading. This protocol also represents a second chance for patients who have experienced complete implant loss and/or bone graft failure.

  7. Neutron activation analysis for reference determination of the implantation dose of cobalt ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, R.P.H.; Bubert, H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1992-05-15

    The authors prepared depth profilling reference materials by cobalt ion implantation at an ion energy of 300 keV into n-type silicon. The implanted Co dose was then determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) giving an analytical dynamic range of almost 5 decades and uncertainty of 1.5%. This form of analysis allows sources of error (beam spreading, misalignment) to be corrected. 70 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Bacterial profiles and proteolytic activity in peri-implantitis versus healthy sites.

    PubMed

    Neilands, J; Wickström, C; Kinnby, B; Davies, J R; Hall, J; Friberg, B; Svensäter, G

    2015-10-01

    Peri-implantitis is a biofilm-induced destructive inflammatory process that, over time, results in loss of supporting bone around an osseointegrated dental implant. Biofilms at peri-implantitis sites have been reported to be dominated by Gram-negative anaerobic rods with a proteolytic metabolism such as, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Tannerella, as well as anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. In this study, we hypothesized that protease activity is instrumental in driving bone destruction and we therefore compared the microbial composition and level of protease activity in samples of peri-implant biofluid (PIBF) from 25 healthy subjects (H group) and 25 subjects with peri-implantitis (PI group). Microbial composition was investigated using culture techniques and protease activity was determined using a FITC-labelled casein substrate. The microbial composition was highly variable in subjects both in the H and PI groups but one prominent difference was the prevalence of Porphyromonas/Prevotella and anaerobic Gram positive cocci which was significantly higher in the PI than in the H group. A subgroup of subjects with peri-implantitis displayed a high level of protease activity in the PIBF compared to healthy subjects. However, this activity could not be related to the presence of specific bacterial species. We propose that a high level of protease activity may be a predictive factor for disease progression in peri-implantitis. Further longitudinal studies are however required to determine whether assessment of protease activity could serve as a useful method to identify patients at risk for progressive tissue destruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining EEG Microstates with fMRI Structural Features for Modeling Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Kostas; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    Combining information from Electroencephalography (EEG) and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been a topic of increased interest recently. The main advantage of the EEG is its high temporal resolution, in the scale of milliseconds, while the main advantage of fMRI is the detection of functional activity with good spatial resolution. The advantages of each modality seem to complement each other, providing better insight in the neuronal activity of the brain. The main goal of combining information from both modalities is to increase the spatial and the temporal localization of the underlying neuronal activity captured by each modality. This paper presents a novel technique based on the combination of these two modalities (EEG, fMRI) that allow a better representation and understanding of brain activities in time. EEG is modeled as a sequence of topographies, based on the notion of microstates. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were used to model the temporal evolution of the topography of the average Event Related Potential (ERP). For each model the Fisher score of the sequence is calculated by taking the gradient of the trained model parameters. The Fisher score describes how this sequence deviates from the learned HMM. Canonical Partial Least Squares (CPLS) were used to decompose the two datasets and fuse the EEG and fMRI features. In order to test the effectiveness of this method, the results of this methodology were compared with the results of CPLS using the average ERP signal of a single channel. The presented methodology was able to derive components that co-vary between EEG and fMRI and present significant differences between the two tasks.

  10. BOLD fMRI activation induced by vagus nerve stimulation in seizure patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W; Mosier, K; Kalnin, A; Marks, D

    2003-01-01

    Design: Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was employed to detect areas of the brain activated by vagus nerve stimulation in five patients with documented complex partial seizures. Methods: Functional MRI was done on a GE 1.5T Echospeed horizon scanner. Before each patient entered the scanner, the vagal nerve stimulator was set to a specific ON–OFF paradigm so that the data could be analysed using a box-car type of design. The brains were scanned both anatomically and functionally. The functional images were corrected for head motion and co-registered to the anatomical images. Maps of the activated areas were generated and analysed using the brain mapping software, SPM99. The threshold for activation was chosen as p < 0.001. Results: All patients showed activation in the frontal and occipital lobes. However, activation in the thalamus was seen only in the two patients with improved seizure control. Conclusions: BOLD fMRI can detect activation associated with vagus nerve stimulation. There may be a relation between thalamic activation and a favourable clinical outcome. PMID:12754361

  11. Discovering structure in the space of activation profiles in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Danial; Vul, Ed; Kanwisher, Nancy; Golland, Polina

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for discovering patterns of activation observed through fMIRI in experiments with multiple stimuli/tasks. We introduce an explicit parameterization for the profiles of activation and represent fMRI time courses as such profiles using linear regression estimates. Working in the space of activation profiles, we design a mixture model that finds the major activation patterns along with their localization maps and derive an algorithm for fitting the model to the fMRI data. The method enables functional group analysis independent of spatial correspondence among subjects. We validate this model in the context of category selectivity in the visual cortex, demonstrating good agreement with prior findings based on hypothesis-driven methods.

  12. Differential effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on regional brain activity using pharmacological MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chin, C-L; Tovcimak, A E; Hradil, V P; Seifert, T R; Hollingsworth, P R; Chandran, P; Zhu, C Z; Gauvin, D; Pai, M; Wetter, J; Hsieh, G C; Honore, P; Frost, J M; Dart, M J; Meyer, M D; Yao, B B; Cox, B F; Fox, G B

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of cannabinoid CB1 and/or CB2 receptors mediates analgesic effects across a broad spectrum of preclinical pain models. Selective activation of CB2 receptors may produce analgesia without the undesirable psychotropic side effects associated with modulation of CB1 receptors. To address selectivity in vivo, we describe non-invasive, non-ionizing, functional data that distinguish CB1 from CB2 receptor neural activity using pharmacological MRI (phMRI) in awake rats. Experimental approach: Using a high field (7 T) MRI scanner, we examined and quantified the effects of non-selective CB1/CB2 (A-834735) and selective CB2 (AM1241) agonists on neural activity in awake rats. Pharmacological specificity was determined using selective CB1 (rimonabant) or CB2 (AM630) antagonists. Behavioural studies, plasma and brain exposures were used as benchmarks for activity in vivo. Key results: The non-selective CB1/CB2 agonist produced a dose-related, region-specific activation of brain structures that agrees well with published autoradiographic CB1 receptor density binding maps. Pretreatment with a CB1 antagonist but not with a CB2 antagonist, abolished these activation patterns, suggesting an effect mediated by CB1 receptors alone. In contrast, no significant changes in brain activity were found with relevant doses of the CB2 selective agonist. Conclusion and implications: These results provide the first clear evidence for quantifying in vivo functional selectivity between CB1 and CB2 receptors using phMRI. Further, as the presence of CB2 receptors in the brain remains controversial, our data suggest that if CB2 receptors are expressed, they are not functional under normal physiological conditions. PMID:17965748

  13. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Methods Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. Results The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). Conclusion The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; ‘Looseness’, i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position. PMID:27434235

  14. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Shoulder Mri during Active Motion for Investigation of Rotator Cuff Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tempelaere, Christine; Pierrart, Jérome; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Vuillemin, Valérie; Cuénod, Charles-André; Hansen, Ulrich; Mir, Olivier; Skalli, Wafa; Gregory, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    MRI is the standard methodology in diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases. However, many patients continue to have pain despite treatment, and MRI of a static unloaded shoulder seems insufficient for best diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated if Dynamic MRI provides novel kinematic data that can be used to improve the understanding, diagnosis and best treatment of rotator cuff diseases. Dynamic MRI provided real-time 3D image series and was used to measure changes in the width of subacromial space, superior-inferior translation and anterior-posterior translation of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active abduction. These measures were investigated for consistency with the rotator cuff diseases classifications from standard MRI. The study included: 4 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears, 5 shoulders with an isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tear, 5 shoulders with tendinopathy and 6 normal shoulders. A change in the width of subacromial space greater than 4mm differentiated between rotator cuff diseases with tendon tears (massive cuff tears and supraspinatus tear) and without tears (tendinopathy) (p = 0.012). The range of the superior-inferior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears group (6.4mm) than in normals (3.4mm) (p = 0.02). The range of the anterior-posterior translation was higher in the massive cuff tears (9.2 mm) and supraspinatus tear (9.3 mm) shoulders compared to normals (3.5mm) and tendinopathy (4.8mm) shoulders (p = 0.05). The Dynamic MRI enabled a novel measure; 'Looseness', i.e. the translation of the humeral head on the glenoid during an abduction cycle. Looseness was better able at differentiating different forms of rotator cuff disease than a simple static measure of relative glenohumeral position.

  15. Characterization of optically actuated MRI-compatible active needles for medical interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Ryu, Seokchang; Moslehi, Behzad; Costa, Joannes M.

    2014-03-01

    The development of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible optically-actuated active needle for guided percutaneous surgery and biopsy procedures is described. Electrically passive MRI-compatible actuation in the small diameter needle is provided by non-magnetic materials including a shape memory alloy (SMA) subject to precise fiber laser operation that can be from a remote (e.g., MRI control room) location. Characterization and optimization of the needle is facilitated using optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors arrays. Active bending of the needle during insertion allows the needle to be accurately guided to even relatively small targets in an organ while avoiding obstacles and overcoming undesirable deviations away from the planned path due to unforeseen or unknowable tissue interactions. This feature makes the needle especially suitable for use in image-guided surgical procedures (ranging from MRI to CT and ultrasound) when accurate targeting is imperative for good treatment outcomes. Such interventions include reaching small tumors in biopsies, delineating freezing areas in, for example, cryosurgery and improving the accuracy of seed placement in brachytherapy. Particularly relevant are prostate procedures, which may be subject to pubic arch interference. Combining diagnostic imaging and actuation assisted biopsy into one treatment can obviate the need for a second exam for guided biopsy, shorten overall procedure times (thus increasing operating room efficiencies), address healthcare reimbursement constraints and, most importantly, improve patient comfort and clinical outcomes.

  16. Cortical activation following chronic passive implantation of a wide-field suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B; Nayagam, David A X; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Luu, Chi D; Allen, Penelope J; Shepherd, Robert K; Williams, Chris E

    2014-08-01

    The research goal is to develop a wide-field retinal stimulating array for prosthetic vision. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a suprachoroidal electrode array in evoking visual cortex activity after long term implantation. A planar silicone based electrode array (8 mm × 19 mm) was implanted into the suprachoroidal space in cats (ntotal = 10). It consisted of 20 platinum stimulating electrodes (600 μm diameter) and a trans-scleral cable terminated in a subcutaneous connector. Three months after implantation (nchronic = 6), or immediately after implantation (nacute = 4), an electrophysiological study was performed. Electrode total impedance was measured from voltage transients using 500 μs, 1 mA pulses. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) and multi-unit activity were recorded from the visual cortex in response to monopolar retinal stimulation. Dynamic range and cortical activation spread were calculated from the multi-unit recordings. The mean electrode total impedance in vivo following 3 months was 12.5 ± 0.3 kΩ. EEPs were recorded for 98% of the electrodes. The median evoked potential threshold was 150 nC (charge density 53 μC cm(-2)). The lowest stimulation thresholds were found proximal to the area centralis. Mean thresholds from multiunit activity were lower for chronic (181 ± 14 nC) compared to acute (322 ± 20 nC) electrodes (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in dynamic range or cortical activation spread. Suprachoroidal stimulation threshold was lower in chronic than acute implantation and was within safe charge limits for platinum. Electrode-tissue impedance following chronic implantation was higher, indicating the need for sufficient compliance voltage (e.g. 12.8 V for mean impedance, threshold and dynamic range). The wide-field suprachoroidal array reliably activated the retina after chronic implantation.

  17. Cortical activation following chronic passive implantation of a wide-field suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B.; Nayagam, David A. X.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Luu, Chi D.; Allen, Penelope J.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Williams, Chris E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The research goal is to develop a wide-field retinal stimulating array for prosthetic vision. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a suprachoroidal electrode array in evoking visual cortex activity after long term implantation. Approach. A planar silicone based electrode array (8 mm × 19 mm) was implanted into the suprachoroidal space in cats (ntotal = 10). It consisted of 20 platinum stimulating electrodes (600 μm diameter) and a trans-scleral cable terminated in a subcutaneous connector. Three months after implantation (nchronic = 6), or immediately after implantation (nacute = 4), an electrophysiological study was performed. Electrode total impedance was measured from voltage transients using 500 μs, 1 mA pulses. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) and multi-unit activity were recorded from the visual cortex in response to monopolar retinal stimulation. Dynamic range and cortical activation spread were calculated from the multi-unit recordings. Main results. The mean electrode total impedance in vivo following 3 months was 12.5 ± 0.3 kΩ. EEPs were recorded for 98% of the electrodes. The median evoked potential threshold was 150 nC (charge density 53 μC cm-2). The lowest stimulation thresholds were found proximal to the area centralis. Mean thresholds from multiunit activity were lower for chronic (181 ± 14 nC) compared to acute (322 ± 20 nC) electrodes (P < 0.001), but there was no difference in dynamic range or cortical activation spread. Significance. Suprachoroidal stimulation threshold was lower in chronic than acute implantation and was within safe charge limits for platinum. Electrode-tissue impedance following chronic implantation was higher, indicating the need for sufficient compliance voltage (e.g. 12.8 V for mean impedance, threshold and dynamic range). The wide-field suprachoroidal array reliably activated the retina after chronic implantation.

  18. Controlling the Biomimetic Implant Interface: Modulating Antimicrobial Activity by Spacer Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Cate; Vanoosten, Sarah Kay; Boone, Kyle W.; Khvostenko, Dmytro; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection is a common cause of post-operative morbidity, often leading to implant loosening, ultimately requiring revision surgery, increased costs and worse surgical outcomes. Since implant failure starts at the implant surface, creating and controlling the bio-material interface will play a critical role in reducing infection while improving host cell-to-implant interaction. Here, we engineered a biomimetic interface based upon a chimeric peptide that incorporates a titanium binding peptide (TiBP) with an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) into a single molecule to direct binding to the implant surface and deliver an antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and S. epidermidis, two bacteria which are linked with clinical implant infections. To optimize antimicrobial activity, we investigated the design of the spacer domain separating the two functional domains of the chimeric peptide. Lengthening and changing the amino acid composition of the spacer resulted in an improvement of minimum inhibitory concentration by a three-fold against S. mutans. Surfaces coated with the chimeric peptide reduced dramatically the number of bacteria, with up to a nine-fold reduction for S. mutans and a 48-fold reduction for S. epidermidis. Ab initio predictions of antimicrobial activity based on structural features were confirmed. Host cell attachment and viability at the biomimetic interface were also improved compared to the untreated implant surface. Biomimetic interfaces formed with this chimeric peptide offer interminable potential by coupling antimicrobial and improved host cell responses to implantable titanium materials, and this peptide based approach can be extended to various biomaterials surfaces.

  19. Improved Visualization of Neuronal Injury Following Glial Activation by Manganese Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Aditya N.; Zhou, Biyun; Epstein, Adrian A.; Gorantla, Santhi; Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Luo, Jiangtao; Gendelman, Howard E.; Boska, Michael D.; Liu, Yutong

    2013-01-01

    Research directed at anatomical, integrative and functional activities of the central nervous system (CNS) can be realized through bioimaging. A wealth of data now demonstrates the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) towards unraveling complex neural connectivity operative in health and disease. A means to improve MRI sensitivity is through contrast agents and notably manganese (Mn2+). The Mn2+ ions enter neurons through voltage-gated calcium channels and unlike other contrast agents such as gadolinium, iron oxide, iron platinum and imaging proteins, provide unique insights into brain physiology. Nonetheless, a critical question that remains is the brain target cells serving as sources for the signal of Mn2+ enhanced MRI (MEMRI). To this end, we investigated MEMRI’s abilities to detect glial (astrocyte and microglia) and neuronal activation signals following treatment with known inflammatory inducing agents. The idea is to distinguish between gliosis (glial activation) and neuronal injury for the MEMRI signal and as such use the agent as a marker for neural activity in inflammatory and degenerative disease. We now demonstrate that glial inflammation facilitates Mn2+ neuronal ion uptake. Glial Mn2+ content was not linked to its activation. MEMRI performed on mice injected intracranially with lipopolysaccharide was associated with increased neuronal activity. These results support the notion that MEMRI reflects neuronal excitotoxicity and impairment that can occur through a range of insults including neuroinflammation. We conclude that the MEMRI signal enhancement is induced by inflammation stimulating neuronal Mn2+ uptake. PMID:23729245

  20. Robust activation detection methods for real-time and offline fMRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Kaya; Cinsdikici, Muhammed G; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2017-06-01

    We propose two contributions with novel approaches to fMRI activation analysis. The first is to apply confidence intervals to locate activations in real-time, and second is a new metric based on robust regression of fMRI signals. These contributions are implemented in our four proposed methods; Instantaneous Activation Method (IAM), Instantaneous Activation Method with Past Blocks (IAMP) for real-time analysis, Task Robust Regression Distance Method (TRRD) for the new metric with robust regression and Instantaneous Robust Regression Distance Method (IRRD) for both contributions. For comparison, a statistical offline method called Task Activation Method (TAM) and a correlation analysis method are also implemented. The methods are initially evaluated with synthetic data generated using two different approaches; first using varying hemodynamic response function signals to simulate a wide range of stimuli responses, along with a Gaussian white noise, and second using no activity state data of a real fMRI experiment, which removes the need to generate noise. The methods are also tested with real fMRI experiments and compared with the results obtained by the widely used SPM tool. The results show that instantaneous methods reveal activations that are lost statistically in an offline analysis. They also reveal further improvements by robust fitting application, which minimizes the outlier effect. TRRD has an area under the ROC curve of 0,7127 for very noisy synthetic images, is reaching up to 0,9608 as the noise decreases, while the instantaneous score is in the range of 0,6124 to 0,8019 in the same noise levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant – a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. Methods and materials One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. Results It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant. PMID:26604836

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the bone conduction implant - a pilot study at 1.5 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Rigato, Cristina; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if an active bone conduction implant (BCI) used in an ongoing clinical study withstands magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 1.5 Tesla. In particular, the MRI effects on maximum power output (MPO), total harmonic distortion (THD), and demagnetization were investigated. Implant activation and image artifacts were also evaluated. One implant was placed on the head of a test person at the position corresponding to the normal position of an implanted BCI and applied with a static pressure using a bandage and scanned in a 1.5 Tesla MRI camera. Scanning was performed both with and without the implant, in three orthogonal planes, and for one spin-echo and one gradient-echo pulse sequence. Implant functionality was verified in-between the scans using an audio processor programmed to generate a sequence of tones when attached to the implant. Objective verification was also carried out by measuring MPO and THD on a skull simulator as well as retention force, before and after MRI. It was found that the exposure of 1.5 Tesla MRI only had a minor effect on the MPO, ie, it decreased over all frequencies with an average of 1.1±2.1 dB. The THD remained unchanged above 300 Hz and was increased only at lower frequencies. The retention magnet was demagnetized by 5%. The maximum image artifacts reached a distance of 9 and 10 cm from the implant in the coronal plane for the spin-echo and the gradient-echo sequence, respectively. The test person reported no MRI induced sound from the implant. This pilot study indicates that the present BCI may withstand 1.5 Tesla MRI with only minor effects on its performance. No MRI induced sound was reported, but the head image was highly distorted near the implant.

  3. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  4. Glucose Administration Enhances fMRI Brain Activation and Connectivity Related to Episodic Memory Encoding for Neutral and Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Marise B.; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Ryan, John P.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Harenski, Carla; Hamann, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose enhances memory in a variety of species. In humans, glucose administration enhances episodic memory encoding, although little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying these effects. Here we examined whether elevating blood glucose would enhance functional MRI (fMRI) activation and connectivity in brain regions associated with…

  5. Identifying Activation Centers with Spatial Cox Point Processes Using fMRI Data.

    PubMed

    Ray, Meredith; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    We developed a Bayesian clustering method to identify significant regions of brain activation. Coordinate-based meta data originating from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were of primary interest. Individual fMRI has the ability to measure the intensity of blood flow and oxygen to a location within the brain that was activated by a given thought or emotion. The proposed method performed clustering on two levels, latent foci center and study activation center, with a spatial Cox point process utilizing the Dirichlet process to describe the distribution of foci. Intensity was modeled as a function of distance between the focus and the center of the cluster of foci using a Gaussian kernel. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the method with respect to cluster identification and underlying data distributions. We applied the method to a meta data set to identify emotion foci centers.

  6. Strategies of active middle ear implants for hearing rehabilitation in congenital aural atresia.

    PubMed

    Verhaert, Nicolas; Fuchsmann, Carine; Tringali, Stéphane; Lina-Granade, Geneviève; Truy, Eric

    2011-06-01

    To describe our surgical and audiometric experience using different active middle ear implant strategies facing various anatomic situations in aural atresia. Retrospective case review. Tertiary academic referral center. Five patients with congenital aural atresia, (3 unilateral and 2 bilateral), with mean age of 22.4 years (range, 12-44 yr), referred for hearing rehabilitation. Active middle ear implant on stapes capitulum. Description of surgical implantation with different active middle ear implants. Preoperative and postoperative air conduction, bone conduction, and aided and unaided thresholds and speech scores were measured, at mid to long term. Subjective benefit analysis was determined through the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire. After activation and fitting of the devices, a mean functional gain of 32.5 dB hearing level was measured. Speech tests in quiet showed a mean functional gain of 20.2 dB. Patients had a mean follow-up period of 12 months. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. Furthermore, we reflected on new coupling possibilities, especially in a difficult case with stapes-footplate fixation where no approach of the round window was feasible because of aberrant facial nerve course. Facing anatomic variations in congenital aural atresia, active middle ear implants can provide substantial hearing improvement in safe conditions and open new strategies for hearing rehabilitation.

  7. New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares Dos Santos, Marco P.; Marote, Ana; Santos, T.; Torrão, João; Ramos, A.; Simões, José A. O.; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A. B.; Furlani, Edward P.; Vieira, Sandra I.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.

    2016-07-01

    Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells.

  8. Hermetic diamond capsules for biomedical implants enabled by gold active braze alloys.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Samantha G; Escudié, Mathilde C; Stacey, Alastair D; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Fox, Kate; Ahnood, Arman; Apollo, Nicholas V; Kua, Dunstan C; Lee, Aaron Z; McGowan, Ceara; Saunders, Alexia L; Burns, Owen; Nayagam, David A X; Williams, Richard A; Garrett, David J; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    As the field of biomedical implants matures the functionality of implants is rapidly increasing. In the field of neural prostheses this is particularly apparent as researchers strive to build devices that interact with highly complex neural systems such as vision, hearing, touch and movement. A retinal implant, for example, is a highly complex device and the surgery, training and rehabilitation requirements involved in deploying such devices are extensive. Ideally, such devices will be implanted only once and will continue to function effectively for the lifetime of the patient. The first and most pivotal factor that determines device longevity is the encapsulation that separates the sensitive electronics of the device from the biological environment. This paper describes the realisation of a free standing device encapsulation made from diamond, the most impervious, long lasting and biochemically inert material known. A process of laser micro-machining and brazing is described detailing the fabrication of hermetic electrical feedthroughs and laser weldable seams using a 96.4% gold active braze alloy, another material renowned for biochemical longevity. Accelerated ageing of the braze alloy, feedthroughs and hermetic capsules yielded no evidence of corrosion and no loss of hermeticity. Samples of the gold braze implanted for 15 weeks, in vivo, caused minimal histopathological reaction and results were comparable to those obtained from medical grade silicone controls. The work described represents a first account of a free standing, fully functional hermetic diamond encapsulation for biomedical implants, enabled by gold active alloy brazing and laser micro-machining.

  9. A system for implanting laboratory mice with light-activated microtransponders.

    PubMed

    Gruda, Maryann C; Pinto, Amanda; Craelius, Aaron; Davidowitz, Hanan; Kopacka, Wesley M; Li, Ji; Qian, Jay; Rodriguez, Efrain; Kuspiel, Edward; Mandecki, Wlodek

    2010-11-01

    The mouse is the most commonly used laboratory animal, accounting for up to 80% of all mammals used in research studies. Because rodents generally are group-housed, an efficient system of uniquely identifying individual animals for use in research studies, breeding, and proper colony management is required. Several temporary and permanent methods (for example, ear punching and toe clipping) are available for labeling research mice and other small animals, each with advantages and disadvantages. This report describes a new radiofrequency identification tagging method that uses 500-μm, light-activated microtransponders implanted subcutaneously into the ear or tail of mice. The preferred location for implanting is in the side of the tail, because implantation at this site was simple to perform and was associated with shorter implantation times (average, 53 versus 325 s) and a higher success rate (98% versus 50%) compared with the ear. The main benefits of using light-activated microtransponders over other identification methods, including other radiofrequency identification tags, is their small size, which minimizes stress to the animals during implantation and low cost due to their one-piece (monolithic) design. In addition, the implantation procedure uses a custom-designed 21-gauge needle injector and does not require anesthetization of the mice. We conclude that this method allows improved identification and management of laboratory mice.

  10. A System for Implanting Laboratory Mice with Light-Activated Microtransponders

    PubMed Central

    Gruda, Maryann C; Pinto, Amanda; Craelius, Aaron; Davidowitz, Hanan; Kopacka, Wesley M; Li, Ji; Qian, Jay; Rodriguez, Efrain; Kuspiel, Edward; Mandecki, Wlodek

    2010-01-01

    The mouse is the most commonly used laboratory animal, accounting for up to 80% of all mammals used in research studies. Because rodents generally are group-housed, an efficient system of uniquely identifying individual animals for use in research studies, breeding, and proper colony management is required. Several temporary and permanent methods (for example, ear punching and toe clipping) are available for labeling research mice and other small animals, each with advantages and disadvantages. This report describes a new radiofrequency identification tagging method that uses 500-µm, light-activated microtransponders implanted subcutaneously into the ear or tail of mice. The preferred location for implanting is in the side of the tail, because implantation at this site was simple to perform and was associated with shorter implantation times (average, 53 versus 325 s) and a higher success rate (98% versus 50%) compared with the ear. The main benefits of using light-activated microtransponders over other identification methods, including other radiofrequency identification tags, is their small size, which minimizes stress to the animals during implantation and low cost due to their one-piece (monolithic) design. In addition, the implantation procedure uses a custom-designed 21-gauge needle injector and does not require anesthetization of the mice. We conclude that this method allows improved identification and management of laboratory mice. PMID:21205448

  11. Activation of the epithelial Na+ channel triggers prostaglandin E₂ release and production required for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Guo, Jing Hui; Liu, Xinmei; Zhang, Runju; Tsang, Lai Ling; Dong, Jian Da; Chen, Hui; Yu, Mei Kuen; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Fok, Kin Lam; Chung, Yiu Wa; Huang, Hefeng; Zhou, Wen Liang; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-07-01

    Embryo implantation remains a poorly understood process. We demonstrate here that activation of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC) in mouse endometrial epithelial cells by an embryo-released serine protease, trypsin, triggers Ca²⁺ influx that leads to prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) release, phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, the enzyme required for prostaglandin production and implantation. We detected maximum ENaC activation, as indicated by ENaC cleavage, at the time of implantation in mice. Blocking or knocking down uterine ENaC in mice resulted in implantation failure. Furthermore, we found that uterine ENaC expression before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is markedly lower in women with implantation failure as compared to those with successful pregnancy. These results indicate a previously undefined role of ENaC in regulating the PGE₂ production and release required for embryo implantation, defects that may be a cause of miscarriage and low success rates in IVF.

  12. New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices

    PubMed Central

    Soares dos Santos, Marco P.; Marote, Ana; Santos, T.; Torrão, João; Ramos, A.; Simões, José A. O.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Furlani, Edward P.; Vieira, Sandra I.; Ferreira, Jorge A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells. PMID:27456818

  13. Apposition to endometrial epithelial cells activates mouse blastocysts for implantation.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Peter T; Berneau, Stéphane C; Koeck, Rebekka; Watts, Jessica; Kimber, Susan J; Brison, Daniel R; Westwood, Melissa; Aplin, John D

    2017-09-01

    How do interactions between blastocyst-stage embryos and endometrial epithelial cells regulate the early stages of implantation in an in vitro model? Mouse blastocyst apposition with human endometrial epithelial cells initiates trophectoderm differentiation to trophoblast, which goes on to breach the endometrial epithelium. In vitro models using mouse blastocysts and human endometrial cell lines have proven invaluable in the molecular characterisation of embryo attachment to endometrial epithelium at the onset of implantation. Genes involved in embryonic breaching of the endometrial epithelium have not been investigated in such in vitro models. This study used an established in vitro model of implantation to examine cellular and molecular interactions during blastocyst attachment to endometrial epithelial cells. Mouse blastocysts developed from embryonic day (E) 1.5 in vitro were hatched and co-cultured with confluent human endometrial adenocarcinoma-derived Ishikawa cells in serum-free medium. A scale of attachment stability based on blastocyst oscillation upon agitation was devised. Blastocysts were monitored for 48 h to establish the kinetics of implantation, and optical sectioning using fluorescence microscopy revealed attachment and invasion interfaces. Quantitative PCR was used to determine blastocyst gene expression. Data from a total of 680 mouse blastocysts are reported, with 3-6 experimental replicates. T-test and ANOVA analyses established statistical significance at P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001. Hatched E4.5 mouse blastocysts exhibited weak attachment to confluent Ishikawa cells over the first 24 h of co-culture, with intermediate and stable attachment occurring from 28 h (E5.5 + 4 h) in a hormone-independent manner. Attached embryos fixed after 48 h (E6.5) frequently exhibited outgrowths, characterised morphologically and with antibody markers as trophoblast giant cells (TGCs), which had breached the Ishikawa cell layer. Beginning co-culture at E5

  14. Brain oscillatory activity during motor imagery in EEG-fMRI coregistration.

    PubMed

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Cerini, Roberto; Fiaschi, Antonio; Manganotti, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the correlation between topographical changes in brain oscillatory activity and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during a motor imagery (MI) task using electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coregistration. EEG was recorded in 7 healthy subjects inside a 1.5 T MR scanner during the imagination of the kinesthetic experience of movement. A Fast Fourier Transform was applied to EEG signal in the rest and active conditions. We used the event-related-synchronization (ERS)/desynchronization (ERD) approach to characterize where the imagination of movement produces a decrease in alpha and beta power. The mean alpha map showed ERD decrease localized over the contralateral sensory motor area (SM1c) and a light desynchronization in the ipsilateral sensory motor area (SM1i); whereas the mean beta map showed ERD decrease over the supplementary motor area (SMA). fMRI showed significant activation in SMA, SM1c, SM1i. The correlation is negative in the contralateral side and positive in the ipsilateral side. Using combined EEG-fMRI signals we obtained useful new information on the description of the changes in oscillatory activity in alpha and beta bands during MI and on the investigation of the sites of BOLD activity as possible sources in generating these rhythms. By correlating BOLD and ERD/ERS we may identify more accurately which regions contribute to changes of the electrical response.

  15. Cortical connective field estimates from resting state fMRI activity

    PubMed Central

    Gravel, Nicolás; Harvey, Ben; Nordhjem, Barbara; Haak, Koen V.; Dumoulin, Serge O.; Renken, Remco; Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2014-01-01

    One way to study connectivity in visual cortical areas is by examining spontaneous neural activity. In the absence of visual input, such activity remains shaped by the underlying neural architecture and, presumably, may still reflect visuotopic organization. Here, we applied population connective field (CF) modeling to estimate the spatial profile of functional connectivity in the early visual cortex during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). This model-based analysis estimates the spatial integration between blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in distinct cortical visual field maps using fMRI. Just as population receptive field (pRF) mapping predicts the collective neural activity in a voxel as a function of response selectivity to stimulus position in visual space, CF modeling predicts the activity of voxels in one visual area as a function of the aggregate activity in voxels in another visual area. In combination with pRF mapping, CF locations on the cortical surface can be interpreted in visual space, thus enabling reconstruction of visuotopic maps from resting state data. We demonstrate that V1 ➤ V2 and V1 ➤ V3 CF maps estimated from resting state fMRI data show visuotopic organization. Therefore, we conclude that—despite some variability in CF estimates between RS scans—neural properties such as CF maps and CF size can be derived from resting state data. PMID:25400541

  16. Cortical connective field estimates from resting state fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Nicolás; Harvey, Ben; Nordhjem, Barbara; Haak, Koen V; Dumoulin, Serge O; Renken, Remco; Curčić-Blake, Branislava; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2014-01-01

    One way to study connectivity in visual cortical areas is by examining spontaneous neural activity. In the absence of visual input, such activity remains shaped by the underlying neural architecture and, presumably, may still reflect visuotopic organization. Here, we applied population connective field (CF) modeling to estimate the spatial profile of functional connectivity in the early visual cortex during resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). This model-based analysis estimates the spatial integration between blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in distinct cortical visual field maps using fMRI. Just as population receptive field (pRF) mapping predicts the collective neural activity in a voxel as a function of response selectivity to stimulus position in visual space, CF modeling predicts the activity of voxels in one visual area as a function of the aggregate activity in voxels in another visual area. In combination with pRF mapping, CF locations on the cortical surface can be interpreted in visual space, thus enabling reconstruction of visuotopic maps from resting state data. We demonstrate that V1 ➤ V2 and V1 ➤ V3 CF maps estimated from resting state fMRI data show visuotopic organization. Therefore, we conclude that-despite some variability in CF estimates between RS scans-neural properties such as CF maps and CF size can be derived from resting state data.

  17. Neuroanatomic substrates of semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: Patterns of functional MRI activation

    PubMed Central

    SAYKIN, ANDREW J.; FLASHMAN, LAURA A.; FRUTIGER, SALLY A.; JOHNSON, STERLING C.; MAMOURIAN, ALEXANDER C.; MORITZ, CHAD H.; O’JILE, JUDITH R.; RIORDAN, HENRY J.; SANTULLI, ROBERT B.; SMITH, CYNTHIA A.; WEAVER, JOHN B.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in semantic processing occurs early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and differential impact on subtypes of semantic relations have been reported, yet there is little data on the neuroanatomic basis of these deficits. Patients with mild AD and healthy controls underwent 3 functional MRI auditory stimulation tasks requiring semantic or phonological decisions (match–mismatch) about word pairs (category–exemplar, category–function, pseudoword). Patients showed a significant performance deficit only on the exemplar task. On voxel-based fMRI activation analyses, controls showed a clear activation focus in the left superior temporal gyrus for the phonological task; patients showed additional foci in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral cingulate areas. On the semantic tasks, predominant activation foci were seen in the inferior and middle frontal gyrus (left greater than right) in both groups but patients showed additional activation suggesting compensatory recruitment of locally expanded foci and remote regions, for example, right frontal activation during the exemplar task. Covariance analyses indicated that exemplar task performance was strongly related to signal increase in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex. The authors conclude that fMRI can reveal similarities and differences in functional neuroanatomical processing of semantic and phonological information in mild AD compared to healthy elderly, and can help to bridge cognitive and neural investigations of the integrity of semantic networks in AD. PMID:10439584

  18. Incremental activation detection for real-time fMRI series using robust Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Yan, Bin; Tong, Li; Wang, Linyuan; Li, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) is a technique that enables us to observe human brain activations in real time. However, some unexpected noises that emerged in fMRI data collecting, such as acute swallowing, head moving and human manipulations, will cause much confusion and unrobustness for the activation analysis. In this paper, a new activation detection method for rt-fMRI data is proposed based on robust Kalman filter. The idea is to add a variation to the extended kalman filter to handle the additional sparse measurement noise and a sparse noise term to the measurement update step. Hence, the robust Kalman filter is designed to improve the robustness for the outliers and can be computed separately for each voxel. The algorithm can compute activation maps on each scan within a repetition time, which meets the requirement for real-time analysis. Experimental results show that this new algorithm can bring out high performance in robustness and in real-time activation detection.

  19. Brain Activities Associated with Graphic Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activities that are associated with graphic emoticons by using functional MRI (fMRI). We use various types of faces from abstract to photorealistic in computer network applications. A graphics emoticon is an abstract face in communication over computer network. In this research, we created various graphic emoticons for the fMRI study and the graphic emoticons were classified according to friendliness and level of arousal. We investigated the brain activities of participants who were required to evaluate the emotional valence of the graphic emoticons (happy or sad). The experimental results showed that not only the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, but also the inferior and middle temporal gyrus and the fusiform gyrus, were found to be activated during the experiment. Forthermore, it is possible that the activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus is related to the type of abstract face. Since the inferior and middle temporal gyrus were activated, even though the graphic emoticons are static, we may perceive graphic emoticons as dynamic and living agents. Moreover, it is believed that text and graphics emoticons play an important role in enriching communication among users.

  20. Modeling inter-subject variability in fMRI activation location: A Bayesian hierarchical spatial model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nee, Derek E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aim of this work is to develop a spatial model for multi-subject fMRI data. There has been extensive work on univariate modeling of each voxel for single and multi-subject data, some work on spatial modeling of single-subject data, and some recent work on spatial modeling of multi-subject data. However, there has been no work on spatial models that explicitly account for inter-subject variability in activation locations. In this work, we use the idea of activation centers and model the inter-subject variability in activation locations directly. Our model is specified in a Bayesian hierarchical frame work which allows us to draw inferences at all levels: the population level, the individual level and the voxel level. We use Gaussian mixtures for the probability that an individual has a particular activation. This helps answer an important question which is not addressed by any of the previous methods: What proportion of subjects had a significant activity in a given region. Our approach incorporates the unknown number of mixture components into the model as a parameter whose posterior distribution is estimated by reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo. We demonstrate our method with a fMRI study of resolving proactive interference and show dramatically better precision of localization with our method relative to the standard mass-univariate method. Although we are motivated by fMRI data, this model could easily be modified to handle other types of imaging data. PMID:19210732

  1. Neurofeedback fMRI-mediated learning and consolidation of regional brain activation during motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Schik; Lee, Jong-Hwan; O’Leary, Heather; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the long-term effect of real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) training on voluntary regulation of the level of activation from a hand motor area. During the performance of a motor imagery task of a right hand, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal originating from a primary motor area was presented back to the subject in real-time. Demographically matched individuals also received the same procedure without valid feedback information. Followed by the initial rtfMRI sessions, both groups underwent two-week long, daily-practice of the task. Off-line data analysis revealed that the individuals in the experimental group were able to increase the level of BOLD signal from the regulatory target to a greater degree compared to the control group. Furthermore, the learned level of activation was maintained after the two-week period, with the recruitment of additional neural circuitries such as the hippocampus and the limbo-thalamo-cortical pathway. The activation obtained from the control group, in the absence of proper feedback, was indifferent across the training conditions. The level of BOLD activity from the target regulatory region was positively correlated with a self evaluative score within the experimental group, while the majority of control subjects had difficulty adopting a strategy to attain the desired level of functional regulation. Our results suggest that rtfMRI helped individuals learn how to increase region-specific cortical activity associated with a motor imagery task, and the level of increased activation in motor areas was consolidated after the two-week self-practice period, with the involvement of neural circuitries implicated in motor skill learning. PMID:19526048

  2. EEG-fMRI fusion of paradigm-free activity using Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Deneux, Thomas; Faugeras, Olivier

    2010-04-01

    We address here the use of EEG and fMRI, and their combination, in order to estimate the full spatiotemporal patterns of activity on the cortical surface in the absence of any particular assumptions on this activity such as stimulation times. For handling such a high-dimension inverse problem, we propose the use of (1) a global forward model of how these measures are functions of the "neural activity" of a large number of sources distributed on the cortical surface, formalized as a dynamical system, and (2) adaptive filters, as a natural solution to solve this inverse problem iteratively along the temporal dimension. This estimation framework relies on realistic physiological models, uses EEG and fMRI in a symmetric manner, and takes into account both their temporal and spatial information. We use the Kalman filter and smoother to perform such an estimation on realistic artificial data and demonstrate that the algorithm can handle the high dimensionality of these data and that it succeeds in solving this inverse problem, combining efficiently the information provided by the two modalities (this information being naturally predominantly temporal for EEG and spatial for fMRI). It performs particularly well in reconstructing a random temporally and spatially smooth activity spread over the cortex. The Kalman filter and smoother show some limitations, however, which call for the development of more specific adaptive filters. First, they do not cope well with the strong nonlinearity in the model that is necessary for an adequate description of the relation between cortical electric activities and the metabolic demand responsible for fMRI signals. Second, they fail to estimate a sparse activity (i.e., presenting sharp peaks at specific locations and times). Finally their computational cost remains high. We use schematic examples to explain these limitations and propose further developments of our method to overcome them.

  3. High carrier activation of Mg ion-implanted GaN by conventional rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Takaki; Fujii, Takahiro; Oka, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    A high activation ratio of Mg ion implantation by conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was demonstrated. To obtain the high activation ratio of Mg ion implantation, the dependence of hole concentration on Mg dose was investigated. A maximum hole concentration and a high activation ratio of 2.3% were obtained at a Mg dose of 2.3 × 1014 cm-2 between 9.2 × 1013 and 2.3 × 1015 cm-2. The ratio is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest ever obtained by conventional RTA.

  4. Temporal Cortex Activation to Audiovisual Speech in Normal-Hearing and Cochlear Implant Users Measured with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Luuk P. H.; van Opstal, A. John; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Straatman, Louise V.; Hu, Hai Yin; Snik, Ad F. M.; van Wanrooij, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Speech understanding may rely not only on auditory, but also on visual information. Non-invasive functional neuroimaging techniques can expose the neural processes underlying the integration of multisensory processes required for speech understanding in humans. Nevertheless, noise (from functional MRI, fMRI) limits the usefulness in auditory experiments, and electromagnetic artifacts caused by electronic implants worn by subjects can severely distort the scans (EEG, fMRI). Therefore, we assessed audio-visual activation of temporal cortex with a silent, optical neuroimaging technique: functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Methods: We studied temporal cortical activation as represented by concentration changes of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin in four, easy-to-apply fNIRS optical channels of 33 normal-hearing adult subjects and five post-lingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users in response to supra-threshold unisensory auditory and visual, as well as to congruent auditory-visual speech stimuli. Results: Activation effects were not visible from single fNIRS channels. However, by discounting physiological noise through reference channel subtraction (RCS), auditory, visual and audiovisual (AV) speech stimuli evoked concentration changes for all sensory modalities in both cohorts (p < 0.001). Auditory stimulation evoked larger concentration changes than visual stimuli (p < 0.001). A saturation effect was observed for the AV condition. Conclusions: Physiological, systemic noise can be removed from fNIRS signals by RCS. The observed multisensory enhancement of an auditory cortical channel can be plausibly described by a simple addition of the auditory and visual signals with saturation. PMID:26903848

  5. Modeling state-related fMRI activity using change-point theory.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Martin A; Waugh, Christian; Wager, Tor D

    2007-04-15

    The general linear model (GLM) approach has arguably become the dominant way to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. It tests whether activity in a brain region is systematically related to some known input function. However, the GLM becomes impractical when the precise timing and duration of psychological events cannot be specified a priori. In this work, we introduce a new analysis approach that allows the predicted signal to depend non-linearly on the input. The approach uses ideas from statistical control theory and change-point theory to model slowly varying processes for which the onset times and durations of underlying psychological activity are uncertain. Our approach is exploratory in nature, while retaining the inferential capabilities of the more rigid modeling approach. It is a multi-subject extension of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) method used in change-point analysis. We extend existing EWMA models for individual subjects (a single time series) so that they are applicable to fMRI data, and develop a group analysis using a hierarchical model, which we term HEWMA (Hierarchical EWMA). The HEWMA method can be used to analyze fMRI data voxel-wise throughout the brain, data from regions of interest, or temporal components extracted using ICA or similar methods. We validate the false-positive rate control of the method and provide power estimates using simulations based on real fMRI data. We further apply this method to an fMRI study (n=24) of state anxiety. A toolbox implementing all functions in Matlab is freely available from the authors.

  6. fMRI activity patterns in human LOC carry information about object exemplars within category.

    PubMed

    Eger, Evelyn; Ashburner, John; Haynes, John-Dylan; Dolan, Raymond J; Rees, Geraint

    2008-02-01

    Abstract The lateral occipital complex (LOC) is a set of areas in the human occipito-temporal cortex responding to objects as opposed to low-level control stimuli. Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis methods based on regional averages could not detect signals discriminative of different types of objects in this region. Here, we examined fMRI signals using multivariate pattern recognition (support vector classification) to systematically explore the nature of object-related information available in fine-grained activity patterns in the LOC. Distributed fMRI signals from the LOC allowed for above-chance discrimination not only of the category but also of within-category exemplars of everyday man-made objects, and such exemplar-specific information generalized across changes in stimulus size and viewpoint, particularly in posterior subregions. Object identity could also be predicted from responses of the early visual cortex, even significantly across the changes in size and viewpoint used here. However, a dissociation was observed between these two regions of interest in the degree of discrimination for objects relative to size: In the early visual cortex, two different sizes of the same object were even better discriminated than two different objects (in accordance with measures of pixelwise stimulus similarity), whereas the opposite was true in the LOC. These findings provide the first evidence that direct evoked fMRI activity patterns in the LOC can be different for individual object exemplars (within a single category). We propose that pattern recognition methods as used here may provide an alternative approach to study mechanisms of neuronal representation based on aspects of the fMRI response independent of those assessed in adaptation paradigms.

  7. A Biodistribution and Toxicity Study of Cobalt Dichloride-N-Acetyl Cysteine in an Implantable MRI Marker for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Johansen, Mary J.; Martirosyan, Karen S.; Gagea, Mihai; Van Pelt, Carolyn S.; Borne, Agatha; Carmazzi, Yudith; Madden, Timothy

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: C4, a cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl cysteine complex, is being developed as a positive-signal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker to localize implanted radioactive seeds in prostate brachytherapy. We evaluated the toxicity and biodistribution of C4 in rats with the goal of simulating the systemic effects of potential leakage from C4 MRI markers within the prostate. Methods and Materials: 9-μL doses (equivalent to leakage from 120 markers in a human) of control solution (0.9% sodium chloride), 1% (proposed for clinical use), and 10% C4 solution were injected into the prostates of male Sprague-Dawley rats via laparotomy. Organ toxicity and cobalt disposition in plasma, tissues, feces, and urine were evaluated. Results: No C4-related morbidity or mortality was observed in the biodistribution arm (60 rats). Biodistribution was measurable after 10% C4 injection: cobalt was cleared rapidly from periprostatic tissue; mean concentrations in prostate were 163 μg/g and 268 μg/g at 5 and 30 minutes but were undetectable by 60 minutes. Expected dual renal-hepatic elimination was observed, with percentages of injected dose recovered in tissues of 39.0 ± 5.6% (liver), >11.8 ± 6.5% (prostate), and >5.3 ± 0.9% (kidney), with low plasma concentrations detected up to 1 hour (1.40 μg/mL at 5-60 minutes). Excretion in urine was 13.1 ± 4.6%, with 3.1 ± 0.54% recovered in feces by 24 hours. In the toxicity arm, 3 animals died in the control group and 1 each in the 1% and 10% groups from surgical or anesthesia-related complications; all others survived to scheduled termination at 14 days. No C4-related adverse clinical signs or organ toxicity were observed. Conclusion: C4-related toxicity was not observed at exposures at least 10-fold the exposure proposed for use in humans. These data demonstrating lack of systemic toxicity with dual routes of elimination in the event of in situ rupture suggest that C4 warrants further investigation as an MRI marker for prostate

  8. Computerized Liver Volumetry on MRI by Using 3D Geodesic Active Contour Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Karademir, Ibrahim; Oto, Aytekin; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated 3D liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes on MRI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Our scheme for MRI liver volumetry consisted of three main stages. First, the preprocessing stage was applied to T1-weighted MRI of the liver in the portal venous phase to reduce noise and produce the boundary-enhanced image. This boundary-enhanced image was used as a speed function for a 3D fast-marching algorithm to generate an initial surface that roughly approximated the shape of the liver. A 3D geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm refined the initial surface to precisely determine the liver boundaries. The liver volumes determined by our scheme were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as the reference standard. RESULTS The two volumetric methods reached excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.98) without statistical significance (p = 0.42). The average (± SD) accuracy was 99.4% ± 0.14%, and the average Dice overlap coefficient was 93.6% ± 1.7%. The mean processing time for our automated scheme was 1.03 ± 0.13 minutes, whereas that for manual volumetry was 24.0 ± 4.4 minutes (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The MRI liver volumetry based on our automated scheme agreed excellently with reference-standard volumetry, and it required substantially less completion time. PMID:24370139

  9. Detection of auditory cortex activity by fMRI using a dependent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Estombelo-Montesco, Carlos A; Sturzbecher, Marcio; Barros, Allan K D; de Araujo, Draulio B

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) data often have low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and are contaminated by strong interference from other physiological sources. A promising tool for extracting signals, even under low SNR conditions, is blind source separation (BSS), or independent component analysis (ICA). BSS is based on the assumption that the detected signals are a mixture of a number of independent source signals that are linearly combined via an unknown mixing matrix. BSS seeks to determine the mixing matrix to recover the source signals based on principles of statistical independence. In most cases, extraction of all sources is unnecessary; instead, a priori information can be applied to extract only the signal of interest. Herein we propose an algorithm based on a variation of ICA, called Dependent Component Analysis (DCA), where the signal of interest is extracted using a time delay obtained from an autocorrelation analysis. We applied such method to inspect functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, aiming to find the hemodynamic response that follows neuronal activation from an auditory stimulation, in human subjects. The method localized a significant signal modulation in cortical regions corresponding to the primary auditory cortex. The results obtained by DCA were also compared to those of the General Linear Model (GLM), which is the most widely used method to analyze fMRI datasets.

  10. Low-frequency hippocampal–cortical activity drives brain-wide resting-state functional MRI connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Russell W.; Leong, Alex T. L.; Ho, Leon C.; Gao, Patrick P.; Wong, Eddie C.; Dong, Celia M.; Wang, Xunda; He, Jufang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Lim, Lee Wei; Wu, Ed X.

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus, including the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG), and cortex engage in bidirectional communication. We propose that low-frequency activity in hippocampal–cortical pathways contributes to brain-wide resting-state connectivity to integrate sensory information. Using optogenetic stimulation and brain-wide fMRI and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we determined the large-scale effects of spatiotemporal-specific downstream propagation of hippocampal activity. Low-frequency (1 Hz), but not high-frequency (40 Hz), stimulation of dDG excitatory neurons evoked robust cortical and subcortical brain-wide fMRI responses. More importantly, it enhanced interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity in various cortices and hippocampus. Subsequent local field potential recordings revealed an increase in slow oscillations in dorsal hippocampus and visual cortex, interhemispheric visual cortical connectivity, and hippocampal–cortical connectivity. Meanwhile, pharmacological inactivation of dDG neurons decreased interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity. Functionally, visually evoked fMRI responses in visual regions also increased during and after low-frequency dDG stimulation. Together, our results indicate that low-frequency activity robustly propagates in the dorsal hippocampal–cortical pathway, drives interhemispheric cortical rsfMRI connectivity, and mediates visual processing. PMID:28760982

  11. Different nonlinear functions in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex relating functional MRI activity to memory strength.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhuang; Wixted, John T; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2011-04-05

    Findings from functional MRI (fMRI) studies of recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe often suggest qualitative differences in the contribution of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. This interpretation is complicated by the fact that most of the methods intended to demonstrate qualitative differences also separate strong memories from weak memories. Thus, apparent qualitative differences might reflect quantitative differences in how measured activity in medial temporal lobe structures varies with memory strength. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between activity at the time of study and subsequent memory strength is nonlinear in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex and also distinctly different in those two structures. We found that activity in the hippocampus was characterized by a positively accelerated function and that activity in the perirhinal cortex was associated with a statistically different, negatively accelerated function. Our results do not count against the possibility that these structures differ qualitatively in their contributions to memory. Rather, our findings show how an alternative interpretation based on quantitative differences can also account for a good deal of data, and they suggest that a demonstration of qualitative differences requires more stringent criteria than are achieved in most fMRI studies.

  12. Physiogenomic Analysis of Localized fMRI Brain Activity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Windemuth, Andreas; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Kocherla, Mohan; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic factors associated with disease is complicated by the complexity of the biological pathways linking genotype and phenotype. This analytical complexity is particularly concerning in diseases historically lacking reliable diagnostic biological markers, such as schizophrenia and other mental disorders. We investigate the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an intermediate phenotype (endophenotype) to identify physiogenomic associations to schizophrenia. We screened 99 subjects, 30 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 56 unrelated controls, for gene polymorphisms associated with fMRI activation patterns at two locations in temporal and frontal lobes previously implied in schizophrenia. A total of 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 genes from the dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission pathways were genotyped in all subjects. We identified three SNPs in genes that are significantly associated with fMRI activity. SNPs of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene and of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were associated with activity in the temporal and frontal lobes, respectively. One SNP of serotonin-3A receptor (HTR3A) was associated with temporal lobe activity. The results of this study support the physiogenomic analysis of neuroimaging data to discover associations between genotype and disease-related phenotypes. PMID:18330705

  13. Fronto-parietal hypo-activation during working memory independent of structural abnormalities: Conjoint fMRI and sMRI analyses in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Pruitt, Patrick; Goradia, Dhruman; Murphy, Eric; Bakshi, Neil; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Rajan, Usha; Reid, Andrew; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients (HR-S) are an important group in whom to study impaired brain function and structure, particularly of the frontal cortices. Studies of working memory have suggested behavioral deficits and fMRI-measured hypoactivity in fronto-parietal regions in these subjects. Independent structural MRI (sMRI) studies have suggested exaggerated frontal gray matter decline. Therefore the emergent view is that fronto-parietal deficits in function and structure characterize HR-S. However, it is unknown if fronto-parietal sub-regions in which fMRI-measured hypo-activity might be observed are precisely those regions of the cortex in which gray matter deficits are also observed. To investigate this question we conducted conjoint analyses of fronto-parietal function and structure in HR-S (n=19) and controls (n=24) with no family history of psychoses using fMRI data during a continuous working memory task (2 Back), and sMRI collected in the same session. HR-S demonstrated significantly reduced BOLD activation in left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9/46) and bilateral parietal cortex (BA 7/40). Sub-regions of interest were created from the significant fronto-parietal functional clusters. Analyses of gray matter volume from volume-modulated gray matter segments in these clusters did not reveal significant gray matter differences between groups. The results suggest that functional impairments in adolescent HR-S can be independent of impairments in structure, suggesting that the relationship between impaired function and structure is complex. Further studies will be needed to more closely assess whether impairments in function and structure provide independent or interacting pathways of vulnerability in this population. PMID:21729757

  14. Unifying Statistical Classification and Geodesic Active Regions for Segmentation of Cardiac MRI

    PubMed Central

    Folkesson, Jenny; Samset, Eigil; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a segmentation method that extends geodesic active region methods by the incorporation of a statistical classifier trained using feature selection. The classifier provides class probability maps based on class representative local features, and the geodesic active region formulation enables the partitioning of the image according to the region information. We demonstrate automatic segmentation results of the myocardium in cardiac late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) data using coupled level set curve evolutions, in which the classifier is incorporated both from a region term and from a shape term from particle filtering. The results show potential for clinical studies of scar tissue in late CE-MRI data. PMID:18693500

  15. Multiregional integration in the brain during resting-state fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Hay, Etay; Ritter, Petra; Lobaugh, Nancy J; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2017-03-01

    Data-driven models of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity can elucidate dependencies that involve the combination of multiple brain regions. Activity in some regions during resting-state fMRI can be predicted with high accuracy from the activities of other regions. However, it remains unclear in which regions activity depends on unique integration of multiple predictor regions. To address this question, sparse (parsimonious) models could serve to better determine key interregional dependencies by reducing false positives. We used resting-state fMRI data from 46 subjects, and for each region of interest (ROI) per subject we performed whole-brain recursive feature elimination (RFE) to select the minimal set of ROIs that best predicted activity in the modeled ROI. We quantified the dependence of activity on multiple predictor ROIs, by measuring the gain in prediction accuracy of models that incorporated multiple predictor ROIs compared to models that used a single predictor ROI. We identified regions that showed considerable evidence of multiregional integration and determined the key regions that contributed to their observed activity. Our models reveal fronto-parietal integration networks, little integration in primary sensory regions, as well as redundancy between some regions. Our study demonstrates the utility of whole-brain RFE to generate data-driven models with minimal sets of ROIs that predict activity with high accuracy. By determining the extent to which activity in each ROI depended on integration of signals from multiple ROIs, we find cortical integration networks during resting-state activity.

  16. Multiregional integration in the brain during resting-state fMRI activity

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Petra; Lobaugh, Nancy J.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    Data-driven models of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity can elucidate dependencies that involve the combination of multiple brain regions. Activity in some regions during resting-state fMRI can be predicted with high accuracy from the activities of other regions. However, it remains unclear in which regions activity depends on unique integration of multiple predictor regions. To address this question, sparse (parsimonious) models could serve to better determine key interregional dependencies by reducing false positives. We used resting-state fMRI data from 46 subjects, and for each region of interest (ROI) per subject we performed whole-brain recursive feature elimination (RFE) to select the minimal set of ROIs that best predicted activity in the modeled ROI. We quantified the dependence of activity on multiple predictor ROIs, by measuring the gain in prediction accuracy of models that incorporated multiple predictor ROIs compared to models that used a single predictor ROI. We identified regions that showed considerable evidence of multiregional integration and determined the key regions that contributed to their observed activity. Our models reveal fronto-parietal integration networks, little integration in primary sensory regions, as well as redundancy between some regions. Our study demonstrates the utility of whole-brain RFE to generate data-driven models with minimal sets of ROIs that predict activity with high accuracy. By determining the extent to which activity in each ROI depended on integration of signals from multiple ROIs, we find cortical integration networks during resting-state activity. PMID:28248957

  17. Lattice damage, boron diffusion, and dopant activation in BF/sub 2/ implanted layers

    SciTech Connect

    Queirolo, G.; Caprara, P.; Meda, L.; Guareschi, C.; Anderle, M.; Ottaviani, G.; Armigliato, A.

    1987-11-01

    The properties of boron-doped silicon layers obtained by ion implantation using BF/sub 2//sup +/ molecular ions are studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and with incremental sheet resistance and sheet Hall coefficient measurements by the anodic sectioning method. The implantation step is responsible for the formation of interstitial aggregates at the amorphous/crystal interface. The size of these aggregates, and hence the total number of defects involved, depends on the implant conditions, and is different for samples implanted in the two systems used (a medium current and a high current implanter). During a high temperature (900-1000/sup 0/C) diffusion step in an inert atmosphere, the aggregates anneal out and induce an interstitial oversaturation. As a consequence diffusion enhancement is observed which was modeled simulating the creation of the excess of interstitials with a thermal treatment in a partially oxidizing atmosphere (oxidation-enhanced diffusion). The carrier concentration profiles are nearly identical for samples implanted in the two systems and show an incomplete dopant activation in the diffusion tail.

  18. Model gradient coil employing active acoustic control for MRI.

    PubMed

    Haywood, B; Chapman, B; Mansfield, P

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented for a model three-axis gradient coil incorporating active acoustic control which is applied to the switched read gradient during a single-shot rapid echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence at a field strength of 3.0 T. The total imaging acquisition time was 10.6 ms. Substantial noise reduction is achieved both within the magnet bore and outside the magnet. Typical internal noise reduction over the specimen area is 40 dB(A) whereas outside the acoustic chamber the noise level is reduced by 60-67 dB(A). However these results are relative to a control winding which is switched in phase, adding 6 dB(A) in its non-optimized mode, which is included in the quoted figures.

  19. Active learning based segmentation of Crohns disease from abdominal MRI.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Vos, Franciscus M; Buhmann, Joachim M

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel active learning (AL) framework, and combines it with semi supervised learning (SSL) for segmenting Crohns disease (CD) tissues from abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Robust fully supervised learning (FSL) based classifiers require lots of labeled data of different disease severities. Obtaining such data is time consuming and requires considerable expertise. SSL methods use a few labeled samples, and leverage the information from many unlabeled samples to train an accurate classifier. AL queries labels of most informative samples and maximizes gain from the labeling effort. Our primary contribution is in designing a query strategy that combines novel context information with classification uncertainty and feature similarity. Combining SSL and AL gives a robust segmentation method that: (1) optimally uses few labeled samples and many unlabeled samples; and (2) requires lower training time. Experimental results show our method achieves higher segmentation accuracy than FSL methods with fewer samples and reduced training effort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Scheinost, Dustin; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Thornhill, Thomas A.; Thompson, Evan; Saron, Clifford; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Kober, Hedy; Hampson, Michelle; Gray, Jeremy R.; Constable, R. Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon; Brewer, Judson A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in brain imaging have improved the measure of neural processes related to perceptual, cognitive and affective functions, yet the relation between brain activity and subjective experience remains poorly characterized. In part, it is a challenge to obtain reliable accounts of participant’s experience in such studies. Here we addressed this limitation by utilizing experienced meditators who are expert in introspection. We tested a novel method to link objective and subjective data, using real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) to provide participants with feedback of their own brain activity during an ongoing task. We provided real-time feedback during a focused attention task from the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode network shown to be activated during mind-wandering and deactivated during meditation. In a first experiment, both meditators and non-meditators reported significant correspondence between the feedback graph and their subjective experience of focused attention and mind-wandering. When instructed to volitionally decrease the feedback graph, meditators, but not non-meditators, showed significant deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex. We were able to replicate these results in a separate group of meditators using a novel step-wise rt-fMRI discovery protocol in which participants were not provided with prior knowledge of the expected relationship between their experience and the feedback graph (i.e., focused attention versus mind-wandering). These findings support the feasibility of using rt-fMRI to link objective measures of brain activity with reports of ongoing subjective experience in cognitive neuroscience research, and demonstrate the generalization of expertise in introspective awareness to novel contexts. PMID:23684866

  1. A novel technique for examining human brain activity associated with pedaling using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Verber, Matthew D; Wieser, Jon A; Schmit, Brian D; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M

    2009-05-15

    Advances in neural imaging technologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have made it possible to obtain images of human brain activity during motor tasks. However, technical challenges have made it difficult to image the brain during multijoint lower limb movements like those involved in locomotion. We developed an MR compatible pedaling device and recorded human brain activity associated with rhythmic, alternating flexion and extension of the lower extremities. Ten volunteers pedaled at 30 RPM while recording fMRI signals in a GE 3T short bore MR scanner. We utilized a block design consisting of 3 runs of pedaling, each lasting 4 min. In a single run, subjects pedaled for 30 s and then rested for 30 s. This sequence was repeated 4 times. Conventional fMRI processing techniques, that correlate the entire BOLD signal with standard model, did not extract physiologically meaningful signal, likely due to magnetic field distortion caused by leg movement. Hence, we examined only the portion of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during movement-free periods. This technique takes advantage of the delayed nature of the BOLD signal and fits the falling portion of the signal after movement has stopped with a standard model. Using this approach, we observed physiologically plausible brain activity patterns associated with pedaling in the primary and secondary sensory and motor cortices and the cerebellum. To our knowledge, this is the first time that human brain activity associated with pedaling has been recorded with fMRI. This technique may be useful for advancing our understanding of supraspinal control of locomotor-like movements in health and disease.

  2. Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Elwafi, Hani M; Thornhill, Thomas A; Thompson, Evan; Saron, Clifford; Desbordes, Gaëlle; Kober, Hedy; Hampson, Michelle; Gray, Jeremy R; Constable, R Todd; Papademetris, Xenophon; Brewer, Judson A

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in brain imaging have improved the measure of neural processes related to perceptual, cognitive and affective functions, yet the relation between brain activity and subjective experience remains poorly characterized. In part, it is a challenge to obtain reliable accounts of participant's experience in such studies. Here we addressed this limitation by utilizing experienced meditators who are expert in introspection. We tested a novel method to link objective and subjective data, using real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) to provide participants with feedback of their own brain activity during an ongoing task. We provided real-time feedback during a focused attention task from the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode network shown to be activated during mind-wandering and deactivated during meditation. In a first experiment, both meditators and non-meditators reported significant correspondence between the feedback graph and their subjective experience of focused attention and mind-wandering. When instructed to volitionally decrease the feedback graph, meditators, but not non-meditators, showed significant deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex. We were able to replicate these results in a separate group of meditators using a novel step-wise rt-fMRI discovery protocol in which participants were not provided with prior knowledge of the expected relationship between their experience and the feedback graph (i.e., focused attention versus mind-wandering). These findings support the feasibility of using rt-fMRI to link objective measures of brain activity with reports of ongoing subjective experience in cognitive neuroscience research, and demonstrate the generalization of expertise in introspective awareness to novel contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ocular electrical stimulation: Therapeutic application and active retinal implants for hereditary retinal degenerations].

    PubMed

    Gekeler, F; Zrenner, E; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2015-09-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history in ophthalmology. Subthreshold electrical stimulation can have beneficial therapeutic effects on hereditary degenerative retinal diseases. Suprathreshold stimulation is able to elicit visual perceptions and, if multielectrode fields are arranged as an array, usable pictures can be perceived by blind patients. This is a review article on the current situation and studies on therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation. Moreover, the challenges, surgical concepts and visual results of active retinal implants are discussed. This article gives an overview on transcorneal electrical stimulation and active retinal implants based on published results, with special emphasis on the clinical application. The results of initial controlled studies on therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation in hereditary retinal diseases were very promising. The largest controlled study so far in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has yielded many positive trends and some significant improvements in electrophysiological data. Currently, two retinal implants have regulatory approval, the Argus II retinal prosthesis system® (SecondSight®) and the Alpha-IMS© (Retina Implant AG). Both systems can be used to improve visual perception and under test conditions can achieve visual acuities of 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In-depth analyses and follow-up studies in larger patient groups are currently planned to definitively clarify the potential of therapeutic transcorneal electrical stimulation in RP patients. The challenges of currently available active retinal implants are the technical biostability and the limited spatial resolution.

  4. An analysis of intraoperative versus post-operative dosimetry with CT, CT-MRI fusion and XMR for the evaluation of permanent prostate brachytherapy implants.

    PubMed

    Acher, Peter; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Rhode, Kawal; Morris, Stephen; Kinsella, Janette; Gaya, Andrew; Dasgupta, Prokar; Deehan, Charles; Beaney, Ronald; Popert, Rick; Keevil, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    To assess the agreement between intraoperative and post-operative dosimetry and to identify factors that influence dose calculations of prostate brachytherapy implants. Patients treated with prostate brachytherapy implants underwent post-operative CT and XMR (combined X-ray and MR) imaging. Dose-volume histograms were calculated from CT, XMR and CT-MR fusion data and compared with intraoperative values for two observers. Multiple linear regression models assessed the influences of intraoperative D90, gland oedema, gland volume, source loss and migration, and implanted activity/volume prostate on post-operative D90. Forty-nine patients were studied. The mean D90 differences (95% confidence limits) between intraoperative and post-operative CT, XMR and CT-MR fusion assessments were: 11 Gy (-22, 45), 18 Gy (-13, 49) and 20 Gy (-17, 58) for Observer 1; and 15 Gy (-34, 63), 13 Gy (-29, 55) and 14 Gy (-27, 54) for Observer 2. Multiple linear regression modelling showed that the observed oedema and intraoperative D90 were significant independent variables for the prediction of post-operative D90 values for both observers using all modalities. This is the first study to report Bland-Altman agreement analysis between intraoperative and post-operative dosimetry. Agreement is poor. Post-operative dosimetry is dependent on the intraoperative D90 and the subjectively outlined gland volume. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-biofilm activity of zinc oxide and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as dental implant coating materials.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, Elham H; Memarzadeh, K; Allaker, R P; Huang, J; Pratten, J; Spratt, D

    2015-12-01

    Dental implants are prone to failure as a result of bacterial biofilm accumulation. Such biofilms are often resistant to traditional antimicrobials and the use of nanoparticles as implant coatings may offer a means to control infection over a prolonged period. The objective of this study was to determine the antibiofilm activity of nanoparticulate coated titanium (Ti) discs using a film fermenter based system. Metal oxide nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nZnO), hydroxyapatite (nHA) and a combination (nZnO+nHA) were coated using electrohydrodynamic deposition onto Ti discs. Using human saliva as an inoculum, biofilms were grown on coated discs for 96 h in a constant depth film fermenter under aerobic conditions with artificial saliva and peri-implant sulcular fluid. Viability assays and biofilm thickness measurements were used to assess antimicrobial activity. Following 96 h, reduced numbers of facultatively anaerobic and Streptococcus spp. on all three nano-coated surfaces were demonstrated. The proportion of non-viable microorganisms was shown to be higher on nZnO and composite (nZnO+nHA) coated surfaces at 96 h compared with nHA coated and uncoated titanium. Biofilm thickness comparison also demonstrated that nZnO and composite coatings to be the most effective. The findings support the use of coating Ti dental implant surfaces with nZnO to provide an antimicrobial function. Current forms of treatment for implant associated infection are often inadequate and may result in chronic infection requiring implant removal and resective/regenerative procedures to restore and reshape supporting tissue. The use of metal oxide nanoparticles to coat implants could provide osteoconductive and antimicrobial functionalities to prevent failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does bracing influence brain activity during knee movement: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Youri; Vingerhoets, Guy; Pattyn, Els; Rombaut, Lies; Witvrouw, Erik

    2010-08-01

    Studies have shown that proprioceptive inputs during active and passive arm movements are processed in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain. At which level of the central nervous system proprioceptive signals coming from the knee are regulated remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate whether there is a detectable difference in brain activity when various proprioceptive inputs are exerted at the knee, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used. fMRI in 13 healthy, right leg-dominant female volunteers compared brain activation during flexion-extension movements of the right knee under three different conditions: with application of a tight knee brace, with application of a moderate tight knee sleeve, and without application of a brace or sleeve. Brain activation was detected in the primary sensorimotor cortex (left and right paracentral lobule) and in the left superior parietal lobule of the brain. There was a significantly higher level of brain activation with the application of the brace and sleeve, respectively, compared to the condition without a brace or sleeve. A significantly higher cortical activation was also seen when comparing the braced condition with the condition when a sleeve was applied. The results suggest that peripheral proprioceptive input to the knee joint by means of a brace or sleeve seems to influence brain activity during knee movement. The results of this study also show that the intensity of brain activation during knee movement can be influenced by the intensity of proprioceptive stimulation at the joint.

  7. Enhanced osteogenic activity of poly ether ether ketone using calcium plasma immersion ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Qian, Shi; Meng, Fanhao; Ning, Congqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-06-01

    As a promising implantable material, poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses similar elastic modulus to that of cortical bones yet suffers from bio-inertness and poor osteogenic properties, which limits its application as orthopedic implants. In this work, calcium is introduced onto PEEK surface using calcium plasma immersion ion implantation (Ca-PIII). The results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm the modified layer with varying contents of calcium are formed on PEEK surfaces. Water contact angle measurements reveal the increasing hydrophobicity of both Ca-PIII treated surfaces. In vitro cell adhesion, viability assay, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen secretion analyses disclose improved the adhesion, proliferation, and osteo-differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) on Ca-PIII treated surfaces. The obtained results indicate that PEEK surface with enhanced osteogenic activity can be produced by calcium incorporation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Causal interaction following the alteration of target region activation during motor imagery training using real-time fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hang; Song, Sutao; Ye, Qing; Guo, Jia; Yao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Motor imagery training is an effective approach for motor skill learning and motor function rehabilitation. As a novel method of motor imagery training, real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) enables individuals to acquire self-control of localized brain activation, achieving desired changes in behavior. The regulation of target region activation by rtfMRI often alters the activation of related brain regions. However, the interaction between the target region and these related regions is unclear. The Granger causality model (GCM) is a data-driven method that can explore the causal interaction between brain regions. In this study, we employed rtfMRI to train subjects to regulate the activation of the ipsilateral dorsal premotor area (dPMA) during motor imagery training, and we calculated the causal interaction of the dPMA with other motor-related regions based on the GCM. The results demonstrated that as the activity of the dPMA changed during rtfMRI training, the interaction of the target region with other related regions became significantly altered, and behavioral performance was improved after training. The altered interaction primarily exhibited as an increased unidirectional interaction from the dPMA to the other regions. These findings support the dominant role of the dPMA in motor skill learning via rtfMRI training and may indicate how activation of the target region interacts with the activation of other related regions. PMID:24379775

  9. Coupling of radial-basis network and active contour model for multispectral brain MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Cristerna, Raquel; Medina-Bañuelos, Verónica; Yáñez-Suárez, Oscar

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) has been accepted as the reference image study in the clinical environment. The development of new sequences has allowed obtaining diverse images with high clinical importance and whose interpretation requires their joint analysis (multispectral MRI). Recent approaches to segment MRI point toward the definition of hybrid models, where the advantages of region and contour-based methods can be exploited to look for the integration or fusion of information, thus enhancing the performance of the individual approaches. Following this perspective, a hybrid model for multispectral brain MRI segmentation is presented. The model couples a segmenter, based on a radial basis network (RBFNNcc), and an active contour model, based on a cubic spline active contour (CSAC) interpolation. Both static and dynamic coupling of RBFNNcc and CSAC are proposed; the RBFNNcc stage provides an initial contour to the CSAC; the initial contour is optimally sampled with respect to its curvature variations; multispectral information and a restriction term are included into the CSAC energy equation. Segmentations were compared to a reference stack, indicating high-quality performance as measured by Tanimoto indexes of 0.74 +/- 0.08.

  10. Oral manganese as an MRI contrast agent for the detection of nociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kathleen E; Behera, Deepak; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Gold, Garry; Moseley, Michael; Yeomans, David; Biswal, Sandip

    2012-04-01

    The ability of divalent manganese to enter neurons via calcium channels makes manganese an excellent MRI contrast agent for the imaging of nociception, the afferent neuronal encoding of pain perception. There is growing evidence that nociceptive neurons possess increased expression and activity of calcium channels, which would allow for the selective accumulation of manganese at these sites. In this study, we show that oral manganese chloride leads to increased enhancement of peripheral nerves involved in nociception on T(1)-weighted MRI. Oral rather than intravenous administration was chosen for its potentially better safety profile, making it a better candidate for clinical translation with important applications, such as pain diagnosis, therapy and research. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain was used for the purposes of this study. SNI rats were given, sequentially, increasing amounts of manganese chloride (lowest, 2.29 mg/100 g weight; highest, 20.6 mg/100 g weight) with alanine and vitamin D(3) by oral gavage. Compared with controls, SNI rats demonstrated increased signal-to-background ratios on T(1)-weighted fast spin echo MRI, which was confirmed by and correlated strongly with spectrometry measurements of nerve manganese concentration. We also found the difference between SNI and control rats to be greater at 48 h than at 24 h after dosing, indicating increased manganese retention in addition to increased manganese uptake in nociceptive nerves. This study demonstrates that oral manganese is a viable method for the imaging of nerves associated with increased nociceptive activity.

  11. Anatomically-adapted graph wavelets for improved group-level fMRI activation mapping.

    PubMed

    Behjat, Hamid; Leonardi, Nora; Sörnmo, Leif; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    A graph based framework for fMRI brain activation mapping is presented. The approach exploits the spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) for the purpose of defining an advanced multi-resolutional spatial transformation for fMRI data. The framework extends wavelet based SPM (WSPM), which is an alternative to the conventional approach of statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and is developed specifically for group-level analysis. We present a novel procedure for constructing brain graphs, with subgraphs that separately encode the structural connectivity of the cerebral and cerebellar gray matter (GM), and address the inter-subject GM variability by the use of template GM representations. Graph wavelets tailored to the convoluted boundaries of GM are then constructed as a means to implement a GM-based spatial transformation on fMRI data. The proposed approach is evaluated using real as well as semi-synthetic multi-subject data. Compared to SPM and WSPM using classical wavelets, the proposed approach shows superior type-I error control. The results on real data suggest a higher detection sensitivity as well as the capability to capture subtle, connected patterns of brain activity.

  12. A self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent that detects esterase enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuguo; Sheth, Vipul R.; Liu, Guanshu; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The CEST effect of many PARACEST MRI contrast agents changes in response to a molecular biomarker. However, other molecular biomarkers or environmental factors can influence CEST, so that a change in CEST is not conclusive proof for detecting the biomarker. To overcome this problem, a second control CEST effect may be included in the same PARACEST agent, which is responsive to all factors that alter the first CEST effect except for the biomarker to be measured. To investigate this approach, a PARACEST MRI contrast agent was developed with one CEST effect that is responsive to esterase enzyme activity and a second control CEST effect. The ratio of the two CEST effects was independent of concentration and T1 relaxation, so that this agent was self-calibrating with respect to these factors. This ratiometric method was dependent on temperature and was influenced by MR coalescence as the chemical exchange rates approached the chemical shifts of the exchangable protons as temperature was increased. The two CEST effects also showed evidence of having different pH dependencies, so that this agent was not self-calibrating with respect to pH. Therefore, a self-calibrating PARACEST MRI contrast agent can more accurately detect a molecular biomarker such as esterase enzyme activity, as long as temperature and pH are within an acceptable physiological range and remain constant. PMID:21861282

  13. Heart MRI

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  14. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on cerebral activity: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Koitabashi, K

    2016-06-01

    Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) is one of the self-management relaxation techniques that can be used in the general population and patients with specific issues. However, no study to date has revealed the brain activity associated with PMR. Therefore, we assessed the changes in brain activity induced by PMR using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We conducted an intervention study with PMR and control sessions. The subjects were twelve healthy adult men who had no prior experience of PMR. Subjects performed a control session in which muscles were repeatedly simply tensed and relaxed. Subsequently, a PMR session took place, during which muscle tension was reduced through a systematic procedure of tensing and relaxing of muscle groups combined with structured breathing. We identified and visualised brain activity based on individual and group-level analysis of fMRI data. Eleven subjects' data were analysed. In the control session, brain activity broadly changed, while the change was limited to specific parts of the cerebral cortex and limbic system in the PMR session. PMR gradually decreased activity in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). In a region of interest (ROI) analysis, interactions between sessions were observed in the putamen, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), postcentral gyrus (PCG), and insula. That PMR led to few areas showing changed activity suggests that the technique may suppress brain activity. Even novices may be able to induce such a focused mental state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time fMRI-based activation analysis and stimulus control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Bernarding, Johannes

    2007-03-01

    The real-time analysis of brain activation using functional MRI data offers a wide range of new experiments such as investigating self-regulation or learning strategies. However, besides special data acquisition and real-time data analysing techniques such examination requires dynamic and adaptive stimulus paradigms and self-optimising MRI-sequences. This paper presents an approach that enables the unified handling of parameters influencing the different software systems involved in the acquisition and analysing process. By developing a custom-made Experiment Description Language (EDL) this concept is used for a fast and flexible software environment which treats aspects like extraction and analysis of activation as well as the modification of the stimulus presentation. We describe how extracted real-time activation is subsequently evaluated by comparing activation patterns to previous acquired templates representing activated regions of interest for different predefined conditions. According to those results the stimulus presentation is adapted. The results showed that the developed system in combination with EDL is able to reliably detect and evaluate activation patterns in real-time. With a processing time for data analysis of about one second the approach is only limited by the natural time course of the hemodynamic response function of the brain activation.

  16. CHANGES IN REGIONAL BRAIN ACTIVATION RELATED TO DEPRESSIVE STATE: A 2-YEAR LONGITUDINAL FUNCTIONAL MRI STUDY.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-José; Renken, Remco J; Demenescu, Liliana R; Woudstra, Saskia; Ter Horst, Gert J; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal brain activations during processing of emotional facial expressions in depressed patients have been demonstrated. We investigated the natural course of brain activation in response to emotional faces in depression, indexed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans preceding and following change in depressive state. We hypothesized a decrease in activation in the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and insula with a decrease in depressive pathology. A 2-year longitudinal fMRI study was conducted as part of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. We included 32 healthy controls and 49 depressed patients. During the second scan, 27 patients were in remission (remitters), the other 22 were not (nonremitters). All participants viewed faces with emotional expressions during scanning. Rostral ACC activation during processing of happy faces was predictive of a decrease in depressive state (PFWE = .003). In addition, remitters showed decreased activation of the insula over time (PFWE = .016), specifically during happy faces. Nonremitters displayed increased abnormalities in emotion recognition circuitry during the second scan compared to the first. No effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use was observed. Our results demonstrate that rostral ACC activation may predict changes in depressive state even at 2-year outcome. The association between change in depressed state and change in insula activation provides further evidence for the role of the insula in a network maintaining emotional and motivational states. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Recording event-related activity under hostile magnetic resonance environment: Is multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI recording possible?

    PubMed

    Karakaş, H M; Karakaş, S; Ozkan Ceylan, A; Tali, E T

    2009-08-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) have high temporal resolution, but insufficient spatial resolution; the converse is true for the functional imaging techniques. The purpose of the study was to test the utility of a multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI technique which combines electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a simultaneously high temporal and spatial resolution. The sample consisted of 32 healthy young adults of both sexes. Auditory stimuli were delivered according to the active and passive oddball paradigms in the MRI environment (MRI-e) and in the standard conditions of the electrophysiology laboratory environment (Lab-e). Tasks were presented in a fixed order. Participants were exposed to the recording environments in a counterbalanced order. EEG data were preprocessed for MRI-related artifacts. Source localization was made using a current density reconstruction technique. The ERP waveforms for the MRI-e were morphologically similar to those for the Lab-e. The effect of the recording environment, experimental paradigm and electrode location were analyzed using a 2x2x3 analysis of variance for repeated measures. The ERP components in the two environments showed parametric variations and characteristic topographical distributions. The calculated sources were in line with the related literature. The findings indicated effortful cognitive processing in MRI-e. The study provided preliminary data on the feasibility of the multimodal EEG/ERP-MRI technique. It also indicated lines of research that are to be pursued for a decisive testing of this technique and its implementation to clinical practice.

  18. Classification of autistic individuals and controls using cross-task characterization of fMRI activity

    PubMed Central

    Chanel, Guillaume; Pichon, Swann; Conty, Laurence; Berthoz, Sylvie; Chevallier, Coralie; Grèzes, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been applied successfully to task-based and resting-based fMRI recordings to investigate which neural markers distinguish individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) from controls. While most studies have focused on brain connectivity during resting state episodes and regions of interest approaches (ROI), a wealth of task-based fMRI datasets have been acquired in these populations in the last decade. This calls for techniques that can leverage information not only from a single dataset, but from several existing datasets that might share some common features and biomarkers. We propose a fully data-driven (voxel-based) approach that we apply to two different fMRI experiments with social stimuli (faces and bodies). The method, based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), is first trained for each experiment independently and each output is then combined to obtain a final classification output. Second, this RFE output is used to determine which voxels are most often selected for classification to generate maps of significant discriminative activity. Finally, to further explore the clinical validity of the approach, we correlate phenotypic information with obtained classifier scores. The results reveal good classification accuracy (range between 69% and 92.3%). Moreover, we were able to identify discriminative activity patterns pertaining to the social brain without relying on a priori ROI definitions. Finally, social motivation was the only dimension which correlated with classifier scores, suggesting that it is the main dimension captured by the classifiers. Altogether, we believe that the present RFE method proves to be efficient and may help identifying relevant biomarkers by taking advantage of acquired task-based fMRI datasets in psychiatric populations. PMID:26793434

  19. Classification of autistic individuals and controls using cross-task characterization of fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Chanel, Guillaume; Pichon, Swann; Conty, Laurence; Berthoz, Sylvie; Chevallier, Coralie; Grèzes, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been applied successfully to task-based and resting-based fMRI recordings to investigate which neural markers distinguish individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) from controls. While most studies have focused on brain connectivity during resting state episodes and regions of interest approaches (ROI), a wealth of task-based fMRI datasets have been acquired in these populations in the last decade. This calls for techniques that can leverage information not only from a single dataset, but from several existing datasets that might share some common features and biomarkers. We propose a fully data-driven (voxel-based) approach that we apply to two different fMRI experiments with social stimuli (faces and bodies). The method, based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), is first trained for each experiment independently and each output is then combined to obtain a final classification output. Second, this RFE output is used to determine which voxels are most often selected for classification to generate maps of significant discriminative activity. Finally, to further explore the clinical validity of the approach, we correlate phenotypic information with obtained classifier scores. The results reveal good classification accuracy (range between 69% and 92.3%). Moreover, we were able to identify discriminative activity patterns pertaining to the social brain without relying on a priori ROI definitions. Finally, social motivation was the only dimension which correlated with classifier scores, suggesting that it is the main dimension captured by the classifiers. Altogether, we believe that the present RFE method proves to be efficient and may help identifying relevant biomarkers by taking advantage of acquired task-based fMRI datasets in psychiatric populations.

  20. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Julio; García-Martí, G; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Barrios, C; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2011-07-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown, but there is growing support for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can characterize the abnormal activation of the sensorimotor brain network in movement disorders and could provide further insights into the neuropathogenesis of IS. Twenty subjects were included in the study; 10 adolescents with IS (mean age of 15.2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35° (range 27°-55°). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates an abnormal pattern of brain activation in secondary motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.

  1. Improved visualization of neuronal injury following glial activation by manganese enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Bade, Aditya N; Zhou, Biyun; Epstein, Adrian A; Gorantla, Santhi; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Luo, Jiangtao; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Liu, Yutong

    2013-09-01

    Research directed at anatomical, integrative and functional activities of the central nervous system (CNS) can be realized through bioimaging. A wealth of data now demonstrates the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) towards unraveling complex neural connectivity operative in health and disease. A means to improve MRI sensitivity is through contrast agents and notably manganese (Mn²⁺). The Mn²⁺ ions enter neurons through voltage-gated calcium channels and unlike other contrast agents such as gadolinium, iron oxide, iron platinum and imaging proteins, provide unique insights into brain physiology. Nonetheless, a critical question that remains is the brain target cells serving as sources for the signal of Mn²⁺ enhanced MRI (MEMRI). To this end, we investigated MEMRI's abilities to detect glial (astrocyte and microglia) and neuronal activation signals following treatment with known inflammatory inducing agents. The idea is to distinguish between gliosis (glial activation) and neuronal injury for the MEMRI signal and as such use the agent as a marker for neural activity in inflammatory and degenerative disease. We now demonstrate that glial inflammation facilitates Mn²⁺ neuronal ion uptake. Glial Mn²⁺ content was not linked to its activation. MEMRI performed on mice injected intracranially with lipopolysaccharide was associated with increased neuronal activity. These results support the notion that MEMRI reflects neuronal excitotoxicity and impairment that can occur through a range of insults including neuroinflammation. We conclude that the MEMRI signal enhancement is induced by inflammation stimulating neuronal Mn²⁺ uptake.

  2. Comparative functional MRI study to assess brain activation upon active and passive finger movements in patients with cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yun Ting

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of active and passive movements on brain activation in patients with cerebral infarction using fMRI. Twenty-four hemiplegic patients with cerebral infarction were evaluated using fMRI. All patients performed active and passive finger opposition movements. Patients were instructed to perform the finger opposition movement for the active movement task. For the passive movement task, the subject's fingers were moved by the examiner to perform the finger opposition movement. Statistical parametric mapping software was used for statistical analyses and to process all data. In the affected hemisphere, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) activation intensity and range were significantly stronger during the passive movement of the affected fingers compared to the active movement of the affected fingers (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between active and passive movements of unaffected fingers in SMC activation intensity and range in the unaffected hemisphere (p > 0.05). In addition, the passive movement activated many other regions of the brain. The brain regions activated by passive movements of the affected fingers tended to center toward the contralateral SMC. Our findings suggest that passive movements induce cortical reorganization in patients with cerebral infarction. Therefore, passive movement is likely beneficial for motor function recovery in patients with cerebral infarction.

  3. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  4. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Gong, Honghan; Dai, Xi-jian; Min, Youjiang; Zhou, Fuqing

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD). Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males) were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual's normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group) and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group) or sham (Sham group). The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation. PMID:25024729

  5. Imaging seizure activity: a combined EEG/EMG-fMRI study in reading epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Mayer, Thomas; Hamandi, Khalid; Symms, Mark; Josephs, Oliver; Fluegel, Dominique; Woermann, Friedrich; Richardson, Mark P; Noppeney, Uta; Wolf, Peter; Koepp, Matthias J

    2009-02-01

    To characterize the spatial relationship between activations related to language-induced seizure activity, language processing, and motor control in patients with reading epilepsy. We recorded and simultaneously monitored several physiological parameters [voice-recording, electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG)] during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nine patients with reading epilepsy. Individually tailored language paradigms were used to induce and record habitual seizures inside the MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for structural brain analysis. Reading-induced seizures occurred in six out of nine patients. One patient experienced abundant orofacial reflex myocloni during silent reading in association with bilateral frontal or generalized epileptiform discharges. In a further five patients, symptoms were only elicited while reading aloud with self-indicated events. Consistent activation patterns in response to reading-induced myoclonic seizures were observed within left motor and premotor areas in five of these six patients, in the left striatum (n = 4), in mesiotemporal/limbic areas (n = 4), in Brodmann area 47 (n = 3), and thalamus (n = 2). These BOLD activations were overlapping or adjacent to areas physiologically activated during language and facial motor tasks. No subtle structural abnormalities common to all patients were identified using VBM, but one patient had a left temporal ischemic lesion. Based on the findings, we hypothesize that reflex seizures occur in reading epilepsy when a critical mass of neurons are activated through a provoking stimulus within corticoreticular and corticocortical circuitry subserving normal functions.

  6. Measurement, time-stamping, and analysis of electrodermal activity in fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyser, Christopher; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Rainville, Pierre; Bechara, Antione; Razavi, Mehrdad; Mehta, Sonya; Eaton, Brent L.; Bolinger, Lizann

    2002-04-01

    A low cost fMRI-compatible system was developed for detecting electrodermal activity without inducing image artifact. Subject electrodermal activity was measured on the plantar surface of the foot using a standard recording circuit. Filtered analog skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded with a general purpose, time-stamping data acquisition system. A conditioning paradigm involving painful thermal stimulation was used to demonstrate SCR detection and investigate neural correlates of conditioned autonomic activity. 128x128 pixel EPI-BOLD images were acquired with a GE 1.5T Signa scanner. Image analysis was performed using voxel-wise multiple linear regression. The covariate of interest was generated by convolving stimulus event onset with a standard hemodynamic response function. The function was time-shifted to determine optimal activation. Significance was tested using the t-statistic. Image quality was unaffected by the device, and conditioned and unconditioned SCRs were successfully detected. Conditioned SCRs correlated significantly with activity in the right anterior insular cortex. The effect was more robust when responses were scaled by SCR amplitude. The ability to measure and time register SCRs during fMRI acquisition enables studies of cognitive processes marked by autonomic activity, including those involving decision-making, pain, emotion, and addiction.

  7. Modality specific cerebro-cerebellar activations in verbal working memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Chen, S H Annabel; Desmond, John E

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominantly in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  8. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Chen, S. H. Annabel; Desmond, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load. PMID:20714061

  9. [The Vibrant Soundbridge as an active implant in middle ear surgery].

    PubMed

    Beleites, T; Bornitz, M; Neudert, M; Zahnert, T

    2014-07-01

    Implantable hearing aids are not only gaining importance for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss, but also for treatment of mixed hearing loss. The most frequently used active middle ear implant is the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) system (Fa. MED-EL, Innsbruck, Österrreich). Following widening of the spectrum of indications for the VBS, various new coupling systems have been established. Based on the literature, available petrosal bone investigations and finite element model (FEM) calculations, this article summarizes the current knowledge concerning mechanical excitation by the VSB. Important concomitant aspects related to coupling, transmission and measurement are also discussed.

  10. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for certification of ion-implanted phosphorus in silicon.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L; Simons, David S; Guthrie, William F; Lu, John

    2003-08-15

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed, critically evaluated, and shown to have the necessary sensitivity, chemical specificity, matrix independence, and precision to certify phosphorus at ion implantation levels in silicon. 32P, produced by neutron capture of 31P, is chemically separated from the sample matrix and measured using a beta proportional counter. The method is used here to certify the amount of phosphorus in SRM 2133 (Phosphorus Implant in Silicon Depth Profile Standard) as (9.58 +/- 0.16) x 10(14) atoms x cm(-2). A detailed evaluation of uncertainties is given.

  11. Impact of Ion Implantation on Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) Growth and Antioxidant Activity Under Drought Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingnan; Tong, Liping; Shen, Tongwei; Li, Jie; Wu, Lijun; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-06-01

    Low energy ion beams are known to have stimulation effects on plant generation and to improve plants' intrinsic quality. In the present study, the growth and physiological index of licorice implanted with 0, 8, 10, 12 and 14× (2.6×1015) ions/cm2 were investigated under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The results showed that a proper dose of ion implantation was particularly efficient in stimulating the licorice growth and improving the plant biomass significantly in both the well-watered and drought-stress conditions. The physiological results of licorice measured by leaf water potential, lipid oxidation, soluble protein and antioxidant system showed a significant correlation between ion implantation and water regime except for leaf water potential. Therefore, the study indicated that ion implantation can enhance licorice's drought tolerance by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability to lower oxidative damage to lipids in plants. Ion beam implantation, therefore, provides an alternative method to enhance licorice drought tolerance.

  12. Multiparametric-MRI and Targeted Biopsies in the Management of Prostate Cancer Patients on Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Kiri; Patel, Mausam; Lynne, Charles; Parekh, Dipen J.; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce; Casillas, Javier; Pollack, Alan; Stoyanova, Radka

    2015-01-01

    An important key to clinical management of prostate cancer patients is to determine early those who will benefit from primary treatment and are not good candidates for active surveillance (AS). We describe a 67-year-old gentleman with a long history of stable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and a negative biopsy. After slight PSA rise and low volume Gleason score 6 biopsy, the patient was considered for primary treatment or AS. A multiparametric (MP)-MRI exam revealed a suspicious lesion in the anterior apex of the prostate. Biopsies were carried out on a 3D-ultrasound prostate biopsy system with MRI-fusion. The location of the target area was challenging and could have been missed using standard 12-core biopsy template. The pathology determined Gleason 3 + 4 disease in 30% of the core from this region. Consequently, the patient underwent radiotherapy (RT). MP-MRI was also used to follow the changes from pre- to post-RT. PMID:25674540

  13. Active control of the spatial MRI phase distribution with optimal control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Pauline M.; Van Reeth, Eric; Ratiney, Hélène; Beuf, Olivier; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Lambert, Simon A.; Glaser, Steffen J.; Sugny, Dominique; Grenier, Denis; Tse Ve Koon, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of Optimal Control (OC) theory to design Radio-Frequency (RF) pulses that actively control the spatial distribution of the MRI magnetization phase. The RF pulses are generated through the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and optimized so that the resulting transverse magnetization reproduces various non-trivial and spatial phase patterns. Two different phase patterns are defined and the resulting optimal pulses are tested both numerically with the ODIN MRI simulator and experimentally with an agar gel phantom on a 4.7 T small-animal MR scanner. Phase images obtained in simulations and experiments are both consistent with the defined phase patterns. A practical application of phase control with OC-designed pulses is also presented, with the generation of RF pulses adapted for a Magnetic Resonance Elastography experiment. This study demonstrates the possibility to use OC-designed RF pulses to encode information in the magnetization phase and could have applications in MRI sequences using phase images.

  14. Brain activation patterns elicited by the 'Faces Symbol Test' -- a pilot fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Rh; Popotnig, F; Ropele, S; Neuper, C; Gorani, F; Petrovic, K; Ebner, F; Strasser-Fuchs, S; Fazekas, F; Enzinger, C

    2008-04-01

    The Faces Symbol Test (FST) has recently been proposed as a brief and patient-friendly screening instrument for the assessment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, in contrast to well-established MS screening tests such as the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, the neural correlates of the FST have not been investigated so far. In the present study, we developed a functional MRI (fMRI) version of the FST to provide first data on brain regions and networks involved in this test. A sample of 19 healthy participants completed a version of the FST adapted for fMRI, requiring matching of faces and symbols in a multiple choice test and two further experimental conditions drawing on cognitive subcomponents (face matching and symbol matching). Imaging data showed a differential involvement of a fronto-parieto-occipital network in the three conditions. The most demanding FST condition elicited brain activation patterns related with sustained attention and executive control. These results suggest that the FST recruits brain networks critical for higher-order cognitive functions often impaired in MS patients.

  15. Active control of the spatial MRI phase distribution with optimal control theory.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Pauline M; Van Reeth, Eric; Ratiney, Hélène; Beuf, Olivier; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Lambert, Simon A; Glaser, Steffen J; Sugny, Dominique; Grenier, Denis; Tse Ve Koon, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of Optimal Control (OC) theory to design Radio-Frequency (RF) pulses that actively control the spatial distribution of the MRI magnetization phase. The RF pulses are generated through the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle and optimized so that the resulting transverse magnetization reproduces various non-trivial and spatial phase patterns. Two different phase patterns are defined and the resulting optimal pulses are tested both numerically with the ODIN MRI simulator and experimentally with an agar gel phantom on a 4.7T small-animal MR scanner. Phase images obtained in simulations and experiments are both consistent with the defined phase patterns. A practical application of phase control with OC-designed pulses is also presented, with the generation of RF pulses adapted for a Magnetic Resonance Elastography experiment. This study demonstrates the possibility to use OC-designed RF pulses to encode information in the magnetization phase and could have applications in MRI sequences using phase images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep brain stimulation in the setting of cochlear implants: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Thomas J.; Ksendzovsky, Alexander; Shah, Binit B.; Kesser, Bradley W.; Elias, W. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims As technology continues to advance for our aging population, an increasing number of DBS candidates will have preexisting implanted electrical devices. In this article, we discuss safe and successful DBS in a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) and bilateral cochlear implants. Methods A 70 year-old male with PD and bilateral cochlear implants underwent successful microelectrode-guided DBS implantation into bilateral subthalamic nuclei (STN). The patient's cochlear implant magnets were removed and replaced in outpatient clinic for pre-operative MRI and stereotactic targeting. The cochlear implants were turned off intraoperatively for STN microelectrode recordings. Results Precise, MRI-guided stereotactic DBS implantation was possible. Intraoperative high-fidelity microelectrode recordings confirmed STN neurons with the cochlear implants turned off. These recordings were not possible with active cochlear implant devices. Our literature review describes the other approaches/techniques that have been used to manage DBS surgery in the setting of cochlear implants. Conclusions Despite the risk of electrical interference between implanted medical devices, DBS and cochlear implants may be safe and compatible in the same patient if necessary precautions are taken. PMID:25998722

  17. Combined preoperative information using a bullseye plot from speckle tracking echocardiography, cardiac CT scan, and MRI scan: targeted left ventricular lead implantation in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Zoltan; Markstad, Hanna; Ostenfeld, Ellen; Carlsson, Marcus; Roijer, Anders; Borgquist, Rasmus

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and incremental value of using an integrated bullseye model for presenting data from cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with echocardiography evaluation of segmental mechanical delay for guiding optimal left ventricular lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Thirty-nine patients (69 ± 9.7 years, 77% male, 82% with LBBB, 54% with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, 82% New York Heart Association classification of heart failure III) eligible for CRT were included. The left ventricular segment with the latest mechanical activation was determined by echocardiography with speckle tracking radial strain. Cardiac CT scan was used for anatomical evaluation of the coronary sinus and its branches. Cardiac MRI was used for evaluation of viability. A composite bullseye plot was constructed, indicating the most appropriate site for left ventricle (LV) lead placement. The latest mechanical delay was in the basal-anterior (3%), basal-inferior (3%), basal-inferolateral (13%), basal-anterolateral (21%), mid-anterior (8%), mid-inferior (3%), mid-inferolateral (34%), and mid-anterolateral (16%) segment. There were on average 2.5 ± 0.8 veins of suitable sizes (≥1.5 mm in diameter). A preoperative combined bullseye plot indicated that in 53% of the patients, there was a matching vein in the segment with the latest mechanical delay. If immediately adjacent segments were included, an optimal placement was possible in 95% of the patients. At 6 months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the left ventricular end systolic volume and the left ventricular ejection fraction was improved (P < 0.01). Presenting data from echocardiography, cardiac CT, and MRI in a combined bullseye plot is both feasible and convenient for indicating the most appropriate site for LV lead placement. An optimal electrode position can be suggested in almost all patients.

  18. fMRI brain activation in patients with insomnia disorder during a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Son, Young-Don; Kang, Jae Myeong; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jung-Sun; Hwang, Hee Young; Kang, Seung-Gul

    2017-10-04

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate differences in the functional brain activation of patients with insomnia disorder (n = 21, mean age = 36.6) and of good sleepers (n = 26, mean age = 33.2) without other comorbidities or structural brain abnormalities during a working memory task. All participants completed a clinical questionnaire, were subjected to portable polysomnography (PSG), and performed the working memory task during an fMRI scan. The subjects who were suspected of major sleep disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders except insomnia disorder were excluded. To compare the brain activation on working memory from the insomnia group with those from the good-sleeper group, a two-sample t test was performed. Statistical significance was determined using 3DClustSim with the updated algorithm to obtain a reasonable cluster size and p value for each analysis. We observed higher levels of brain activation in the right lateral inferior frontal cortex and the right superior temporal pole in the insomnia group compared to good sleepers (cluster-based multiple comparison correction, p < 0.001, k = 34 @ α = 0.01). Thus, patients with insomnia disorder showed increased brain activation during working memory relative to good sleepers, and this may be indicative of compensatory brain activation to maintain cognitive performance in patients with insomnia disorder without other comorbidities.

  19. Dynamics of fMRI signals during human brain activations to a stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Kato, Toshinori; Neves, Carlos

    2001-05-01

    In fMRI memory study, the temporal behavior of BOLD fMRI signals were consistently observed from various brain processing areas at 1.5 Tesla and consistent with the expected functions. Also, all the activations generally exhibit three types of temporal characteristics: short, sustained and delayed responses in relation to the primary stimuli. To address these cerebral multiphasic responses, a suitable functional data analysis scheme has been used, in which the neural response of a specific brain area to a pre-determined stimulation input of some sort was assumed to be linear. The visual memory study was performed on 6 normal subjects on a clinical MR scanner using a 5 min long rapid dynamical whole brain imaging using EPI acquisition during a single memory task, which involved a 45 sec visual presentation of three simple abstract geometric figures to the subject via LCD projector. The results showed that the activations in visual cortex were tightly correlated with the visual stimulus, while the activations detected in interior temporal, entorhinal cortex and inferior temporal area were delayed. Using the new technique, the brian activations were further characterized quantitatively in terms of delay and prolonged response. The resulting effective impulse response functions corresponding to these brain activations revealed much clearly all the temporal components.

  20. Joint maximum likelihood estimation of activation and Hemodynamic Response Function for fMRI.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Negar; Nosratinia, Aria

    2014-07-01

    Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the brain activity by measuring blood oxygenation level, which is related to brain activity via a temporal impulse response function known as the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF). The HRF varies from subject to subject and within areas of the brain, therefore a knowledge of HRF is necessary for accurately computing voxel activations. Conversely a knowledge of active voxels is highly beneficial for estimating the HRF. This work presents a joint maximum likelihood estimation of HRF and activation based on low-rank matrix approximations operating on regions of interest (ROI). Since each ROI has limited data, a smoothing constraint on the HRF is employed via Tikhonov regularization. The method is analyzed under both white noise and colored noise. Experiments with synthetic data show that accurate estimation of the HRF is possible with this method without prior assumptions on the exact shape of the HRF. Further experiments involving real fMRI experiments with auditory stimuli are used to validate the proposed method.

  1. Multimodal assessment of cortical activation during apple peeling by NIRS and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masako; Dan, Haruka; Shimizu, Koji; Takeo, Kazuhiro; Amita, Takashi; Oda, Ichiro; Konishi, Ikuo; Sakamoto, Kuniko; Isobe, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Tateo; Kohyama, Kaoru; Dan, Ippeita

    2004-04-01

    An intriguing application of neuroimaging is directly measuring actual human brain activities during daily living. To this end, we investigated cortical activation patterns during apple peeling. We first conducted a pilot study to assess the activation pattern of the whole lateral cortical surface during apple peeling by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and detected substantial activation in the prefrontal region in addition to expected activations extending over the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas. We next examined cortical activation during mock apple peeling by simultaneous measurement using multichannel NIRS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in four subjects. We detected activations extending over the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas, but not in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, we finally focused on the prefrontal cortex and examined its activation during apple peeling in 12 subjects using a multichannel NIRS. We subsequently found that regional concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin significantly increased in the measured region, which encompassed portions of the dorsolateral, ventrolateral and frontopolar areas of the prefrontal cortex. The current study demonstrated that apple peeling as practiced in daily life recruited the prefrontal cortex but that such activation might not be detected for less laborious mock apple peeling that can be performed in an fMRI environment. We suggest the importance of cortical study of an everyday task as it is but not as a simplified form; we also suggest the validity of NIRS for this purpose. Studies on everyday tasks may serve as stepping stone toward understanding human activities in terms of cortical activations.

  2. fMRI brain activation changes following treatment of a first bipolar manic episode.

    PubMed

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey; Eliassen, James C; Norris, Matthew; Durling, Michelle; Komoroski, Richard A; Chu, Wen-Jang; Weber, Wade; Dudley, Jonathan A; Blom, Thomas J; Stover, Amanda; Klein, Christina; Strawn, Jeffrey R; DelBello, Melissa P; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M

    2016-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, with treatment, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) regional brain activation in first-episode mania would normalize - i.e., that differences from healthy subjects would diminish over time, and would be associated with clinical remission status, potentially identifying neuroanatomic treatment response markers. Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder were recruited during their first manic episode, pseudo-randomized to open-label lithium or quetiapine, and followed for 8 weeks. fMRI scans were obtained at baseline and then after 1 and 8 weeks of treatment, while participants performed a continuous performance task with emotional distracters. Healthy participants received fMRI scans at these same intervals. Specific region-of-interest (ROI) activations within prefrontal emotional networks were assessed as potential measures of treatment response. ROI data were reduced using exploratory factor analysis, which identified five factors that were organizationally consistent with functional anatomic models of human emotion modulation. Half of the participants with bipolar disorder achieved remission by Week 8 and were contrasted with the other half that did not. Analyses demonstrated that, in the bipolar disorder group in general, treatment led to decreases in activation across brain regions toward healthy subject values. However, differences in activation changes were observed between subjects with bipolar disorder who did or did not achieve remission in subcortical and amygdala factors. These findings provide evidence for potential neuroanatomic treatment response markers in first-episode bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts against zinc disc implantation-induced urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Anil T; Vyawahare, Niraj S

    2016-03-01

    The commonly used techniques for removing renal calculi are associated with the risk of acute renal injury and increase in stone recurrence which indicates an urgent need for alternate therapy. The aim was to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts in rats. Urolithiasis was induced by surgical implantations of zinc disc in the urinary bladders of rats. Upon postsurgical recovery, different doses of chloroform (CAM) and methanolic (MAM) extracts of A. moschatus seeds (viz., 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) were administered to disc implanted rats for the period of 7 days by the oral route. Antiurolithiatic activity was evaluated by measuring various dimensions of stones and estimating levels of various biomarkers in serum and urine samples. A significant decrease in urinary output was observed in disc implanted animals, which was prevented by the treatment with extracts. Supplementation with extracts caused significant improvement in glomerular filtration rate and urinary total protein excretion. The elevated levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen were also prevented by the extracts. The extracts significantly reduced deposition of calculi deposition around the implanted disc. This antiurolithiatic potential is observed at all doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of MAM, whereas only higher dose (400 mg/kg) of CAM showed significant antiurolithiatic potential. The extracts of A. moschatus seeds possessed significant antiurolithiatic activity. The possible mechanism underlying this effect is mediated collectively through diuretic, antioxidant, and free-radical scavenging effects of the plant.

  4. Assessment of rodent brain activity using combined [(15)O]H2O-PET and BOLD-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Wehrl, Hans F; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Reischl, Gerald; Pichler, Bernd J

    2014-04-01

    The study of brain activation in small animals is of high interest for neurological research. In this study, we proposed a protocol to monitor brain activation in rats following whisker stimulation using the short half-life PET tracer [(15)O]H2O as a marker for cerebral blood flow. This technique enables the study of baseline and activation conditions in fast succession within the same scanning session. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained from PET imaging with additional BOLD-fMRI data acquired in the same animals within the same anesthetic session in immediate succession. Although the maximum relative signal changes during brain activity observed with PET were substantially higher compared to the BOLD-fMRI results, statistical analyses showed that the number of activated voxels in PET was lower compared to the fMRI measurements. Furthermore, there was a difference in the activation centers in both the shape and location between PET and fMRI. The discrepancy in the number of activated voxels could be attributed to a lower overall contrast-to-noise ratio of the PET images compared to BOLD-fMRI, whereas the difference in the spatial location indicates a more fundamental process, involving the different physiological origins of the PET and BOLD-fMRI response. This study clearly demonstrates that [(15)O]H2O-PET activation studies may be performed in small laboratory animals, and shows the complementary nature of studying brain activation using [(15)O]H2O-PET and fMRI.

  5. The effects of skin tone on race-related amygdala activity: an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Denson, Thomas F.; Lickel, Brian; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Nandy, Anirvan; Maddox, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has shown differential amygdala response to African-American faces by Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, behavioral studies have demonstrated the existence of skin tone bias, the tendency to prefer light skin to dark skin. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether skin tone bias moderates differential race-related amygdala activity. Eleven White participants viewed photographs of unfamiliar Black and White faces with varied skin tone (light, dark). Replicating past research, greater amygdala activity was observed for Black faces than White faces. Furthermore, dark-skinned targets elicited more amygdala activity than light-skinned targets. However, these results were qualified by a significant interaction between race and skin tone, such that amygdala activity was observed at equivalent levels for light- and dark-skinned Black targets, but dark-skinned White targets elicited greater amygdala activity than light-skinned White targets. PMID:18985117

  6. The effects of skin tone on race-related amygdala activity: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Jaclyn; Denson, Thomas F; Lickel, Brian; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Nandy, Anirvan; Maddox, Keith B

    2007-03-01

    Previous work has shown differential amygdala response to African-American faces by Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, behavioral studies have demonstrated the existence of skin tone bias, the tendency to prefer light skin to dark skin. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether skin tone bias moderates differential race-related amygdala activity. Eleven White participants viewed photographs of unfamiliar Black and White faces with varied skin tone (light, dark). Replicating past research, greater amygdala activity was observed for Black faces than White faces. Furthermore, dark-skinned targets elicited more amygdala activity than light-skinned targets. However, these results were qualified by a significant interaction between race and skin tone, such that amygdala activity was observed at equivalent levels for light- and dark-skinned Black targets, but dark-skinned White targets elicited greater amygdala activity than light-skinned White targets.

  7. fMRI reveals neural activity overlap between adult and infant pain.

    PubMed

    Goksan, Sezgi; Hartley, Caroline; Emery, Faith; Cockrill, Naomi; Poorun, Ravi; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Campbell, Jon; Sanders, Michael; Adams, Eleri; Clare, Stuart; Jenkinson, Mark; Tracey, Irene; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-04-21

    Limited understanding of infant pain has led to its lack of recognition in clinical practice. While the network of brain regions that encode the affective and sensory aspects of adult pain are well described, the brain structures involved in infant nociceptive processing are completely unknown, meaning we cannot infer anything about the nature of the infant pain experience. Using fMRI we identified the network of brain regions that are active following acute noxious stimulation in newborn infants, and compared the activity to that observed in adults. Significant infant brain activity was observed in 18 of the 20 active adult brain regions but not in the infant amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex. Brain regions that encode sensory and affective components of pain are active in infants, suggesting that the infant pain experience closely resembles that seen in adults. This highlights the importance of developing effective pain management strategies in this vulnerable population.

  8. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +}-implants in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S.; Petersen, D. H.; Hansen, O.; Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F.; Doyle, B. L.; Kontos, A.

    2012-12-15

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 Degree-Sign C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H{sup +} beam by utilizing the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha})2{alpha} nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  9. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of boron activation in implanted Si under laser thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisicaro, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Lourdes; Aboy, Maria; Lopez, Pedro; Italia, Markus; Huet, Karim; Cristiano, Filadelfo; Essa, Zahi; Yang, Qui; Bedel-Pereira, Elena; Quillec, Maurice; La Magna, Antonino

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the correlation between dopant activation and damage evolution in boron-implanted silicon under excimer laser irradiation. The dopant activation efficiency in the solid phase was measured under a wide range of irradiation conditions and simulated using coupled phase-field and kinetic Monte Carlo models. With the inclusion of dopant atoms, the presented code extends the capabilities of a previous version, allowing its definitive validation by means of detailed comparisons with experimental data. The stochastic method predicts the post-implant kinetics of the defect-dopant system in the far-from-equilibrium conditions caused by laser irradiation. The simulations explain the dopant activation dynamics and demonstrate that the competitive dopant-defect kinetics during the first laser annealing treatment dominates the activation phenomenon, stabilizing the system against additional laser irradiation steps.

  10. Degenerative joint disease on MRI and physical activity: a clinical study of the knee joint in 320 patients.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, G F; Basad, E; Rauber, K; Damian, M S; Rau, W S

    1999-01-01

    We examined 320 patients with MRI and arthroscopy after an acute trauma to evaluate MRI in diagnosis of degenerative joint disease of the knee in relation to sports activity and clinical data. Lesions of cartilage and menisci on MRI were registered by two radiologists in consensus without knowledge of arthroscopy. Arthroscopy demonstrated grade-1 to grade-4 lesions of cartilage on 729 of 1920 joint surfaces of 320 knees, and MRI diagnosed 14% of grade-1, 32% of grade-2, 94% of grade-3, and 100% of grade-4 lesions. Arthroscopy explored 1280 meniscal areas and showed degenerations in 10%, tears in 11.4%, and complex lesions in 9.2%. Magnetic resonance imaging was in agreement with arthroscopy in 81% showing more degenerations but less tears of menisci than arthroscopy. Using a global system for grading the total damage of the knee joint into none, mild, moderate, or severe changes, agreement between arthroscopy and MRI was found in 82%. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy showed coherently that degree of degenerative joint changes was significantly correlated to patient age or previous knee trauma. Patients over 40 years had moderate to severe changes on MRI in 45% and patients under 30 years in only 22%. Knee joints with a history of trauma without complete structural or functional reconstitution showed marked changes on MRI in 57%, whereas stable joints without such alterations had degenerative changes in only 26%. There was no correlation of degenerative disease to gender, weight, type, frequency, and intensity of sports activity. Therefore, MRI is an effective non-invasive imaging method for exact localization and quantification of chronic joint changes of cartilage and menisci that recommends MRI for monitoring in sports medicine.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of nanoparticulate metal oxides against peri-implantitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Reus, Miguel A; Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Huang, Jie; Ren, Guogang G; Allaker, Robert P

    2012-08-01

    Dental plaque accumulation may result in peri-implantitis, an inflammatory process causing loss of supporting bone that may lead to dental implant failure. The antimicrobial activities of six metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and two of their composites against bacterial pathogens associated with peri-implantitis were examined under anaerobic conditions. The activities of nanoparticles of silver (Ag), cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O), cupric oxide (CuO), zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), tungsten oxide (WO(3)), Ag+CuO composite and Ag+ZnO composite were assessed by minimum inhibitory (bacteriostatic) concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determination against Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Time-kill assays were carried out to examine the dynamics of the antimicrobial activity with ZnO nanoparticles. MIC and MBC values were in the range of <100 μg/mL to 2500 μg/mL and <100 μg/mL to >2500 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of the nanoparticles tested in descending order was Ag>Ag+CuO>Cu(2)O>CuO>Ag+ZnO>ZnO>TiO(2)>WO(3). Time-kill assays with ZnO demonstrated a significant decrease in growth of all species tested within 4h, reaching 100% within 2h for P. gingivalis and within 3h for F. nucleatum and P. intermedia. Coating titanium surfaces of dental and orthopaedic implants with antimicrobial nanoparticles should lead to an increased rate of implant success.

  12. Masticatory muscle activity evaluation by electromyography in subjects with zygomatic implants

    PubMed Central

    de Rossi, Moara; Lucas, Bárbara; Santos, Carla; Semprini, Marisa; Oliveira, Ligia; Regalo, Isabela; Bersani, Edmilson; Migliorança, Reginaldo; Siéssere, Selma; Regalo, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Background Zygomatic implants are an alternative treatment in the rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla to promote stability in the stomatognathic system. The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masseter and temporalis muscles in controls and in individuals with complete implant-supported dentures anchored in the zygomatic bone. Material and Methods Fifty-four volunteers of both genders (mean age 52.5 years) were selected and distributed into two groups: Individuals with zygomatic implant (ZIG; n=27) and fully dentate patients (CG; n=27). MyoSystem-BR1 was used to assess masseter and temporalis muscles EMG activity in different mandibular movements: protrusion, clenching, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with Parafilm M®, right and left laterality and chewing (peanuts and raisins). Data was processed, normalized (MVC) and analyzed using the SPSS 21.0. Student t-test (P ≤ 0.05) was used for group comparison. Results The results were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for protrusion, clenching, right and left laterality and raisin chewing. For the mandibular posture conditions, the ZIG obtained higher EMG activity patterns when compared to CG. For the masticatory performance during chewing of peanuts and raisins, the ZIG showed higher EMG mean values when compared to CG. Conclusions The zygomatic implant promoted an active response of the muscle fibers (hyperactivity) during both mandibular posture and chewing conditions, probably due to the absence of periodontal receptors, which play a significant role for preparing a bolus for swallowing. Key words:Zygomatic implant, electromyography, masseter muscle, temporal muscle. PMID:28390128

  13. Differentiating maturational and training influences on fMRI activation during music processing

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Robert J.; Norton, Andrea C.; Overy, Katie; Winner, Ellen; Alsop, David C.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Two major influences on how the brain processes music are maturational development and active musical training. Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating music processing have typically focused on either categorical differences between “musicians versus nonmusicians” or “children versus adults.” In the present study, we explored a cross-sectional data set (n=84) using multiple linear regression to isolate the performance-independent effects of age (5 to 33 years) and cumulative duration of musical training (0 to 21,000 practice hours) on fMRI activation similarities and differences between melodic discrimination (MD) and rhythmic discrimination (RD). Age-related effects common to MD and RD were present in three left hemisphere regions: temporofrontal junction, ventral premotor cortex, and the inferior part of the intraparietal sulcus, regions involved in active attending to auditory rhythms, sensorimotor integration, and working memory transformations of pitch and rhythmic patterns. By contrast, training-related effects common to MD and RD were localized to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus/planum temporale, an area implicated in spectrotemporal pattern matching and auditory–motor coordinate transformations. A single cluster in right superior temporal gyrus showed significantly greater activation during MD than RD. This is the first fMRI which has distinguished maturational from training effects during music processing. PMID:22348885

  14. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  15. Dopaminergic reward signals selectively decrease fMRI activity in primate visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, J.T.; Nelissen, K.; Jarraya, B.; Vanduffel, W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Stimulus-reward coupling without attention can induce highly specific perceptual learning effects, suggesting that rewards trigger selective plasticity within visual cortex. Additionally, dopamine-releasing events - temporally-surrounding stimulus-reward associations - selectively enhance memory. These forms of plasticity may be evoked by selective modulation of stimulus representations during dopamine-inducing events. However, it remains to be shown whether dopaminergic signals can selectively modulate visual cortical activity. We measured fMRI activity in monkey visual cortex during reward-only trials apart from intermixed cue-reward trials. Rewards without visual stimulation selectively decreased fMRI activity within the cue representations that had been paired with rewards during other trials. Behavioral tests indicated that these same uncued reward trials strengthened cue-reward associations. Furthermore, such spatially-specific activity modulations depended on prediction error, as shown by manipulations of reward magnitude, cue-reward probability, cue-reward familiarity, and dopamine signaling. This cue-selective negative reward signal offers a mechanism for selectively gating sensory cortical plasticity. PMID:23522051

  16. Differentiating maturational and training influences on fMRI activation during music processing.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert J; Norton, Andrea C; Overy, Katie; Winner, Ellen; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-04-15

    Two major influences on how the brain processes music are maturational development and active musical training. Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating music processing have typically focused on either categorical differences between "musicians versus nonmusicians" or "children versus adults." In the present study, we explored a cross-sectional data set (n=84) using multiple linear regression to isolate the performance-independent effects of age (5 to 33 years) and cumulative duration of musical training (0 to 21,000 practice hours) on fMRI activation similarities and differences between melodic discrimination (MD) and rhythmic discrimination (RD). Age-related effects common to MD and RD were present in three left hemisphere regions: temporofrontal junction, ventral premotor cortex, and the inferior part of the intraparietal sulcus, regions involved in active attending to auditory rhythms, sensorimotor integration, and working memory transformations of pitch and rhythmic patterns. By contrast, training-related effects common to MD and RD were localized to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus/planum temporale, an area implicated in spectrotemporal pattern matching and auditory-motor coordinate transformations. A single cluster in right superior temporal gyrus showed significantly greater activation during MD than RD. This is the first fMRI which has distinguished maturational from training effects during music processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Different cortical activation patterns during voluntary eccentric and concentric muscle contractions: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Won

    2011-01-01

    Concentric and eccentric muscle contractions have distinct differences in their neuromuscular and neurophysiologic characteristics. However, although many evidences regarding the features of these types of muscle contraction have emerged, there have been few neuroimaging studies to compare the two types of contractions. Therefore, we investigated whether cortical activity associated with eccentric contraction of the wrist extensors differed from that of concentric contraction, using functional MRI (fMRI). Fifteen right-handed healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. During 4 repeating blocks of eccentric and concentric muscle contraction paradigms, the brain was scanned with fMRI. The differences in the BOLD signal intensities during the performance of eccentric and concentric exercise were compared in the predetermined regions of interest. Our findings revealed that many cortical areas associated with motor performance were activated, including the primary motor area, the inferior parietal lobe, the pre-supplementary area (pre-SMA), the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal area, and the cerebellum. In addition, lower signal intensities were seen in the right primary motor cortex and right cerebellum during eccentric contractions compared with concentric contractions, whereas higher signal intensities were detected in other cortical areas during eccentric contractions. In the study, we demonstrated that eccentric and concentric muscle contractions induced quite different patterns of cortical activity respectively. These findings might be attributed to different strategy of neuro-motor processing and a higher level of cognitive demand for the performance of motor task with a higher degree of difficulty such as that required during eccentric contractions in comparison of concentric contractions.

  19. fMRI single trial discovery of spatio-temporal brain activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Michele; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Pizzagalli, Fabrizio; Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Maieron, Marta; Reverberi, Carlo; Laio, Alessandro; Amati, Daniele

    2017-03-01

    There is growing interest in the description of short-lived patterns in the spatiotemporal cortical activity monitored via neuroimaging. Most traditional analysis methods, designed to estimate relatively long-term brain dynamics, are not always appropriate to capture these patterns. Here we introduce a novel data-driven approach for detecting short-lived fMRI brain activity patterns. Exploiting Density Peak Clustering (Rodriguez and Laio [2014]), our approach reveals well localized clusters by identifying and grouping together voxels whose time-series are similar, irrespective of their brain location, even when very short time windows (∼10 volumes) are used. The method, which we call Coherence Density Peak Clustering (CDPC), is first tested on simulated data and compared with a standard unsupervised approach for fMRI analysis, independent component analysis (ICA). CDPC identifies activated voxels with essentially no false-positives and proves more reliable than ICA, which is troubled by a number of false positives comparable to that of true positives. The reliability of the method is demonstrated on real fMRI data from a simple motor task, containing brief iterations of the same movement. The clusters identified are found in regions expected to be involved in the task, and repeat synchronously with the paradigm. The methodology proposed is especially suitable for the study of short-time brain dynamics and single trial experiments, where the event or task of interest cannot be repeated for the same subject, as happens, for instance, in problem-solving, learning and decision-making. A GUI implementation of our method is available for download at https://github.com/micheleallegra/CDPC. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1421-1437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Correlations between histology and neuronal activity recorded by microelectrodes implanted chronically in the cerebral cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreery, Douglas; Cogan, Stuart; Kane, Sheryl; Pikov, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Objective. To quantify relations between the neuronal activity recorded with chronically-implanted intracortical microelectrodes and the histology of the surrounding tissue, using radial distance from the tip sites and time after array implantation as parameters. Approach. ‘Utah’-type intracortical microelectrode arrays were implanted into cats’ sensorimotor cortex for 275-364 days. The brain tissue around the implants was immuno-stained for the neuronal marker NeuN and for the astrocyte marker GFAP. Pearson’s product-moment correlations were used to quantify the relations between these markers and the amplitudes of the recorded neuronal action potentials (APs) and their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). Main results. S/N was more stable over post-implant time than was AP amplitude, but its increased correlation with neuronal density after many months indicates ongoing loss of neurons around the microelectrodes. S/N was correlated with neuron density out to at least 140 μm from the microelectrodes, while AP amplitude was correlated with neuron density and GFAP density within ˜80 μm. Correlations between AP amplitude and histology markers (GFAP and NeuN density) were strongest immediately after implantation, while correlation between the neuron density and S/N was strongest near the time the animals were sacrificed. Unlike AP amplitude, there was no significant correlation between S/N and density of GFAP around the tip sites. Significance. Our findings indicate an evolving interaction between changes in the tissue surrounding the microelectrodes and the microelectrode’s electrical properties. Ongoing loss of neurons around recording microelectrodes, and the interactions between their delayed electrical deterioration and early tissue scarring around the tips appear to pose the greatest threats to the microelectrodes’ long-term functionality.

  1. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  2. Evolution of impedance field telemetry after one day of activation in cochlear implant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Mi; Chen, Hsing-Yi; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Changes in impedance between 24 hours and one month after cochlear implantation have never been explored due to the inability to switch on within one day. This study examined the effect of early activation (within 24 hours) on the evolution of electrode impedance with the aim of providing information on the tissue-to-electrode interface when electrical stimulation was commenced one day post implantation. Methods We performed a retrospective review at a single institution. Patients who received a Nucleus 24RECA implant system (Cochlear, Sydney, Australia) and underwent initial switch-on within 24 hours postoperatively were included. Impedance measurements were obtained intraoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results A significant drop in impedance was noted 1 day after an initial activation within 24 hours followed by a significant rise in impedance in all channels until 1 week, after which the impedance behaved differently in different segments. Basal and mid-portion electrodes revealed a slight increase while apical electrodes showed a slight decrease in impedance from 1 week to 8 weeks postoperatively. Impedance was relatively stable 4 weeks after surgery. Conclusions This is the first study to report the evolution of impedance in all channels between initial mapping 1 day and 1 month after cochlear implantation. The underlying mechanism for the differences in behavior between different segments of the electrode may be associated with the combined effect of dynamics among the interplay of cell cover formation, electrical stimulation, and fibrotic reaction. PMID:28264044

  3. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich’s flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  4. Activation studies of low-dose Si implants in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiting, C. J.; Grudowski, P. A.; Dupuis, R. D.; Hsia, H.; Tang, Z.; Becher, D.; Kuo, H.; Stillman, G. E.; Feng, M.

    1998-12-01

    The implantation of Si ions into undoped high-resistivity GaN films is of interest for the realization of high-performance digital and monolithic microwave integrated circuits. We report the effect of postimplant annealing conditions on the electrical, optical, and surface morphology of Si ion-implanted GaN films. We demonstrate high activation efficiencies for low-dose Si implants into unintentionally doped GaN/sapphire heteroepitaxial films. The Si ions were implanted through an epitaxial AlN cap layer at 100 keV and a dose ˜5×1014cm-2. Samples were subsequently annealed in an open-tube furnace for various times and temperatures. The postanneal electrical activation is correlated with the surface morphology of the film after annealing. The samples annealed at 1150 °C in N2 for 5 min. exhibited a smooth surface morphology and a sheet electron concentration ns˜6.8×1013cm-2.

  5. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    PubMed

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  6. Effect of visual feedback on brain activation during motor tasks: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Jeremy W.; Eng, Janice J.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of visual feedback and force level on the neural mechanisms responsible for the performance of a motor task. We used a voxel-wise fMRI approach to determine the effect of visual feedback (with and without) during a grip force task at 35% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction. Two areas (contralateral rostral premotor cortex and putamen) displayed an interaction between force and feedback conditions. When the main effect of feedback condition was analyzed, higher activation when visual feedback was available was found in 22 of the 24 active brain areas, while the two other regions (contralateral lingual gyrus and ipsilateral precuneus) showed greater levels of activity when no visual feedback was available. The results suggest that there is a potentially confounding influence of visual feedback on brain activation during a motor task, and for some regions, this is dependent on the level of force applied. PMID:23761430

  7. Activated region fitting: a robust high-power method for fMRI analysis using parameterized regions of activation.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Wouter D; Waldorp, Lourens J; Christoffels, Ingrid; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2009-08-01

    An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual voxels. This increases power and eases interpretation. Simulation studies show robust hypothesis tests under misspecification of the shape model, and increased power over standard techniques especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. An application to real single-subject data also indicates that the method has increased power over standard methods.

  8. The Integrative Analysis of microRNA and mRNA Expression in Mouse Uterus under Delayed Implantation and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Long; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Jia, Bo; Feng, Xu-Hui; Ren, Gang; Hu, Shi-Jun; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Delayed implantation is a developmental arrest at the blastocyst stage and a good model for embryo implantation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in mouse embryo implantation through regulating uterine gene expression. This study was to have an integrative analysis on global miRNA and mRNA expression in mouse uterus under delayed implantation and activation through Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings By deep sequencing and analysis, we found that there are 20 miRNAs up-regulated and 42 miRNAs down-regulated at least 1.2 folds, and 268 genes up-regulated and 295 genes down-regulated at least 2 folds under activation compared to delayed implantation, respectively. Many different forms of editing in mature miRNAs are detected. The percentage of editing at positions 4 and 5 of mature miRNAs is significantly higher under delayed implantation than under activation. Although the number of miR-21 reference sequence under activation is slightly lower than that under delayed implantation, the total level of miR-21 under activation is higher than that under delayed implantation. Six novel miRNAs are predicted and confirmed. The target genes of significantly up-regulated miRNAs under activation are significantly enriched. Conclusions miRNA and mRNA expression patterns are closely related. The target genes of up-regulated miRNAs are significantly enriched. A high level of editing at positions 4 and 5 of mature miRNAs is detected under delayed implantation than under activation. Our data should be valuable for future study on delayed implantation. PMID:21124741

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta expression and regulation in mouse uterus during embryo implantation and decidualization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai-Zheng; Teng, Chun-Bo; Ma, Hong; Ni, Hua; Ma, Xing-Hong; Xu, Li-Bin; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) PPARdelta gene in mouse uterus during early pregnancy by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. PPARdelta expression under pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation, hormonal treatment, and artificial decidualization was also investigated. There was a very low level of PPARdelta expression on days 1-4 of pregnancy. On day 5 when embryo implanted, PPARdelta expression was exclusively observed in the subluminal stroma surrounding the implanting blastocyst. No corresponding signals were seen in the uterus on day 5 of pregnancy. There was no detectable PPARdelta signal under delayed implantation. Once delayed implantation was terminated by estrogen treatment and embryo implanted, a strong level of PPARdelta expression was induced in the subluminal stroma surrounding the implanting blastocyst. Estrogen treatment induced a moderate level of PPARdelta expression in the glandular epithelium, while progesterone treatment had no effects in the ovariectomized mice. A strong level of PPARdelta expression was seen in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. PPARdelta expression was also induced under artificial decidualization. These data suggest that PPARdelta expression at implantation sites require the presence of an active blastocyst and may play an essential role for blastocyst implantation.

  10. Spatio-temporal activity in real time (STAR): Optimization of regional fMRI feedback

    PubMed Central

    Magland, Jeremy F.; Tjoa, Christopher W.; Childress, Anna Rose

    2011-01-01

    The use of real-time feedback has expanded fMRI from a brain probe to include potential brain interventions with significant therapeutic promise. However, whereas time-averaged blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal measurement is usually sufficient for probing a brain state, the real-time (frame-to-frame) BOLD signal is noisy, compromising feedback accuracy. We have developed a new real-time processing technique (STAR) that combines noise-reduction properties of multi-voxel (e.g., whole-brain) techniques with the regional specificity critical for therapeutics. Nineteen subjects were given real-time feedback in a cognitive control task (imagining repetitive motor activity vs. spatial navigation), and were all able to control a visual feedback cursor based on whole-brain neural activity. The STAR technique was evaluated, retrospectively, for five a priori regions of interest in these data, and was shown to provide significantly better (frame-by-frame) classification accuracy than a regional BOLD technique. In addition to regional feedback signals, the output of the STAR technique includes spatio-temporal activity maps (movies) providing insight into brain dynamics. The STAR approach offers an appealing optimization for real-time fMRI applications requiring an anatomically-localized feedback signal. PMID:21232612

  11. Spatio-temporal activity in real time (STAR): optimization of regional fMRI feedback.

    PubMed

    Magland, Jeremy F; Tjoa, Christopher W; Childress, Anna Rose

    2011-04-01

    The use of real-time feedback has expanded fMRI from a brain probe to include potential brain interventions with significant therapeutic promise. However, whereas time-averaged blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal measurement is usually sufficient for probing a brain state, the real-time (frame-to-frame) BOLD signal is noisy, compromising feedback accuracy. We have developed a new real-time processing technique (STAR) that combines noise-reduction properties of multi-voxel (e.g., whole-brain) techniques with the regional specificity critical for therapeutics. Nineteen subjects were given real-time feedback in a cognitive control task (imagining repetitive motor activity vs. spatial navigation), and were all able to control a visual feedback cursor based on whole-brain neural activity. The STAR technique was evaluated, retrospectively, for five a priori regions of interest in these data, and was shown to provide significantly better (frame-by-frame) classification accuracy than a regional BOLD technique. In addition to regional feedback signals, the output of the STAR technique includes spatio-temporal activity maps (movies) providing insight into brain dynamics. The STAR approach offers an appealing optimization for real-time fMRI applications requiring an anatomically-localized feedback signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Monocular activation of V1 and V2 in amblyopic adults measured with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Ian P; Odom, J Vernon; Schwartz, Terry L; Mendola, Janine D

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although previous neuroimaging efforts clearly indicate visual cortical dysfunction in adults with amblyopia, the extent of abnormalities remains unclear. Methods This fMRI study directly compared activity in visual cortex produced by monocular stimulation in 18 adults (6 esotropic strabismics, 6 anisometropes, and 6 controls). Measures were made in three cortical regions of interest, individually defined using standard retinotopic mapping techniques in the nonamblyopic eye, corresponding to extrafoveal V1, extrafoveal V2, and the foveal representation at the occipital pole. Fixation stability was monitored and found not to differ significantly between subject groups. Results Overall results showed depressed fMRI signal magnitude for amblyopic eyes compared with sound eyes, although a few subjects did not show this trend. Assessment of the spatial extent of activation using an ocular dominance index did show significantly larger interocular differences for both strabismics and anisometropes compared with control subjects for whom eye dominance was carefully defined. In addition, both amblyopic groups showed less cortical area able to be significantly driven by either eye. The magnitude of these effects was equivalent in V1, V2, and the foveal representation, as well as between amblyopic groups. No difference was detected in the strength of signal from the nasal versus temporal retina in either amblyopic group. Conclusions Asymmetries in magnitude of monocular activation do occur in subjects with amblyopia, but these basic measures are limited in terms of sensitivity for mild to moderate amblyopia and for specificity between subtypes. PMID:17434776

  13. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: An fMRI approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels) and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone). Results Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46) was present only in the KPT. Conclusions Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance. PMID:22640773

  14. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a dual neuropsychological screening test: an fMRI approach.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, J Adam; Bronner, Shaw; Ono, Yumie; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Niwa, Masami; Watanabe, Kazuko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2012-05-28

    The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen for dementia. Nevertheless, there has been little neurological investigation into PFC activity during this test. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in young healthy adults during performance of a computerized KPT dual task (comprised of reading comprehension and picking out vowels) and compared it to its single task components (reading or vowel pick-out alone). Behavioral performance of the KPT degraded compared to its single task components. Performance of the KPT markedly increased BOLD signal intensity in the PFC, and also activated sensorimotor, parietal association, and visual cortex areas. In conjunction analyses, bilateral BOLD signal in the dorsolateral PFC (Brodmann's areas 45, 46) was present only in the KPT. Our results support the central bottleneck theory and suggest that the dorsolateral PFC is an important mediator of neural activity for both short-term storage and executive processes. Quantitative evaluation of the KPT with fMRI in healthy adults is the first step towards understanding the effects of aging or cognitive impairment on KPT performance.

  15. Activation of ion-implanted polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared on glass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    So, Byoung-Soo; Bae, Seung-Muk; You, Yil-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hwan; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2012-10-15

    Phosphorous-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films were subjected to thermal annealing between 300 °C and 650 °C. The thermal activation was monitored electrically and structurally using Hall measurements, Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Charge transport information was correlated to the corresponding structural evolution in thermal activation. Phosphorous-implanted activation is divided into short-range ordering at low temperatures and long-range ordering at high temperatures, with the boundary between low and high temperatures set at 425 °C. Short-range ordering allows for significant increase in electronic concentration through substitution of P for Si. Higher temperatures are attributed to long-range ordering, thereby increasing electronic mobility.

  16. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D.; Mirzaei, S.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C.; Medling, S.; Pereira, C.; Russo, S.; Ridgway, M.

    2015-11-22

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C þ In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.

  17. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, R.; Kremer, F.; Sprouster, D.; ...

    2015-11-22

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C þ In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result ofmore » C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.« less

  18. Enhanced electrical activation in In-implanted Ge by C co-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R. Kremer, F.; Mirzaei, S.; Medling, S. A.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sprouster, D. J.; Decoster, S.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Glover, C. J.; Russo, S. P.

    2015-11-23

    At high dopant concentrations in Ge, electrically activating all implanted dopants is a major obstacle in the fulfillment of high-performance Ge-channel complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. In this letter, we demonstrate a significant increase in the electrically-active dopant fraction in In-implanted Ge by co-doping with the isovalent element C. Electrical measurements have been correlated with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results in addition to density functional theory simulations. With C + In co-doping, the electrically active fraction was doubled and tripled at In concentrations of 0.2 and 0.7 at. %, respectively. This marked improvement was the result of C-In pair formation such that In-induced strain in the Ge lattice was reduced while the precipitation of In and the formation of In-V clusters were both suppressed.

  19. Comparison of semantic and episodic memory BOLD fMRI activation in predicting cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hantke, Nathan; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M.; Butts, Alissa; Seidenberg, Michael; Smith, J. Carson; Durgerian, Sally; Lancaster, Melissa; Matthews, Monica; Sugarman, Michael A.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that task-activated fMRI can predict future cognitive decline among healthy older adults. The present fMRI study examined the relative sensitivity of semantic memory (SM) versus episodic memory (EM) activation tasks for predicting cognitive decline. Seventy-eight cognitively intact elders underwent neuropsychological testing at entry and after an 18-month interval, with participants classified as cognitively “Stable” or “Declining” based on ≥1.0 SD decline in performance. Baseline fMRI scanning involved SM (famous name discrimination) and EM (name recognition) tasks. SM and EM fMRI activation, along with APOE ε4 status, served as predictors of cognitive outcome using a logistic regression analysis. Twenty-seven (34.6%) participants were classified as Declining and 51 (65.4%) as Stable. APOE ε4 status alone significantly predicted cognitive decline (R2 = .106; C index = .642). Addition of SM activation significantly improved prediction accuracy (R2 = .285; C index = .787), whereas the addition of EM did not (R2 = .212; C index = .711). In combination with APOE status, SM task activation predicts future cognitive decline better than EM activation. These results have implications for use of fMRI in prevention clinical trials involving the identification of persons at-risk for age-associated memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23199565

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of multiparametric MRI with increased active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Louisa G; James, Robbie; Tuffaha, Haitham W; Lowe, Anthony; Yaxley, John

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to diagnose prostate cancer and direct all low-risk patients into active surveillance (AS). A Markov cohort model was developed to assess three scenarios: 1) no mpMRI and current AS; 2) mpMRI and current AS; and 3) mpMRI and increased AS. Men were tracked from diagnosis to end-of-life. Estimates to populate the model were derived from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, epidemiological publications, and national cost reports. An Australian Government perspective was used. Outcomes included healthcare costs, survival, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), number of biopsies, and significant and insignificant cancers. Extensive sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address possible variation in the modeled inputs. Mean lifetime costs per patient were AU$23,191 for Scenario 1, AU$23,387 for Scenario 2 and AU$21,064 for Scenario 3. Corresponding QALYs were 7.81, 7.77, 7.83 for Scenarios 1, 2, and 3, respectively. At the current uptake of AS in Australia, mpMRI alone does not appear cost-effective (16.9% likelihood). However, mpMRI with AS for all men with low-risk disease is strongly cost-effective (86.9% likelihood) at a willingness-to-pay AU$50,000 per QALY gained. For the mpMRI options, for every 1000 men suspected of prostate cancer, using mpMRI would avoid 340 biopsies, detect an additional 20 significant cancers, and detect 10 fewer insignificant cancers. Diagnosis of prostate cancer through mpMRI technology would be cost-effective if it leads to increased uptake of AS for men with confirmed very-low- or low-risk prostate cancer. 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1304-1315. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. A method for detecting the temporal sequence of muscle activation during cycling using MRI.

    PubMed

    Elder, Christopher P; Cook, Ryan N; Wilkens, Kenneth L; Chance, Marti A; Sanchez, Otto A; Damon, Bruce M

    2011-03-01

    Surface electromyography (EMG) can assess muscle recruitment patterns during cycling, but has limited applicability to studies of deep muscle recruitment and electrically stimulated contractions. We determined whether muscle recruitment timing could be inferred from MRI-measured transverse relaxation time constant (T(2)) changes and a cycle ergometer modified to vary power as a function of pedal angle. Six subjects performed 6 min of single-leg cycling under two conditions (E0°-230° and E90°-230°), which increased the power from 0°-230° and 90-230° of the pedal cycle, respectively. The difference condition produced a virtual power output from 0-180° (V0°-180°). Recruitment was assessed by integrating EMG over the pedal cycle (IEMG) and as the (post-pre) exercise T(2) change (ΔT(2)). For E0°-230°, the mean IEMG for vastus medialis and lateralis (VM/VL; 49.3 ± 3.9 mV·s; mean ± SE) was greater (P < 0.05) than that for E90°-230° (17.9 ± 1.9 mV·s); the corresponding ΔT(2) values were 8.7 ± 1.0 and 1.4 ± 0.5 ms (P < 0.05). For E0°-230° and E90°-230°, the IEMG values for biceps femoris/long head (BF(L)) were 37.7 ± 5.4 and 27.1 ± 5.6 mV·s (P > 0.05); the corresponding ΔT(2) values were 0.9 ± 0.9 and 1.5 ± 0.9 ms (P > 0.05). MRI data indicated activation of the semitendinosus and BF/short head for E0°-230° and E90°-230°. For V0°-180°, ΔT(2) was 7.2 ± 0.9 ms for VM/VL and -0.6 ± 0.6 ms for BF(L); IEMG was 31.5 ± 3.7 mV·s for VM/VL and 10.6 ± 7.0 mV·s for BF(L). MRI and EMG data indicate VM/VL activity from 0 to 180° and selected hamstring activity from 90 to 230°. Combining ΔT(2) measurements with variable loading allows the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment during cycling to be inferred from MRI data.

  2. Brain Activity during Lower-Limb Movement with Manual Facilitation: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Patrícia Maria Duarte; Vieira, Ana Isabel Correia Matos de Ferreira; Canário, Nádia Isabel Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; de Castro Caldas, Alexandre Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Brain activity knowledge of healthy subjects is an important reference in the context of motor control and reeducation. While the normal brain behavior for upper-limb motor control has been widely explored, the same is not true for lower-limb control. Also the effects that different stimuli can evoke on movement and respective brain activity are important in the context of motor potentialization and reeducation. For a better understanding of these processes, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to collect data of 10 healthy subjects performing lower-limb multijoint functional movement under three stimuli: verbal stimulus, manual facilitation, and verbal + manual facilitation. Results showed that, with verbal stimulus, both lower limbs elicit bilateral cortical brain activation; with manual facilitation, only the left lower limb (LLL) elicits bilateral activation while the right lower limb (RLL) elicits contralateral activation; verbal + manual facilitation elicits bilateral activation for the LLL and contralateral activation for the RLL. Manual facilitation also elicits subcortical activation in white matter, the thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Deactivations were also found for lower-limb movement. Manual facilitation is stimulus capable of generating brain activity in healthy subjects. Stimuli need to be specific for bilateral activation and regarding which brain areas we aim to activate.

  3. Brain Activity during Lower-Limb Movement with Manual Facilitation: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Patrícia Maria Duarte; Vieira, Ana Isabel Correia Matos de Ferreira; Canário, Nádia Isabel Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; de Castro Caldas, Alexandre Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Brain activity knowledge of healthy subjects is an important reference in the context of motor control and reeducation. While the normal brain behavior for upper-limb motor control has been widely explored, the same is not true for lower-limb control. Also the effects that different stimuli can evoke on movement and respective brain activity are important in the context of motor potentialization and reeducation. For a better understanding of these processes, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to collect data of 10 healthy subjects performing lower-limb multijoint functional movement under three stimuli: verbal stimulus, manual facilitation, and verbal + manual facilitation. Results showed that, with verbal stimulus, both lower limbs elicit bilateral cortical brain activation; with manual facilitation, only the left lower limb (LLL) elicits bilateral activation while the right lower limb (RLL) elicits contralateral activation; verbal + manual facilitation elicits bilateral activation for the LLL and contralateral activation for the RLL. Manual facilitation also elicits subcortical activation in white matter, the thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Deactivations were also found for lower-limb movement. Manual facilitation is stimulus capable of generating brain activity in healthy subjects. Stimuli need to be specific for bilateral activation and regarding which brain areas we aim to activate. PMID:25722890

  4. Activation of Si implants into InAs characterized by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, A. G.; Martin, T. P.; Sorg, V. C.; Kennon, E. L.; Truong, V. Q.; Aldridge, H. L.; Hatem, C.; Thompson, M. O.; Jones, K. S.

    2016-03-01

    Studies of implant activation in InAs have not been reported presumably because of challenges associated with junction leakage. The activation of 20 keV, Si+ implants into lightly doped (001) p-type bulk InAs performed at 100 °C as a function of annealing time and temperature was measured via Raman scattering. Peak shift of the L+ coupled phonon-plasmon mode after annealing at 700 °C shows that active n-type doping levels ≈5 × 1019 cm-3 are possible for ion implanted Si in InAs. These values are comparable to the highest reported active carrier concentrations of 8-12 × 1019 cm-3 for growth-doped n-InAs. Raman scattering is shown to be a viable, non-contact technique to measure active carrier concentration in instances where contact-based methods such as Hall effect produce erroneous measurements or junction leakage prevents the measurement of shallow n+ layers, which cannot be effectively isolated from the bulk.

  5. Surgical factors in pediatric cochlear implantation and their early effects on electrode activation and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Francis, Howard W; Buchman, Craig A; Visaya, Jiovani M; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Zwolan, Teresa A; Fink, Nancy E; Niparko, John K

    2008-06-01

    To assess the impact of surgical factors on electrode status and early communication outcomes in young children in the first 2 years of cochlear implantation. Prospective multicenter cohort study. Six tertiary referral centers. Children 5 years or younger before implantation with normal nonverbal intelligence. Cochlear implant operations in 209 ears of 188 children. Percent active channels, auditory behavior as measured by the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Reynell receptive language scores. Stable insertion of the full electrode array was accomplished in 96.2% of ears. At least 75% of electrode channels were active in 88% of ears. Electrode deactivation had a significant negative effect on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores at 24 months but no effect on receptive language scores. Significantly fewer active electrodes were associated with a history of meningitis. Surgical complications requiring additional hospitalization and/or revision surgery occurred in 6.7% of patients but had no measurable effect on the development of auditory behavior within the first 2 years. Negative, although insignificant, associations were observed between the need for perioperative revision of the device and 1) the percent of active electrodes and 2) the receptive language level at 2-year follow-up. Activation of the entire electrode array is associated with better early auditory outcomes. Decrements in the number of active electrodes and lower gains of receptive language after manipulation of the newly implanted device were not statistically significant but may be clinically relevant, underscoring the importance of surgical technique and the effective placement of the electrode array.

  6. Surgical Factors in Pediatric Cochlear Implantation and Their Early Effects on Electrode Activation and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Howard W.; Buchman, Craig A.; Visaya, Jiovani M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Zwolan, Teresa A.; Fink, Nancy E.; Niparko, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of surgical factors on electrode status and early communication outcomes in young children in the first 2 years of cochlear implantation. Study Design Prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting Six tertiary referral centers. Patients Children 5 years or younger before implantation with normal nonverbal intelligence. Intervention Cochlear implant operations in 209 ears of 188 children. Main Outcome Measures Percent active channels, auditory behavior as measured by the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Reynell receptive language scores. Results Stable insertion of the full electrode array was accomplished in 96.2% of ears. At least 75% of electrode channels were active in 88% of ears. Electrode deactivation had a significant negative effect on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores at 24 months but no effect on receptive language scores. Significantly fewer active electrodes were associated with a history of meningitis. Surgical complications requiring additional hospitalization and/or revision surgery occurred in 6.7% of patients but had no measurable effect on the development of auditory behavior within the first 2 years. Negative, although insignificant, associations were observed between the need for perioperative revision of the device and 1) the percent of active electrodes and 2) the receptive language level at 2-year follow-up. Conclusion Activation of the entire electrode array is associated with better early auditory outcomes. Decrements in the number of active electrodes and lower gains of receptive language after manipulation of the newly implanted device were not statistically significant but may be clinically relevant, underscoring the importance of surgical technique and the effective placement of the electrode array. PMID:18401281

  7. Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Candidate Biomaterials for an Implantable Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Andrey; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Lambris, John D; Johannessen, Erik A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous monitoring of glucose by implantable microfabricated devices offers key advantages over current transcutaneous glucose sensors that limit usability due to their obtrusive nature and risk of infection. A successful sensory implant should be biocompatible and retain long-lasting function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a key role in the inflammatory system by releasing enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, typically as a response to complement activation. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of PMN activation as a marker for biocompatibility of materials and to evaluate the role of complement in the activation of PMN. Methods Fifteen candidate materials of an implantable glucose sensor were incubated in lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. The cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) expression on PMN was analyzed with flow cytometry and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in plasma was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complement activation was prevented by the C3 inhibitor compstatin or the C5 inhibitor eculizumab. Results Three of the biomaterials (cellulose ester, polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, and polyamide thin film membrane), all belonging to the membrane group, induced a substantial and significant increase in CD11b expression and MPO release. The changes were virtually identical for these two markers. Inhibition of complement with compstatin or eculizumab reduced the CD11b expression and MPO release dose dependently and in most cases back to baseline. The other 12 materials did not induce significant PMN activation. Conclusion Three of the 15 candidate materials triggered PMN activation in a complement-dependent manner and should therefore be avoided for implementation in implantable microsensors. PMID:22226271

  8. Effect of slice orientation on reproducibility of fMRI motor activation at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Gustard, S; Fadili, J; Williams, E J; Hall, L D; Carpenter, T A; Brett, M; Bullmore, E T

    2001-12-01

    The effect of slice orientation on reproducibility and sensitivity of 3T fMRI activation using a motor task has been investigated in six normal volunteers. Four slice orientations were used; axial, oblique axial, coronal and sagittal. We applied analysis of variance (ANOVA) to suprathreshold voxel statistics to quantify variability in activation between orientations and between subjects. We also assessed signal detection accuracy in voxels across the whole brain by using a finite mixture model to fit receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to the data. Preliminary findings suggest that suprathreshold cluster characteristics demonstrate high motor reproducibility across subjects and orientations, although a significant difference between slice orientations in number of activated voxels was demonstrated in left motor cortex but not cerebellum. Subtle inter-orientation differences are highlighted in the ROC analyses, which are not obvious by ANOVA; the oblique axial slice orientation offers the highest signal detection accuracy, whereas coronal slices give the lowest.

  9. Functional MRI of human amygdala activity during Pavlovian fear conditioning: stimulus processing versus response expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dominic T; Knight, David C; Smith, Christine N; Stein, Elliot A; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2003-02-01

    Although laboratory animal studies have shown that the amygdala plays multiple roles in conditional fear, less is known about the human amygdala. Human subjects were trained in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Brain activity maps correlated with reference waveforms representing the temporal pattern of visual conditional stimuli (CSs) and subject-derived autonomic responses were compared. Subjects receiving paired CS-shock presentations showed greater amygdala activity than subjects receiving unpaired CS-shock presentations when their brain activity was correlated with a waveform generated from their behavioral responses. Stimulus-based waveforms revealed learning differences in the visual cortex, but not in the amygdala. These data support the view that the amygdala is important for the expression of learned behavioral responses during Pavlovian fear conditioning.

  10. Where fMRI and electrophysiology agree to disagree: corticothalamic and striatal activity patterns in the WAG/Rij rat

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Asht Mangal; Ellens, Damien J.; Schridde, Ulrich; Motelow, Joshua E.; Purcaro, Michael J.; DeSalvo, Matthew N.; Enev, Miro; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between neuronal activity and hemodynamic changes plays a central role in functional neuroimaging. Under normal conditions and in neurological disorders such as epilepsy it is commonly assumed that increased functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reflect increased neuronal activity, and that fMRI decreases represent neuronal activity decreases. Recent work suggests these assumptions usually hold true in the cerebral cortex. However, less is known about the basis of fMRI signals from subcortical structures such as the thalamus and basal ganglia. We used Wistar Albino Glaxo rats of Rijswijk (WAG/Rij), an established animal model of human absence epilepsy, to perform fMRI studies with blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) contrasts at 9.4 Tesla; as well as laser Doppler cerebral blood flow (CBF), local field potential (LFP), and multiunit activity (MUA) recordings. We found that during spike-wave discharges, the somatosensory cortex and thalamus showed increased fMRI, CBV, CBF, LFP and MUA signals. However, the caudate-putamen showed fMRI, CBV and CBF decreases despite increases in LFP and MUA signals. Similarly, during normal whisker stimulation the cortex and thalamus showed increases in CBF and MUA, while the caudate-putamen showed decreased CBF with increased MUA. These findings suggest that neuroimaging-related signals and electrophysiology tend to agree in the cortex and thalamus, but disagree in the caudate-putamen. These opposite changes in vascular and electrical activity indicate that caution should be applied when interpreting fMRI signals in both health and disease from the caudate-putamen, as well as possibly from other subcortical structures. PMID:22016539

  11. A Retrospective Multicentre Cohort Review of Patient Characteristics and Surgical Aspects versus the Long-Term Outcomes for Recipients of a Fully Implantable Active Middle Ear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Gisbert, Javier; Cuda, Domenico; Tringali, Stéphane; Deveze, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Objective To summarise treatment outcomes compared to surgical and patient variables for a multicentre recipient cohort using a fully implantable active middle ear implant for hearing impairment. To describe the authors' preferred surgical technique to determine microphone placement. Study Design Multicentre retrospective, observational survey. Setting Five tertiary referral centres. Patients Carina recipients (66 ears, 62 subjects) using the current Cochlear® Carina® System or the legacy device, the Otologics® Fully Implantable Middle Ear, with a T2 transducer. Methods Patient file review and routine clinical review. Patient outcomes assessed were satisfaction, daily use and feedback reports at the first fitting and ≥12 months after implantation. Descriptive and statistical analysis of correlations of variables and their influence on outcomes was performed. Independently reported preferred methods for microphone placement are collectively summarised. Results The average implant experience was 3.5 years. Satisfaction increased significantly over time (p < 0.05). No correlation with covariates examined was observed. Feedback significantly decreased over time, showing a significant correlation with microphone location, primary motivation, gender, age at implantation, and contralateral hearing aid use (p < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was inversely correlated with reports of system feedback (p < 0.05). The implantable microphone was most commonly on the posterior inferior mastoid line, in 42/66 (65%) cases, correlating with less likelihood for feedback and consistent with author surgical preference. Conclusion Carina recipients in this study present as satisfied consistent daily users with very few reports of persistent feedback. As microphone location is an influencing factor, a careful surgical consideration of microphone placement is required. The authors prefer a posterior inferior mastoid line position whenever possible. PMID:28052264

  12. Accuracy of a digital impression system based on active wavefront sampling technology for implants considering operator experience, implant angulation, and depth.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Beatriz; Özcan, Mutlu; Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Pradíes, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    There is a scarce knowledge on the accuracy of intraoral digital impression systems for dental implants. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a digital impression system considering clinical parameters. A master model with six implants (27, 25, 22, 12, 15, 17) was fitted with polyether ether ketone scan bodies. Implant no. 25 was placed with 30° mesial angulation in relation to the vertical plane (y axis), and implant no. 15 was positioned with 30° distal angulation. Implant no. 22 was placed 2 mm and no. 12, 4 mm below the gingiva. Experienced (n = 2) and inexperienced operators (n = 2) performed scanning (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner; 3 M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) at standard and high accuracy mode. Measurements involved five distances (27-25, 27-22, 27-12, 27-15, 27-17). Measurements with high accuracy three-dimensional coordinated measuring machine (CMM) of the master model acted as the true values. The data obtained were subtracted from those of the CMM values. Experience of the operator significantly influenced the results (p = .000). Angulation (p = .195) and depth of implant (p = .399) did not show significant deviation from the true values. The mean difference between standard and high accuracy mode was 90 μm. With the active wavefront sampling, technology-based digital impression system training seems to be compulsory. Impressions of angulated implants may diminish the accuracy of the impression, yet the results were not significant. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ultra-sensitive molecular MRI of cerebrovascular cell activation enables early detection of chronic central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Axel; Gauberti, Maxime; Macrez, Richard; Jullienne, Amandine; Briens, Aurélien; Raynaud, Jean-Sébastien; Louin, Gaelle; Buisson, Alain; Haelewyn, Benoit; Docagne, Fabian; Defer, Gilles; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuroinflammation.

  14. Fusion analysis of functional MRI data for classification of individuals based on patterns of activation.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Marble, Kris; Trang, Heather; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Classification of individuals based on patterns of brain activity observed in functional MRI contrasts may be helpful for diagnosis of neurological disorders. Prior work for classification based on these patterns have primarily focused on using a single contrast, which does not take advantage of complementary information that may be available in multiple contrasts. Where multiple contrasts are used, the objective has been only to identify the joint, distinct brain activity patterns that differ between groups of subjects; not to use the information to classify individuals. Here, we use joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) within a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification method, and take advantage of the relative contribution of activation patterns generated from multiple fMRI contrasts to improve classification accuracy. Young (age: 19-26) and older (age: 57-73) adults (16 each) were scanned while listening to noise alone and to speech degraded with noise, half of which contained meaningful context that could be used to enhance intelligibility. Functional contrasts based on these conditions (and a silent baseline condition) were used within jICA to generate spatially independent joint activation sources and their corresponding modulation profiles. Modulation profiles were used within a non-linear SVM framework to classify individuals as young or older. Results demonstrate that a combination of activation maps across the multiple contrasts yielded an area under ROC curve of 0.86, superior to classification resulting from individual contrasts. Moreover, class separability, measured by a divergence criterion, was substantially higher when using the combination of activation maps.

  15. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike; Pérez-Tomás, Amador; Myronov, Maksym; Fisher, Craig; Leadley, David; Mawby, Phil

    2015-10-01

    A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 1020 cm-3 at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 1019 cm-3, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 1020 cm-3. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 1019 cm-3. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO2 layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 1019 cm-3) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO2 cap.

  16. Active middle-ear implant fixation in an unusual place: clinical and audiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Polanski, J F; Soares, A D; Dos Santos, Z M; Mendonça Cruz, O L

    2016-04-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is an active middle-ear implant for hearing rehabilitation that is usually placed in the long process of the incus or round window. This study reports on the unusual implant attachment to the short process of the incus in a patient with ear malformation, and describes their audiological and clinical outcomes. Case report and literature review. Audiological evaluation with the Vibrant Soundbridge implant showed a pure tone average of 31 dB. The speech test, at 65 dB HL, revealed correct recognition of 92 per cent of disyllabic words. The Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile showed high levels of satisfaction, hearing aid use and benefit. Fixation of the Vibrant Soundbridge implant on the short process of the incus is a feasible option, with good clinical and audiological outcomes. Coupling the floating mass transducer to the short process of the incus is a good surgical option, especially when the long process and the oval or round window are inaccessible.

  17. MRI-constrained spectral imaging of benzodiazepine modulation of spontaneous neuromagnetic activity in human cortex.

    PubMed

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Kivisaari, Reetta; Autti, Taina; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stufflebeam, Steven; Belliveau, John W; Kähkönen, Seppo

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous electromagnetic brain rhythms have been widely used in human neuropharmacology, but their applicability is complicated by the difficulties to localize their origins in the human cortex. Here, we used a novel multi-modal non-invasive imaging approach to localize lorazepam (30 microg/kg i.v.) modulation of cortical generators of spontaneous brain rhythms. Eight healthy subjects were measured with 306-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled (saline), crossover design. For anatomically realistic source modeling, wavelet-transformed MEG data were combined with high-resolution MRI to constrain the current locations to the cortical mantle, after which individual data were co-registered to surface-based coordinate system for the calculation of group statistical parametric maps of drug effects. The distributed MRI-constrained MEG source estimates demonstrated decreased alpha (10 Hz) activity in and around the parieto-occipital sulcus and in the calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe, following from increased GABA(A)-inhibition by lorazepam. Anatomically constrained spectral imaging displays the cortical loci of drug effects on oscillatory brain activity, providing a novel tool for human pharmacological neuroimaging.

  18. Neural activity during production of rorschach responses: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Zennaro, Alessandro; Cauda, Franco

    2017-04-30

    Recently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system. These findings are in line with the traditional conceptualization of the test, as they suggest that taking the Rorschach involves (a) high-level visual processing, (b) top-down as well as bottom-up attentional processes, and (c) perception and processing of emotions and emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CUSTOM-FIT RADIOLUCENT CRANIAL IMPLANTS FOR NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL RECORDING AND STIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Mulliken, Grant H; Bichot, Narcisse P; Ghadooshahy, Azriel; Sharma, Jitendra; Kornblith, Simon; Philcock, Michael; Desimone, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Recording and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animal models requires long-term implantation of cranial implants that must address a variety of design considerations, which include preventing infection, minimizing tissue damage, mechanical strength of the implant, and MRI compatibility. New Method Here we address these issues by designing legless, custom-fit cranial implants using structural MRI-based reconstruction of the skull and that are made from carbon-reinforced PEEK. Results We report several novel custom-fit radiolucent implant designs, which include a legless recording chamber, a legless stimulation chamber, a multi-channel microdrive and a head post. The fit to the skull was excellent in all cases, with no visible gaps between the base of the implants and the skull. The wound margin was minimal in size and showed no sign of infection or skin recession. Comparison with Existing Methods Cranial implants used for neurophysiological investigation in awake behaving animals often employ methyl methacrylate (MMA) to serve as a bonding agent to secure the implant to the skull. Other designs rely on radially extending legs to secure the implant. Both of these methods have significant drawbacks. MMA is toxic to bone and frequently leads to infection while radially extending legs cause the skin to recede away from the implant, ultimately exposing bone and proliferating granulation tissue. Conclusions These radiolucent implants constitute a set of technologies suitable for reliable long-term recording, which minimize infection and tissue damage. PMID:25542350

  20. An fMRI Study Investigating Adolescent Brain Activation by Rewards and Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Hee; Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the adolescent brain activation patterns in response to performance feedback (PF), social reward (SR) and monetary reward (MR) and their association with psychological factors. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while middle school boys (n=15) performed tests pertained to PF, SR and MR. The brain activation pattern in each condition was investigated, and the extent of brain activation in each of the three conditions was compared at once. Results The caudate and the dorsal prefrontal area were activated in all three conditions. Furthermore, the cuneus showed significantly greater activation in the PF condition than the SR or MR condition. And the self - related areas, such as the right precentral gyrus and paracenral lobule, were more activated in the SR condition than the PF or MR condition. The left middle frontal gyrus was more activated in the MR condition than the PF or SR condition. Conclusion Not only various reward stimuli but also feedback stimulus might commonly activate dorsal prefrontal and subcortical area in adolescents. Moreover, several different brain activation patterns were also observed in each condition. The results of this study could be applied to planning of learning and teaching strategy for adolescents in various ways. PMID:23482680

  1. The effect of flexible acrylic resin on masticatory muscle activity in implant-supported mandibular overdentures: a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Background It is not yet clear from the current literature to what extent masticatory muscle activity is affected by the use of flexible acrylic resin in the construction of implant-supported mandibular overdentures. Objective To compare masticatory muscle activity between patients who were provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from flexible acrylic resin and those who were provided with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from heat-cured conventional acrylic resin. Methods In this clinical trial, 12 completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly allocated into two equal treatment groups. Each patient in Group 1 received two implants to support a mandibular overdenture made of conventional acrylic resin. In Group 2, the patients received two implants to support mandibular overdentures constructed from “Versacryl” flexible acrylic resin. The maxillary edentulous arch for patients in both groups was restored by conventional complete dentures. For all patients, masseter and temporalis muscle activity was evaluated using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results The results showed a significant decrease in masticatory muscle activity among patients with implant-supported mandibular overdentures constructed from flexible acrylic resin. Conclusion The use of “Versacryl” flexible acrylic resin in the construction of implant-supported mandibular overdentures resulted in decreased masticatory muscle activity. PMID:26955445

  2. Interictal brain activity differs in migraine with and without aura: resting state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Faragó, Péter; Tuka, Bernadett; Tóth, Eszter; Szabó, Nikoletta; Király, András; Csete, Gergő; Szok, Délia; Tajti, János; Párdutz, Árpád; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2017-12-01

    Migraine is one of the most severe primary headache disorders. The nature of the headache and the associated symptoms during the attack suggest underlying functional alterations in the brain. In this study, we examined amplitude, the resting state fMRI fluctuation in migraineurs with and without aura (MWA, MWoA respectively) and healthy controls. Resting state functional MRI images and T1 high-resolution images were acquired from all participants. For data analysis we compared the groups (MWA-Control, MWA-MWoA, MWoA-Control). The resting state networks were identified by MELODIC. The mean time courses of the networks were identified for each participant for all networks. The time-courses were decomposed into five frequency bands by discrete wavelet decomposition. The amplitude of the frequency-specific activity was compared between groups. Furthermore, the preprocessed resting state images were decomposed by wavelet analysis into five specific frequency bands voxel-wise. The voxel-wise amplitudes were compared between groups by non-parametric permutation test. In the MWA-Control comparison the discrete wavelet decomposition found alterations in the lateral visual network. Higher activity was measured in the MWA group in the highest frequency band (0.16-0.08 Hz). In case of the MWA-MWoA comparison all networks showed higher activity in the 0.08-0.04 Hz frequency range in MWA, and the lateral visual network in in higher frequencies. In MWoA-Control comparison only the default mode network revealed decreased activity in MWoA group in the 0.08-0.04 Hz band. The voxel-wise frequency specific analysis of the amplitudes found higher amplitudes in MWA as compared to MWoA in the in fronto-parietal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. The amplitude of the resting state fMRI activity fluctuation is higher in MWA than in MWoA. These results are in concordance with former studies, which found cortical hyperexcitability in MWA.

  3. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Li J.; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J.; Cheng, Jia L.; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  4. Antibiotic-decorated titanium with enhanced antibacterial activity through adhesive polydopamine for dental/bone implant

    PubMed Central

    He, Shu; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Linxin; Xiong, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yifei; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2014-01-01

    Implant-associated infections, which are normally induced by microbial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, practical approaches to prevent implant-associated infections are in great demand. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we have developed a novel antibiotic-decorated titanium (Ti) material with enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, Ti substrate was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine followed by immobilization of the antibiotic cefotaxime sodium (CS) onto the polydopamine-coated Ti through catechol chemistry. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of CS grafted on the Ti surface. Our results demonstrated that the antibiotic-grafted Ti substrate showed good biocompatibility and well-behaved haemocompatibility. In addition, the antibiotic-grafted Ti could effectively prevent adhesion and proliferation of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive). Moreover, the inhibition of biofilm formation on the antibiotic-decorated Ti indicated that the grafted CS could maintain its long-term antibacterial activity. This modified Ti substrate with enhanced antibacterial activity holds great potential as implant material for applications in dental and bone graft substitutes. PMID:24647910

  5. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  6. Detection of brown adipose tissue and thermogenic activity in mice by hyperpolarized xenon MRI

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Rosa Tamara; He, Ting; Zhang, Le; Floyd, Carlos S.; Freeman, Matthew; White, Christian; Burant, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human weight regulation has been constrained by the lack of a noninvasive tool for measuring this tissue and its function in vivo. Existing imaging modalities are nonspecific and intrinsically insensitive to the less active, lipid-rich BAT of obese subjects, the target population for BAT studies. We demonstrate noninvasive imaging of BAT in mice by hyperpolarized xenon gas MRI. We detect a greater than 15-fold increase in xenon uptake by BAT during stimulation of BAT thermogenesis, which enables us to acquire background-free maps of the tissue in both lean and obese mouse phenotypes. We also demonstrate in vivo MR thermometry of BAT by hyperpolarized xenon gas. Finally, we use the linear temperature dependence of the chemical shift of xenon dissolved in adipose tissue to directly measure BAT temperature and to track thermogenic activity in vivo. PMID:25453088

  7. MRI texture analysis (MRTA) of T2-weighted images in Crohn's disease may provide information on histological and MRI disease activity in patients undergoing ileal resection.

    PubMed

    Makanyanga, Jesica; Ganeshan, Balaji; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Bhatnagar, Gauraang; Groves, Ashley; Halligan, Steve; Miles, Ken; Taylor, Stuart A

    2017-02-01

    To associate MRI textural analysis (MRTA) with MRI and histological Crohn's disease (CD) activity. Sixteen patients (mean age 39.5 years, 9 male) undergoing MR enterography before ileal resection were retrospectively analysed. Thirty-six small (≤3 mm) ROIs were placed on T2-weighted images and location-matched histological acute inflammatory scores (AIS) measured. MRI activity (mural thickness, T2 signal, T1 enhancement) (CDA) was scored in large ROIs. MRTA features (mean, standard deviation, mean of positive pixels (MPP), entropy, kurtosis, skewness) were extracted using a filtration histogram technique. Spatial scale filtration (SSF) ranged from 2 to 5 mm. Regression (linear/logistic) tested associations between MRTA and AIS (small ROIs), and CDA/constituent parameters (large ROIs). Skewness (SSF = 2 mm) was associated with AIS [regression coefficient (rc) 4.27, p = 0.02]. Of 120 large ROI analyses (for each MRI, MRTA feature and SSF), 15 were significant. Entropy (SSF = 2, 3 mm) and kurtosis (SSF = 3 mm) were associated with CDA (rc 0.9, 1.0, -0.45, p = 0.006-0.01). Entropy and mean (SSF = 2-4 mm) were associated with T2 signal [odds ratio (OR) 2.32-3.16, p = 0.02-0.004], [OR 1.22-1.28, p = 0.03-0.04]. MPP (SSF = 2 mm) was associated with mural thickness (OR 0.91, p = 0.04). Kurtosis (SSF = 3 mm), standard deviation (SSF = 5 mm) were associated with decreased T1 enhancement (OR 0.59, 0.42, p = 0.004, 0.007). MRTA features may be associated with CD activity. • MR texture analysis features may be associated with Crohn's disease histological activity. • Texture analysis features may correlate with MR-dependent Crohn's disease activity scores. • The utility of MR texture analysis in Crohn's disease merits further investigation.

  8. Computerized segmentation of liver in hepatic CT and MRI by means of level-set geodesic active contouring.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Huynh, Hieu Trung; Liu, Yipeng; Calabrese, Dominic; Zhou, Karen; Oto, Aytekin; Hori, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Computerized liver volumetry has been studied, because the current "gold-standard" manual volumetry is subjective and very time-consuming. Liver volumetry is done in either CT or MRI. A number of researchers have developed computerized liver segmentation in CT, but there are fewer studies on ones for MRI. Our purpose in this study was to develop a general framework for liver segmentation in both CT and MRI. Our scheme consisted of 1) an anisotropic diffusion filter to reduce noise while preserving liver structures, 2) a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance liver boundaries, 3) a fast-marching algorithm to roughly determine liver boundaries, and 4) a geodesic-active-contour model coupled with a level-set algorithm to refine the initial boundaries. Our CT database contained hepatic CT scans of 18 liver donors obtained under a liver transplant protocol. Our MRI database contains 23 patients with 1.5T MRI scanners. To establish "gold-standard" liver volumes, radiologists manually traced the contour of the liver on each CT or MR slice. We compared our computer volumetry with "gold-standard" manual volumetry. Computer volumetry in CT and MRI reached excellent agreement with manual volumetry (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.94 and 0.98, respectively). Average user time for computer volumetry in CT and MRI was 0.57 ± 0.06 and 1.0 ± 0.13 min. per case, respectively, whereas those for manual volumetry were 39.4 ± 5.5 and 24.0 ± 4.4 min. per case, respectively, with statistically significant difference (p < .05). Our computerized liver segmentation framework provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes in both CT and MRI.

  9. Increase in MST activity correlates with visual motion learning: A functional MRI study of perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Stephanie J; Kennard, Chris; Bridge, Holly

    2017-09-30

    Repeated practice of a specific task can improve visual performance, but the neural mechanisms underlying this improvement in performance are not yet well understood. Here we trained healthy participants on a visual motion task daily for 5 days in one visual hemifield. Before and after training, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the change in neural activity. We also imaged a control group of participants on two occasions who did not receive any task training. While in the MRI scanner, all participants completed the motion task in the trained and untrained visual hemifields separately. Following training, participants improved their ability to discriminate motion direction in the trained hemifield and, to a lesser extent, in the untrained hemifield. The amount of task learning correlated positively with the change in activity in the medial superior temporal (MST) area. MST is the anterior portion of the human motion complex (hMT+). MST changes were localized to the hemisphere contralateral to the region of the visual field, where perceptual training was delivered. Visual areas V2 and V3a showed an increase in activity between the first and second scan in the training group, but this was not correlated with performance. The contralateral anterior hippocampus and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole showed changes in neural activity that also correlated with the amount of task learning. These findings emphasize the importance of MST in perceptual learning of a visual motion task. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The use of MRI to evaluate posterior thigh muscle activity and damage during nordic hamstring exercise.

    PubMed

    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Arcos, Asier L; Garrues, Mirian A; Myer, Gregory D; Yanci, Javier; Idoate, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Nordic hamstring exercise on the biceps femoris long head (BFlh), biceps femoris short head (BFsh), semitendinosus (SMT), and semimembranosus (SMM) muscles. The Nordic hamstring strengthening exercise has been widely used in injury prevention, yet not much is known about the site-specific activation of this exercise on different muscles of the thigh. Eight male national-level referees were assigned to a Nordic hamstring exercise protocol (5 sets of 8 repetitions). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the subjects' thighs was performed before, within 3 minutes after, and repeated again 72 hours after the exercise intervention. Fifteen axial scans of the thigh interspaced by a distance of 1 of 15 right femur length were obtained from the level of 1 of 15 Lf to 15 of 15 Lf. The MRI data were analyzed for signal intensity changes. After 72 hours, significant changes in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity and cross-sectional area were maintained distally at BFsh cranial portion and concretely at the nondominant limb, whereas no significant changes were observed in transverse (spin-spin) relaxation time signal intensity at BFlh, SMM, or SMT. This study demonstrated that the Nordic hamstring exercise did not result in a uniform response (training stimulus) neither interhamstring (dominant vs. nondominant) nor intrahamstring muscles (same leg) and was better suited for loading proximal BFsh.

  11. In Situ Active Control of Noise in a 4-Tesla MRI Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfeng; Rudd, Brent; Lim, Teik C.; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed active noise control (ANC) system for the reduction of the acoustic noise emission generated by a 4 T MRI scanner during operation and to assess the feasibility of developing an ANC device that can be deployed in situ. Materials and Methods Three typical scanning sequences, namely EPI (echo planar imaging), GEMS (gradient echo multi-slice) and MDEFT (Modified Driven Equilibrium Fourier Transform), were used for evaluating the performance of the ANC system, which was composed of a magnetic compatible headset and a multiple reference feedforward filtered-x least mean square controller. Results The greatest reduction, about 55 dB, was achieved at the harmonic at a frequency of 1.3 kHz in the GEMS case. Approximately 21 dB and 30 dBA overall reduction was achieved for GEMS noise across the entire audible frequency range. For the MDEFT sequence, the control system achieved 14 dB and 14 dBA overall reduction in the audible frequency range, while 13 dB and 14 dBA reduction was obtained for the EPI case. Conclusion The result is highly encouraging because it shows great potential for treating MRI noise with an ANC application during real time scanning. PMID:21751284

  12. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  13. Antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts against zinc disc implantation-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Anil T.; Vyawahare, Niraj S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The commonly used techniques for removing renal calculi are associated with the risk of acute renal injury and increase in stone recurrence which indicates an urgent need for alternate therapy. Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts in rats. Materials and Methods: Urolithiasis was induced by surgical implantations of zinc disc in the urinary bladders of rats. Upon postsurgical recovery, different doses of chloroform (CAM) and methanolic (MAM) extracts of A. moschatus seeds (viz., 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) were administered to disc implanted rats for the period of 7 days by the oral route. Antiurolithiatic activity was evaluated by measuring various dimensions of stones and estimating levels of various biomarkers in serum and urine samples. Results: A significant decrease in urinary output was observed in disc implanted animals, which was prevented by the treatment with extracts. Supplementation with extracts caused significant improvement in glomerular filtration rate and urinary total protein excretion. The elevated levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen were also prevented by the extracts. The extracts significantly reduced deposition of calculi deposition around the implanted disc. This antiurolithiatic potential is observed at all doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of MAM, whereas only higher dose (400 mg/kg) of CAM showed significant antiurolithiatic potential. Conclusion: The extracts of A. moschatus seeds possessed significant antiurolithiatic activity. The possible mechanism underlying this effect is mediated collectively through diuretic, antioxidant, and free-radical scavenging effects of the plant. PMID:27057124

  14. [EEG and fMRI reactions of a healthy brain at active and passive movements by a leading hand].

    PubMed

    Boldyreva, G N; Sharova, E V; Zhavoronkova, L A; Cheliapina, M V; Dubrovskaia, L P; Simonova, O A; Smirnov, A S; Troshina, E M; Kornienko, V N

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrical (EEG) and hemodynamic (fMRI) responses of cerebral reactions to active and passive movements by the right hand were analyzed in 17 right-handed healthy persons. Individual and averaged fMRI and EEG data was analyzed. The main cortex fMRI responses (sensorimotor cortex of the contralateral, left hemisphere) were topographically similar during both active and passive movements. This fact allows us to recommend the usage of the passive movement paradigm for the mapping of the motor areas in patients with movement disorders. Including in reactive process of cerebellum and subcortical structures at passive movements was more variability than active ones. FMRI-reactions at passive movements were characterized more individual variability than during active ones at the expense of diversity of cerebellum and subcortical structures answers. The EEG analysis revealed that at both passive and active movements there is a coherence increase in the high-frequency alpha-ban in left central-frontal area of the left, activated hemisphere. The power-frequency changes of the EEG parameters during active and passive movements were primarily shown in a frequency increase and the desynchronization of the beta-band. Consistency with the topography of the fMRI response was not found.

  15. MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in pediatric small bowel Crohn disease: correlation with MRI findings of active bowel wall inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ream, Justin M; Dillman, Jonathan R; Adler, Jeremy; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; McHugh, Jonathan B; Strouse, Peter J; Dhanani, Muhammad; Shpeen, Benjamin; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M

    2013-09-01

    Restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences during magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has been shown in segments of bowel affected by Crohn disease. However, the exact meaning of this finding, particularly within the pediatric Crohn disease population, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of bowel wall restricted diffusion in children with small bowel Crohn disease by correlating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with other MRI markers of disease activity. A retrospective review of pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with Crohn disease terminal ileitis who underwent MRE with DWI at our institution between May 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011 was undertaken. All of the children had either biopsy-proven Crohn disease terminal ileitis or clinically diagnosed Crohn disease, including terminal ileal involvement by imaging. The mean minimum ADC value within the wall of the terminal ileum was determined for each examination. ADC values were tested for correlation/association with other MRI findings to determine whether a relationship exists between bowel wall restricted diffusion and disease activity. Forty-six MRE examinations with DWI in children with terminal ileitis were identified (23 girls and 23 boys; mean age, 14.3 years). There was significant negative correlation or association between bowel wall minimum ADC value and established MRI markers of disease activity, including degree of bowel wall thickening (R = (-)0.43; P = 0.003), striated pattern of arterial enhancement (P = 0.01), degree of arterial enhancement (P = 0.01), degree of delayed enhancement (P = 0.045), amount of mesenteric inflammatory changes (P < 0.0001) and presence of a stricture (P = 0.02). ADC values were not significantly associated with bowel wall T2-weighted signal intensity, length of disease involvement or mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation. Increasing bowel wall restricted diffusion

  16. Load-dependent brain activity related to acoustic short-term memory for pitch: magnetoencephalography and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Grimault, Stephan; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) refers to the temporary retention of acoustic information. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of ASTM for pitch using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both MEG and fMRI analyses revealed brain activations that varied with memory load in the vicinity of secondary auditory cortex (Brodmann's area, BA22) and superior parietal cortex (BA5/7), while analyses specific to MEG data revealed load-related activations in the frontal cortex (BA9/10).

  17. RESOLUTE PET/MRI Attenuation Correction for O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) in Brain Tumor Patients with Metal Implants.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Andersen, Flemming L; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Law, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a useful tool for assisting in correct differentiation of tumor progression from reactive changes, and the radiolabeled amino acid analog tracer O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET)-PET is amongst the most frequently used. The FET-PET images need to be quantitatively correct in order to be used clinically, which require accurate attenuation correction (AC) in PET/MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the subject-specific MR-derived AC method RESOLUTE in post-operative brain tumor patients. Methods: We analyzed 51 post-operative brain tumor patients (68 examinations, 200 MBq [18F]-FET) investigated in a PET/MRI scanner. MR-AC maps were acquired using: (1) the Dixon water fat separation sequence, (2) the ultra short echo time (UTE) sequences, (3) calculated using our new RESOLUTE methodology, and (4) a same day low-dose CT used as reference "gold standard." For each subject and each AC method the tumor was delineated by isocontouring tracer uptake above a tumor(T)-to-brain background (B) activity ratio of 1.6. We measured B, tumor mean and maximal activity (TMEAN, TMAX), biological tumor volume (BTV), and calculated the clinical metrics TMEAN/B and TMAX/B. Results: When using RESOLUTE 5/68 studies did not meet our predefined acceptance criteria of TMAX/B difference to CT-AC < ±0.1 or 5%, TMEAN/B < ±0.05 or 5%, and BTV < ±2 mL or 10%. In total, 46/68 studies failed our acceptance criteria using Dixon, and 26/68 using UTE. The 95% limits of agreement for TMAX/B was for RESOLUTE (-3%; 4%), Dixon (-9%; 16%), and UTE (-7%; 10%). The absolute error when measuring BTV was 0.7 ± 1.9 mL (N.S) with RESOLUTE, 5.3 ± 10 mL using Dixon, and 1.7 ± 3.7 mL using UTE. RESOLUTE performed best in the identification of the location of peak activity and in brain tumor follow-up monitoring using clinical FET PET metrics. Conclusions: Overall, we found RESOLUTE to be the AC method that most robustly reproduced the

  18. Activation of boron-dopant atoms in ion-implanted diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Johan F.

    1988-09-01

    Different ratios of boron to carbon ions were implanted into diamond maintained at liquid-nitrogen temperature. After implantation, the diamonds were heated to 500 °C by dropping them onto a platform situated in a vertical tube furnace, and then annealed for 1 h. This was followed by a further anneal at 1200 °C in an argon atmosphere. It was found that under suitable conditions optical and electrical properties could be obtained which correlated with those found in natural semiconducting diamond. Thermally activated electrical conduction could, for instance, be established at an activation energy of ~0.37 eV, which corresponds to the value measured for substitutional boron acceptors in diamond. Owing to the annealing cycle used, a relatively large amount of products resulting from radiation damage remained, which, in the carbon-ion-implanted diamond, manifested itself by increased optical absorption at short wavelengths. The results indicate that the product responsible for this absorption may be acting as a donor center situated at about 4 eV below the conduction band. Thermal electromotive-force measurements correlate with the movement of holes in the valence band.

  19. Battery-powered implantable nerve stimulator for chronic activation of two skeletal muscles using multichannel techniques.

    PubMed

    Lanmüller, H; Sauermann, S; Unger, E; Schnetz, G; Mayr, W; Bijak, M; Rafolt, D; Girsch, W

    1999-05-01

    Chronic activation of skeletal muscle is used clinically in representative numbers for diaphragm pacing to restore breathing and for dynamic graciloplasty to achieve fecal continence. The 3 different stimulation techniques currently used for electrophrenic respiration (EPR) all apply high frequency powered implants. It was our goal to make these stimulation methods applicable for EPR by a battery-powered nerve stimulator that would maximize the patient's freedom of movement. Additionally, the system should allow the implementation of multichannel techniques and alternating stimulation of 2 skeletal muscles as a further improvement in graciloplasty. Generally, the developed implantable nerve stimulator can be used for simultaneous and alternating activation of 2 skeletal muscles. Stimulation of the motor nerve is achieved by either single channel or multichannel methods. Carousel stimulation and sequential stimulation can be used for graciloplasty as well as for EPR. For EPR we calculated an operating time of the implant battery of 4.1 years based on the clinically used stimulation parameters with carousel stimulation. The multichannel pulse generator is hermetically sealed in a titanium case sized 65 x 17 mm (diameter x height) and weighs 88 g.

  20. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-08-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration.

  1. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants to enhance osteogenic activity and in vivo osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Lv, Kaige; Zhang, Wenjie; Ding, Xun; Yang, Guangzheng; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Thermal oxidation, which serves as a low-cost, effective and relatively simple/facile method, was used to modify a micro-structured titanium surface in ambient atmosphere at 450 °C for different time periods to improve in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. The surface morphology, crystallinity of the surface layers, chemical composition and chemical states were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cell behaviours including cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were observed in vitro study. The ability of the titanium surface to promote osseointegration was evaluated in an in vivo animal model. Surface thermal oxidation on titanium implants maintained the microstructure and, thus, both slightly changed the nanoscale structure of titanium and enhanced the crystallinity of the titanium surface layer. Cells cultured on the three oxidized titanium surfaces grew well and exhibited better osteogenic activity than did the control samples. The in vivo bone-implant contact also showed enhanced osseointegration after several hours of oxidization. This heat-treated titanium enhanced the osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs and improved osseointegration in vivo, suggesting that surface thermal oxidation could potentially be used in clinical applications to improve bone-implant integration. PMID:27546196

  2. Active Clearance of Chest Tubes Reduces Re-Exploration for Bleeding After Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary E.; Haglund, Nicholas A.; Perrault, Louis; Kushwaha, Sudhir S.; Stulak, John M.; Boyle, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Chest tubes are utilized to evacuate shed blood after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, however, they can become clogged, leading to retained blood. We implemented a protocol for active tube clearance (ATC) of chest tubes to determine if this might reduce interventions for retained blood. A total of 252 patients underwent LVAD implantation. Seventy-seven patients had conventional chest tube drainage (group 1), whereas 175 patients had ATC (group 2). A univariate and multivariate analysis adjusting for the use of conventional sternotomy (CS) and minimally invasive left thoracotomy (MILT) was performed. Univariate analysis revealed a 65% reduction in re-exploration (43–15%, p < 0.001), and an 82% reduction in delayed sternal closure (DSC; 34–6%, p <0.001). In a sub-analysis of CS only, there continued to be statistically significant 53% reduction in re-exploration (45% vs. 21%, p = 0.0011), and a 77% reduction in DSC (35% vs. 8%, p < 0.001) in group 2. Using a logistic regression model adjusting for CS versus MILT, there was a significant reduction in re-exploration (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44 [confidence interval {CI} = 0.23–0.85], p = 0.014) and DSC (OR = 0.20 [CI = 0.08–0.46], p <0.001) in group 2. Actively maintaining chest tube patency after LVAD implantation significantly reduces re-exploration and DSC. PMID:27556153

  3. Active Clearance of Chest Tubes Reduces Re-Exploration for Bleeding After Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Simon; Davis, Mary E; Haglund, Nicholas A; Perrault, Louis; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Stulak, John M; Boyle, Edward M

    Chest tubes are utilized to evacuate shed blood after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, however, they can become clogged, leading to retained blood. We implemented a protocol for active tube clearance (ATC) of chest tubes to determine if this might reduce interventions for retained blood. A total of 252 patients underwent LVAD implantation. Seventy-seven patients had conventional chest tube drainage (group 1), whereas 175 patients had ATC (group 2). A univariate and multivariate analysis adjusting for the use of conventional sternotomy (CS) and minimally invasive left thoracotomy (MILT) was performed. Univariate analysis revealed a 65% reduction in re-exploration (43-15%, p < 0.001), and an 82% reduction in delayed sternal closure (DSC; 34-6%, p <0.001). In a sub-analysis of CS only, there continued to be statistically significant 53% reduction in re-exploration (45% vs. 21%, p = 0.0011), and a 77% reduction in DSC (35% vs. 8%, p < 0.001) in group 2. Using a logistic regression model adjusting for CS versus MILT, there was a significant reduction in re-exploration (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44 [confidence interval {CI} = 0.23-0.85], p = 0.014) and DSC (OR = 0.20 [CI = 0.08-0.46], p <0.001) in group 2. Actively maintaining chest tube patency after LVAD implantation significantly reduces re-exploration and DSC.

  4. Disrupted Prefrontal Activity during Emotion Processing in Complicated Grief: an fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Arizmendi, Brian; Kaszniak, Alfred W.; O’Connor, Mary-Frances

    2015-01-01

    Complicated Grief, marked by a persistent and intrusive grief lasting beyond the expected period of adaptation, is associated with a relative inability to disengage from idiographic loss-relevant stimuli (O’Connor & Arizmendi, 2014). In other populations, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural networks associated with this bias consistently implicate the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during emotion regulation. In the present study, twenty-eight older adults were categorized into three groups based on grief severity: Complicated Grief (n=8), Non-Complicated Grief (n=9), and Nonbereaved, married controls (n=11). Using a block design, all participants completed 8 blocks (20 stimuli per block) of the ecStroop task during fMRI data acquisition. Differences in neural activity during grief-related (as opposed to neutral) stimuli across groups were examined. Those with Complicated Grief showed an absence of increased rostral ACC (rACC) and fronto-cortical recruitment relative to Nonbereaved controls. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (x=6, y=54, z=−10) was significantly elevated in the Non-Complicated Grief group when compared to Nonbereaved controls. Post hoc analysis evidenced activity in the dorsal ACC in the Complicated Grief and Nonbereaved groups late in the task. These findings, supported by behavioral data, suggest a relative inability to recruit the regions necessary for successful completion of this emotional task in those with Complicated Grief. This deficit was not observed in recruitment of the orbitofrontal cortex and the rACC during processing of idiographic semantic stimuli in Non-Complicated Grief. PMID:26434802

  5. Disrupted prefrontal activity during emotion processing in complicated grief: An fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Arizmendi, Brian; Kaszniak, Alfred W; O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2016-01-01

    Complicated Grief, marked by a persistent and intrusive grief lasting beyond the expected period of adaptation, is associated with a relative inability to disengage from idiographic loss-relevant stimuli (O'Connor and Arizmendi, 2014). In other populations, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural networks associated with this bias consistently implicate the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during emotion regulation. In the present study, twenty-eight older adults were categorized into three groups based on grief severity: Complicated Grief (n=8), Non-Complicated Grief (n=9), and Nonbereaved, married controls (n=11). Using a block design, all participants completed 8 blocks (20 stimuli per block) of the ecStroop task during fMRI data acquisition. Differences in neural activity during grief-related (as opposed to neutral) stimuli across groups were examined. Those with Complicated Grief showed an absence of increased rostral ACC (rACC) and fronto-cortical recruitment relative to Nonbereaved controls. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (x=6, y=54, z=-10) was significantly elevated in the Non-Complicated Grief group when compared to Nonbereaved controls. Post hoc analysis evidenced activity in the dorsal ACC in the Complicated Grief and Nonbereaved groups late in the task. These findings, supported by behavioral data, suggest a relative inability to recruit the regions necessary for successful completion of this emotional task in those with Complicated Grief. This deficit was not observed in recruitment of the orbitofrontal cortex and the rACC during processing of idiographic semantic stimuli in Non-Complicated Grief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of helium implantation on mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of reduced-activation 9Cr-2W martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasada, R.; Morimura, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Kimura, A.

    2001-10-01

    A reduced-activation martensitic steel was implanted with helium up to 580 at. ppm by using 36 MeV α-beam between 353 and 423 K along with displacement damage up to 0.226 dpa. The implantation-induced increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was estimated to be 98 K for the standard charpy V-notched (CVN) specimen implanted with 580 at. ppm He, through the conversion of small punch (SP) test results by an empirical relationship. It is clarified from comparison with neutron irradiation data that the increase in DBTT as well as implantation-induced hardening is interpreted simply in terms of displacement damage, suggesting that there is no significant effect of helium on both the irradiation hardening and the fracture toughness of the steel. No fracture mode change by the helium implantation was observed in the SP tests, showing a complete cleavage fracture mode in the lower shelf energy region.

  7. Beryllium implant activation and damage recovery study in n-type GaSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, N.; Behzadirad, M.; Renteria, Emma J.; Shima, D. M.; Muniz, Ayse J.; Busani, T.; Lavrova, Olga; Balakrishnan, G.; Lester, L. F.

    2014-03-01

    Damage induced by the implantation of beryllium in n-type GaSb and its removal by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) are studied in detail by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cross Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (XTEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). RTA has been implemented with different times and temperatures in order to optimize ion activation and to avoid Sb outdiffusion during the process. Results indicate a lattice quality that is close to pristine GaSb for samples annealed at 600 °C for 10s using a thick Si3N4 capping layer. Electrical response of the implanted diodes is measured and characterized as function of different annealing conditions.

  8. Electrical activation and electron spin resonance measurements of arsenic implanted in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Masahiro; Ono, Yukinori; Uematsu, Masashi; Fujiwara, Akira

    2015-04-06

    The electrical activation of arsenic (As) implanted in Si is investigated with electron spin resonance (ESR), spreading resistance (SR), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The As ions were implanted with a dose of 1 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} and subsequently annealed at various temperatures in the range of 500–1100 °C. The ESR measurements at 10 K show that the density of the As donor electrons for all the annealing temperatures is less than 10% of the As atom concentration measured by SIMS. The SR data indicate that the density of conduction band electrons is several times larger than that of the As donor electrons. These results strongly suggest that most of the As donor electrons are ESR inactive at low temperatures.

  9. An implantable neural activity monitor with nonlinear gain-controlled amplifier.

    PubMed

    Kyoso, Masaki; Takeda, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    An implantable neural spike monitor with nonlinear amplifier was proposed for robust measurement against noise. In embedded electrophysiological signal processing systems, detection performance depends on signal to noise ratio (SNR), however, it is getting worth after implantation because of neoformation surrounding the electrodes and so on. We proposed a spike enhancer in this study. It has two remarkable function; automatic gain optimization with feedback loop and SNR improvement by nonlinear amplifier. In this report, the system performance was evaluated without feedback loop. A prototype circuit is prepared with small number of parts and tested on input-output characteristics. For the final evaluation, neural spike signal from somatosensory cortex of a rat was applied to the circuit. The test results show that system can expand SNR on neural spike signal from rat. It indicates that the spike enhancer can improve total performance of neural activity processing system.

  10. A least angle regression method for fMRI activation detection in phase-encoded experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam; McGinnity, Thomas M; Watson, David R; Benali, Habib

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new regression method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation detection. Unlike general linear models (GLM), this method is based on selecting models for activation detection adaptively which overcomes the limitation of requiring a predefined design matrix in GLM. This limitation is because GLM designs assume that the response of the neuron populations will be the same for the same stimuli, which is often not the case. In this work, the fMRI hemodynamic response model is selected from a series of models constructed online by the least angle regression (LARS) method. The slow drift terms in the design matrix for the activation detection are determined adaptively according to the fMRI response in order to achieve the best fit for each fMRI response. The LARS method is then applied along with the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse (PINV) and fast orthogonal search (FOS) algorithm for implementation of the selected model to include the drift effects in the design matrix. Comparisons with GLM were made using 11 normal subjects to test method superiority. This paper found that GLM with fixed design matrix was inferior compared to the described LARS method for fMRI activation detection in a phased-encoded experimental design. In addition, the proposed method has the advantage of increasing the degrees of freedom in the regression analysis. We conclude that the method described provides a new and novel approach to the detection of fMRI activation which is better than GLM based analyses.

  11. Effect of Magnitude Estimation of Pleasantness and Intensity on fMRI Activation to Taste.

    PubMed

    Cerf-Ducastel, B; Haase, L; Murphy, C

    2012-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the psychophysical evaluation of taste stimuli using magnitude estimation influences the pattern of cortical activation observed with neuroimaging. That is, whether different brain areas are involved in the magnitude estimation of pleasantness relative to the magnitude estimation of intensity. fMRI was utilized to examine the patterns of cortical activation involved in magnitude estimation of pleasantness and intensity during hunger in response to taste stimuli. During scanning, subjects were administered taste stimuli orally and were asked to evaluate the perceived pleasantness or intensity using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (Green 1996, Bartoshuk et al. 2004). Image analysis was conducted using AFNI. Magnitude estimation of intensity and pleasantness shared common activations in the insula, rolandic operculum, and the medio dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. Globally, magnitude estimation of pleasantness produced significantly more activation than magnitude estimation of intensity. Areas differentially activated during magnitude estimation of pleasantness versus intensity included, e.g., the insula, the anterior cingulate gyrus, and putamen; suggesting that different brain areas were recruited when subjects made magnitude estimates of intensity and pleasantness. These findings demonstrate significant differences in brain activation during magnitude estimation of intensity and pleasantness to taste stimuli. An appreciation for the complexity of brain response to taste stimuli may facilitate a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior and over consumption.

  12. Partial resection of presurgical fMRI activation is associated with a postsurgical loss of language function after frontal lobe epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Labudda, Kirsten; Mertens, Markus; Kalbhenn, Thilo; Schulz, Reinhard; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2017-09-27

    We describe five patients with frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent electrocortical stimulation (ES) for language localization and language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to epilepsy surgery. Six months after surgery, three patients suffered from a drop of verbal fluency. In all of them, frontal areas with presurgical language fMRI activity were resected. Our results suggest that resection in regions of areas with presurgical fMRI activation is not without risk for a postsurgical loss of function, even when ES results were negative for language function in these areas. Using fMRI activations might be specifically helpful to plan the resection when ES delivered inconclusive results.

  13. First permanent implant of nerve stimulation leads activated by surface electrodes, enabling hand grasp and release: the stimulus router neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Liu Shi; Ravid, Einat; Kowalczewski, Jan Andrzej; Olson, Jaret Lawrence; Morhart, Michael; Prochazka, Arthur

    2012-05-01

    . More than 150 000 neuroprostheses (NPs) have been implanted in people to restore bodily function in a variety of neural disorders. The authors developed a novel NP, the Stimulus Router System (SRS), in which only passive leads are implanted. Each lead picks up a portion of the current delivered through the skin by an external stimulator. . The authors report on the first human implant of an SRS. . The recipient was a tetraplegic man with bilateral hand paralysis. Three SRS leads were implanted in his right forearm to activate the finger extensors, finger flexors, and thumb flexor. A wristlet containing a surface stimulator and electrodes was used to pass trains of electrical pulses through the skin to each lead. Hand opening and grasp were controlled via a wireless earpiece that sensed small tooth-clicks and transmitted signals to the wristlet. . The current required to activate the muscles was less than half that required prior to implantation and below perceptual threshold. Maximal grip force and hand opening aperture were both larger using the SRS. The implanted leads have remained functional for 3 years. The recipient reported various tasks of daily life that improved during SRS usage. An electronic counter revealed mean monthly usage of 18.5 hours, equivalent to 55 hours of continuous manual activity. . This first implant of the SRS indicates that it can be effective and reliable and has potential to provide an alternative to existing NPs.

  14. [Sexual activity in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients included in cardiac rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Maroto-Montero, José María; Maroto-de Pablo, Marta; Starling-Duarte, Juan; Prados-Cabiedas, Carolina; Villahoz-Garcia, Carmen; Cabrero-Soblechero, Lara; Sánchez-Corbal, Marta; Valverde-Dos Anjos, Belén; Muñoz-Sanjuan, Yésica

    2017-08-25

    Analysis of the effects of a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program (CRP) on life quality and sexual activity levels, in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Twenty-five patients (22 men and 3 women) were included in the study consisting in the analysis of the existence of defibrillator discharges, its repercussion on the couple and the effects of CRP on physical and psychological aspects and on sexual activity (SA). Patient mean age was 55years (22 to 79). Initially, fear for device discharges was present in all patients. On arrival, 14 patients (56%) did not have SA: 2 with ages of 69 and 79years; a woman due to severe anxiety; an alcoholic man, and 10 because the ICD had been implanted less than 1month before. Nine men and two women had restarted SA: 5 of them 5-52months after the implantation and the other 6, 30days after implantation of the ICD while attending the CRP. At the end of the study, 21 patients had regain SA. Two men had clinical signs of depression and anxiety, one requiring specialized treatment. Functional capacity improved significantly, 6.5±3.0METs at the beginning of the program and 9.2±3.3MRTs at the end, with P<.005. There was only one inappropriate discharge. Discharges caused by newest devices have dropped significantly. This fact, together with the action of CRP at physical, psychological and informative levels, makes it possible to control the dysfunctions in life quality and sexuality in patients. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of Visuomotor Systems during Visually Guided Movements: A Functional MRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermann, Jutta M.; Siegal, Joel D.; Strupp, John P.; Ebner, Timothy J.; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    1998-04-01

    The dorsal stream is a dominant visuomotor pathway that connects the striate and extrastriate cortices to posterior parietal areas. In turn, the posterior parietal areas send projections to the frontal primary motor and premotor areas. This cortical pathway is hypothesized to be involved in the transformation of a visual input into the appropriate motor output. In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the entire brain to determine the patterns of activation that occurred while subjects performed a visually guided motor task. In nine human subjects, fMRI data were acquired on a 4-T whole-body MR system equipped with a head gradient coil and a birdcage RF coil using aT*2-weighted EPI sequence. Functional activation was determined for three different tasks: (1) a visuomotor task consisting of moving a cursor on a screen with a joystick in relation to various targets, (2) a hand movement task consisting of moving the joystick without visual input, and (3) a eye movement task consisting of moving the eyes alone without visual input. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast-based activation maps of each subject were generated using period cross-correlation statistics. Subsequently, each subject's brain was normalized to Talairach coordinates, and the individual maps were compared on a pixel by pixel basis. Significantly activated pixels common to at least four out of six subjects were retained to construct the final functional image. The pattern of activation during visually guided movements was consistent with the flow of information from striate and extrastriate visual areas, to the posterior parietal complex, and then to frontal motor areas. The extensive activation of this network and the reproducibility among subjects is consistent with a role for the dorsal stream in transforming visual information into motor behavior. Also extensively activated were the medial and lateral cerebellar structures, implicating the cortico

  16. Biocompatibility and anti-microbiological activity characterization of novel coatings for dental implants: A primer for non-biologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsees, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    With regard to biocompatibility, the cardinal requirement for dental implants and other medical devices that are in long-term contact with tissue is that the material does not cause any adverse effect to the patient. To warrant stability and function of the implant, proper osseointegration is a further prerequisite. Cells interact with the implant surface as the interface between bulk material and biological tissue. Whereas structuring, deposition of a thin film or other modifications of the surface are crucial parameters in determining favorable adhesion of cells, corrosion of metal surfaces and release of ions can affect cell viability. Both parameters are usually tested using in vitro cytotoxicity and adhesion assays with bone or fibroblasts cells. For bioactive surface modifications, further tests should be considered for biocompatibility evaluation. Depending on the type of modification, this may include analysis of specific cell functions or the determination of antimicrobial activities. The latter is of special importance as bacteria and yeast present in the oral cavity can be introduced during the implantation process and this may lead to chronic infections and implant failure. An antimicrobial coating of the implant is a way to avoid that. This review describes the essential biocompatibility assays for evaluation of new implant materials required by ISO 10993 and also gives an overview on recent test methods for specific coatings of dental implants.

  17. Passive detector for measurement of the implanted (sup 210)Po activity in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesen, G.; Uyttenhove, J.; Poffijn, A.; van Laere, K.; Buysse, J.

    1994-08-01

    It is a well known fact that radon is the most important factor in the natural radiation background. For complete dose calculations we need information about the radon concentration up to 25 years ago. As suggested by C. Samuelsson et al. in 1988, the activity of the implanted radon daughter (sup 210)Po can be used to reconstruct the radon activity over the past decades. For large scale surveys in dwellings a passive detector based on polycarbonate foils has been investigated. This system has a sufficient sensitivity to detect (sup 210)Po levels down to 1 Bq/m(sup 2) with a 6 month measuring period.

  18. Antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity of low intensity direct current activated silver-titanium implant system prototype.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhuo; Havell, Edward A; Orndorff, Paul E; Shirwaiker, Rohan A

    2017-02-01

    Silver-based devices activated by electric current are of interest in biomedicine because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the in vitro antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity of a low intensity direct current (LIDC)-activated silver-titanium implant system prototype designed for localized generation and delivery of silver ions at the implantation site. First, the antibacterial efficacy of the system was assessed against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over 48 h at current levels of 3 and 6 µA in Mueller-Hinton broth. The cytotoxicity of the system was then evaluated over 48 h in two phases using an in vitro model with in which the activated electrodes were suspended in growth medium in a cell-seeded tissue culture plate. In phase-1, the system was tested on human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cell line and compared to titanium controls. In phase-2, the cytotoxicity characteristics were validated with normal human diploid osteoblast cells. The LIDC-activated system demonstrated high antimicrobial efficacy against MRSA, but was also toxic to human cells immediately surrounding the electrodes. The statistical analysis showed that the cytotoxicity was a result of the presence of silver, and the electric activation did not make it worse.

  19. Assessing the spatiotemporal evolution of neuronal activation with single-trial event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Eichele, Tom; Specht, Karsten; Moosmann, Matthias; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Nordby, Helge; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-12-06

    The brain acts as an integrated information processing system, which methods in cognitive neuroscience have so far depicted in a fragmented fashion. Here, we propose a simple and robust way to integrate functional MRI (fMRI) with single trial event-related potentials (ERP) to provide a more complete spatiotemporal characterization of evoked responses in the human brain. The idea behind the approach is to find brain regions whose fMRI responses can be predicted by paradigm-induced amplitude modulations of simultaneously acquired single trial ERPs. The method was used to study a variant of a two-stimulus auditory target detection (odd-ball) paradigm that manipulated predictability through alternations of stimulus sequences with random or regular target-to-target intervals. In addition to electrophysiologic and hemodynamic evoked responses to auditory targets per se, single-trial modulations were expressed during the latencies of the P2 (170-ms), N2 (200-ms), and P3 (320-ms) components and predicted spatially separated fMRI activation patterns. These spatiotemporal matches, i.e., the prediction of hemodynamic activation by time-variant information from single trial ERPs, permit inferences about regional responses using fMRI with the temporal resolution provided by electrophysiology.

  20. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  1. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  2. Early emergence of deviant frontal fMRI activity for phonological processes in poor beginning readers.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Brandeis, Daniel; Hofstetter, Christoph; Martin, Ernst; Richardson, Ulla; Brem, Silvia

    2010-11-01

    Phonological awareness refers to the ability to perceive and manipulate the sound structure of language and is especially important when children learn to read. Poor phonological awareness is considered the major cause for the emergence of reading difficulties. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the brain correlates of phonological processing in young beginning readers (aged 8.3+/-0.4 y, 2nd grade) with poor (<25th percentile) or normal, age-appropriate reading skills (>40th percentile) using a covert reading and mental letter substitution task. Letter substitution in words and nonwords induced pronounced activity in a left frontal language network related to phonological processing, with maxima in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the insula. The activation within this frontal network increased with better reading skills and differentiated between normal and poor reading young children. Lateralization indices of overall frontal activity for normal and poor readers pointed to stronger left hemispheric involvement in normal readers as compared to the more bilateral activation pattern in poor readers. To summarize, young children with age-appropriate reading skills display a left hemispheric dominance characteristic for language processing already by grade two. The more bilateral activation pattern in poor readers points to an increased effort and the emergence of compensatory strategies for reading and phonological processing just 1.5 years after the start of formal reading instruction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain activation in restrained and unrestrained eaters: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Maria; Platek, Steven; Mohamed, Feroze B; van Steenburgh, J Jason; Green, Deborah; Lowe, Michael R

    2009-08-01

    Restraint theory has been used to model the process that produces binge eating. However, there is no satisfactory explanation for the tendency of restrained eaters (REs) to engage in counterregulatory eating, an ostensible analogue of binge eating. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors investigated brain activation of normal weight REs (N = 9) and unrestrained eaters (UREs; N = 10) when fasted and fed and viewing pictures of highly and moderately palatable foods and neutral objects. When fasted and viewing highly palatable foods, UREs showed widespread bilateral activation in areas associated with hunger and motivation, whereas REs showed activation only in the cerebellum, an area previously implicated in low-level processing of appetitive stimuli. When fed and viewing high palatability foods, UREs showed activation in areas related to satiation and memory, whereas REs showed activation in areas implicated in desire, expectation of reward, and goal-defined behavior. These findings parallel those from behavioral research. The authors propose that the counterintuitive findings from preload studies and the present study are due to the fact that REs are less hungry than UREs when fasted and find palatable food more appealing than UREs when fed.

  4. fMRI reveals neural activity overlap between adult and infant pain

    PubMed Central

    Goksan, Sezgi; Hartley, Caroline; Emery, Faith; Cockrill, Naomi; Poorun, Ravi; Moultrie, Fiona; Rogers, Richard; Campbell, Jon; Sanders, Michael; Adams, Eleri; Clare, Stuart; Jenkinson, Mark; Tracey, Irene; Slater, Rebeccah

    2015-01-01

    Limited understanding of infant pain has led to its lack of recognition in clinical practice. While the network of brain regions that encode the affective and sensory aspects of adult pain are well described, the brain structures involved in infant nociceptive processing are less well known, meaning little can be inferred about the nature of the infant pain experience. Using fMRI we identified the network of brain regions that are active following acute noxious stimulation in newborn infants, and compared the activity to that observed in adults. Significant infant brain activity was observed in 18 of the 20 active adult brain regions but not in the infant amygdala or orbitofrontal cortex. Brain regions that encode sensory and affective components of pain are active in infants, suggesting that the infant pain experience closely resembles that seen in adults. This highlights the importance of developing effective pain management strategies in this vulnerable population. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06356.001 PMID:25895592

  5. Reduced cortical activation in inferior frontal junction in Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) - A motor fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Mervi; Danner, Nils; Koskenkorva, Päivi; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Hyppönen, Jelena; Mervaala, Esa; Karjalainen, Pasi; Vanninen, Ritva; Niskanen, Eini

    2015-03-01

    Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) is characterized by stimulus-sensitive and action-activated myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures and ataxia. Several disease-related alterations in cortical structure and excitability have been associated with the motor symptoms of EPM1. This study aimed to elucidate possible alterations in cortical activation related to motor performance in EPM1. Fifteen EPM1-patients and 15 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex underwent motor functional MRI. Group differences in activations were evaluated in the primary and supplementary motor cortices and sensory cortical areas. Furthermore, in EPM1 patients, the quantitative fMRI parameters were correlated with the severity of the motor symptoms. The EPM1-patients exhibited decreased activation in the left inferior frontal junction (IFJ) during right hand voluntary motor task when compared with controls. In the quantitative analysis, EPM1-patients had significantly weaker activation than controls in the hand knob and supplementary motor areas (SMA). The volume of activation in M1 decreased with age and duration of disease in the patient group, whereas the volume increased with age in controls. Negative correlations were observed between fMRI parameters of SMA and disease duration or age in patients but not in controls. The weaker motor fMRI activation observed in EPM1 patients parallels previous neurophysiological findings and correlates with the motor symptoms of the disease. Thus, the observed decrease in IFJ activation in EPM1 patients may be associated with the difficulties in initiation or termination of motor execution, a typical clinical symptom in EPM1. The fMRI findings reflect the progressive nature of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inefficient Preparatory fMRI-BOLD Network Activations Predict Working Memory Dysfunctions in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Baenninger, Anja; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Ford, Judith M.; Kottlow, Mara; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally ­coherent networks (TCNs) assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM) tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 and load 5) in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (dAN), left and right working memory networks (WMNs) – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta. In healthy controls, there was a load-dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task. Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback ­targeting prestates could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain. PMID:27047395

  7. Inefficient Preparatory fMRI-BOLD Network Activations Predict Working Memory Dysfunctions in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Baenninger, Anja; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Rieger, Kathryn; Ford, Judith M; Kottlow, Mara; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally -coherent networks (TCNs) assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM) tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 and load 5) in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs - default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (dAN), left and right working memory networks (WMNs) - and three EEG bands - theta, alpha, and beta. In healthy controls, there was a load-dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task. Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback -targeting prestates could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain.

  8. Multifeature landmark-free active appearance models: application to prostate MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Toth, Robert; Madabhushi, Anant

    2012-08-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) and active appearance models (AAMs) are popular approaches for medical image segmentation that use shape information to drive the segmentation process. Both approaches rely on image derived landmarks (specified either manually or automatically) to define the object's shape, which require accurate triangulation and alignment. An alternative approach to modeling shape is the levelset representation, defined as a set of signed distances to the object's surface. In addition, using multiple image derived attributes (IDAs) such as gradient information has previously shown to offer improved segmentation results when applied to ASMs, yet little work has been done exploring IDAs in the context of AAMs. In this work, we present a novel AAM methodology that utilizes the levelset implementation to overcome the issues relating to specifying landmarks, and locates the object of interest in a new image using a registration based scheme. Additionally, the framework allows for incorporation of multiple IDAs. Our multifeature landmark-free AAM (MFLAAM) utilizes an efficient, intuitive, and accurate algorithm for identifying those IDAs that will offer the most accurate segmentations. In this paper, we evaluate our MFLAAM scheme for the problem of prostate segmentation from T2-w MRI volumes. On a cohort of 108 studies, the levelset MFLAAM yielded a mean Dice accuracy of 88% ± 5%, and a mean surface error of 1.5 mm ±.8 mm with a segmentation time of 150/s per volume. In comparison, a state of the art AAM yielded mean Dice and surface error values of 86% ± 9% and 1.6 mm ± 1.0 mm, respectively. The differences with respect to our levelset-based MFLAAM model are statistically significant . In addition, our results were in most cases superior to several recent state of the art prostate MRI segmentation methods.

  9. Behavioral and Neural Plasticity of Ocular Motor Control: Changes in Performance and fMRI Activity Following Antisaccade Training

    PubMed Central

    Jamadar, Sharna D.; Johnson, Beth P.; Clough, Meaghan; Egan, Gary F.; Fielding, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behavior against the volitional control of a goal-directed behavior. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behavior and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following 2 weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials faster with no change in directional error rate following 2 weeks of training; however this increased speed came at the cost of the spatial accuracy of the saccade (gain) which became more hypometric following training. Training on the antisaccade task resulted in increases in fMRI activity in the fronto-basal ganglia-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor network. Following training, antisaccade latency was positively associated with fMRI activity in the frontal and supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate and intraparietal sulcus; antisaccade gain was negatively associated with fMRI activity in supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellar vermis. In sum, the results suggest that following training, larger antisaccade latency is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor regions, and smaller antisaccade gain is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal ocular motor regions. PMID:26733841

  10. Head-repositioning does not reduce the reproducibility of fMRI activation in a block-design motor task.

    PubMed

    Soltysik, David A; Thomasson, David; Rajan, Sunder; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; DiCamillo, Paul; Biassou, Nadia

    2011-06-01

    It is hypothesized that, based upon partial volume effects and spatial non-uniformities of the scanning environment, repositioning a subject's head inside the head coil between separate functional MRI scans will reduce the reproducibility of fMRI activation compared to a series of functional runs where the subject's head remains in the same position. Nine subjects underwent fMRI scanning where they performed a sequential, oppositional finger-tapping task. The first five runs were conducted with the subject's head remaining stable inside the head coil. Following this, four more runs were collected after the subject removed and replaced his/her head inside the head coil before each run. The coefficient of variation was calculated for four metrics: the distance from the anterior commisure to the center of mass of sensorimotor activation, maximum t-statistic, activation volume, and average percent signal change. These values were compared for five head-stabilization runs and five head-repositioning runs. Voxelwise intraclass correlation coefficients were also calculated to assess the spatial distribution of sources of variance. Interestingly, head repositioning was not seen to significantly affect the reproducibility of fMRI activation (p<0.05). In addition, the threshold level affected the reproducibility of activation volume and percent signal change.

  11. [Active electronic hearing implants for middle and inner ear hearing loss--a new era in ear surgery. III: prospects for inner ear hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Zenner, H P; Leysieffer, H

    1997-10-01

    The perspectives for active hearing implants lie in the treatment of patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The majority of patients with SNHL suffer from a cochlea amplifier (CA) failure which is discernible by a positive recruitment and loss of otoacoustic emissions (OAE). Therefore, the electronic implant is expected to partially replace functions of the CA. Thus, the implant is thought to function as a CAI (cochlea amplifier implant). An approved implant for routine use is not yet available. Clinical studies have thus far only used the high energy consuming (HEC), narrow-band, electromagnetic floating-mass transducer, as well as the Maniglia-HEC implant. The high energie consuming, yet broadband Canadian Fredrickson implant is soon to be used in humans. Of the piezoelectrical implants, a German CAI (Tübingen implant) at present consisting of a piezoelectrical transducer and a microphone has thus far been acutely implanted in first patient. It is a low energy consuming (LEC), broad-band implantable system for patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Routine surgical treatment of patients with sensorineural hearing loss with a CAI will only be achieved if complete implants (with transducer, microphones, batteries, and control unit) are made available. They combine distinct acoustic superiority with invisibility (end of stigmatization), an open ear canal, and hopefully, the end of feedback whistling. Among the implants mentioned, the German CAI is the only LEC implant. Its energy requirements are so low that with today's technologie implantable batteries (e.g., in pacemakers), the additional implantation of an energy carrier seems feasible. Since the implantable microphone is already available in the German system, the only essential part missing for a totally implantable CAI is the implantable control unit.

  12. Synergistic effects of dual Zn/Ag ion implantation in osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of titanium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Cao, Huiliang; Qian, Shi; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) and silver (Ag) are co-implanted into titanium by plasma immersion ion implantation. A Zn containing film with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) possessing a wide size distribution is formed on the surface and the corrosion resistance is improved due to the micro-galvanic couples formed by the implanted Zn and Ag. Not only are the initial adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs observed from the Zn/Ag implanted Ti in vitro, but also bacteria killing is achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Electrochemical polarization and ion release measurements suggest that the excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability of the Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium are related to the synergistic effect resulting from the long-range interactions of the released Zn ions and short-range interactions of the embedded Ag NPs. The Zn/Ag co-implanted titanium offers both excellent osteogenic activity and antibacterial ability and has large potential in orthopedic and dental implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Significantly Enhanced Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Activity in TiO₂ Nanowire Arrays by Nitrogen Implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongming; Xiao, Xiangheng; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Zhaoyang; Zhao, Zipeng; Chen, Chi; Wang, Chen; Li, Yongjia; Huang, Xiaoqing; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Changzhong; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-07-08

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) represents one of most widely studied materials for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting but is severely limited by its poor efficiency in the visible light range. Here, we report a significant enhancement of visible light photoactivity in nitrogen-implanted TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanowire arrays. Our systematic studies show that a post-implantation thermal annealing treatment can selectively enrich the substitutional nitrogen dopants, which is essential for activating the nitrogen implanted TiO2 to achieve greatly enhanced visible light photoactivity. An incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of ∼10% is achieved at 450 nm in N-TiO2 without any other cocatalyst, far exceeding that in pristine TiO2 nanowires (∼0.2%). The integration of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) cocatalyst with N-TiO2 can further increase the IPCE at 450 nm to ∼17% and deliver an unprecedented overall photocurrent density of 1.9 mA/cm(2), by integrating the IPCE spectrum with standard AM 1.5G solar spectrum. Systematic photoelectrochemical and electrochemical studies demonstrated that the enhanced PEC performance can be attributed to the significantly improved visible light absorption and more efficient charge separation. Our studies demonstrate the implantation approach can be used to reliably dope TiO2 to achieve the best performed N-TiO2 photoelectrodes to date and may be extended to fundamentally modify other semiconductor materials for PEC water splitting.

  14. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  15. Brain activation during interference resolution in young and older adults: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, David C; Zacks, Rose T; Slade, Jill M

    2010-04-01

    A rapid event-related fMRI arrow flanker task was used to study aging-associated decline in executive functions related to interference resolution. Older adults had more difficulty responding to Incongruent cues during the flanker task compared to the young adults; the response time difference between the Incongruent and Congruent conditions in the older group was over 50% longer compared to the young adults. In the frontal regions, differential activation ("Incongruent-Congruent" conditions) was observed in the inferior and middle frontal gyri in within-group analyses for both groups. However, the cluster was smaller in the older group and the centroid location was shifted by 19.7 mm. The left superior and medial frontal gyri also appeared to be specifically recruited by older adults during interference resolution, partially driven by errors. The frontal right lateralization found in the young adults was maintained in the older adults during successful trials. Interestingly, bilateral activation was observed when error trials were combined with successful trials highlighting the influence of brain activation associated with errors during cognitive processing. In conclusion, aging appears to result in modified functional regions that may contribute to reduced interference resolution. In addition, error processing should be considered and accounted for when studying age-related cognitive changes as errors may confound the interpretation of task specific age-related activation differences.

  16. Impaired fMRI activation in patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Krainik, Alexandre; David, Olivier; Salon, Caroline; Troprès, Irène; Hoffmann, Dominique; Pannetier, Nicolas; Barbier, Emmanuel L; Bombìn, Eduardo Ramos; Warnking, Jan; Pasteris, Caroline; Chabardes, Stefan; Berger, François; Grand, Sylvie; Segebarth, Christoph; Gay, Emmanuel; Le Bas, Jean-François

    2010-08-15

    To characterize peritumoral BOLD contrast disorders, 25 patients referred for resection of primary frontal or parietal neoplasms (low-grade glioma (LGG) (n=8); high-grade glioma (HGG) (n=7); meningioma (n=10)) without macroscopic tumoral infiltration of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) were examined preoperatively using BOLD fMRI during simple motor tasks. Overall cerebral BOLD signal was estimated using vasoreactivity to carbogen inhalation. Using bolus of gadolinium, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were estimated. In a 1cm(3) region-of-interest centered on maximal T-value in SM1 contralateral to movements, interhemispheric asymmetry was evaluated using interhemispheric ratios for BOLD and perfusion parameters. During motor tasks contralateral to the tumor, ipsitumoral sensorimotor activations were decreased in HGG and meningiomas, correlated to the distance between the tumor and SM1. Whereas CBV was decreased in ipsitumoral SM1 for HGG, it remained normal in meningiomas. Changes in basal perfusion could not explain motor activation impairment in SM1. Decreased interhemispheric ratio of the BOLD response to carbogen was the best predictor to model the asymmetry of motor activation (R=0.51). Moreover, 94.9+/-4.9% of all motor activations overlapped significant BOLD response to carbogen inhalation.

  17. Brain activation profiles during kinesthetic and visual imagery: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kilintari, Marina; Narayana, Shalini; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify brain regions involved in motor imagery and differentiate two alternative strategies in its implementation: imagining a motor act using kinesthetic or visual imagery. Fourteen adults were precisely instructed and trained on how to imagine themselves or others perform a movement sequence, with the aim of promoting kinesthetic and visual imagery, respectively, in the context of an fMRI experiment using block design. We found that neither modality of motor imagery elicits activation of the primary motor cortex and that each of the two modalities involves activation of the premotor area which is also activated during action execution and action observation conditions, as well as of the supplementary motor area. Interestingly, the visual and the posterior cingulate cortices show reduced BOLD signal during both imagery conditions. Our results indicate that the networks of regions activated in kinesthetic and visual imagery of motor sequences show a substantial, while not complete overlap, and that the two forms of motor imagery lead to a differential suppression of visual areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A new metric to measure shape differences in fMRI activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khullar, Siddharth; Michael, Andrew M.; Correa, Nicolle; Adali, Tulay; Cahill, Nathan; Baum, Stefi A.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel shape metric for quantification of shape differences between the spatial components obtained from independent component analysis (ICA) of group functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. This metric is utilized to measure the difference in shapes of the activation regions obtained from different subjects within a group (healthy controls or patients). The parameters comprising the metric are computed for each pixel on the outermost contour (edge) of an activation region for each slice. These parameters are in the form of (r, θ) pairs that may be interpreted as the length and orientation of a vector originating from the centroid of the activation region to the pixel belonging to the boundary contour. Using this information we extract three features that quantify the shape difference between the two shapes under observation. The reference and observation shapes may be selected in two ways: (a) activation maps from two different subjects or (b) mean activation map compared against subject-wise activations, as obtained from group ICA. We present different methods to visualize the shape differences, thus providing a tool to observe the spatial differences within a group or across groups. In addition to the above results, we also address a few special cases where two or more activation contours are present in a single slice and present potential solutions for accounting for these regions as special measures. Our results show that this metric has utility in creating a better understanding of the variability in brain activity among different groups of subjects performing the same task.

  19. Neural activity underlying tinnitus generation: results from PET and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Lanting, C P; de Kleine, E; van Dijk, P

    2009-09-01

    Tinnitus is the percept of sound that is not related to an acoustic source outside the body. For many forms of tinnitus, mechanisms in the central nervous system are believed to play an important role in the pathology. Specifically, three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie tinnitus: (1) changes in the level of spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, (2) changes in the temporal pattern of neural activity, and (3) reorganization of tonotopic maps. The neuroimaging methods fMRI and PET measure signals that presumably reflect the firing rates of multiple neurons and are assumed to be sensitive to changes in the level of neural activity. There are two basic paradigms that have been applied in functional neuroimaging of tinnitus. Firstly, sound-evoked responses as well as steady state neural activity have been measured to compare tinnitus patients to healthy controls. Secondly, paradigms that involve modulation of tinnitus by a controlled stimulus allow for a within-subject comparison that identifies neural activity that may be correlated to the tinnitus percept. Even though there are many differences across studies, the general trend emerging from the neuroimaging studies, is that tinnitus in humans may correspond to enhanced neural activity across several centers of the central auditory system. Also, neural activity in non-auditory areas including the frontal areas, the limbic system and the cerebellum seems associated with the perception of tinnitus. These results indicate that in addition to the auditory system, non-auditory systems may represent a neural correlate of tinnitus. Although the currently published neuroimaging studies typically show a correspondence between tinnitus and enhanced neural activity, it will be important to perform future studies on subject groups that are closely matched for characteristics such as age, gender and hearing loss in order to rule out the contribution of these factors to the abnormalities specifically

  20. Performance evaluation of nonnegative matrix factorization algorithms to estimate task-related neuronal activities from fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-04-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a blind source separation (BSS) algorithm which is based on the distinct constraint of nonnegativity of the estimated parameters as well as on the measured data. In this study, according to the potential feasibility of NMF for fMRI data, the four most popular NMF algorithms, corresponding to the following two types of (1) least-squares based update [i.e., alternating least-squares NMF (ALSNMF) and projected gradient descent NMF] and (2) multiplicative update (i.e., NMF based on Euclidean distance and NMF based on divergence cost function), were investigated by using them to estimate task-related neuronal activities. These algorithms were applied firstly to individual data from a single subject and, subsequently, to group data sets from multiple subjects. On the single-subject level, although all four algorithms detected task-related activation from simulated data, the performance of multiplicative update NMFs was significantly deteriorated when evaluated using visuomotor task fMRI data, for which they failed in estimating any task-related neuronal activities. In group-level analysis on both simulated data and real fMRI data, ALSNMF outperformed the other three algorithms. The presented findings may suggest that ALSNMF appears to be the most promising option among the tested NMF algorithms to extract task-related neuronal activities from fMRI data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of fronto-limbic activity by the psychoeducation in euthymic bipolar patients. A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Favre, Pauline; Baciu, Monica; Pichat, Cédric; De Pourtalès, Marie-Atéa; Fredembach, Benjamin; Garçon, Sabrina; Bougerol, Thierry; Polosan, Mircea

    2013-12-30

    Bipolar disorders (BD) are mainly characterized by emotional and cognitive processing impairment. The cerebral substrate explaining BD impairment and the action mechanisms of therapies are not completely understood, especially for psychosocial interventions. This fMRI study aims at assessing cerebral correlates of euthymic bipolar patients (EBP) before and after psychoeducation therapy. Sixteen EBP and 16 matched healthy subjects (HS) performed a word-face emotional Stroop task in two separate fMRI sessions at 3-month interval. Between fMRI sessions, EBP underwent psychoeducation. Before psychoeducation, the comparison of EBP vs. HS in fMRI data revealed (a) significant decreased activity of cognitive control regions such as bilateral inferior and left superior frontal gyri, right insula, right fusiform gyrus and bilateral occipital gyri and (b) significant increased activity of emotion-related processing regions such as bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyri and the left middle temporal gyrus. After psychoeducation, EBP showed significant clinical improvement, increased activity of inferior frontal gyri and a tendency toward decreased activity of right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. These results suggest that the imbalance between cognitive control and emotion processing systems characterizing BD acute episodes may persist during euthymic periods. Moreover, this imbalance may be improved by psychoeducation, which enhances the cognitive control and modulates emotional fluctuations in EBP. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Atomoxetine Increases Fronto-Parietal Functional MRI Activation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bush, George; Holmes, Jennifer; Shin, Lisa M.; Surman, Craig; Makris, Nikos; Mick, Eric; Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that atomoxetine (ATMX) would produce similar brain effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as those of methylphenidate (MPH). Eleven ADHD adults performed the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT) during fMRI at baseline and after 6 weeks of ATMX treatment. ATMX was associated with increased fMRI activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex and cerebellum; but not dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC). These results suggest that ATMX and MPH have similar but non-identical brain effects. PMID:23146254

  3. Cortical activation associated with determination of depth order during transparent motion perception: A normalized integrative fMRI-MEG study.

    PubMed

    Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    When visual patterns drifting in different directions and/or at different speeds are superimposed on the same plane, observers perceive transparent surfaces on planes of different depths. This phenomenon is known as transparent motion perception. In this study, cortical activities were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the cortical dynamics associated with determination of depth order during transparent motion perception. In addition, offline eye movement measurements were performed to determine the latencies of the start of both pursuit eye movements and depth attention that are important in determination of the depth order. MEG and fMRI data were analyzed by a normalized integrative fMRI-MEG method that enables reconstruction of time-varying dipole moments of activated regions from MEG signals. Statistical analysis of fMRI data was performed to identify activated regions. The activated regions were used as spatial constraints for the reconstruction using the integrative fMRI-MEG method. We focused on the period between latencies (216-405 ms) determined by eye movement experiment, which are related to determination of the depth order. The results of integrative analysis revealed that significant neural activities were observed in the visual association area, the human middle temporal area, the intraparietal sulcus, the lateral occipital cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex between 216 and 405 ms. These results suggest that initial eye movement and accompanying cortical activations during focused duration play an important role in determining the depth order during transparent motion perception. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of V4c-ICL Implantation on Myopic Patients' Vision-Related Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Linghu, Shaorong; Pan, Le; Shi, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The new type implantable Collamer lens with a central hole (V4c-ICL) is widely used to treat myopia. However, halos occur in some patients after surgery. The aim is to evaluate the effect of V4c-ICL implantation on vision-related daily activities. This retrospective study included 42 patients. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), endothelial cell density (ECD), and vault were recorded and vision-related daily activities were evaluated at 3 months after operation. The average spherical equivalent was −0.12 ± 0.33 D at 3 months after operation. UCVA equal to or better than preoperative BCVA occurred in 98% of eyes. The average BCVA at 3 months after operation was −0.03 ± 0.07 LogMAR, which was significantly better than preoperative BCVA (0.08 ± 0.10 LogMAR) (P = 0.029). Apart from one patient (2.4%) who had difficulty reading computer screens, all patients had satisfactory or very satisfactory results. During the early postoperation, halos occurred in 23 patients (54.8%). However there were no significant differences in the scores of visual functions between patients with and without halos (P > 0.05). Patients were very satisfied with their vision-related daily activities at 3 months after operation. The central hole of V4c-ICL does not affect patients' vision-related daily activities. PMID:27965890

  5. Differential fMRI Activation Patterns to Noxious Heat and Tactile Stimuli in the Primate Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale local functional organizations of the primate spinal cord are largely unknown. Using high-resolution fMRI at 9.4 T, we identified distinct interhorn and intersegment fMRI activation patterns to tactile versus nociceptive heat stimulation of digits in lightly anesthetized monkeys. Within a spinal segment, 8 Hz vibrotactile stimuli elicited predominantly fMRI activations in the middle part of ipsilateral dorsal horn (iDH), along with significantly weaker activations in ipsilateral (iVH) and contralateral (cVH) ventral horns. In contrast, nociceptive heat stimuli evoked widespread strong activations in the superficial part of iDH, as well as in iVH and contralateral dorsal (cDH) horns. As controls, only weak signal fluctuations were detected in the white matter. The iDH responded most strongly to both tactile and heat stimuli, whereas the cVH and cDH responded selectively to tactile versus nociceptive heat, respectively. Across spinal segments, iDH activations were detected in three consecutive segments in both tactile and heat conditions. Heat responses, however, were more extensive along the cord, with strong activations in iVH and cDH in two consecutive segments. Subsequent subunit B of cholera toxin tracer histology confirmed that the spinal segments showing fMRI activations indeed received afferent inputs from the stimulated digits. Comparisons of the fMRI signal time courses in early somatosensory area 3b and iDH revealed very similar hemodynamic stimulus–response functions. In summary, we identified with fMRI distinct segmental networks for the processing of tactile and nociceptive heat stimuli in the cervical spinal cord of nonhuman primates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This is the first fMRI demonstration of distinct intrasegmental and intersegmental nociceptive heat and touch processing circuits in the spinal cord of nonhuman primates. This study provides novel insights into the local functional organizations of the primate spinal cord for pain and

  6. An Actively Shielded 1.5T MgB2 MRI Magnet Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Michael; Baig, Tanvir; Cara, Mihai; Brown, Robert; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting magnets for MRI are often constructed with NbTi wire cooled below 4.2K using liquid helium. As helium costs have more than tripled in the last decade, there is a need for a cryogen-free conduction-cooled alternative. A key reason for pursuing MgB2 superconductor wire in the design of MRI magnets is its superior critical current compared to NbTi over a temperature range of 10-15K. We present a 1.5T whole body actively shielded main magnet design assuming second-generation multifilament MgB2 wire using an improved functional approach. The design exhibits 4 pairs of primary bundles and 1 pair of shielding bundles with an inner (outer) diameter of 1.1 (1.89)m and a length of 1.54m. The imaging volume is 45cm with a maximum of 9ppm inhomogeneity. The wire dimension is assumed to be 1mm2 and the wire current is 135A. The maximum field o