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Sample records for active music listening

  1. Loud music listening.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  2. Jazz Listening Activities: Children's Literature and Authentic Music Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Nan L.; Fisher, Douglas; Helzer, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Describes a unit that is appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students that focuses on jazz music using biographies about jazz musicians. Discusses the five sections of the unit. Includes a list of "Suggested Jazz Listening Samples," jazz videos, and a bibliography of resources related to jazz music. (CMK)

  3. Brain activation during music listening in individuals with or without prior music training.

    PubMed

    Seung, Yunhee; Kyong, Jeong-Sug; Woo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byeong-Taek; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2005-08-01

    The present study investigated activation during listening to music with and without a task in female musicians and non-musicians. Five subjects with long musical training for a mean period of 19+/-1 years (musician group) and five subjects with no training in musical instruments (non-musician group) were imaged in a 1.5T scanner, while they simply listened to short segments of piano pieces (LIS), and while they performed a distorted tune test, designed using the same pieces (DTT). A significant group effect with higher signals in the musician group was observed in the right superior and middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus. A task effect with higher signals during DTT was observed in the left sensorimotor cortex, where the interaction between the task and group effects was also significant. Thus, the pattern of brain activation differed depending on tasks when identical music stimuli were used, and more importantly, comparable music tasks activated the brain differently depending on prior musical training of subjects.

  4. Music Listening as Music Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most fundamental, ongoing debates in music education involves scholars who argue for a "performance-based" curriculum and those who promote a curriculum that is fundamentally "aesthetic-listening based." Rather than arguing for the primacy of either performance or listening as a basis for a music education curriculum, the paper attempts…

  5. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  6. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. PMID:26504353

  7. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  8. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. PMID:26504353

  9. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  10. Listening to music reduces eye movements.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Listening to music can change the way that people visually experience the environment, probably as a result of an inwardly directed shift of attention. We investigated whether this attentional shift can be demonstrated by reduced eye movement activity, and if so, whether that reduction depends on absorption. Participants listened to their preferred music, to unknown neutral music, or to no music while viewing a visual stimulus (a picture or a film clip). Preference and absorption were significantly higher for the preferred music than for the unknown music. Participants exhibited longer fixations, fewer saccades, and more blinks when they listened to music than when they sat in silence. However, no differences emerged between the preferred music condition and the neutral music condition. Thus, music significantly reduces eye movement activity, but an attentional shift from the outer to the inner world (i.e., to the emotions and memories evoked by the music) emerged as only one potential explanation. Other explanations, such as a shift of attention from visual to auditory input, are discussed.

  11. Dopamine and epistemic curiosity in music listening.

    PubMed

    Omigie, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the cognitive, affective, and reward processes that take place during music listening is the aim of a growing number of researchers. Several authors have used the Bayesian brain framework and existing models of reward to interpret neural activity observed during musical listening. The claims from Friston and colleagues regarding the role of dopamine, as well as the demonstration that salience-seeking behavior naturally emerges from minimizing free energy, will be of potential interest to those seeking to understand the general principles underlying our motivation to hear music. PMID:26073880

  12. Music Listening in the Personal and Professional Lives of University Music Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study surveyed 118 music majors to investigate their music listening practices. The questionnaire specifically assessed musical tastes and examined the roles that listening plays in personal and professional activities. With regard to the amount of time spent in their daily lives, these music majors reported spending more than…

  13. Mindful Music Listening Instruction Increases Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…

  14. Expanding Music Listening Experience through Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yo-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing while listening to music provides an opportunity for students to imagine and associate, leading to holistic listening experience. The personal qualitative listening experience triggered by music can be revealed in their drawings. In the process of representing of the listening experience through drawing, students can also increase their…

  15. Listeners Remember Music They Like

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalinski, Stephanie M.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a…

  16. Effects of Listening to Music versus Environmental Sounds in Passive and Active Situations on Levels of Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds.

  17. Effects of Listening to Music versus Environmental Sounds in Passive and Active Situations on Levels of Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds. PMID:26163741

  18. Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Soto, David

    2012-04-01

    Music is an enjoyable leisure activity that also engages many emotional, cognitive, and motor processes in the brain. Here, we will first review previous literature on the emotional and cognitive effects of music listening in healthy persons and various clinical groups. Then we will present findings about the short- and long-term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects. First, our results indicate that listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions. Second, daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early poststroke stage. The psychological and neural mechanisms potentially underlying the rehabilitating effect of music after stroke are discussed.

  19. Effects of Free versus Directed Listening on Duration of Individual Music Listening by Prekindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Wendy L.

    2005-01-01

    Preschool children's listening time responses to free versus directed listening activities were compared. For the free condition, children were instructed just to "listen as long as you would like." The directed condition was a written task designed to focus attention on specific aspects of the music and give children something concrete to do…

  20. Listeners remember music they like.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a set of music excerpts and rated how much they liked each one. After a delay, they heard the same excerpts plus an equal number of novel excerpts and made recognition judgments, which were then examined in conjunction with liking ratings. Higher liking ratings were associated with improved recognition performance after a 10-min (Experiment 1) or 24-hr (Experiment 2) delay between the exposure and test phases. The findings were similar when participants made liking ratings after recognition judgments (Experiments 3 and 6), when possible confounding effects of similarity and familiarity were held constant (Experiment 4), and when a deeper level of processing was encouraged for all the excerpts (Experiment 5). Recognition did not vary as a function of liking for previously unheard excerpts (Experiment 6). The results implicate a direct association between liking and recognition. Considered jointly with previous findings, it is now clear that listeners tend to like music that they remember and to remember music that they like.

  1. Listeners remember music they like.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a set of music excerpts and rated how much they liked each one. After a delay, they heard the same excerpts plus an equal number of novel excerpts and made recognition judgments, which were then examined in conjunction with liking ratings. Higher liking ratings were associated with improved recognition performance after a 10-min (Experiment 1) or 24-hr (Experiment 2) delay between the exposure and test phases. The findings were similar when participants made liking ratings after recognition judgments (Experiments 3 and 6), when possible confounding effects of similarity and familiarity were held constant (Experiment 4), and when a deeper level of processing was encouraged for all the excerpts (Experiment 5). Recognition did not vary as a function of liking for previously unheard excerpts (Experiment 6). The results implicate a direct association between liking and recognition. Considered jointly with previous findings, it is now clear that listeners tend to like music that they remember and to remember music that they like. PMID:22905936

  2. Music and the brain: disorders of musical listening.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lauren; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Warren, Jason D; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2006-10-01

    The study of the brain bases for normal musical listening has advanced greatly in the last 30 years. The evidence from basic and clinical neuroscience suggests that listening to music involves many cognitive components with distinct brain substrates. Using patient cases reported in the literature, we develop an approach for understanding disordered musical listening that is based on the systematic assessment of the perceptual and cognitive analysis of music and its emotional effect. This approach can be applied both to acquired and congenital deficits of musical listening, and to aberrant listening in patients with musical hallucinations. Both the bases for normal musical listening and the clinical assessment of disorders now have a solid grounding in systems neuroscience.

  3. Moved by Music: A Typology of Music Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Mulder, Juul; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2011-01-01

    A typology of music listeners was constructed on the basis of importance attributed to music and four types of music use: mood enhancement; coping with problems; defining personal identity; and marking social identity. Three Listener Groups were identified through Latent Class Analysis of internet survey data of 997 Dutch respondents, aged 12-29.…

  4. A Critical Ethnography of Democratic Music Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…

  5. Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-12-01

    Numerous earlier studies have investigated the cognitive processing of musical syntax with regular and irregular chord sequences. However, irregular sequences may also be perceived as unexpected, and therefore have a different emotional valence than regular sequences. We provide behavioral data showing that irregular chord functions presented in chord sequence paradigms are perceived as less pleasant than regular sequences. A reanalysis of functional MRI data showed increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes bilaterally in the amygdala in response to music-syntactically irregular (compared with regular) chord functions. The combined data indicate that music-syntactically irregular events elicit brain activity related to emotional processes, and that, in addition to intensely pleasurable music or highly unpleasant music, single chord functions can also modulate amygdala activity.

  6. Listening and Musical Engagement: An Exploration of the Effects of Different Listening Strategies on Attention, Emotion, and Peak Affective Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Music educators often use guided listening strategies as a means of enhancing engagement during music listening activities. Although previous research suggests that these strategies are indeed helpful in facilitating some form of cognitive and emotional engagement, little is known about how these strategies might function for music of differing…

  7. Why do we listen to music? A uses and gratifications analysis.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Adam J; North, Adrian C

    2011-02-01

    Four 'uses and gratifications' studies investigated peoples' reasons for listening to music (Study 1); and whether these reasons differ significantly from those associated with other leisure activities (Study 2). In Study 3, an open-ended, qualitative research design was used to investigate why people listen to music. In Study 4, a cross-sectional design was used to investigate the possibility that people of different ages might listen to music for different reasons. Findings showed that there are a number of reasons why participants listen to music, comparison of which indicated that participants listen to music primarily to manage/regulate their moods. Comparison with other leisure activities indicated that for the most part, listening to music was rated better than other leisure activities at serving an individual's different needs. This versatility may explain why music is so important to people. Evidence was also found to suggest that the reasons for listening to music may change as people grow older. PMID:21241288

  8. Why do we listen to music? A uses and gratifications analysis.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Adam J; North, Adrian C

    2011-02-01

    Four 'uses and gratifications' studies investigated peoples' reasons for listening to music (Study 1); and whether these reasons differ significantly from those associated with other leisure activities (Study 2). In Study 3, an open-ended, qualitative research design was used to investigate why people listen to music. In Study 4, a cross-sectional design was used to investigate the possibility that people of different ages might listen to music for different reasons. Findings showed that there are a number of reasons why participants listen to music, comparison of which indicated that participants listen to music primarily to manage/regulate their moods. Comparison with other leisure activities indicated that for the most part, listening to music was rated better than other leisure activities at serving an individual's different needs. This versatility may explain why music is so important to people. Evidence was also found to suggest that the reasons for listening to music may change as people grow older.

  9. Authentic Listening Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Don; Roberts, Jon

    1981-01-01

    Discusses use of authentic listening experiences in second language classroom so that students will become involved in listening process demanded in authentic listening situations. Gives examples of sample classroom activities. (BK)

  10. Music Listening Preferences of Macau Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Wanfong Viny

    2009-01-01

    This is a pioneer study of Macau's music education focusing on music listening preference. Adopting models from Western cultures, the study, launched in 2006, aimed to explore the factors of age and gender in regard to music preference. The subjects ranged from fourth-graders to university students (N=2495) (15 missing). Participants rated their…

  11. The psychological functions of music listening

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter; Städtler, Christine; Huron, David

    2013-01-01

    Why do people listen to music? Over the past several decades, scholars have proposed numerous functions that listening to music might fulfill. However, different theoretical approaches, different methods, and different samples have left a heterogeneous picture regarding the number and nature of musical functions. Moreover, there remains no agreement about the underlying dimensions of these functions. Part one of the paper reviews the research contributions that have explicitly referred to musical functions. It is concluded that a comprehensive investigation addressing the basic dimensions underlying the plethora of functions of music listening is warranted. Part two of the paper presents an empirical investigation of hundreds of functions that could be extracted from the reviewed contributions. These functions were distilled to 129 non-redundant functions that were then rated by 834 respondents. Principal component analysis suggested three distinct underlying dimensions: People listen to music to regulate arousal and mood, to achieve self-awareness, and as an expression of social relatedness. The first and second dimensions were judged to be much more important than the third—a result that contrasts with the idea that music has evolved primarily as a means for social cohesion and communication. The implications of these results are discussed in light of theories on the origin and the functionality of music listening and also for the application of musical stimuli in all areas of psychology and for research in music cognition. PMID:23964257

  12. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion.

  13. Music evokes vicarious emotions in listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Why do we listen to sad music? We seek to answer this question using a psychological approach. It is possible to distinguish perceived emotions from those that are experienced. Therefore, we hypothesized that, although sad music is perceived as sad, listeners actually feel (experience) pleasant emotions concurrent with sadness. This hypothesis was supported, which led us to question whether sadness in the context of art is truly an unpleasant emotion. While experiencing sadness may be unpleasant, it may also be somewhat pleasant when experienced in the context of art, for example, when listening to sad music. We consider musically evoked emotion vicarious, as we are not threatened when we experience it, in the way that we can be during the course of experiencing emotion in daily life. When we listen to sad music, we experience vicarious sadness. In this review, we propose two sides to sadness by suggesting vicarious emotion. PMID:24910621

  14. The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Raijas, Pirre; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Although brain imaging studies have demonstrated that listening to music alters human brain structure and function, the molecular mechanisms mediating those effects remain unknown. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion. To verify whether listening to classical music has any effect on human transcriptome, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling from the peripheral blood of participants after listening to classical music (n = 48), and after a control study without music exposure (n = 15). As musical experience is known to influence the responses to music, we compared the transcriptional responses of musically experienced and inexperienced participants separately with those of the controls. Comparisons were made based on two subphenotypes of musical experience: musical aptitude and music education. In musically experiencd participants, we observed the differential expression of 45 genes (27 up- and 18 down-regulated) and 97 genes (75 up- and 22 down-regulated) respectively based on subphenotype comparisons (rank product non-parametric statistics, pfp 0.05, >1.2-fold change over time across conditions). Gene ontological overrepresentation analysis (hypergeometric test, FDR < 0.05) revealed that the up-regulated genes are primarily known to be involved in the secretion and transport of dopamine, neuron projection, protein sumoylation, long-term potentiation and dephosphorylation. Down-regulated genes are known to be involved in ATP synthase-coupled proton transport, cytolysis, and positive regulation of caspase, peptidase and endopeptidase activities. One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude. Several genes reported to regulate song perception and production in songbirds displayed altered

  15. The effect of listening to music on human transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Raijas, Pirre; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Although brain imaging studies have demonstrated that listening to music alters human brain structure and function, the molecular mechanisms mediating those effects remain unknown. With the advent of genomics and bioinformatics approaches, these effects of music can now be studied in a more detailed fashion. To verify whether listening to classical music has any effect on human transcriptome, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling from the peripheral blood of participants after listening to classical music (n = 48), and after a control study without music exposure (n = 15). As musical experience is known to influence the responses to music, we compared the transcriptional responses of musically experienced and inexperienced participants separately with those of the controls. Comparisons were made based on two subphenotypes of musical experience: musical aptitude and music education. In musically experiencd participants, we observed the differential expression of 45 genes (27 up- and 18 down-regulated) and 97 genes (75 up- and 22 down-regulated) respectively based on subphenotype comparisons (rank product non-parametric statistics, pfp 0.05, >1.2-fold change over time across conditions). Gene ontological overrepresentation analysis (hypergeometric test, FDR < 0.05) revealed that the up-regulated genes are primarily known to be involved in the secretion and transport of dopamine, neuron projection, protein sumoylation, long-term potentiation and dephosphorylation. Down-regulated genes are known to be involved in ATP synthase-coupled proton transport, cytolysis, and positive regulation of caspase, peptidase and endopeptidase activities. One of the most up-regulated genes, alpha-synuclein (SNCA), is located in the best linkage region of musical aptitude on chromosome 4q22.1 and is regulated by GATA2, which is known to be associated with musical aptitude. Several genes reported to regulate song perception and production in songbirds displayed altered

  16. The Mechanics of Listening to Electronic Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, David

    1977-01-01

    The author, a composer and the director of an electronic music lab, is concerned with developing an "aesthetic" in listening to electronic music. Describes an approach he has found to be successful with his students--one that provides "a mode of understanding, a vehicle for making aesthetic decisions". (Editor/RK)

  17. When I Listen to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Alan Russell

    2000-01-01

    Using music in the classroom enhances learning. Music and dance provide an opportunity for positive social interaction. Singing fosters understanding of the sound and rhythm of language. Exposing children to the patterns of different kinds of music helps them to recognize patterns in mathematics. Background music in the classroom reduces stress…

  18. The effect of passive listening versus active observation of music and dance performances on memory recognition and mild to moderate depression in cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.

  19. Benefits of listening to a recording of euphoric joint music making in polydrug abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Vogt, Marius; Lederer, Annette; Schneider, Lydia; Fomicheva, Eira; Schneider, Martha; Villringer, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Listening to music can have powerful physiological and therapeutic effects. Some essential features of the mental mechanism underlying beneficial effects of music are probably strong physiological and emotional associations with music created during the act of music making. Here we tested this hypothesis in a clinical population of polydrug abusers in rehabilitation listening to a previously performed act of physiologically and emotionally intense music making. Methods: Psychological effects of listening to self-made music that was created in a previous musical feedback intervention were assessed. In this procedure, participants produced music with exercise machines (Jymmin) which modulate musical sounds. Results: The data showed a positive effect of listening to the recording of joint music making on self-efficacy, mood, and a readiness to engage socially. Furthermore, the data showed the powerful influence of context on how the recording evoked psychological benefits. The effects of listening to the self-made music were only observable when participants listened to their own performance first; listening to a control music piece first caused effects to deteriorate. We observed a positive correlation between participants’ mood and their desire to engage in social activities with their former training partners after listening to the self-made music. This shows that the observed effects of listening to the recording of the single musical feedback intervention are influenced by participants recapitulating intense pleasant social interactions during the Jymmin intervention. Conclusions: Listening to music that was the outcome of a previous musical feedback (Jymmin) intervention has beneficial psychological and probably social effects in patients that had suffered from polydrug addiction, increasing self-efficacy, mood, and a readiness to engage socially. These intervention effects, however, depend on the context in which the music recordings are

  20. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude.

    PubMed

    Kliuchko, Marina; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Monacis, Lucia; Gold, Benjamin P; Heikkilä, Kauko V; Spinosa, Vittoria; Tervaniemi, Mari; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician's auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale) was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person's life (or music importance). Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103), amateur musicians (N = 44), and professional musicians (N = 50). The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive) listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background) listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual's noise sensitivity.

  1. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Kliuchko, Marina; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Monacis, Lucia; Gold, Benjamin P.; Heikkilä, Kauko V.; Spinosa, Vittoria; Tervaniemi, Mari; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician's auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale) was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person's life (or music importance). Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103), amateur musicians (N = 44), and professional musicians (N = 50). The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive) listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background) listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual's noise sensitivity. PMID:26356378

  2. Performing music can induce greater modulation of emotion-related psychophysiological responses than listening to music.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Furuya, Shinichi; Masuko, Tsutomu; Francis, Peter R; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of music-induced emotion on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) while playing music on the piano and listening to a recording of the same piece of music. Sixteen pianists were monitored during tasks involving emotional piano performance, non-emotional piano performance, emotional perception, and non-emotional perception. It was found that emotional induction during both perception and performance modulated HR and HRV, and that such modulations were significantly greater during musical performance than during perception. The results confirmed that musical performance was far more effective in modulating emotion-related autonomic nerve activity than musical perception in musicians. The findings suggest the presence of a neural network of reward-emotion-associated autonomic nerve activity for musical performance that is independent of a neural network for musical perception.

  3. Modeling listeners' emotional response to music.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2012-10-01

    An overview of the computational prediction of emotional responses to music is presented. Communication of emotions by music has received a great deal of attention during the last years and a large number of empirical studies have described the role of individual features (tempo, mode, articulation, timbre) in predicting the emotions suggested or invoked by the music. However, unlike the present work, relatively few studies have attempted to model continua of expressed emotions using a variety of musical features from audio-based representations in a correlation design. The construction of the computational model is divided into four separate phases, with a different focus for evaluation. These phases include the theoretical selection of relevant features, empirical assessment of feature validity, actual feature selection, and overall evaluation of the model. Existing research on music and emotions and extraction of musical features is reviewed in terms of these criteria. Examples drawn from recent studies of emotions within the context of film soundtracks are used to demonstrate each phase in the construction of the model. These models are able to explain the dominant part of the listeners' self-reports of the emotions expressed by music and the models show potential to generalize over different genres within Western music. Possible applications of the computational models of emotions are discussed.

  4. Interdependencies in the spontaneous EEG while listening to music.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E

    2001-11-01

    We studied the patterns of interdependency between different brain regions during the performance of higher cognitive functions. Our goal was to check the existence in these patterns of both task-related differences (e.g. listening to music vs. rest) and training-related differences (musicians vs. non-musicians). For this purpose, a non-linear measure, called similarity index (S.I.), was used to detect asymmetric interdependencies between different brain regions by means of EEG signals. Relatively active and passive regions of the brain were found where the degree of activity was represented by excited degrees of freedom. The S.I. obtained during listening to different kinds of music was compared statistically with the S.I. with eyes closed, and significant changes (P< or = 0.05) were entered into schematic brain maps. A topographical representation of the S.I. yielded differences in the interdependency while performing different cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate the occurrence of task-related differences in both groups of subjects. Furthermore, subjects with musical training possessed significantly higher degrees of interdependencies than such without musical training while listening to music but not to text. We conclude that the new measure can be successfully applied for studying the dynamical co-operation between cortical areas during higher cognitive functioning.

  5. Detection of independent functional networks during music listening using electroencephalogram and sLORETA-ICA.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-04-13

    The measurement of brain activation during music listening is a topic that is attracting increased attention from many researchers. Because of their high spatial accuracy, functional MRI measurements are often used for measuring brain activation in the context of music listening. However, this technique faces the issues of contaminating scanner noise and an uncomfortable experimental environment. Electroencephalogram (EEG), however, is a neural registration technique that allows the measurement of neurophysiological activation in silent and more comfortable experimental environments. Thus, it is optimal for recording brain activations during pleasant music stimulation. Using a new mathematical approach to calculate intracortical independent components (sLORETA-IC) on the basis of scalp-recorded EEG, we identified specific intracortical independent components during listening of a musical piece and scales, which differ substantially from intracortical independent components calculated from the resting state EEG. Most intracortical independent components are located bilaterally in perisylvian brain areas known to be involved in auditory processing and specifically in music perception. Some intracortical independent components differ between the music and scale listening conditions. The most prominent difference is found in the anterior part of the perisylvian brain region, with stronger activations seen in the left-sided anterior perisylvian regions during music listening, most likely indicating semantic processing during music listening. A further finding is that the intracortical independent components obtained for the music and scale listening are most prominent in higher frequency bands (e.g. beta-2 and beta-3), whereas the resting state intracortical independent components are active in lower frequency bands (alpha-1 and theta). This new technique for calculating intracortical independent components is able to differentiate independent neural networks associated

  6. Listener's Preference for Music of Other Cultures: Comparing Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the preferences of university and middle school students for non-western music as communicated through a Likert-type scale, manipulation of one dial on a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) during music listening, and manipulation of two dials on a CRDI during music listening. (MJP)

  7. Ugly Music: Lessons in Learning to Listen Respectfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Listening to music from a variety of national, ethnic, and historical traditions may help adolescents develop respect for individual differences, particularly when they are challenged to confront music that has little immediate musical appeal for them. This article outlines strategies for two sample listening lessons, using Serbo-Croatian gusle…

  8. Listeners' Response to Music as a Function of Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara E.; Schmidt, Charles P.

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of research concerning the relationship between listener response to music and personality variables. Reports that correlations were found among undergraduate music appreciation students between the Music Listener Response Scale and sensing intuition for the entire group and between judgment perception and the scale among…

  9. Music Listening, Coping, Peer Affiliation and Depression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…

  10. The Mozart Effect: Music Listening Is Not Music Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauscher, Frances H.; Hinton, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    "The Mozart effect" originally referred to the phenomenon of a brief enhancement of spatial-temporal abilities in college students after listening to a Mozart piano sonata (K. 448). Over time, this term was conflated with an independent series of studies on the effects of music instruction. This occurrence has caused confusion that has been…

  11. Listening to music affects diurnal variation in muscle power output.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, H; Chaouachi, A; Hammouda, O; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music while warming-up on the diurnal variations of power output during the Wingate test. 12 physical education students underwent four Wingate tests at 07:00 and 17:00 h, after 10 min of warm-up with and without listening to music. The warm-up consisted of 10 min of pedalling at a constant pace of 60 rpm against a light load of 1 kg. During the Wingate test, peak and mean power were measured. The main finding was that peak and mean power improved from morning to afternoon after no music warm-up (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). These diurnal variations disappeared for mean power and persisted with an attenuated morning-evening difference (p<0.05) for peak power after music warm-up. Moreover, peak and mean power were significantly higher after music than no music warm-up during the two times of testing. Thus, as it is a legal method and an additional aid, music should be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions, especially in the morning competitive events.

  12. Pitch-induced responses in the right auditory cortex correlate with musical ability in normal listeners.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Özyurt, Jale; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-10-23

    Previous work compellingly shows the existence of functional and structural differences in human auditory cortex related to superior musical abilities observed in professional musicians. In this study, we investigated the relationship between musical abilities and auditory cortex activity in normal listeners who had not received a professional musical education. We used functional MRI to measure auditory cortex responses related to auditory stimulation per se and the processing of pitch and pitch changes, which represents a prerequisite for the perception of musical sequences. Pitch-evoked responses in the right lateral portion of Heschl's gyrus were correlated positively with the listeners' musical abilities, which were assessed using a musical aptitude test. In contrast, no significant relationship was found for noise stimuli, lacking any musical information, and for responses induced by pitch changes. Our results suggest that superior musical abilities in normal listeners are reflected by enhanced neural encoding of pitch information in the auditory system.

  13. Association of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) haplotypes with listening to music.

    PubMed

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Onkamo, Päivi; Karma, Kai; Raijas, Pirre; Järvelä, Irma

    2011-04-01

    Music is listened in all cultures. We hypothesize that willingness to produce and perceive sound and music is social communication that needs musical aptitude. Here, listening to music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire and musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch and for time. Three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (RS3, RS1 and AVR) of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene, previously associated with social communication and attachment, were genotyped and analyzed in 31 Finnish families (n=437 members) using family-based association analysis. A positive association between the AVPR1A haplotype (RS1 and AVR) and active current listening to music (permuted P=0.0019) was observed. Other AVPR1A haplotype (RS3 and AVR) showed association with lifelong active listening to music (permuted P=0.0022). In addition to AVPR1A, two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and variable number of tandem repeat) of human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), a candidate gene for many neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with emotional processing, were analyzed. No association between listening to music and the polymorphisms of SLC6A4 were detected. The results suggest that willingness to listen to music is related to neurobiological pathways affecting social affiliation and communication.

  14. Loudness in listening to music with portable headphone stereos.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, T

    1999-04-01

    The usual listening levels of music (loudness) using portable headphone stereos were measured for 46 young volunteers. Loudness was associated with sex, Extraversion scores, a subjective mental health state, and impression of the music.

  15. The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Kappert, Mattes B; Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    Music listening is associated with both pain- and stress-reducing effects. However, the effects of music listening in daily life remain understudied, and the psycho-biological mechanisms underlying the health-beneficial effect of music listening remain unknown. We examined the effects of music listening on pain and stress in daily life in a sample of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; i.e., a condition characterized by chronic pain) and investigated whether a potentially pain-reducing effect of music listening was mediated by biological stress-responsive systems. Thirty women (mean age: 50.7 ± 9.9 years) with FMS were examined using an ecological momentary assessment design. Participants rated their current pain intensity, perceived control over pain, perceived stress level, and music listening behavior five times per day for 14 consecutive days. At each assessment, participants provided a saliva sample for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase as biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening increased perceived control over pain, especially when the music was positive in valence and when it was listened to for the reason of 'activation' or 'relaxation'. In contrast, no effects on perceived pain intensity were observed. The effects of music listening on perceived control over pain were not mediated by biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Music listening in daily life improved perceived control over pain in female FMS patients. Clinicians using music therapy should become aware of the potential adjuvant role of music listening in daily life, which has the potential to improve symptom control in chronic pain patients. In order to study the role of underlying biological mechanisms, it might be necessary to use more intensive engagement with music (i.e., collective singing or music-making) rather than mere music listening. PMID:26283951

  16. The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Kappert, Mattes B; Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    Music listening is associated with both pain- and stress-reducing effects. However, the effects of music listening in daily life remain understudied, and the psycho-biological mechanisms underlying the health-beneficial effect of music listening remain unknown. We examined the effects of music listening on pain and stress in daily life in a sample of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; i.e., a condition characterized by chronic pain) and investigated whether a potentially pain-reducing effect of music listening was mediated by biological stress-responsive systems. Thirty women (mean age: 50.7 ± 9.9 years) with FMS were examined using an ecological momentary assessment design. Participants rated their current pain intensity, perceived control over pain, perceived stress level, and music listening behavior five times per day for 14 consecutive days. At each assessment, participants provided a saliva sample for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase as biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening increased perceived control over pain, especially when the music was positive in valence and when it was listened to for the reason of 'activation' or 'relaxation'. In contrast, no effects on perceived pain intensity were observed. The effects of music listening on perceived control over pain were not mediated by biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Music listening in daily life improved perceived control over pain in female FMS patients. Clinicians using music therapy should become aware of the potential adjuvant role of music listening in daily life, which has the potential to improve symptom control in chronic pain patients. In order to study the role of underlying biological mechanisms, it might be necessary to use more intensive engagement with music (i.e., collective singing or music-making) rather than mere music listening.

  17. The effect of passive listening versus active observation of music and dance performances on memory recognition and mild to moderate depression in cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults. PMID:23234087

  18. Mindful Music Listening as a Potential Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Kristen J.; Dinsmore, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental health issues. Although drug therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy remain popular and effective treatments, alternative interventions such as the use of music listening and mindfulness practice as interventions during therapy have gained ground. Research on the use of music listening and mindfulness…

  19. Music listening as a means of stress reduction in daily life.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M; Nater, Urs M

    2015-10-01

    The relation between music listening and stress is inconsistently reported across studies, with the major part of studies being set in experimental settings. Furthermore, the psychobiological mechanisms for a potential stress-reducing effect remain unclear. We examined the potential stress-reducing effect of music listening in everyday life using both subjective and objective indicators of stress. Fifty-five healthy university students were examined in an ambulatory assessment study, both during a regular term week (five days) and during an examination week (five days). Participants rated their current music-listening behavior and perceived stress levels four times per day, and a sub-sample (n = 25) additionally provided saliva samples for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase on two consecutive days during both weeks. Results revealed that mere music listening was effective in reducing subjective stress levels (p = 0.010). The most profound effects were found when 'relaxation' was stated as the reason for music listening, with subsequent decreases in subjective stress levels (p ≤ 0.001) and lower cortisol concentrations (p ≤ 0.001). Alpha-amylase varied as a function of the arousal of the selected music, with energizing music increasing and relaxing music decreasing alpha-amylase activity (p = 0.025). These findings suggest that music listening can be considered a means of stress reduction in daily life, especially if it is listened to for the reason of relaxation. Furthermore, these results shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying the stress-reducing effect of music, with music listening differentially affecting the physiological stress systems.

  20. Music listening as a means of stress reduction in daily life.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Doerr, Johanna M; Nater, Urs M

    2015-10-01

    The relation between music listening and stress is inconsistently reported across studies, with the major part of studies being set in experimental settings. Furthermore, the psychobiological mechanisms for a potential stress-reducing effect remain unclear. We examined the potential stress-reducing effect of music listening in everyday life using both subjective and objective indicators of stress. Fifty-five healthy university students were examined in an ambulatory assessment study, both during a regular term week (five days) and during an examination week (five days). Participants rated their current music-listening behavior and perceived stress levels four times per day, and a sub-sample (n = 25) additionally provided saliva samples for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase on two consecutive days during both weeks. Results revealed that mere music listening was effective in reducing subjective stress levels (p = 0.010). The most profound effects were found when 'relaxation' was stated as the reason for music listening, with subsequent decreases in subjective stress levels (p ≤ 0.001) and lower cortisol concentrations (p ≤ 0.001). Alpha-amylase varied as a function of the arousal of the selected music, with energizing music increasing and relaxing music decreasing alpha-amylase activity (p = 0.025). These findings suggest that music listening can be considered a means of stress reduction in daily life, especially if it is listened to for the reason of relaxation. Furthermore, these results shed light on the physiological mechanisms underlying the stress-reducing effect of music, with music listening differentially affecting the physiological stress systems. PMID:26142566

  1. Rockin' around the Clock: An Exploratory Study of Music Teachers' Personal Listening Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia Wayman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the personal music listening choices of music teachers. Specifically, in which formats do teachers listen to music for personal pleasure, how do they obtain the music they choose, and how frequently do they choose to listen to certain genres of music. Using an online survey, music teachers answered questions about their…

  2. Fusion of electroencephalographic dynamics and musical contents for estimating emotional responses in music listening.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI), neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications), the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61-67% in valence classification and from around 58-67% in arousal classification. The musical timber appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling. PMID:24822035

  3. Fusion of electroencephalographic dynamics and musical contents for estimating emotional responses in music listening.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI), neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications), the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61-67% in valence classification and from around 58-67% in arousal classification. The musical timber appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling.

  4. Fusion of electroencephalographic dynamics and musical contents for estimating emotional responses in music listening

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI), neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications), the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61–67% in valence classification and from around 58–67% in arousal classification. The musical timber appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling. PMID:24822035

  5. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  6. The influence of social situations on music listening.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Grewe, Oliver; Egermann, Hauke; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether listening to music in a group setting influenced the emotion felt by the listeners. We hypothesized that individuals hearing music in a group would experience more intense emotions than the same individuals hearing the same music on their own. The emotional reactions to 10 musical excerpts (previously shown to contain chill-inducing psychoacoustic parameters) were measured in a within-subjects design. We found, contrary to our hypothesis, that the participants (all musicians) did not experience more chills when listening to music in a group than when listening alone. These findings may be explained by a lesser degree of concentration on the music in the group condition.

  7. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener.

    PubMed

    Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  8. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener.

    PubMed

    Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.

  9. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  10. Universality in the brain while listening to music.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H

    2001-01-01

    The human brain, which is one of the most complex organic systems, involves billions of interacting physiological and chemical processes that give rise to experimentally observed neuroelectrical activity, which is called an electroencephalogram (EEG). The presence of non-stationarity and intermittency render standard available methods unsuitable for detecting hidden dynamical patterns in the EEG. In this paper, a method that is suitable for non-stationary signals and preserving the phase characteristics and that combines wavelet and Hilbert transforms was applied to multivariate EEG signals from human subjects at rest as well as in different cognitive states: listening to music, listening to text and performing spatial imagination. It was found that, if suitably rescaled, the gamma band EEG over distributed brain areas while listening to music can be described by a universal and homogeneous scaling, whereas this homogeneity in scale is reduced at resting conditions and also during listening to text and performing spatial imagination. The degree of universality is characterized by a Kullback-Leibler divergence measure. By statistical surrogate analysis, nonlinear phase interaction was found to play an important role in exhibiting universality among multiple cortical regions. PMID:11747560

  11. Listeners' Identification of Musical Expression through Figurative Language and Musical Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on listeners' (N = 66 undergraduate and graduate music education majors) ability to identify nuances of musical expression using figurative language and specific music terminology. Data reviewed for accuracy in classifying general expressive categories showed that listeners were successful at identifying broad intended realms of…

  12. Effect of Age, Country, and Gender on Music Listening Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the music listening preferences of 2,042 students from Greece, South Korea, and the United States using a survey that listed selections from art music, traditional jazz, and rock music. Finds that age, gender, and country all exerted influence, but the variables did not perform the same way in each country. (CMK)

  13. The Goals and Effects of Music Listening and Their Relationship to the Strength of Music Preference

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the strength of music preference are among the most intricate psychological phenomena. While one person gets by very well without music, another person needs to listen to music every day and spends a lot of temporal and financial resources on listening to music, attending concerts, or buying concert tickets. Where do these differences come from? The hypothesis presented in this article is that the strength of music preference is mainly informed by the functions that music fulfills in people’s lives (e.g., to regulate emotions, moods, or physiological arousal; to promote self-awareness; to foster social relatedness). Data were collected with a diary study, in which 121 respondents documented the goals they tried to attain and the effects that actually occurred for up to 5 music-listening episodes per day for 10 successive days. As expected, listeners reporting more intense experience of the functional use of music in the past (1) had a stronger intention to listen to music to attain specific goals in specific situations and (2) showed a larger overall strength of music preference. It is concluded that the functional effectiveness of music listening should be incorporated in existing models and frameworks of music preference to produce better predictions of interindividual differences in the strength of music preference. The predictability of musical style/genre preferences is also discussed with regard to the present results. PMID:26985998

  14. The Goals and Effects of Music Listening and Their Relationship to the Strength of Music Preference.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the strength of music preference are among the most intricate psychological phenomena. While one person gets by very well without music, another person needs to listen to music every day and spends a lot of temporal and financial resources on listening to music, attending concerts, or buying concert tickets. Where do these differences come from? The hypothesis presented in this article is that the strength of music preference is mainly informed by the functions that music fulfills in people's lives (e.g., to regulate emotions, moods, or physiological arousal; to promote self-awareness; to foster social relatedness). Data were collected with a diary study, in which 121 respondents documented the goals they tried to attain and the effects that actually occurred for up to 5 music-listening episodes per day for 10 successive days. As expected, listeners reporting more intense experience of the functional use of music in the past (1) had a stronger intention to listen to music to attain specific goals in specific situations and (2) showed a larger overall strength of music preference. It is concluded that the functional effectiveness of music listening should be incorporated in existing models and frameworks of music preference to produce better predictions of interindividual differences in the strength of music preference. The predictability of musical style/genre preferences is also discussed with regard to the present results.

  15. The Goals and Effects of Music Listening and Their Relationship to the Strength of Music Preference.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the strength of music preference are among the most intricate psychological phenomena. While one person gets by very well without music, another person needs to listen to music every day and spends a lot of temporal and financial resources on listening to music, attending concerts, or buying concert tickets. Where do these differences come from? The hypothesis presented in this article is that the strength of music preference is mainly informed by the functions that music fulfills in people's lives (e.g., to regulate emotions, moods, or physiological arousal; to promote self-awareness; to foster social relatedness). Data were collected with a diary study, in which 121 respondents documented the goals they tried to attain and the effects that actually occurred for up to 5 music-listening episodes per day for 10 successive days. As expected, listeners reporting more intense experience of the functional use of music in the past (1) had a stronger intention to listen to music to attain specific goals in specific situations and (2) showed a larger overall strength of music preference. It is concluded that the functional effectiveness of music listening should be incorporated in existing models and frameworks of music preference to produce better predictions of interindividual differences in the strength of music preference. The predictability of musical style/genre preferences is also discussed with regard to the present results. PMID:26985998

  16. Music Preferences and Civic Activism of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…

  17. When music "flows". State and trait in musical performance, composition and listening: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Alice; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience). In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience-both as a "state" and as a "trait." Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i) musical composition; (ii) listening; and (iii) musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a "trait" and as a "state" in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a "state" and as a "trait" are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i) the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii) the experimental design; (iii) the results; and (iv) the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed. Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach toward dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts. Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system.

  18. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Potes, Cristhian; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brunner, Peter; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that brain signals encode information about specific features of simple auditory stimuli or of general aspects of natural auditory stimuli. How brain signals represent the time course of specific features in natural auditory stimuli is not well understood. In this study, we show in eight human subjects that signals recorded from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)) encode information about the sound intensity of music. ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus as well as from an isolated area in the precentral gyrus were observed to be highly correlated with the sound intensity of music. These results not only confirm the role of auditory cortices in auditory processing but also point to an important role of premotor and motor cortices. They also encourage the use of ECoG activity to study more complex acoustic features of simple or natural auditory stimuli. PMID:22537600

  19. An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and situation.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N; Liljeström, Simon; Västfjäll, Daniel; Barradas, Gonçalo; Silva, Ana

    2008-10-01

    The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence. PMID:18837617

  20. Influence of music and music preference on acceptable noise levels in listeners with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E

    2007-05-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is defined as the maximum level of background noise that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background noise does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background noise than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background noise than twelve-talker babble.

  1. Eye Movements and Reading Comprehension While Listening to Preferred and Non-Preferred Study Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Mossberg, Frans; Lindgren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 24 university students read four different texts in four conditions: (1) while listening to music they preferred to listen to while studying; (2) while listening to music they did not prefer to listen to while studying; (3) while listening to a recording of noise from a cafe; and finally (4) in silence. After each text they…

  2. The Effect of Listening to Specific Musical Genre Selections on Measures of Heart Rate Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2011-01-01

    University students (N = 30) individually listened to the Billboard 100 top-ranked musical selection for their most and least liked musical genre. Two minutes of silence preceded each musical listening condition, and heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded throughout. All HRV measures decreased during music listening as compared with silence.…

  3. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  4. Mindfulness, Attention, and Flow during Music Listening: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness meditation induction technique on perceived attention, aesthetic response, and flow during music listening as measured by Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) and questionnaire. Participants were students enrolled in music classes or ensembles at a comprehensive university in the…

  5. Dynamic emotional and neural responses to music depend on performance expression and listener experience.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Heather; Jantzen, Kelly; Kelso, J A Scott; Steinberg, Fred; Large, Edward

    2010-12-16

    Apart from its natural relevance to cognition, music provides a window into the intimate relationships between production, perception, experience, and emotion. Here, emotional responses and neural activity were observed as they evolved together with stimulus parameters over several minutes. Participants listened to a skilled music performance that included the natural fluctuations in timing and sound intensity that musicians use to evoke emotional responses. A mechanical performance of the same piece served as a control. Before and after fMRI scanning, participants reported real-time emotional responses on a 2-dimensional rating scale (arousal and valence) as they listened to each performance. During fMRI scanning, participants listened without reporting emotional responses. Limbic and paralimbic brain areas responded to the expressive dynamics of human music performance, and both emotion and reward related activations during music listening were dependent upon musical training. Moreover, dynamic changes in timing predicted ratings of emotional arousal, as well as real-time changes in neural activity. BOLD signal changes correlated with expressive timing fluctuations in cortical and subcortical motor areas consistent with pulse perception, and in a network consistent with the human mirror neuron system. These findings show that expressive music performance evokes emotion and reward related neural activations, and that music's affective impact on the brains of listeners is altered by musical training. Our observations are consistent with the idea that music performance evokes an emotional response through a form of empathy that is based, at least in part, on the perception of movement and on violations of pulse-based temporal expectancies.

  6. Dynamic Emotional and Neural Responses to Music Depend on Performance Expression and Listener Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Heather; Jantzen, Kelly; Scott Kelso, J. A.; Steinberg, Fred; Large, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Apart from its natural relevance to cognition, music provides a window into the intimate relationships between production, perception, experience, and emotion. Here, emotional responses and neural activity were observed as they evolved together with stimulus parameters over several minutes. Participants listened to a skilled music performance that included the natural fluctuations in timing and sound intensity that musicians use to evoke emotional responses. A mechanical performance of the same piece served as a control. Before and after fMRI scanning, participants reported real-time emotional responses on a 2-dimensional rating scale (arousal and valence) as they listened to each performance. During fMRI scanning, participants listened without reporting emotional responses. Limbic and paralimbic brain areas responded to the expressive dynamics of human music performance, and both emotion and reward related activations during music listening were dependent upon musical training. Moreover, dynamic changes in timing predicted ratings of emotional arousal, as well as real-time changes in neural activity. BOLD signal changes correlated with expressive timing fluctuations in cortical and subcortical motor areas consistent with pulse perception, and in a network consistent with the human mirror neuron system. These findings show that expressive music performance evokes emotion and reward related neural activations, and that music's affective impact on the brains of listeners is altered by musical training. Our observations are consistent with the idea that music performance evokes an emotional response through a form of empathy that is based, at least in part, on the perception of movement and on violations of pulse-based temporal expectancies. PMID:21179549

  7. EEG-based emotion recognition in music listening.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Chi-Hong; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Wu, Tien-Lin; Jeng, Shyh-Kang; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2010-07-01

    Ongoing brain activity can be recorded as electroencephalograph (EEG) to discover the links between emotional states and brain activity. This study applied machine-learning algorithms to categorize EEG dynamics according to subject self-reported emotional states during music listening. A framework was proposed to optimize EEG-based emotion recognition by systematically 1) seeking emotion-specific EEG features and 2) exploring the efficacy of the classifiers. Support vector machine was employed to classify four emotional states (joy, anger, sadness, and pleasure) and obtained an averaged classification accuracy of 82.29% +/- 3.06% across 26 subjects. Further, this study identified 30 subject-independent features that were most relevant to emotional processing across subjects and explored the feasibility of using fewer electrodes to characterize the EEG dynamics during music listening. The identified features were primarily derived from electrodes placed near the frontal and the parietal lobes, consistent with many of the findings in the literature. This study might lead to a practical system for noninvasive assessment of the emotional states in practical or clinical applications.

  8. Effects of music listening on depressed women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of music listening on depressed women in Taiwan. Through the use of a pretest-posttest, control group, experimental design, the heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and immediate mood states before and after a music/sound intervention were measured in 30 women. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and with t tests. A qualitative questionnaire was administered to participants to elicit information related to the subjective experience of music/sound listening. Significant posttest differences were found in experimental group participants' heart rates, respiratory rates, blood pressure, and tranquil mood states. Significant posttest differences also were found in control group participants' heart rates and tranquil mood states. The results support the use of music listening as a body-mind healing modality for depressed women.

  9. [Survey on the harmfulness of listening to music with headphones].

    PubMed

    Buffe, P; Cudennec, Y F; Ben Azzouz, M; Bassoumi, T; Ferron, J J

    1986-01-01

    A survey conducted in 52,000 young male subjects evaluated the influence of listening to music with stereophonic headphones on perception hypacusis leading to exemption from National Service. Also investigated were noise level output from promenaders as well as temporary auditory loss two minutes after listening for one hour. Findings suggested relative innocuity of listening at moderate intensity for less than seven hours weekly. Users exceeding these optimal factors develop professional type deafness for which similar preventive measures are required. Particular mention is made of the effect of strolling listeners on vigilance and on sound pollution of industrialized countries.

  10. Emotion regulation through listening to music in everyday situations.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Myriam V; Ryf, Stefan; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2012-01-01

    Music is a stimulus capable of triggering an array of basic and complex emotions. We investigated whether and how individuals employ music to induce specific emotional states in everyday situations for the purpose of emotion regulation. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether specific emotion-regulation styles influence music selection in specific situations. Participants indicated how likely it would be that they would want to listen to various pieces of music (which are known to elicit specific emotions) in various emotional situations. Data analyses by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed a clear preference for pieces of music that were emotionally congruent with an emotional situation. In addition, we found that specific emotion-regulation styles might influence the selection of pieces of music characterised by specific emotions. Our findings demonstrate emotion-congruent music selection and highlight the important role of specific emotion-regulation styles in the selection of music in everyday situations.

  11. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja

    2008-03-01

    We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially

  12. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music

    PubMed Central

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed. PMID:25360112

  13. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed. PMID:25360112

  14. The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.

    PubMed

    Bottiroli, Sara; Rosi, Alessia; Russo, Riccardo; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Background music refers to any music played while the listener is performing another activity. Most studies on this effect have been conducted on young adults, while little attention has been paid to the presence of this effect in older adults. Hence, this study aimed to address this imbalance by assessing the impact of different types of background music on cognitive tasks tapping declarative memory and processing speed in older adults. Overall, background music tended to improve performance over no music and white noise, but not always in the same manner. The theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings are discussed.

  15. Musical Probabilities, Abductive Reasoning, and Brain Mechanisms: Extended Perspective of "A Priori" Listening to Music within the Creative Cognition Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Troge, Thomas A.; Lorrain, Denis

    2013-01-01

    A theory of listening to music is proposed. It suggests that, for listeners, the process of prediction is the starting point to experiencing music. This implies that perception of music starts through both a predisposed and an experience-based extrapolation into the future (this is labeled "a priori" listening). Indications for this…

  16. Music Perception Ability of Korean Adult Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunoak; Lee, Hyo-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although the cochlear implant (CI) is successful for understanding speech in patients with severe to profound hearing loss, listening to music is a challenging task to most CI listeners. The purpose of this study was to assess music perception ability and to provide clinically useful information regarding CI rehabilitation. Methods Ten normal hearing and ten CI listeners with implant experience, ranging 2 to 6 years, participated in the subtests of pitch, rhythm, melody, and instrument. A synthesized piano tone was used as musical stimuli. Participants were asked to discriminate two different tones during the pitch subtest. The rhythm subtest was constructed with sets of five, six, and seven intervals. The melody & instrument subtests assessed recognition of eight familiar melodies and five musical instruments from a closed set, respectively. Results CI listeners performed significantly poorer than normal hearing listeners in pitch, melody, and instrument identification tasks. No significant differences were observed in rhythm recognition between groups. Correlations were not found between music perception ability and word recognition scores. Conclusion The results are consistent with previous studies that have shown that pitch, melody, and instrument identifications are difficult to identify for CI users. Our results can provide fundamental information concerning the development of CI rehabilitation tools. PMID:22701773

  17. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29-99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935

  18. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935

  19. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29-99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.

  20. Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Methods Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow) and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune). Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups and learned the presented verbal material (non-words with and without semantic connotation) with and without background music. Each group was exposed to one of five different background stimuli (in-tune fast, in-tune slow, out-of-tune fast, out-of-tune slow, and noise). As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. In addition, event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of the EEG alpha-band were calculated as a measure for cortical activation. Results We did not find any substantial and consistent influence of background music on verbal learning. There was neither an enhancement nor a decrease in verbal learning performance during the background stimulation conditions. We found however a stronger event-related desynchronization around 800 - 1200 ms after word presentation for the group exposed to in-tune fast music while they learned the verbal material. There was also a stronger event-related synchronization for the group exposed to out-of-tune fast music around 1600 - 2000 ms after word presentation. Conclusion Verbal learning during the exposure to different background music varying in tempo and consonance did not influence learning of verbal material. There was neither an enhancing nor a detrimental effect on verbal learning performance. The EEG data suggest that the different acoustic background conditions evoke different cortical activations. The reason for these different cortical

  1. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic 'real-world' music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences.

  2. Beyond Guided Listening: Exploring World Musics with Classroom Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolome, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores issues of authenticity related to adapting world music examples for classroom instruments and suggests ways to engage students in active, participatory music-making activities derived from diverse musical cultures. Several lesson plan segments are provided to aid general music specialists in implementing "play along"…

  3. The reliability of continuous brain responses during naturalistic listening to music.

    PubMed

    Burunat, Iballa; Toiviainen, Petri; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Brattico, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Low-level (timbral) and high-level (tonal and rhythmical) musical features during continuous listening to music, studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been shown to elicit large-scale responses in cognitive, motor, and limbic brain networks. Using a similar methodological approach and a similar group of participants, we aimed to study the replicability of previous findings. Participants' fMRI responses during continuous listening of a tango Nuevo piece were correlated voxelwise against the time series of a set of perceptually validated musical features computationally extracted from the music. The replicability of previous results and the present study was assessed by two approaches: (a) correlating the respective activation maps, and (b) computing the overlap of active voxels between datasets at variable levels of ranked significance. Activity elicited by timbral features was better replicable than activity elicited by tonal and rhythmical ones. These results indicate more reliable processing mechanisms for low-level musical features as compared to more high-level features. The processing of such high-level features is probably more sensitive to the state and traits of the listeners, as well as of their background in music.

  4. The reliability of continuous brain responses during naturalistic listening to music.

    PubMed

    Burunat, Iballa; Toiviainen, Petri; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Brattico, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Low-level (timbral) and high-level (tonal and rhythmical) musical features during continuous listening to music, studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been shown to elicit large-scale responses in cognitive, motor, and limbic brain networks. Using a similar methodological approach and a similar group of participants, we aimed to study the replicability of previous findings. Participants' fMRI responses during continuous listening of a tango Nuevo piece were correlated voxelwise against the time series of a set of perceptually validated musical features computationally extracted from the music. The replicability of previous results and the present study was assessed by two approaches: (a) correlating the respective activation maps, and (b) computing the overlap of active voxels between datasets at variable levels of ranked significance. Activity elicited by timbral features was better replicable than activity elicited by tonal and rhythmical ones. These results indicate more reliable processing mechanisms for low-level musical features as compared to more high-level features. The processing of such high-level features is probably more sensitive to the state and traits of the listeners, as well as of their background in music. PMID:26364862

  5. Absolute Pitch and Synesthesia: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Shared and Distinct Neural Substrates of Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    People with Absolute Pitch can categorize musical pitches without a reference, whereas people with tone-color synesthesia can see colors when hearing music. Both of these special populations perceive music in an above-normal manner. In this study we asked whether AP possessors and tone-color synesthetes might recruit specialized neural mechanisms during music listening. Furthermore, we tested the degree to which neural substrates recruited for music listening may be shared between these special populations. AP possessors, tone-color synesthetes, and matched controls rated the perceived arousal levels of musical excerpts in a sparse-sampled fMRI study. Both APs and synesthetes showed enhanced superior temporal gyrus (STG, secondary auditory cortex) activation relative to controls during music listening, with left-lateralized enhancement in the APs and right-lateralized enhancement in the synesthetes. When listening to highly arousing excerpts, AP possessors showed additional activation in the left STG whereas synesthetes showed enhanced activity in the bilateral lingual gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (late visual areas). Results support both shared and distinct neural enhancements in AP and synesthesia: common enhancements in early cortical mechanisms of perceptual analysis, followed by relative specialization in later association and categorization processes that support the unique behaviors of these special populations during music listening. PMID:23508195

  6. The Phenomenology of the Music-Listening Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dura, Marian T.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomenology has been defined as "an approach to philosophy centering on analysis of the phenomena that flood (human) awareness" (Jorgenson, 1992), including the essences, meanings, and essentially necessary relations of these phenomena. In the last fifty years, an increasing number of writers have begun to examine the music-listening experience…

  7. Shaping pseudoneglect with transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and music listening

    PubMed Central

    Picazio, Silvia; Granata, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation modulates cortical excitability depending on the initial activation state of the structure being stimulated. Combination of cognitive with neurophysiological stimulations has been successfully employed to modulate responses of specific brain regions. The present research combined a neurophysiological pre-conditioning with a cognitive conditioning stimulation to modulate behavior. We applied this new state-dependency approach to investigate the cerebellar role in musical and spatial information processing, given that a link between musical perception and visuo-spatial abilities and a clear cerebellar involvement in music perception and visuo-spatial tasks have been reported. Cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial cerebellar Direct Current Stimulation (tcDCS) pre-conditioning was applied on the left cerebellar hemisphere followed by conditioning stimulation through music or white noise listening in a sample of healthy subjects performing a Line Bisection Task (LBT). The combination of the cathodal stimulation with music listening resulted in a marked attentional shift toward the right hemispace, compensating thus the natural leftward bias of the baseline condition (pseudoneglect). Conversely, the anodal or sham pre-conditioning stimulations combined with either music and white noise conditioning listening did not modulate spatial attention. The efficacy of the combined stimulation (cathodal pre-conditioning and music conditioning) and the absence of any effect of the single stimulations provide a strong support to the state-dependency theory. They propose that tcDCS in combination with music listening could act as a rehabilitative tool to improve cognitive functions in the presence of neglect or other spatial disorders. PMID:25859206

  8. Shaping pseudoneglect with transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and music listening.

    PubMed

    Picazio, Silvia; Granata, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation modulates cortical excitability depending on the initial activation state of the structure being stimulated. Combination of cognitive with neurophysiological stimulations has been successfully employed to modulate responses of specific brain regions. The present research combined a neurophysiological pre-conditioning with a cognitive conditioning stimulation to modulate behavior. We applied this new state-dependency approach to investigate the cerebellar role in musical and spatial information processing, given that a link between musical perception and visuo-spatial abilities and a clear cerebellar involvement in music perception and visuo-spatial tasks have been reported. Cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial cerebellar Direct Current Stimulation (tcDCS) pre-conditioning was applied on the left cerebellar hemisphere followed by conditioning stimulation through music or white noise listening in a sample of healthy subjects performing a Line Bisection Task (LBT). The combination of the cathodal stimulation with music listening resulted in a marked attentional shift toward the right hemispace, compensating thus the natural leftward bias of the baseline condition (pseudoneglect). Conversely, the anodal or sham pre-conditioning stimulations combined with either music and white noise conditioning listening did not modulate spatial attention. The efficacy of the combined stimulation (cathodal pre-conditioning and music conditioning) and the absence of any effect of the single stimulations provide a strong support to the state-dependency theory. They propose that tcDCS in combination with music listening could act as a rehabilitative tool to improve cognitive functions in the presence of neglect or other spatial disorders.

  9. The Aural Music Project: An Exploration of the Usefulness of An Experimental Listening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphry, Betty J.; Pitcher, Barbara

    The GRE Advanced Music Test and an experimental Aural Supplement (a listening test designed to measure music students'"hearing ability") were taken by 334 senior music students as part of a project conducted in 1964. The Advanced Music Test consists of 200 5-choice questions on the fundamentals of music, history and literature, theory,…

  10. Making Musical Sense: The Multimodal Nature of Clarifying Musical Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas; Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    The present study concerns the multimodal nature of music education. How children (aged 4-8 years) respond when faced with the challenge of talking about what they hear in pieces of music is studied. The semiotic tools children and their teachers use in these situations and how they transduce between modalities (verbal, sound, colours and…

  11. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  12. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs. PMID:22517303

  13. When music “flows”. State and trait in musical performance, composition and listening: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Alice; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience). In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience—both as a “state” and as a “trait.” Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i) musical composition; (ii) listening; and (iii) musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a “trait” and as a “state” in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a “state” and as a “trait” are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i) the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii) the experimental design; (iii) the results; and (iv) the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed. Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach toward dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts. Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system. PMID:26175709

  14. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension.

    PubMed

    Farbood, Morwaread M; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1-4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments. PMID:24416024

  15. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension

    PubMed Central

    Farbood, Morwaread M.; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1–4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments. PMID:24416024

  16. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension.

    PubMed

    Farbood, Morwaread M; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1-4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments.

  17. Balancing Openness and Interpretation in Active Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topornycky, Joseph; Golparian, Shaya

    2016-01-01

    Active listening is an important communication skill in a variety of disciplines and professions, including the profession of Educational Development. In our roles as educational developers, we engage in a variety of processes, all of which rely heavily on the practice of active listening. Emerging strategies of active listening praxis have…

  18. Effects of Listening to Heavy Metal Music on College Women: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becknell, Milton E.; Firmin, Michael W.; Hwang, Chi-en; Fleetwood, David M.; Tate, Kristie L.; Schwab, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    College students are typically very identified with popular music and spend many hours listening to their music of preference. To investigate the effects of heavy metal music, we compared the responses of 18 female undergraduate college students to a baseline silence condition (A) and a heavy metal music condition (B). Dependent measures included:…

  19. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of the Students Who Listen to Music While Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umzdas, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim is to examine the correlation between the study type, the type and quality of the music students listen to while studying as well as their educational level. The participants of the study are 481 students on a scale of different ages listening to music while studying. The data of the study were collected through a survey…

  20. Preferences of elderly music listeners residing in nursing homes for art music, traditional jazz, popular music of today, and country music.

    PubMed

    Jonas, J L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate seniors' comparative music preference for four generic styles including art music, country music, popular music of today, and traditional jazz. The study also attempted to identify certain variables that have an effect on preference. Sixty-three subjects with a mean age of 82.5 from four nursing homes in the South Central Michigan area participated in the study. An interview and musical preference test were administered to the subjects individually. The listening test consisted of 16 music selections, four from each style. The seniors judged how much they liked the selections on a scale from 1 to 5, with 5 indicating greatest preference. Results indicated that country music style was preferred the most, followed by traditional jazz, art music, and lastly popular music. Variables that were found to affect preference were education level, community size in which the seniors grew up, and music training outside the school setting.

  1. Effects of music listening on stress, anxiety, and sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, ChihChen Sophia; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sleep disturbance has been associated with undesirable birthing outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of listening to music at home in improving sleep quality, 121 Taiwanese pregnant women with poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] score > 5) were systematically assigned, with a random start to music listening (n = 61) or control (n = 60) group. Participants in the music listening group self-regulated listening to music in addition to receiving general prenatal care similar to that in the control group for 2 weeks. The PSQI and State-Anxiety Inventory were used to assess outcomes. ANCOVA analyses were used with the pretest scores as covariates and showed significant improvement in sleep quality, stress, and anxiety in the music listening group compared with the control group. The most frequently used music genre by participants in the experimental group was lullabies, followed by classical music and crystal baby music. This study supported the theory that 2-week music listening interventions may reduce stress, anxiety, and yield better sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women. The analysis of participants' journals also implied that the expectant mothers' choices of musical genres may correlate more with perceived prenatal benefits or the desire to interact with their unborn child.

  2. Effects of music listening on stress, anxiety, and sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, ChihChen Sophia; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sleep disturbance has been associated with undesirable birthing outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of listening to music at home in improving sleep quality, 121 Taiwanese pregnant women with poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] score > 5) were systematically assigned, with a random start to music listening (n = 61) or control (n = 60) group. Participants in the music listening group self-regulated listening to music in addition to receiving general prenatal care similar to that in the control group for 2 weeks. The PSQI and State-Anxiety Inventory were used to assess outcomes. ANCOVA analyses were used with the pretest scores as covariates and showed significant improvement in sleep quality, stress, and anxiety in the music listening group compared with the control group. The most frequently used music genre by participants in the experimental group was lullabies, followed by classical music and crystal baby music. This study supported the theory that 2-week music listening interventions may reduce stress, anxiety, and yield better sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women. The analysis of participants' journals also implied that the expectant mothers' choices of musical genres may correlate more with perceived prenatal benefits or the desire to interact with their unborn child. PMID:26361642

  3. Playing and listening to tailor-made notched music: cortical plasticity induced by unimodal and multimodal training in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Pape, Janna; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Wollbrink, Andreas; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The generation and maintenance of tinnitus are assumed to be based on maladaptive functional cortical reorganization. Listening to modified music, which contains no energy in the range of the individual tinnitus frequency, can inhibit the corresponding neuronal activity in the auditory cortex. Music making has been shown to be a powerful stimulator for brain plasticity, inducing changes in multiple sensory systems. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and behavioral measurements we evaluated the cortical plasticity effects of two months of (a) active listening to (unisensory) versus (b) learning to play (multisensory) tailor-made notched music in nonmusician tinnitus patients. Taking into account the fact that uni- and multisensory trainings induce different patterns of cortical plasticity we hypothesized that these two protocols will have different affects. RESULTS. Only the active listening (unisensory) group showed significant reduction of tinnitus related activity of the middle temporal cortex and an increase in the activity of a tinnitus-coping related posterior parietal area. CONCLUSIONS. These findings indicate that active listening to tailor-made notched music induces greater neuroplastic changes in the maladaptively reorganized cortical network of tinnitus patients while additional integration of other sensory modalities during training reduces these neuroplastic effects.

  4. Playing and Listening to Tailor-Made Notched Music: Cortical Plasticity Induced by Unimodal and Multimodal Training in Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rudack, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. The generation and maintenance of tinnitus are assumed to be based on maladaptive functional cortical reorganization. Listening to modified music, which contains no energy in the range of the individual tinnitus frequency, can inhibit the corresponding neuronal activity in the auditory cortex. Music making has been shown to be a powerful stimulator for brain plasticity, inducing changes in multiple sensory systems. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and behavioral measurements we evaluated the cortical plasticity effects of two months of (a) active listening to (unisensory) versus (b) learning to play (multisensory) tailor-made notched music in nonmusician tinnitus patients. Taking into account the fact that uni- and multisensory trainings induce different patterns of cortical plasticity we hypothesized that these two protocols will have different affects. Results. Only the active listening (unisensory) group showed significant reduction of tinnitus related activity of the middle temporal cortex and an increase in the activity of a tinnitus-coping related posterior parietal area. Conclusions. These findings indicate that active listening to tailor-made notched music induces greater neuroplastic changes in the maladaptively reorganized cortical network of tinnitus patients while additional integration of other sensory modalities during training reduces these neuroplastic effects. PMID:24895541

  5. Music Perception and Appraisal: Cochlear Implant Users and Simulated CI Listening

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rose; Uchanski, Rosalie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The inability to hear music well may contribute to decreased quality of life for cochlear implant (CI) users. Researchers have reported recently on the generally poor ability of CI users’ to perceive music, and a few researchers have reported on the enjoyment of music by CI users. However, the relation between music perception skills and music enjoyment is much less explored. Only one study has attempted to predict CI users’ enjoyment and perception of music from the users’ demographic variables and other perceptual skills (Gfeller et al., 2008). Gfeller’s results yielded different predictive relationships for music perception and music enjoyment, and the relationships were weak, at best. Purpose The first goal of this study is to clarify the nature and relationship between music perception skills and musical enjoyment for CI users, by employing a battery of music tests. The second goal is to determine whether normal hearing (NH) subjects, listening with a CI-simulation, can be used as a model to represent actual CI users for either music enjoyment ratings or music perception tasks. Research Design A prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Original music stimuli (unprocessed) were presented to CI users, and music stimuli processed with CI-simulation software were presented to twenty NH listeners (CIsim). As a control, original music stimuli were also presented to five other NH listeners. All listeners appraised twenty-four musical excerpts, performed music perception tests, and filled out a musical background questionnaire. Music perception tests were the Appreciation of Music in Cochlear Implantees (AMICI), Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), Melodic Contour Identification (MCI), and University of Washington Clinical Assessment of Music Perception (UW-CAMP). Study Sample Twenty-five NH adults (22 – 56 years old), recruited from the local and research communities, participated in the study. Ten adult CI users (46 – 80

  6. Re Viewing Listening: "Clip Culture" and Cross-Modal Learning in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article envisions a new, cross-modal approach to classroom music listening, one that takes advantage of students' rising screen literacy and the ever-expanding archive of music-related visual material available on DVD and on video sharing sites such as YouTube. It is grounded in current literature on music performance studies, embodied music…

  7. Relationship of Selected Listener Variables and Musical Preference of Young Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between selected listener variables and musical preference of young students in Singapore. Based on the Leblanc 1982 model, gender, age, race, musical training and familiarity were chosen as independent variables. The data collected showed that musical preference was also influenced by…

  8. Independent component processes underlying emotions during natural music listening.

    PubMed

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Zollinger, Nina; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the brain processes underlying emotions during natural music listening. To address this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from 22 subjects while presenting a set of individually matched whole musical excerpts varying in valence and arousal. Independent component analysis was applied to decompose the EEG data into functionally distinct brain processes. A k-means cluster analysis calculated on the basis of a combination of spatial (scalp topography and dipole location mapped onto the Montreal Neurological Institute brain template) and functional (spectra) characteristics revealed 10 clusters referring to brain areas typically involved in music and emotion processing, namely in the proximity of thalamic-limbic and orbitofrontal regions as well as at frontal, fronto-parietal, parietal, parieto-occipital, temporo-occipital and occipital areas. This analysis revealed that arousal was associated with a suppression of power in the alpha frequency range. On the other hand, valence was associated with an increase in theta frequency power in response to excerpts inducing happiness compared to sadness. These findings are partly compatible with the model proposed by Heller, arguing that the frontal lobe is involved in modulating valenced experiences (the left frontal hemisphere for positive emotions) whereas the right parieto-temporal region contributes to the emotional arousal.

  9. Independent component processes underlying emotions during natural music listening.

    PubMed

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Zollinger, Nina; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the brain processes underlying emotions during natural music listening. To address this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from 22 subjects while presenting a set of individually matched whole musical excerpts varying in valence and arousal. Independent component analysis was applied to decompose the EEG data into functionally distinct brain processes. A k-means cluster analysis calculated on the basis of a combination of spatial (scalp topography and dipole location mapped onto the Montreal Neurological Institute brain template) and functional (spectra) characteristics revealed 10 clusters referring to brain areas typically involved in music and emotion processing, namely in the proximity of thalamic-limbic and orbitofrontal regions as well as at frontal, fronto-parietal, parietal, parieto-occipital, temporo-occipital and occipital areas. This analysis revealed that arousal was associated with a suppression of power in the alpha frequency range. On the other hand, valence was associated with an increase in theta frequency power in response to excerpts inducing happiness compared to sadness. These findings are partly compatible with the model proposed by Heller, arguing that the frontal lobe is involved in modulating valenced experiences (the left frontal hemisphere for positive emotions) whereas the right parieto-temporal region contributes to the emotional arousal. PMID:27217116

  10. Emotion felt by the listener and expressed by the music: literature review and theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2013-01-01

    In his seminal paper, Gabrielsson (2002) distinguishes between emotion felt by the listener, here: "internal locus of emotion" (IL), and the emotion the music is expressing, here: "external locus of emotion" (EL). This paper tabulates 16 comparisons of felt versus expressed emotions in music published in the decade 2003-2012 consisting of 19 studies/experiments and provides some theoretical perspectives. The key findings were that (1) IL rating was frequently rated statistically the same or lower than the corresponding EL rating (e.g., lower felt happiness rating compared to the apparent happiness of the music), and that (2) self-select and preferred music had a smaller gap across the emotion loci than experimenter-selected and disliked music. These key findings were explained by an "inhibited" emotional contagion mechanism, where the otherwise matching felt emotion may have been attenuated by some other factor such as social context. Matching between EL and IL for loved and self-selected pieces was explained by the activation of "contagion" circuits. Physiological arousal, personality and age, as well as musical features (tempo, mode, putative emotions) also influenced perceived and felt emotion distinctions. A variety of data collection formats were identified, but mostly using rating items. In conclusion, a more systematic use of terminology appears desirable. Two broad categories, namely matched and unmatched, are proposed as being sufficient to capture the relationships between EL and IL, instead of four categories as suggested by Gabrielsson. PMID:24381565

  11. Emotion felt by the listener and expressed by the music: literature review and theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2013-12-17

    In his seminal paper, Gabrielsson (2002) distinguishes between emotion felt by the listener, here: "internal locus of emotion" (IL), and the emotion the music is expressing, here: "external locus of emotion" (EL). This paper tabulates 16 comparisons of felt versus expressed emotions in music published in the decade 2003-2012 consisting of 19 studies/experiments and provides some theoretical perspectives. The key findings were that (1) IL rating was frequently rated statistically the same or lower than the corresponding EL rating (e.g., lower felt happiness rating compared to the apparent happiness of the music), and that (2) self-select and preferred music had a smaller gap across the emotion loci than experimenter-selected and disliked music. These key findings were explained by an "inhibited" emotional contagion mechanism, where the otherwise matching felt emotion may have been attenuated by some other factor such as social context. Matching between EL and IL for loved and self-selected pieces was explained by the activation of "contagion" circuits. Physiological arousal, personality and age, as well as musical features (tempo, mode, putative emotions) also influenced perceived and felt emotion distinctions. A variety of data collection formats were identified, but mostly using rating items. In conclusion, a more systematic use of terminology appears desirable. Two broad categories, namely matched and unmatched, are proposed as being sufficient to capture the relationships between EL and IL, instead of four categories as suggested by Gabrielsson.

  12. Emotion felt by the listener and expressed by the music: literature review and theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery

    2013-01-01

    In his seminal paper, Gabrielsson (2002) distinguishes between emotion felt by the listener, here: “internal locus of emotion” (IL), and the emotion the music is expressing, here: “external locus of emotion” (EL). This paper tabulates 16 comparisons of felt versus expressed emotions in music published in the decade 2003–2012 consisting of 19 studies/experiments and provides some theoretical perspectives. The key findings were that (1) IL rating was frequently rated statistically the same or lower than the corresponding EL rating (e.g., lower felt happiness rating compared to the apparent happiness of the music), and that (2) self-select and preferred music had a smaller gap across the emotion loci than experimenter-selected and disliked music. These key findings were explained by an “inhibited” emotional contagion mechanism, where the otherwise matching felt emotion may have been attenuated by some other factor such as social context. Matching between EL and IL for loved and self-selected pieces was explained by the activation of “contagion” circuits. Physiological arousal, personality and age, as well as musical features (tempo, mode, putative emotions) also influenced perceived and felt emotion distinctions. A variety of data collection formats were identified, but mostly using rating items. In conclusion, a more systematic use of terminology appears desirable. Two broad categories, namely matched and unmatched, are proposed as being sufficient to capture the relationships between EL and IL, instead of four categories as suggested by Gabrielsson. PMID:24381565

  13. Perceiving speech rhythm in music: listeners classify instrumental songs according to language of origin.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music. Cognition, 87, B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic differences in a purely musical context (i.e., in instrumental music without words). In Experiment 1a, listeners successfully classified instrumental renditions of French and English songs having highly contrastive rhythmic differences. Experiment 1b replicated this result with the same songs containing rhythmic information only. In Experiments 2a and 2b, listeners successfully classified original and rhythm-only stimuli when language-specific rhythmic differences were less contrastive but more representative of differences found in actual music and speech. These findings indicate that listeners can use rhythmic similarities and differences to classify songs originally composed in two languages having contrasting rhythmic prosody.

  14. Effect of synchronized or desynchronized music listening during osteopathic treatment: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Mercadié, Lolita; Caballe, Julie; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    While background music is often used during osteopathic treatment, it remains unclear whether it facilitates treatment, and, if it does, whether it is listening to music or jointly listening to a common stimulus that is most important. We created three experimental situations for a standard osteopathic procedure in which patients and practitioner listened either to silence, to the same music in synchrony, or (unknowingly) to different desynchronized montages of the same material. Music had no effect on heart rate and arterial pressure pre- and posttreatment compared to silence, but EEG measures revealed a clear effect of synchronized versus desynchronized listening: listening to desynchronized music was associated with larger amounts of mu-rhythm event-related desynchronization (ERD), indicating decreased sensorimotor fluency compared to what was gained in the synchronized music listening condition. This result suggests that, if any effect can be attributed to music for osteopathy, it is related to its capacity to modulate empathy between patient and therapist and, further, that music does not systematically create better conditions for empathy than silence.

  15. Female Listeners' Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners' respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners' respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners' heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions. PMID:26925009

  16. Female Listeners' Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners' respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners' respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners' heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  17. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the “groove” experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only. PMID:26347694

  18. Microtiming in Swing and Funk affects the body movement behavior of music expert listeners.

    PubMed

    Kilchenmann, Lorenz; Senn, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The theory of Participatory Discrepancies (or PDs) claims that minute temporal asynchronies (microtiming) in music performance are crucial for prompting bodily entrainment in listeners, which is a fundamental effect of the "groove" experience. Previous research has failed to find evidence to support this theory. The present study tested the influence of varying PD magnitudes on the beat-related body movement behavior of music listeners. 160 participants (79 music experts, 81 non-experts) listened to 12 music clips in either Funk or Swing style. These stimuli were based on two audio recordings (one in each style) of expert drum and bass duo performances. In one series of six clips, the PDs were downscaled from their originally performed magnitude to complete quantization in steps of 20%. In another series of six clips, the PDs were upscaled from their original magnitude to double magnitude in steps of 20%. The intensity of the listeners' beat-related head movement was measured using video-based motion capture technology and Fourier analysis. A mixed-design Four-Factor ANOVA showed that the PD manipulations had a significant effect on the expert listeners' entrainment behavior. The experts moved more when listening to stimuli with PDs that were downscaled by 60% compared to completely quantized stimuli. This finding offers partial support for PD theory: PDs of a certain magnitude do augment entrainment in listeners. But the effect was found to be small to moderately sized, and it affected music expert listeners only.

  19. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding.

  20. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mado Proverbio, C.A. Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  1. The effect of background music on episodic memory and autonomic responses: listening to emotionally touching music enhances facial memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mado Proverbio, C A Alice; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Alessandra Arcari, Laura; De Benedetto, Francesco; Guardamagna, Matteo; Gazzola, Martina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how background auditory processing can affect other perceptual and cognitive processes as a function of stimulus content, style and emotional nature. Previous studies have offered contrasting evidence, and it has been recently shown that listening to music negatively affected concurrent mental processing in the elderly but not in young adults. To further investigate this matter, the effect of listening to music vs. listening to the sound of rain or silence was examined by administering an old/new face memory task (involving 448 unknown faces) to a group of 54 non-musician university students. Heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured during an explicit face study session that was followed by a memory test. The results indicated that more efficient and faster recall of faces occurred under conditions of silence or when participants were listening to emotionally touching music. Whereas auditory background (e.g., rain or joyful music) interfered with memory encoding, listening to emotionally touching music improved memory and significantly increased heart rate. It is hypothesized that touching music is able to modify the visual perception of faces by binding facial properties with auditory and emotionally charged information (music), which may therefore result in deeper memory encoding. PMID:26469712

  2. The effects of music listening on pain and stress in the daily life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Kappert, Mattes B.; Fischer, Susanne; Doerr, Johanna M.; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M.

    2015-01-01

    Music listening is associated with both pain- and stress-reducing effects. However, the effects of music listening in daily life remain understudied, and the psycho-biological mechanisms underlying the health-beneficial effect of music listening remain unknown. We examined the effects of music listening on pain and stress in daily life in a sample of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS; i.e., a condition characterized by chronic pain) and investigated whether a potentially pain-reducing effect of music listening was mediated by biological stress-responsive systems. Thirty women (mean age: 50.7 ± 9.9 years) with FMS were examined using an ecological momentary assessment design. Participants rated their current pain intensity, perceived control over pain, perceived stress level, and music listening behavior five times per day for 14 consecutive days. At each assessment, participants provided a saliva sample for the later analysis of cortisol and alpha-amylase as biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening increased perceived control over pain, especially when the music was positive in valence and when it was listened to for the reason of ‘activation’ or ‘relaxation’. In contrast, no effects on perceived pain intensity were observed. The effects of music listening on perceived control over pain were not mediated by biomarkers of stress-responsive systems. Music listening in daily life improved perceived control over pain in female FMS patients. Clinicians using music therapy should become aware of the potential adjuvant role of music listening in daily life, which has the potential to improve symptom control in chronic pain patients. In order to study the role of underlying biological mechanisms, it might be necessary to use more intensive engagement with music (i.e., collective singing or music-making) rather than mere music listening. PMID:26283951

  3. Congenital Amusia Persists in the Developing Brain after Daily Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Mignault Goulet, Geneviève; Moreau, Patricia; Robitaille, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects about 3% of the adult population. Adults experiencing this musical disorder in the absence of macroscopically visible brain injury are described as cases of congenital amusia under the assumption that the musical deficits have been present from birth. Here, we show that this disorder can be expressed in the developing brain. We found that (10–13 year-old) children exhibit a marked deficit in the detection of fine-grained pitch differences in both musical and acoustical context in comparison to their normally developing peers comparable in age and general intelligence. This behavioral deficit could be traced down to their abnormal P300 brain responses to the detection of subtle pitch changes. The altered pattern of electrical activity does not seem to arise from an anomalous functioning of the auditory cortex, because all early components of the brain potentials, the N100, the MMN, and the P200 appear normal. Rather, the brain and behavioral measures point to disrupted information propagation from the auditory cortex to other cortical regions. Furthermore, the behavioral and neural manifestations of the disorder remained unchanged after 4 weeks of daily musical listening. These results show that congenital amusia can be detected in childhood despite regular musical exposure and normal intellectual functioning. PMID:22606299

  4. Listen, learn, like! Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in the mere exposure effect in music.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders C; Bærentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen. PMID:22548168

  5. Listen, Learn, Like! Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Involved in the Mere Exposure Effect in Music

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anders C.; Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were most liked, consistent with the mere exposure effect. We found neural activations as a function of previous exposure in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, probably reflecting retrieval and working memory-related processes. This was despite the fact that the task during scanning was to judge liking, not recognition, thus suggesting that appreciation of music relies strongly on memory processes. Subjective liking per se caused differential activation in the left hemisphere, of the anterior insula, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen. PMID:22548168

  6. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste.

    PubMed

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed. PMID:26347702

  7. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste.

    PubMed

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed.

  8. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste

    PubMed Central

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed. PMID:26347702

  9. The Effect of Body Movement on Listeners' Perceptions of Musicality in Trombone Quartet Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect body movement would have on listeners' (N = 90) perceptions of a professional chamber ensemble performance. Specifically, an audio/video recording of a trombone quartet performance was used for the music stimulus. Listeners were asked to rate each performance on the basis of perceived…

  10. Graph theoretical connectivity analysis of the human brain while listening to music with emotional attachment: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Karmonik, Christof; Brandt, Anthony K; Fung, Steve H; Grossman, Robert G; Frazier, J Todd

    2013-01-01

    Benefits of listening to music with emotional attachment while recovering from a cerebral ischemic event have been reported. To develop a better understanding of the effects of music listening on the human brain, an algorithm for the graph-theoretical analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was developed. From BOLD data of two paradigms (block-design, first piece: music without emotional attachment, additional visual guidance by a moving cursor in the score sheet; second piece: music with emotional attachment), network graphs were constructed with correlations between signal time courses as edge weights. Functional subunits in these graphs were identified with the MCODE clustering algorithm and mapped back into anatomical space using AFNI. Emotional centers including the right amygdala and bilateral insula were activated by the second piece (emotional attachment) but not by the first piece. Network clustering analysis revealed two separate networks of small-world property corresponding to task-oriented and resting state conditions, respectively. Functional subunits with highest interactions were bilateral precuneus for the first piece and left middle frontal gyrus and right amygdala, bilateral insula, left middle temporal gyrus for the second piece. Our results indicate that fMRI in connection with graph theoretical network analysis is capable of identifying and differentiating functional subunits in the human brain when listening to music with and without emotional attachment.

  11. Dynamic Range Across Music Genres and the Perception of Dynamic Compression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic range compression serves different purposes in the music and hearing-aid industries. In the music industry, it is used to make music louder and more attractive to normal-hearing listeners. In the hearing-aid industry, it is used to map the variable dynamic range of acoustic signals to the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired listeners. Hence, hearing-aided listeners will typically receive a dual dose of compression when listening to recorded music. The present study involved an acoustic analysis of dynamic range across a cross section of recorded music as well as a perceptual study comparing the efficacy of different compression schemes. The acoustic analysis revealed that the dynamic range of samples from popular genres, such as rock or rap, was generally smaller than the dynamic range of samples from classical genres, such as opera and orchestra. By comparison, the dynamic range of speech, based on recordings of monologues in quiet, was larger than the dynamic range of all music genres tested. The perceptual study compared the effect of the prescription rule NAL-NL2 with a semicompressive and a linear scheme. Music subjected to linear processing had the highest ratings for dynamics and quality, followed by the semicompressive and the NAL-NL2 setting. These findings advise against NAL-NL2 as a prescription rule for recorded music and recommend linear settings. PMID:26868955

  12. Brief Report: Labelling Effects on the Perceived Deleterious Consequences of Pop Music Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, A.C.; Hargreaves, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior…

  13. Dynamic Range Across Music Genres and the Perception of Dynamic Compression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    PubMed

    Kirchberger, Martin; Russo, Frank A

    2016-02-10

    Dynamic range compression serves different purposes in the music and hearing-aid industries. In the music industry, it is used to make music louder and more attractive to normal-hearing listeners. In the hearing-aid industry, it is used to map the variable dynamic range of acoustic signals to the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired listeners. Hence, hearing-aided listeners will typically receive a dual dose of compression when listening to recorded music. The present study involved an acoustic analysis of dynamic range across a cross section of recorded music as well as a perceptual study comparing the efficacy of different compression schemes. The acoustic analysis revealed that the dynamic range of samples from popular genres, such as rock or rap, was generally smaller than the dynamic range of samples from classical genres, such as opera and orchestra. By comparison, the dynamic range of speech, based on recordings of monologues in quiet, was larger than the dynamic range of all music genres tested. The perceptual study compared the effect of the prescription rule NAL-NL2 with a semicompressive and a linear scheme. Music subjected to linear processing had the highest ratings for dynamics and quality, followed by the semicompressive and the NAL-NL2 setting. These findings advise against NAL-NL2 as a prescription rule for recorded music and recommend linear settings.

  14. Perceiving Speech Rhythm in Music: Listeners Classify Instrumental Songs According to Language of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). "An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music." "Cognition, 87," B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic…

  15. Listening to Music in the New Ninth Grade Program at Lawrence Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisch, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Describes a class for ninth graders at a private school that used the study of music to help develop six basic intellectual skills and to provide a foundation for further creative work. Discusses using the inquiry/discovery method, applying the intellect, listening to and learning from pop music, the dangers of this approach, and the final exam…

  16. Dynamic Range Across Music Genres and the Perception of Dynamic Compression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    PubMed

    Kirchberger, Martin; Russo, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic range compression serves different purposes in the music and hearing-aid industries. In the music industry, it is used to make music louder and more attractive to normal-hearing listeners. In the hearing-aid industry, it is used to map the variable dynamic range of acoustic signals to the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired listeners. Hence, hearing-aided listeners will typically receive a dual dose of compression when listening to recorded music. The present study involved an acoustic analysis of dynamic range across a cross section of recorded music as well as a perceptual study comparing the efficacy of different compression schemes. The acoustic analysis revealed that the dynamic range of samples from popular genres, such as rock or rap, was generally smaller than the dynamic range of samples from classical genres, such as opera and orchestra. By comparison, the dynamic range of speech, based on recordings of monologues in quiet, was larger than the dynamic range of all music genres tested. The perceptual study compared the effect of the prescription rule NAL-NL2 with a semicompressive and a linear scheme. Music subjected to linear processing had the highest ratings for dynamics and quality, followed by the semicompressive and the NAL-NL2 setting. These findings advise against NAL-NL2 as a prescription rule for recorded music and recommend linear settings. PMID:26868955

  17. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    PubMed

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p < 0.05). Sweetness was perceived more dominant when neutral and liked music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati. PMID:26923742

  18. Listening to music can influence hedonic and sensory perceptions of gelati.

    PubMed

    Kantono, Kevin; Hamid, Nazimah; Shepherd, Daniel; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Grazioli, Gianpaolo; Carr, B Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The dominant taste sensations of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate) were determined using forty five trained panellists exposed to a silent reference condition and three music samples differing in hedonic ratings. The temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method was used to measure temporal taste perceptions. The emotional states of panellists were measured after each gelati-music pairing using a scale specifically developed for this study. The TDS difference curves showed significant differences between gelati samples and music conditions (p < 0.05). Sweetness was perceived more dominant when neutral and liked music were played, while bitterness was more dominant for disliked music. A joint Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) further explained the variability in sensory and emotion data. The first and second dimensions explained 78% of the variance, with the first dimension separating liked and disliked music and the second dimension separating liked music and silence. Gelati samples consumed while listening to liked and neutral music had positive scores, and were separated from those consumed under the disliked music condition along the first dimension. Liked music and disliked music were further correlated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Findings indicate that listening to music influenced the hedonic and sensory impressions of the gelati.

  19. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning: the mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Thoma, M V; Scholz, U; Ehlert, U; Nater, U M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short-term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet-based survey was conducted in university students, measuring habitual music-listening behaviour, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 individuals (mean = 24.89 ± 5.34 years, 55.3% women) completed the questionnaire. Quantitative aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour, i.e. average duration of music listening and subjective relevance of music, were not associated with physiological and psychological functioning. In contrast, qualitative aspects, i.e. reasons for listening (especially 'reducing loneliness and aggression', and 'arousing or intensifying specific emotions') were significantly related to physiological and psychological functioning (all p = 0.001). These direct effects were mediated by distress-augmenting emotion regulation and individual stress reactivity. The habitual music-listening behaviour appears to be a multifaceted behaviour that is further influenced by dispositions that are usually not related to music listening. Consequently, habitual music-listening behaviour is not obviously linked to physiological and psychological functioning.

  20. Brief report: Labelling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

    2005-06-01

    Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior information concerning that music. This study investigated whether perceptions of deleterious effects of pop songs on listeners may be attributable to prior labelling of those stimuli as 'problem music'. Eighty undergraduates were played songs that they were told were either suicide-inducing or life-affirming. Subsequent ratings of the songs indicated that those presented as 'suicide-inducing' were perceived as such, whereas presentation of the same songs in a 'life-affirming' frame led to the perception of them as such. These findings indicate that censorship and the subsequent labelling of certain songs as 'problematic' might itself cause these songs to have deleterious effects on listeners.

  1. Brief report: Labelling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Hargreaves, David J

    2005-06-01

    Several correlational studies have supported the claim of conservative protestors that there exists a positive relationship between listening to pop music and adolescent problem behaviours. However, research on the so-called 'prestige effects' has shown that experimental participants' responses to music can be mediated by manipulations of prior information concerning that music. This study investigated whether perceptions of deleterious effects of pop songs on listeners may be attributable to prior labelling of those stimuli as 'problem music'. Eighty undergraduates were played songs that they were told were either suicide-inducing or life-affirming. Subsequent ratings of the songs indicated that those presented as 'suicide-inducing' were perceived as such, whereas presentation of the same songs in a 'life-affirming' frame led to the perception of them as such. These findings indicate that censorship and the subsequent labelling of certain songs as 'problematic' might itself cause these songs to have deleterious effects on listeners. PMID:15925693

  2. Signal-to-background ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Jillian Gallant

    The purpose of this study was to identify listeners' signal-to-background-ratio (SBR) preference levels for vocal music and to investigate whether or not SBR differences existed for different music genres. The ``signal'' was the singer's voice, and the ``background'' was the accompanying music. Three songs were each produced in two different genres (total of 6 genres represented). Each song was performed by three male and three female singers. Analyses addressed influences of musical genre, singing style, and singer timbre on listener's SBR choices. Fifty-three normal-hearing California State University of Northridge students ranging in age from 20-52 years participated as subjects. Subjects adjusted the overall music loudness to a comfortable listening level, and manipulated a second gain control which affected only the singer's voice. Subjects listened to 72 stimuli and adjusted the singer's voice to the level they felt sounded appropriate in comparison to the background music. Singer and Genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in subject's SBR preferences, although the results clearly indicate Genre, Style and Singer interact in different combinations under different conditions. SBR differences for each song, each singer, and each subject did not occur in a predictable manner, and support the hypothesis that SBR preferences are neither fixed nor dependent merely upon music application or setting. Further investigations regarding psychoacoustical bases responsible for differences in SBR preferences are warranted.

  3. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n = 40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2 h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  4. Music listening engages specific cortical regions within the temporal lobes: differences between musicians and non-musicians.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Aubé, William; Peretz, Isabelle; Barrios, Fernando A; Armony, Jorge L; Concha, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Music and speech are two of the most relevant and common sounds in the human environment. Perceiving and processing these two complex acoustical signals rely on a hierarchical functional network distributed throughout several brain regions within and beyond the auditory cortices. Given their similarities, the neural bases for processing these two complex sounds overlap to a certain degree, but particular brain regions may show selectivity for one or the other acoustic category, which we aimed to identify. We examined 53 subjects (28 of them professional musicians) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a paradigm designed to identify regions showing increased activity in response to different types of musical stimuli, compared to different types of complex sounds, such as speech and non-linguistic vocalizations. We found a region in the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) (planum polare) that showed preferential activity in response to musical stimuli and was present in all our subjects, regardless of musical training, and invariant across different musical instruments (violin, piano or synthetic piano). Our data show that this cortical region is preferentially involved in processing musical, as compared to other complex sounds, suggesting a functional role as a second-order relay, possibly integrating acoustic characteristics intrinsic to music (e.g., melody extraction). Moreover, we assessed whether musical experience modulates the response of cortical regions involved in music processing and found evidence of functional differences between musicians and non-musicians during music listening. In particular, bilateral activation of the planum polare was more prevalent, but not exclusive, in musicians than non-musicians, and activation of the right posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (planum temporale) differed between groups. Our results provide evidence of functional specialization for music processing in specific

  5. Music listening engages specific cortical regions within the temporal lobes: differences between musicians and non-musicians.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Aubé, William; Peretz, Isabelle; Barrios, Fernando A; Armony, Jorge L; Concha, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Music and speech are two of the most relevant and common sounds in the human environment. Perceiving and processing these two complex acoustical signals rely on a hierarchical functional network distributed throughout several brain regions within and beyond the auditory cortices. Given their similarities, the neural bases for processing these two complex sounds overlap to a certain degree, but particular brain regions may show selectivity for one or the other acoustic category, which we aimed to identify. We examined 53 subjects (28 of them professional musicians) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a paradigm designed to identify regions showing increased activity in response to different types of musical stimuli, compared to different types of complex sounds, such as speech and non-linguistic vocalizations. We found a region in the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) (planum polare) that showed preferential activity in response to musical stimuli and was present in all our subjects, regardless of musical training, and invariant across different musical instruments (violin, piano or synthetic piano). Our data show that this cortical region is preferentially involved in processing musical, as compared to other complex sounds, suggesting a functional role as a second-order relay, possibly integrating acoustic characteristics intrinsic to music (e.g., melody extraction). Moreover, we assessed whether musical experience modulates the response of cortical regions involved in music processing and found evidence of functional differences between musicians and non-musicians during music listening. In particular, bilateral activation of the planum polare was more prevalent, but not exclusive, in musicians than non-musicians, and activation of the right posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (planum temporale) differed between groups. Our results provide evidence of functional specialization for music processing in specific

  6. Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures.

    PubMed

    Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed. PMID:24847296

  7. Music listening in families and peer groups: benefits for young people's social cohesion and emotional well-being across four cultures

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed. PMID:24847296

  8. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception. PMID:26422790

  9. Selective neurophysiologic responses to music in instrumentalists with different listening biographies.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth; Mlsna, Lauren M; Uppunda, Ajith K; Parrish, Todd B; Wong, Patrick C M

    2009-01-01

    To appropriately adapt to constant sensory stimulation, neurons in the auditory system are tuned to various acoustic characteristics, such as center frequencies, frequency modulations, and their combinations, particularly those combinations that carry species-specific communicative functions. The present study asks whether such tunings extend beyond acoustic and communicative functions to auditory self-relevance and expertise. More specifically, we examined the role of the listening biography--an individual's long term experience with a particular type of auditory input--on perceptual-neural plasticity. Two groups of expert instrumentalists (violinists and flutists) listened to matched musical excerpts played on the two instruments (J.S. Bach Partitas for solo violin and flute) while their cerebral hemodynamic responses were measured using fMRI. Our experimental design allowed for a comprehensive investigation of the neurophysiology (cerebral hemodynamic responses as measured by fMRI) of auditory expertise (i.e., when violinists listened to violin music and when flutists listened to flute music) and nonexpertise (i.e., when subjects listened to music played on the other instrument). We found an extensive cerebral network of expertise, which implicates increased sensitivity to musical syntax (BA 44), timbre (auditory association cortex), and sound-motor interactions (precentral gyrus) when listening to music played on the instrument of expertise (the instrument for which subjects had a unique listening biography). These findings highlight auditory self-relevance and expertise as a mechanism of perceptual-neural plasticity, and implicate neural tuning that includes and extends beyond acoustic and communication-relevant structures.

  10. Music and speech listening enhance the recovery of early sensory processing after stroke.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Pihko, Elina; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients who had middle cerebral artery stroke were randomly assigned to a music listening group, an audio book listening group, or a control group. Auditory sensory memory, as indexed by the magnetic MMN (MMNm) response to changes in sound frequency and duration, was measured 1 week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke with whole-head magnetoencephalography recordings. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that the amplitude of the frequency MMNm increased significantly more in both music and audio book groups than in the control group during the 6-month poststroke period. In contrast, the duration MMNm amplitude increased more in the audio book group than in the other groups. Moreover, changes in the frequency MMNm amplitude correlated significantly with the behavioral improvement of verbal memory and focused attention induced by music listening. These findings demonstrate that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in early sensory processing, which, in turn, may facilitate the recovery of higher cognitive functions. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying this effect are discussed.

  11. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,p<0.001. This regression fit suggests that over 20% of the variance of the participant's music induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01).

  12. Music listening for maintaining attention of older adults with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    Twelve older adults with cognitive impairments who were participants in weekly community-based group music therapy sessions, 6 older adults in an Alzheimer's caregivers' group, and 6 college student volunteers listened to a 3.5 minute prepared audiotape of instrumental excerpts of patriotic selections. The tape consisted of 7 excerpts ranging from 18 s to 34 s in duration. Each music excerpt was followed by a 7-9 s period of silence, a "wait" excerpt. Listeners were instructed to move a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) to the name of the music excerpt depicted on the CRDI overlay when they heard a music excerpt. Likewise, they were instructed to move the dial to the word "WAIT" when there was no music. They were also instructed to maintain the dial position for the duration of each music or silence excerpt. Statistical analysis indicated no significant differences between the caregivers' and the college students' group means for total dial changes, correct and incorrect recognitions, correct and incorrect responses to silence excerpts, and reaction times. The mean scores of these 2 groups were combined and compared with the mean scores of the group of elderly adults with cognitive impairments. The mean total dial changes were significantly lower for the listeners with cognitive impairments, resulting in significant differences in all of the other response categories except incorrect recognitions. In addition, their mean absence of response to silence excerpts was significantly higher than their mean absence of responding to music excerpts. Their mean reaction time was significantly slower than the comparison group's reaction time. To evaluate training effects, 10 of the original 12 music therapy participants repeated the listening task with assistance from the therapist (treatment) immediately following the first listening (baseline). A week later the order was reversed for the 2 listening trials. Statistical and graphic analysis of responses between

  13. Listening level of music through headphones in train car noise environments.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening level of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum level (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of noise level (L(train)) and type of train noise (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train noise type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train noise, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).

  14. Music Activities in Primary School: Students' Preferences in the Spanish Region of Murcia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente-Nicolás, Gregorio; Mac Ruairc, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the preferences of primary school children in relation to the types of activities that typically take place in music classrooms. For the purposes of this study, these classroom-based music activities have been categorised into five areas: singing, playing instruments, listening, reading and writing music and…

  15. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength. PMID:25571015

  16. Changes in music tempo entrain movement related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of music listening and appreciation are not yet completely understood. Based on the apparent relationship between the beats per minute (tempo) of music and the desire to move (for example feet tapping) induced while listening to that music it is hypothesised that musical tempo may evoke movement related activity in the brain. Participants are instructed to listen, without moving, to a large range of musical pieces spanning a range of styles and tempos during an electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the EEG is observed to correlate significantly with the variance of the tempo of the musical stimuli. This suggests that the dynamics of the beat of the music may induce movement related brain activity in the motor cortex. Furthermore, significant correlations are observed between EEG activity in the alpha band over the motor cortex and the bandpower of the music in the same frequency band over time. This relationship is observed to correlate with the strength of the ERD, suggesting entrainment of motor cortical activity relates to increased ERD strength.

  17. Impact of music therapy interventions (listening, composition, Orff-based) on the physiological and psychosocial behaviors of hospitalized children: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Cynthia M; Edwards, Robin; Hernandez, Emily; Brees, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three music therapy strategies (music listening, music composition, and Orff-based active engagement) on physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and pain) and psychosocial (anxiety) behaviors of hospitalized children (N=32, 17 females,15 males, ranging in age from 6 to 17). This study was designed and facilitated cooperatively by pediatric nurses and music therapists. Results indicated no clinically significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or oxygen saturation (p>.05). Pain and anxiety both decreased significantly (p=.01) but not differentiated among conditions. Videotape analysis determined level of engagement in coping-related behaviors. PMID:23036597

  18. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2015-05-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978

  19. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2015-05-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool and 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as 'low' or 'middle' had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as 'high' were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music.

  20. Family involvement in music impacts participation of children with cochlear implants in music education and music activities

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Virginia; Gfeller, Kate; Tan, Xueli; See, Rachel L.; Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Kanemitsu, Mikiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children with cochlear implants (CIs) participate in musical activities in school and daily lives. Considerable variability exists regarding the amount of music involvement and enjoyment. Using the Music Engagement Questionnaire-Preschool/Elementary (MEQ-P/E), we wanted to determine patterns of musical participation and the impact of familial factors on engagement. Methods Parents of 32 children with CIs (16 preschool, 16 elementary) completed a questionnaire regarding the musical involvement of their child with an implant and a normal-hearing (NH) sibling (if one existed). We compared CI children's involvement to that of their NH siblings as well as across groups of children with and without CIs. Correlations between parent ratings of music importance, demographic factors, and involvement of CI and NH children were conducted within and across groups. Results No significant differences were found between children with CIs and NH siblings, meaning children from the same family showed similar levels of musical involvement. When compared at the same developmental stage, no significant differences were found between preschool children with and without CIs. Parents who rated the importance of music as “low” or “middle” had children (NH and CI) who were less involved in music activities. Children whose parents rated music importance as “high” were involved in monthly to weekly music activities with 81.25% reporting daily music listening. Conclusion Despite a less-than-ideal auditory signal for music, preschool and school-aged CI children enjoy and are involved in musical experiences. Families who enjoy and spend a greater amount of time involved in music tend to have children who also engage more actively in music. PMID:25431978

  1. Using listener-based perceptual features as intermediate representations in music information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Anders; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Hedblad, Anton; Fabiani, Marco; Elowsson, Anders

    2014-10-01

    The notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, aiming to approach the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance from 75% to 93% for the emotional dimensions activity and valence; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. Results clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a "brute force" model using a large number of general audio features.

  2. Music Analysis Down the (You) Tube? Exploring the Potential of Cross-Media Listening for the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    School students' immersion in a rich entertainment media environment has implications for classroom listening. Increasing interaction among media, design, games, communications and arts fields has led to a growing trend in the creative alignment of music and moving image. Video sharing sites such as YouTube are assisting in the proliferation and…

  3. Preferred sound levels of portable music players and listening habits among adults: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kähäri, Kim R; Aslund, T; Olsson, J

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive field study was to explore music listening habits and preferred listening levels with portable music players (PMPs). We were also interested in seeing whether any exposure differences could be observed between the sexes. Data were collected during 12 hours at Stockholm Central Station, where people passing by were invited to measure their preferred PMP listening level by using a KEMAR manikin. People were also asked to answer a questionnaire about their listening habits. In all, 60 persons (41 men and 19 women) took part in the questionnaire study and 61 preferred PMP levels to be measured. Forty-one of these sound level measurements were valid to be reported after consideration was taken to acceptable measuring conditions. The women (31 years) and the men (33 years) started to use PMPs on a regular basis in their early 20s. Ear canal headphones/ear buds were the preferred headphone types. Fifty-seven percent of the whole study population used their PMP on a daily basis. The measured LAeq60 sec levels corrected for free field ranged between 73 and 102 dB, with a mean value of 83 dB. Sound levels for different types of headphones are also presented. The results of this study indicate that there are two groups of listeners: people who listen less frequently and at lower, safer sound levels, and people with excessive listening habits that may indeed damage their hearing sensory organ in time.

  4. Data-driven analysis of functional brain interactions during free listening to music and speech.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-06-01

    Natural stimulus functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) such as fMRI acquired when participants were watching video streams or listening to audio streams has been increasingly used to investigate functional mechanisms of the human brain in recent years. One of the fundamental challenges in functional brain mapping based on N-fMRI is to model the brain's functional responses to continuous, naturalistic and dynamic natural stimuli. To address this challenge, in this paper we present a data-driven approach to exploring functional interactions in the human brain during free listening to music and speech streams. Specifically, we model the brain responses using N-fMRI by measuring the functional interactions on large-scale brain networks with intrinsically established structural correspondence, and perform music and speech classification tasks to guide the systematic identification of consistent and discriminative functional interactions when multiple subjects were listening music and speech in multiple categories. The underlying premise is that the functional interactions derived from N-fMRI data of multiple subjects should exhibit both consistency and discriminability. Our experimental results show that a variety of brain systems including attention, memory, auditory/language, emotion, and action networks are among the most relevant brain systems involved in classic music, pop music and speech differentiation. Our study provides an alternative approach to investigating the human brain's mechanism in comprehension of complex natural music and speech. PMID:24526569

  5. Data-driven analysis of functional brain interactions during free listening to music and speech.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-06-01

    Natural stimulus functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) such as fMRI acquired when participants were watching video streams or listening to audio streams has been increasingly used to investigate functional mechanisms of the human brain in recent years. One of the fundamental challenges in functional brain mapping based on N-fMRI is to model the brain's functional responses to continuous, naturalistic and dynamic natural stimuli. To address this challenge, in this paper we present a data-driven approach to exploring functional interactions in the human brain during free listening to music and speech streams. Specifically, we model the brain responses using N-fMRI by measuring the functional interactions on large-scale brain networks with intrinsically established structural correspondence, and perform music and speech classification tasks to guide the systematic identification of consistent and discriminative functional interactions when multiple subjects were listening music and speech in multiple categories. The underlying premise is that the functional interactions derived from N-fMRI data of multiple subjects should exhibit both consistency and discriminability. Our experimental results show that a variety of brain systems including attention, memory, auditory/language, emotion, and action networks are among the most relevant brain systems involved in classic music, pop music and speech differentiation. Our study provides an alternative approach to investigating the human brain's mechanism in comprehension of complex natural music and speech.

  6. Segregation and Integration of Auditory Streams when Listening to Multi-Part Music

    PubMed Central

    Ragert, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T.; Keller, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, auditory stream segregation allows us to differentiate concurrent sound sources and to make sense of the scene we are experiencing. However, a combination of segregation and the concurrent integration of auditory streams is necessary in order to analyze the relationship between streams and thus perceive a coherent auditory scene. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates the relative role and neural underpinnings of these listening strategies in multi-part musical stimuli. We compare a real human performance of a piano duet and a synthetic stimulus of the same duet in a prioritized integrative attention paradigm that required the simultaneous segregation and integration of auditory streams. In so doing, we manipulate the degree to which the attended part of the duet led either structurally (attend melody vs. attend accompaniment) or temporally (asynchronies vs. no asynchronies between parts), and thus the relative contributions of integration and segregation used to make an assessment of the leader-follower relationship. We show that perceptually the relationship between parts is biased towards the conventional structural hierarchy in western music in which the melody generally dominates (leads) the accompaniment. Moreover, the assessment varies as a function of both cognitive load, as shown through difficulty ratings and the interaction of the temporal and the structural relationship factors. Neurally, we see that the temporal relationship between parts, as one important cue for stream segregation, revealed distinct neural activity in the planum temporale. By contrast, integration used when listening to both the temporally separated performance stimulus and the temporally fused synthetic stimulus resulted in activation of the intraparietal sulcus. These results support the hypothesis that the planum temporale and IPS are key structures underlying the mechanisms of segregation and integration of auditory streams

  7. Segregation and integration of auditory streams when listening to multi-part music.

    PubMed

    Ragert, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, auditory stream segregation allows us to differentiate concurrent sound sources and to make sense of the scene we are experiencing. However, a combination of segregation and the concurrent integration of auditory streams is necessary in order to analyze the relationship between streams and thus perceive a coherent auditory scene. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates the relative role and neural underpinnings of these listening strategies in multi-part musical stimuli. We compare a real human performance of a piano duet and a synthetic stimulus of the same duet in a prioritized integrative attention paradigm that required the simultaneous segregation and integration of auditory streams. In so doing, we manipulate the degree to which the attended part of the duet led either structurally (attend melody vs. attend accompaniment) or temporally (asynchronies vs. no asynchronies between parts), and thus the relative contributions of integration and segregation used to make an assessment of the leader-follower relationship. We show that perceptually the relationship between parts is biased towards the conventional structural hierarchy in western music in which the melody generally dominates (leads) the accompaniment. Moreover, the assessment varies as a function of both cognitive load, as shown through difficulty ratings and the interaction of the temporal and the structural relationship factors. Neurally, we see that the temporal relationship between parts, as one important cue for stream segregation, revealed distinct neural activity in the planum temporale. By contrast, integration used when listening to both the temporally separated performance stimulus and the temporally fused synthetic stimulus resulted in activation of the intraparietal sulcus. These results support the hypothesis that the planum temporale and IPS are key structures underlying the mechanisms of segregation and integration of auditory streams

  8. Communicative Activities for Teaching Listening and Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Lois Kleinhenn, Ed.

    A collection of classroom activities for teaching listening and speaking skills in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. They are designed to be accompanied by a tape (not included here). All were developed by teachers and have been used successfully in ESL classrooms. Topics and skill areas addressed in the games and exercises include:…

  9. Effects of Multiple Listenings on Error-Detection Acuity in Multivoice, Multitimbral Musical Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of multiple listenings on error-detection identification and labeling accuracy among brass and woodwind instrumentalists. Examples derived from band music used balanced four-voice incipits performed with differing timbres, and errors that occurred in one or multiple voices. Response rates for correct…

  10. Speech Perception with Music Maskers by Cochlear Implant Users and Normal-Hearing Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Elizabeth N.; Galvin, John J., III; Aronoff, Justin M.; Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate how the spectral and temporal properties in background music may interfere with cochlear implant (CI) and normal-hearing listeners' (NH) speech understanding. Method: Speech-recognition thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured in 11 CI and 9 NH subjects. CI subjects were tested while using their…

  11. Young Listeners' Music Style Preferences: Patterns Related to Cultural Identification and Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners ("N" = 543) in grades 4, 5, and 6 rated their preference for 10 instrumental and vocal selections from various styles, including four popular music selections with versions performed in English, Spanish, or an Asian language. Participants estimated their identification with Spanish/Hispanic/Latino and Asian cultures, the number…

  12. Computerized-Adaptive and Self-Adapted Music-Listening Tests: Psychometric Features and Motivational Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

    1994-01-01

    Computerized-adaptive (CAT) and self-adapted (SAT) music listening tests were compared for efficiency, reliability, validity, and motivational benefits with 53 junior high school students. Results demonstrate trade-offs, with greater potential motivational benefits for SAT and greater efficiency for CAT. SAT elicited more favorable responses from…

  13. Listening for Whiteness: Hearing Racial Politics in Undergraduate School Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Julia Eklund

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how admissions auditions at schools of music may demonstrate and participate in what critical race theorist, Gloria Ladson-Billings, calls the full social funding of race. Julia Eklund Koza argues that the construction of musical difference, which is an effect of power and is accomplished by the materialization of styles of…

  14. An experimental test of "the mozart effect": does listening to his music improve spatial ability?

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Rosenbach, J H; Burns, K L; Latimer, B C; Matocha, H R; Vogt, E R

    1995-12-01

    This experiment was designed as a test of the 1993 findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky who reported a positive effect of listening to classical music on spatial reasoning. Present results do not demonstrate the "Mozart effect." In our study, 114 students were pretested on items from the Raven's Progressive Matrices--Advanced Form, then instructed to listen to either 8 min. of Mozart's music, relaxation instructions, or silence. Then subjects were posttested on an equivalent set of Raven's items. The subjects were also asked to provide information about their musical background and preferences. All instructions and treatments were audiotaped and played to individual subjects through earphones in the university language laboratory, ensuring standardization of procedures. Subjects in all 3 treatment groups showed a practice effect, but this improvement in Raven's scores was not dependent on the type of treatment received. There were no differences in Raven's scores among groups before or after treatment so our results do not confirm the prior ones. There was no evidence that the brief music had a different effect on subsequent problem solving according to listeners' musical background and training. PMID:8684937

  15. Music listening behavior, health, hearing and otoacoustic emission levels.

    PubMed

    Marron, Kathleen Hutchinson; Sproat, Brittany; Ross, Danielle; Wagner, Sarah; Alessio, Helaine

    2014-07-25

    This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18-84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance.

  16. Music Listening Behavior, Health, Hearing and Otoacoustic Emission Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson Marron, Kathleen; Sproat, Brittany; Ross, Danielle; Wagner, Sarah; Alessio, Helaine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between hearing levels, otoacoustic emission levels and listening habits related to the use of personal listening devices (PLDs) in adults with varying health-related fitness. Duration of PLD use was estimated and volume level was directly measured. Biomarkers of health-related fitness were co-factored into the analyses. 115 subjects ages 18–84 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups; PLD users and non-PLD users. Both groups completed audiological and health-related fitness tests. Due to the mismatch in the mean age of the PLD user versus the non-PLD user groups, age-adjusted statistics were performed to determine factors that contributed to hearing levels. Age was the most significant predictor of hearing levels across listening and health-related fitness variables. PLD user status did not impact hearing measures, yet PLD users who listened less than 8 hours per week with intensities of less than 80 dBA were found to have better hearing. Other variables found to be associated with hearing levels included: years listening to PLD, number of noise environments and use of ear protection. Finally, a healthy waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of better hearing, while body mass index approached, but did not reach statistical significance. PMID:25068604

  17. Effects of gender and listeners' preference on magnitude-estimation scaling of rock music.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of gender and listener preference on magnitude-estimation scaling of rock music. Four groups of young adults were tested: 14 women who liked rock music, 14 women who disliked rock music, 14 men who liked rock music, and 14 men who disliked rock music. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of a 10-sec. sample of rock music. Analysis indicated that there was no difference in scaling performance between women and men. There was a difference in scaling performance between the group of women who liked rock music and the group of women who disliked rock music. There was no difference in the way the two groups of men performed the scaling task. These results suggest that men and women perform magnitude-estimation scaling of rock music similarly. Women, however, allow preference to influence how they choose numbers during magnitude-estimation scaling tasks whereas men do not.

  18. Listeners lengthen phrase boundaries in self-paced music.

    PubMed

    Kragness, Haley E; Trainor, Laurel J

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown that musicians tend to slow down as they approach phrase boundaries (). In the present experiments, we used a paradigm from the action perception literature, the dwell time paradigm (Hard, Recchia, & Tversky, 2011), to investigate whether participants engage in phrase boundary lengthening when self-pacing through musical sequences. When participants used a key press to produce each successive chord of Bach chorales, they dwelled longer on boundary chords than nonboundary chords in both the original chorales and atonal manipulations of the chorales. When a novel musical sequence was composed that controlled for metrical and melodic contour cues to boundaries, the dwell time difference between boundaries and nonboundaries was greater in the tonal condition than in the atonal condition. Furthermore, similar results were found for a group of nonmusicians, suggesting that phrase-final lengthening in musical production is not dependent on musical training and can be evoked by harmonic cues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27379872

  19. Listeners lengthen phrase boundaries in self-paced music.

    PubMed

    Kragness, Haley E; Trainor, Laurel J

    2016-10-01

    Previous work has shown that musicians tend to slow down as they approach phrase boundaries (). In the present experiments, we used a paradigm from the action perception literature, the dwell time paradigm (Hard, Recchia, & Tversky, 2011), to investigate whether participants engage in phrase boundary lengthening when self-pacing through musical sequences. When participants used a key press to produce each successive chord of Bach chorales, they dwelled longer on boundary chords than nonboundary chords in both the original chorales and atonal manipulations of the chorales. When a novel musical sequence was composed that controlled for metrical and melodic contour cues to boundaries, the dwell time difference between boundaries and nonboundaries was greater in the tonal condition than in the atonal condition. Furthermore, similar results were found for a group of nonmusicians, suggesting that phrase-final lengthening in musical production is not dependent on musical training and can be evoked by harmonic cues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Active Listening in Peer Interviews: The Influence of Message Paraphrasing on Perceptions of Listening Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Harry, Jr.; Castle, Gina R.; Emmett, Melissa C.

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps no communication skill is identified as regularly as active listening in training programs across a variety of disciplines and activities. Yet little empirical research has examined specific elements of active listening responses in terms of their effectiveness in achieving desired interpersonal outcomes. This study reports an experiment…

  1. Otoacoustic Emissions before and after Listening to Music on a Personal Player

    PubMed Central

    Trzaskowski, Bartosz; Jędrzejczak, W. Wiktor; Piłka, Edyta; Cieślicka, Magdalena; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background The problem of the potential impact of personal music players on the auditory system remains an open question. The purpose of the present study was to investigate, by means of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), whether listening to music on a personal player affected auditory function. Material/Methods A group of 20 normally hearing adults was exposed to music played on a personal player. Transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs), as well as pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds, were tested at 3 stages: before, immediately after, and the next day following 30 min of exposure to music at 86.6 dBA. Results We found no statistically significant changes in OAE parameters or PTA thresholds due to listening to the music. Conclusions These results suggest that exposure to music at levels similar to those used in our study does not disturb cochlear function in a way that can be detected by means of PTA, TEOAE, or DPOAE tests. PMID:25116920

  2. Peer Listening in the Middle School: Training Activities for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazouri, Sandra Peyser; Smith, Miriam Frey

    This workbook presents activities for training middle school student peer listeners. The first of the workbook's 10 chapters contains an introduction to peer listening. Activities include a pretest on a series of true-false statements called the "Peer Listening Inventory," defining the meaning of the words that describe the qualities of a peer…

  3. Increased anxiety induced by listening to unpleasant music during stress exposure is associated with reduced blood pressure and ACTH responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jezova, Daniela; Hlavacova, Natasa; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Duncko, Roman; Loder, Ingrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and the neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an acute increase in state anxiety to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. To do so, it was necessary to find a stress condition of the same character and intensity with and without a rise in state anxiety. We decided to examine the effects of listening to music on anxiety and to apply a new methodological approach. A group of 14 healthy volunteers participated in a counterbalanced crossover design study. The stress procedure consisted of mental (Stroop test, mental arithmetic) and physical (handgrip exercise) tasks combined with listening to music played forward (pleasant) or backwards (unpleasant). The results confirmed our hypothesis, namely the condition with listening to unpleasant music was anxiogenic, while the other was not. In case of increased state anxiety, the rise in ACTH concentrations in response to mental challenge and the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by handgrip exercise was reduced compared to the situation with unchanged anxiety. Concentrations of testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin and aldosterone were slightly increased in response to the stress paradigm accompanied with increased anxiety. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that an acute increase in state anxiety contributes to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. Moreover, the results show that listening to music may both positively and negatively influence the perception of stress and the level of anxiety, which might have functional consequences.

  4. The Effect of Expert Performance Microtiming on Listeners' Experience of Groove in Swing or Funk Music

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Olivier; Kilchenmann, Lorenz; von Georgi, Richard; Bullerjahn, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' experience of groove. Two professional rhythm section performances (bass/drums) in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several levels of magnitude. Music expert (n = 79) and non-expert (n = 81) listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation). Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove) nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove) were supported by the data. PMID:27761117

  5. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W T

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  6. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M.; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W. T.

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  7. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  8. Structural Changes Induced by Daily Music Listening in the Recovering Brain after Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain. PMID:24860466

  9. Investigation of the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of earphones during music listening with the use of physical ear canal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aying, K. P.; Otadoy, R. E.; Violanda, R.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates on the sound pressure level (SPL) of insert-type earphones that are commonly used for music listening of the general populace. Measurements of SPL from earphones of different respondents were measured by plugging the earphone to a physical ear canal model. Durations of the earphone used for music listening were also gathered through short interviews. Results show that 21% of the respondents exceed the standard loudness/duration relation recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).

  10. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: the role of MP3 players.

    PubMed

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-08-07

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  11. Listeners discern affective variation in computer-generated musical sounds.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2009-01-01

    We carried out two experiments to test the relationship between real-time perception of structural change in stylistically unusual musical sounds, and perception of its affect (arousal and valence). Computer music was used because of its unfamiliarity and our capacity to control it in ecologically appropriate ways. In experiment 1, thirteen participants unselected for musical training participated in tasks to detect segmentation and changes in affect. Changes in affect occurred upon detection of segmentation; but not all algorithmically distinct segments conveyed distinct affect. Short segments followed by long segments led to greater changes in arousal and valence at the point of segmentation than vice versa. In experiment 2, intra-segment sound transitions were introduced. Sixteen musicians performed the same affect task as in experiment 1, and a novel change in sound task. Participants were slow to respond to a continuous transition, but quick to respond to instantaneous transitions. Contrary to literature on the perception of affect in more familiar music, the musician participants in experiment 2 differed more in their ratings of arousal than of valence, in spite of a strong correlation of arousal with the composition of the stimuli. These findings are discussed in relation to the positive valence attributed to the more familiar sounds in both experiments.

  12. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on left cerebellar hemisphere affects mental rotation tasks during music listening.

    PubMed

    Picazio, Silvia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests an association between spatial and music domains. A cerebellar role in music-related information processing as well as in spatial-temporal tasks has been documented. Here, we investigated the cerebellar role in the association between spatial and musical domains, by testing performances in embodied (EMR) or abstract (AMR) mental rotation tasks of subjects listening Mozart Sonata K.448, which is reported to improve spatial-temporal reasoning, in the presence or in the absence of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the left cerebellar hemisphere. In the absence of cerebellar cTBS, music listening did not influence either MR task, thus not revealing a "Mozart Effect". Cerebellar cTBS applied before musical listening made subjects faster (P = 0.005) and less accurate (P = 0.005) in performing the EMR but not the AMR task. Thus, cerebellar inhibition by TBS unmasked the effect of musical listening on motor imagery. These data support a coupling between music listening and sensory-motor integration in cerebellar networks for embodied representations.

  13. LISTEN WHILE YOU WORK? The Attitude of Healthcare Professionals to Music in the OR.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Adna Abdilmajeedn; Wright, P; Haneef, J H S; Jones, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    Although the playing of music is commonplace in the operating theatre, there is nothing in the literature examining whether staff feel this is beneficial. Questionnaires were distributed amongst a random selection of staff in practice at a district general hospital: medical staff from a range of surgical specialities, anaesthetists, and all grades of perioperative staff (nurse/operating department practitioners/healthcare assistants) were encouraged to participate. There were 121 health professionals in total working in the operating theatres. The authors compared the responses to each question amongst the respondents, to check for the tendency to correlate. Out of the 52 health professionals who responded, 36 stated that music is played in their theatre either every day, or two to three times a week. Only five respondents felt that this was too often. Fifteen percent of medical staff were of the opinion that the nursing staff controlled the choice of music. Nursing staff were almost evenly split in thinking that nursing staff, surgical staff and the whole theatre team controlled the choice of music. The majority of both nursing and medical staff felt that they enjoyed their work more and performed better when music was played in theatre. The study concluded that the majority of theatre staff found listening to music while they work a positive experience. The potential for music to have a distracting or detrimental effect on a minority of individuals should always be considered.

  14. Listen while you work? The attitude of healthcare professionals to music in the operating theatre.

    PubMed

    Faraj, A A; Wright, A P; Haneef, J H S; Jones, A

    2014-09-01

    Although the playing of music is commonplace in the operating theatre, there is nothing in the literature examining whether staff feel this is beneficial. Questionnaires were distributed amongst a random selection of staff in practice at a district general hospital: medical staff from a range of surgical specialities, anaesthetists, and all grades of perioperative staff (nurse/operating department practitioners/healthcare assistants) were encouraged to participate. There were 121 health professionals in total working in the operating theatres. The authors compared the responses to each question amongst the respondents, to check for the tendency to correlate. Out of the 52 health professionals who responded, 36 stated that music is played in their theatre either every day, or two to three times a week. Only five respondents felt that this was too often. Fifteen percent of medical staff were of the opinion that the nursing staff controlled the choice of music. Nursing staff were almost evenly split in thinking that nursing staff, surgical staff and the whole theatre team controlled the choice of music. The majority of both nursing and medical staff felt that they enjoyed their work more and performed better when music was played in theatre. The study concluded that the majority of theatre staff found listening to music while they work a positive experience. The potential for music to have a distracting or detrimental effect on a minority of individuals should always be considered.

  15. Subjective Listening Effort and Electrodermal Activity in Listening Situations with Reverberation and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Haeder, Kristina; Imbery, Christina; Weber, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Disturbing factors like reverberation or ambient noise can impair speech recognition and raise the listening effort needed for successful communication in daily life. Situations with high listening effort are thought to result in increased stress for the listener. The aim of this study was to explore possible measures to determine listening effort in situations with varying background noise and reverberation. For this purpose, subjective ratings of listening effort, speech recognition, and stress level, together with the electrodermal activity as a measure of the autonomic stress reaction, were investigated. It was expected that the electrodermal activity would show different stress levels in different acoustic situations and might serve as an alternative to subjective ratings. Ten young normal-hearing and 17 elderly hearing-impaired subjects listened to sentences from the Oldenburg sentence test either with stationary background noise or with reverberation. Four listening situations were generated, an easy and a hard one for each of the two disturbing factors, which were related to each other by the Speech Transmission Index. The easy situation resulted in 100% and the hard situation resulted in 30 to 80% speech recognition. The results of the subjective ratings showed significant differences between the easy and the hard listening situations in both subject groups. Two methods of analyzing the electrodermal activity values revealed similar, but nonsignificant trends. Significant correlations between subjective ratings and physiological electrodermal activity data were observed for normal-hearing subjects in the noise situation. PMID:27698257

  16. Reading and listening to music increase resting energy expenditure during an indirect calorimetry test.

    PubMed

    Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in REE between the electronic device and magazine. Listening to self-selected relaxing music increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator.

  17. Musical Creativity in Slovenian Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozman, Janja Crcinovic

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Slovenian music education curriculum for the first years of elementary school emphasises the following musical activities in the classroom: singing, playing instruments, listening to music, movement to music and musical creativity. In the field of musical creativity, there are two activities where students can be original and…

  18. Listening to music primes space: pianists, but not novices, simulate heard actions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K

    2015-03-01

    Musicians sometimes report twitching in their fingers or hands while listening to music. This anecdote could be indicative of a tendency for auditory-motor co-representation in musicians. Here, we describe two studies showing that pianists (Experiment 1), but not novices (Experiment 2) automatically generate spatial representations that correspond to learned musical actions while listening to music. Participants made one-handed movements to the left or right from a central location in response to visual stimuli while listening to task-irrelevant auditory stimuli, which were scales played on a piano. These task-irrelevant scales were either ascending (compatible with rightward movements) or descending (compatible with leftward movements). Pianists were faster to respond when the scale direction was compatible with the direction of response movement, whereas novices' movements were unaffected by the scale. These results are in agreement with existing research on action-effect coupling in musicians, which draw heavily on common coding theory. In addition, these results show how intricate auditory stimuli (ascending or descending scales) evoke coarse, domain-general spatial representations.

  19. Normal-hearing listener preferences of music as a function of signal-to-noise-ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Jillian G.

    2005-04-01

    Optimal signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for speech discrimination are well-known, well-documented phenomena. Discrimination preferences and functions have been studied for both normal-hearing and hard-of-hearing populations, and information from these studies has provided clearer indices on additional factors affecting speech discrimination ability and SNR preferences. This knowledge lends itself to improvements in hearing aids and amplification devices, telephones, television and radio transmissions, and a wide arena of recorded media such as movies and music. This investigation was designed to identify the preferred signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of normal-hearing listeners in a musical setting. The signal was the singer's voice, and music was considered the background. Subjects listened to an unfamiliar ballad with a female singer, and rated seven different SBR treatments. When listening to melodic motifs with linguistic content, results indicated subjects preferred SBRs similar to those in conventional speech discrimination applications. However, unlike traditional speech discrimination studies, subjects did not prefer increased levels of SBR. Additionally, subjects had a much larger acceptable range of SBR in melodic motifs where the singer's voice was not intended to communicate via linguistic means, but by the pseudo-paralinguistic means of vocal timbre and harmonic arrangements. Results indicate further studies investigating perception of singing are warranted.

  20. Can a hearing education campaign for adolescents change their music listening behavior?

    PubMed

    Weichbold, Viktor; Zorowka, Patrick

    2007-03-01

    This study looked at whether a hearing education campaign would have behavioral effects on the music listening practices of high school students. A total of 1757 students participated in a hearing education campaign. Before the campaign and one year thereafter they completed a survey asking for: (1) average frequency of discotheque attendance, (2) average duration of stay in the discotheque, (3) use of earplugs in discotheques, (4) frequency of regeneration breaks while at a discotheque, and (5) mean time per week spent listening to music through headphones. On questions (2), (3) and (5) no relevant post-campaign changes were reported. On question (1) students' answers indicated that the frequency of discotheque attendance had even increased after the campaign. The only change in keeping with the purpose of the campaign was an increase in the number of regeneration breaks when at a discotheque. The effect of hearing education campaigns on music listening behavior is questioned. Additional efforts are suggested to encourage adolescents to adopt protective behaviors.

  1. The effects of listening to preferred music on pain intensity after open heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Hedayat; Zeydi, Amir Emami; Khani, Soghra; Esmaeili, Ravanbakhsh; Soleimani, Aria

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pain is a common phenomenon after surgery. Cardiac surgeries are no exception and patients generally experience acute pain after these surgeries. Inadequate pain management after cardiac surgery predisposes patients to many complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of listening to preferred music on pain intensity after open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted in open heart intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital in Sari, Iran. A total of 60 patients who were scheduled to undergo open heart surgery were randomly allocated in two groups. Patients in the intervention group (n = 30) listened to their preferred music by headphones for 30 minutes, whereas those in the control group (n = 30) did not listen to music. Using a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), pain intensity was measured among the patients before the intervention, and immediately, 30 minutes and one hour after the intervention. Data was analyzed by Chi-square test, student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings: Mean pain intensity in the intervention group before, immediately after, 30 minutes and one hour after the intervention were 5.8, 3.1, 2.5 and 2.4, respectively. Corresponding numbers in the control group were 4.7, 4.7, 4.8 and 4.9, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed music to significantly reduce pain intensity (p = 0.0001) Conclusions: Music can be effective as a non-pharmacological, inexpensive, non-invasive and side effect free method for pain management after open heart surgery. PMID:23493927

  2. Expectations of Rock Music Consumption for Entertainment and Information Relative to the Active Involvement of the User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouner, Donna; Noyes, Amy

    Before examining potentially negative effects of rock music on adolescents, it is necessary to demonstrate links between adolescent motivations for consuming rock music and active involvement relative to that use and also to consider how much rock listeners rely on rock music as a source for information about values, beliefs, and social…

  3. Changing the Tune: Listeners Like Music that Expresses a Contrasting Emotion.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Ladinig, Olivia; Huron, David

    2012-01-01

    Theories of esthetic appreciation propose that (1) a stimulus is liked because it is expected or familiar, (2) a stimulus is liked most when it is neither too familiar nor too novel, or (3) a novel stimulus is liked because it elicits an intensified emotional response. We tested the third hypothesis by examining liking for music as a function of whether the emotion it expressed contrasted with the emotion expressed by music heard previously. Stimuli were 30-s happy- or sad-sounding excerpts from recordings of classical piano music. On each trial, listeners heard a different excerpt and made liking and emotion-intensity ratings. The emotional character of consecutive excerpts was repeated with varying frequencies, followed by an excerpt that expressed a contrasting emotion. As the number of presentations of the background emotion increased, liking and intensity ratings became lower compared to those for the contrasting emotion. Consequently, when the emotional character of the music was relatively novel, listeners' responses intensified and their appreciation increased. PMID:23269918

  4. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,p<0.001. This regression fit suggests that over 20% of the variance of the participant's music induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  5. Active imaginative listening-a neuromusical critique.

    PubMed

    Rosenboom, David

    2014-01-01

    The parallel study of music in science and creative practice can be traced back to the ancients; and paralleling the emergence of music neuroscience, creative musical practitioners have employed neurobiological phenomena extensively in music composition and performance. Several examples from the author's work in this area, which began in the 1960s, are cited and briefly described. From this perspective, the author also explores questions pertinent to current agendas evident in music neuroscience and speculates on potentially potent future directions.

  6. Emotion recognition based on physiological changes in music listening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghwa; André, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    Little attention has been paid so far to physiological signals for emotion recognition compared to audiovisual emotion channels such as facial expression or speech. This paper investigates the potential of physiological signals as reliable channels for emotion recognition. All essential stages of an automatic recognition system are discussed, from the recording of a physiological dataset to a feature-based multiclass classification. In order to collect a physiological dataset from multiple subjects over many weeks, we used a musical induction method which spontaneously leads subjects to real emotional states, without any deliberate lab setting. Four-channel biosensors were used to measure electromyogram, electrocardiogram, skin conductivity and respiration changes. A wide range of physiological features from various analysis domains, including time/frequency, entropy, geometric analysis, subband spectra, multiscale entropy, etc., is proposed in order to find the best emotion-relevant features and to correlate them with emotional states. The best features extracted are specified in detail and their effectiveness is proven by classification results. Classification of four musical emotions (positive/high arousal, negative/high arousal, negative/low arousal, positive/low arousal) is performed by using an extended linear discriminant analysis (pLDA). Furthermore, by exploiting a dichotomic property of the 2D emotion model, we develop a novel scheme of emotion-specific multilevel dichotomous classification (EMDC) and compare its performance with direct multiclass classification using the pLDA. Improved recognition accuracy of 95\\% and 70\\% for subject-dependent and subject-independent classification, respectively, is achieved by using the EMDC scheme.

  7. Emotion recognition based on physiological changes in music listening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghwa; André, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    Little attention has been paid so far to physiological signals for emotion recognition compared to audiovisual emotion channels such as facial expression or speech. This paper investigates the potential of physiological signals as reliable channels for emotion recognition. All essential stages of an automatic recognition system are discussed, from the recording of a physiological dataset to a feature-based multiclass classification. In order to collect a physiological dataset from multiple subjects over many weeks, we used a musical induction method which spontaneously leads subjects to real emotional states, without any deliberate lab setting. Four-channel biosensors were used to measure electromyogram, electrocardiogram, skin conductivity and respiration changes. A wide range of physiological features from various analysis domains, including time/frequency, entropy, geometric analysis, subband spectra, multiscale entropy, etc., is proposed in order to find the best emotion-relevant features and to correlate them with emotional states. The best features extracted are specified in detail and their effectiveness is proven by classification results. Classification of four musical emotions (positive/high arousal, negative/high arousal, negative/low arousal, positive/low arousal) is performed by using an extended linear discriminant analysis (pLDA). Furthermore, by exploiting a dichotomic property of the 2D emotion model, we develop a novel scheme of emotion-specific multilevel dichotomous classification (EMDC) and compare its performance with direct multiclass classification using the pLDA. Improved recognition accuracy of 95\\% and 70\\% for subject-dependent and subject-independent classification, respectively, is achieved by using the EMDC scheme. PMID:18988943

  8. Classroom Activities in Listening and Speaking. Bulletin No. 91337.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Ellen; DeMuth, Robert J.

    This guide contains classroom activities designed to encourage effective listening and speaking instruction at all developmental levels. Called the Comprehensive Listening and Speaking Sequence (CLASS), the activities are developed in three parts. The pre-kindergarten through grade three sequence provides learning activities that may be used by…

  9. Cognitive vs. affective listening modes and judgments of music--an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas; De Baene, Wouter; Glerean, Enrico; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    The neural correlates of processing deviations from Western music rules are relatively well known. Less is known of the neural dynamics of top-down listening modes and affective liking judgments in relation with judgments of tonal correctness. In this study, subjects determined if tonal chord sequences sounded correct or incorrect, or if they liked them or not, while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured. The last chord of the sequences could be congruous with the previous context, ambiguous (unusual but still enjoyable) or harmonically inappropriate. The cognitive vs. affective listening modes were differentiated in the event-related potential (ERP) responses already before the ending chord, indicating different preparation for the judgment tasks. Furthermore, three neural events tagged the decision process preceding the behavioral responses. First, an early negativity, peaking at about 280ms, was elicited by chord incorrectness and by disliking judgments only over the right hemisphere. Second, at about 500ms from the end of the sequence a positive brain response was elicited by the negative answers of both tasks. Third, at about 1200ms, a late positive potential (LPP) was elicited by the liking judgment task whereas a large negative brain response was elicited by the correctness judgment task, indexing that only at that late latency preceding the button press subjects decided how to judge the cadences. This is the first study to reveal the dissociation between neural processes occurring during affective vs. cognitive listening modes and judgments of music.

  10. Dichotic Listening Can Improve Perceived Clarity of Music in Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Vannson, Nicolas; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2015-08-26

    Musical enjoyment for cochlear implant (CI) recipients is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Our goal was to determine whether the musical experience of postlingually deafened adult CI recipients could be enriched by presenting the bass and treble clef parts of short polyphonic piano pieces separately to each ear (dichotic). Dichotic presentation should artificially enhance the lateralization cues of each part and help the listeners to better segregate them and thus provide greater clarity. We also hypothesized that perception of the intended emotion of the pieces and their overall enjoyment would be enhanced in the dichotic mode compared with the monophonic (both parts in the same ear) and the diotic mode (both parts in both ears). Twenty-eight piano pieces specifically composed to induce sad or happy emotions were selected. The tempo of the pieces, which ranged from lento to presto covaried with the intended emotion (from sad to happy). Thirty participants (11 normal-hearing listeners, 11 bimodal CI and hearing-aid users, and 8 bilaterally implanted CI users) participated in this study. Participants were asked to rate the perceived clarity, the intended emotion, and their preference of each piece in different listening modes. Results indicated that dichotic presentation produced small significant improvements in subjective ratings based on perceived clarity and preference. We also found that preference and clarity ratings were significantly higher for pieces with fast tempi compared with slow tempi. However, no significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentation were found for the participants' preference ratings, or their judgments of intended emotion.

  11. Dichotic Listening Can Improve Perceived Clarity of Music in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Vannson, Nicolas; Innes-Brown, Hamish

    2015-01-01

    Musical enjoyment for cochlear implant (CI) recipients is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Our goal was to determine whether the musical experience of postlingually deafened adult CI recipients could be enriched by presenting the bass and treble clef parts of short polyphonic piano pieces separately to each ear (dichotic). Dichotic presentation should artificially enhance the lateralization cues of each part and help the listeners to better segregate them and thus provide greater clarity. We also hypothesized that perception of the intended emotion of the pieces and their overall enjoyment would be enhanced in the dichotic mode compared with the monophonic (both parts in the same ear) and the diotic mode (both parts in both ears). Twenty-eight piano pieces specifically composed to induce sad or happy emotions were selected. The tempo of the pieces, which ranged from lento to presto covaried with the intended emotion (from sad to happy). Thirty participants (11 normal-hearing listeners, 11 bimodal CI and hearing-aid users, and 8 bilaterally implanted CI users) participated in this study. Participants were asked to rate the perceived clarity, the intended emotion, and their preference of each piece in different listening modes. Results indicated that dichotic presentation produced small significant improvements in subjective ratings based on perceived clarity. We also found that preference and clarity ratings were significantly higher for pieces with fast tempi compared with slow tempi. However, no significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentation were found for the participants’ preference ratings, or their judgments of intended emotion. PMID:26316123

  12. Cognitive vs. affective listening modes and judgments of music--an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas; De Baene, Wouter; Glerean, Enrico; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2010-12-01

    The neural correlates of processing deviations from Western music rules are relatively well known. Less is known of the neural dynamics of top-down listening modes and affective liking judgments in relation with judgments of tonal correctness. In this study, subjects determined if tonal chord sequences sounded correct or incorrect, or if they liked them or not, while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured. The last chord of the sequences could be congruous with the previous context, ambiguous (unusual but still enjoyable) or harmonically inappropriate. The cognitive vs. affective listening modes were differentiated in the event-related potential (ERP) responses already before the ending chord, indicating different preparation for the judgment tasks. Furthermore, three neural events tagged the decision process preceding the behavioral responses. First, an early negativity, peaking at about 280ms, was elicited by chord incorrectness and by disliking judgments only over the right hemisphere. Second, at about 500ms from the end of the sequence a positive brain response was elicited by the negative answers of both tasks. Third, at about 1200ms, a late positive potential (LPP) was elicited by the liking judgment task whereas a large negative brain response was elicited by the correctness judgment task, indexing that only at that late latency preceding the button press subjects decided how to judge the cadences. This is the first study to reveal the dissociation between neural processes occurring during affective vs. cognitive listening modes and judgments of music. PMID:20837091

  13. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation. PMID:23930987

  14. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A.; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  15. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one.

  16. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  17. Signal-to-background-ratio preferences of normal-hearing listeners as a function of music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Jillian G.

    2005-04-01

    The primary purpose of speech is to convey a message. Many factors affect the listener's overall reception, several of which have little to do with the linguistic content itself, but rather with the delivery (e.g., prosody, intonation patterns, pragmatics, paralinguistic cues). Music, however, may convey a message either with or without linguistic content. In instances in which music has lyrics, one cannot assume verbal content will take precedence over sonic properties. Lyric emphasis over other aspects of music cannot be assumed. Singing introduces distortion of the vowel-consonant temporal ratio of speech, emphasizing vowels and de-emphasizing consonants. The phonemic production alterations of singing make it difficult for even those with normal hearing to understand the singer. This investigation was designed to identify singer-to-background-ratio (SBR) prefer- ences for normal hearing adult listeners (as opposed to SBR levels maxi-mizing speech discrimination ability). Stimuli were derived from three different original songs, each produced in two different genres and sung by six different singers. Singer and genre were the two primary contributors to significant differences in SBR preferences, though results clearly indicate genre, style and singer interact in different combinations for each song, each singer, and for each subject in an unpredictable manner.

  18. Smartphone-based Music Listening to Reduce Pain and Anxiety Before Coronarography: A Focus on Sex Differences.

    PubMed

    Guétin, Stéphane; Brun, Luc; Deniaud, Maelle; Clerc, Jean-Michel; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Background • Music Care is a smartphone-based application providing a musical intervention for the management of pain and anxiety in a clinical setting. Coronarography is a medical procedure frequently associated with examination anxiety. Objectives • The study intended to perform an initial evaluation of the application for use with patients undergoing a coronarography. Design • The research team performed an uncontrolled, observational study. Setting • The study took place at Nouméa General Hospital in Nouméa, New Caledonia, France. Participants • Participants were 35 patients, 17 women and 18 men, who were undergoing a coronarography between November 2010 and April 2011 at the Nouméa General Hospital. Intervention • Participants listened to a standardized musical sequence of adjustable length by choosing a preferred style of music (eg, classic rock or folk music) from a variety of choices that the research team had chosen to include in the application. Outcome Measures • Before and after listening to the music, all participants were asked to rate their anxiety and pain on an 11-item, visual analogue scale and to complete a questionnaire on their satisfaction with use of the application. Results • The paired sample t test revealed a significant reduction in participants' anxiety (t33 = 4.12, P < .0001) after they had listened to the music. No significant reduction in self-reported pain occurred; however, only a few participants reported pain associated with the procedure. No significant sex differences existed. Women and men both showed reduced anxiety after listening to music as well as reported a high level of satisfaction in using the Music Care application. Conclusions • The smartphone-based Music Care application is an easy-to-use tool to reduce anxiety in patients undergoing coronarography. Future large-scale, controlled trials are necessary to compare its effectiveness with other interventions. Both women and men can benefit from the

  19. Smartphone-based Music Listening to Reduce Pain and Anxiety Before Coronarography: A Focus on Sex Differences.

    PubMed

    Guétin, Stéphane; Brun, Luc; Deniaud, Maelle; Clerc, Jean-Michel; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Background • Music Care is a smartphone-based application providing a musical intervention for the management of pain and anxiety in a clinical setting. Coronarography is a medical procedure frequently associated with examination anxiety. Objectives • The study intended to perform an initial evaluation of the application for use with patients undergoing a coronarography. Design • The research team performed an uncontrolled, observational study. Setting • The study took place at Nouméa General Hospital in Nouméa, New Caledonia, France. Participants • Participants were 35 patients, 17 women and 18 men, who were undergoing a coronarography between November 2010 and April 2011 at the Nouméa General Hospital. Intervention • Participants listened to a standardized musical sequence of adjustable length by choosing a preferred style of music (eg, classic rock or folk music) from a variety of choices that the research team had chosen to include in the application. Outcome Measures • Before and after listening to the music, all participants were asked to rate their anxiety and pain on an 11-item, visual analogue scale and to complete a questionnaire on their satisfaction with use of the application. Results • The paired sample t test revealed a significant reduction in participants' anxiety (t33 = 4.12, P < .0001) after they had listened to the music. No significant reduction in self-reported pain occurred; however, only a few participants reported pain associated with the procedure. No significant sex differences existed. Women and men both showed reduced anxiety after listening to music as well as reported a high level of satisfaction in using the Music Care application. Conclusions • The smartphone-based Music Care application is an easy-to-use tool to reduce anxiety in patients undergoing coronarography. Future large-scale, controlled trials are necessary to compare its effectiveness with other interventions. Both women and men can benefit from the

  20. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  1. STS-36 Commander Creighton listens to music on OV-104's forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-36 Commander John O. Creighton, smiling and wearing a headset, listens to music as the tape recorder freefloats in front of him. During this lighter moment of the mission, Creighton is positioned at the commanders station on the forward flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Forward flight deck windows W1 and W2 appear on his left. Creighton and four other astronauts spent four days, 10 hours and 19 minutes aboard the spacecraft for the Department of Defense (DOD) devoted mission.

  2. Magnitude estimation scaling of annoyance in response to rock music: effects of sex and listeners' preference.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Hallowell, B; Andra, L; Wilcox, C

    1997-04-01

    The present study parallels an earlier one Fucci, Petrosino, and Banks in 1994 concerned with sex and listeners' preference effects on magnitude estimation scaling of rock music. The difference between the two studies is that the subjects in 1994 were asked to scale "loudness" while the present subjects were asked to scale "annoyance." The prior results and those of the present study were different, i.e., the women's preference appeared influential in the magnitude estimation scaling of rock music previously but here the men's preference appeared influential. If subjects are instructed to judge the annoyance of an auditory signal, they may respond differently than if asked to judge its loudness. Judgments of annoyance appear to be more context dependent whereas loudness judgments may reflect a perceptual process more closely related to physical aspects of the signal.

  3. Changing the Tune: Listeners Like Music that Expresses a Contrasting Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A.; Ladinig, Olivia; Huron, David

    2012-01-01

    Theories of esthetic appreciation propose that (1) a stimulus is liked because it is expected or familiar, (2) a stimulus is liked most when it is neither too familiar nor too novel, or (3) a novel stimulus is liked because it elicits an intensified emotional response. We tested the third hypothesis by examining liking for music as a function of whether the emotion it expressed contrasted with the emotion expressed by music heard previously. Stimuli were 30-s happy- or sad-sounding excerpts from recordings of classical piano music. On each trial, listeners heard a different excerpt and made liking and emotion-intensity ratings. The emotional character of consecutive excerpts was repeated with varying frequencies, followed by an excerpt that expressed a contrasting emotion. As the number of presentations of the background emotion increased, liking and intensity ratings became lower compared to those for the contrasting emotion. Consequently, when the emotional character of the music was relatively novel, listeners’ responses intensified and their appreciation increased. PMID:23269918

  4. Can fantasizing while listening to music play a protective role against the influences of sensation seeking and peers on adolescents' substance use?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Dave; Gaudreau, Patrick; Morizot, Julien; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    "The combination of music and drugs proved to be potent, and scientific research has yet to explain it" (Levitin, 2008, p. 74; The World in Six Songs). This study examined if fantasizing while listening to music could represent a potential protective factor against adolescent substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis). The first hypothesis was that fantasizing while listening to music would moderate (buffer) the link between sensation-seeking and substance use. The second hypothesis was that fantasizing while listening to music would also moderate (buffer) the link between peer substance use and individual substance use. The sample comprised 429 adolescent boys and girls who answered a self-report questionnaire in 2003. They were regular students attending a public high school in Montreal, Canada. The results revealed that fantasizing while listening to music came short of buffering the link between sensation-seeking and substance use among highly musically involved adolescents. Still, fantasizing while listening to music significantly attenuated the relationship between peer substance use and individual substance use (thereby, showing a protective effect) among highly musically involved adolescents. Fantasizing while listening to music did not buffer the relation between either risk factor (sensation-seeking or peer substance use) and substance use among moderately musically involved adolescents.

  5. Listening to Music during Warming-Up Counteracts the Negative Effects of Ramadan Observance on Short-Term Maximal Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to examine whether listening to music during warming-up might influence short-term maximal performance (STMP), cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and enjoyment during Ramadan, and whether these affects might predict STMP. Methods Nine male physical education students (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 83 ± 5 kg) volunteered to participate in the present study. A within-subjects design consisted of four experimental sessions: Two sessions occurred one week before Ramadan and two others took place during Ramadan. They were scheduled at 5 p.m. and were conducted as follows: After a 10-minute warm-up either with or without listening to music, each participant performed a 5-m multiple shuttle run test, after which he was asked to answer items intended to assess his affective state during the experimental task. Results Our findings revealed that STMP was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the no-music condition. Additionally, it was found that STMP was higher in the music condition than in the no-music condition during Ramadan, and that STMP measured before Ramadan did not differ from that measured during Ramadan in the music condition. Regarding affects, the findings revealed that enjoyment was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the music condition, and that cognitive anxiety was lower in the music condition than in the no-music condition before Ramadan. Self-confidence was not influenced by the experimental conditions. Conclusion This study showed that listening to music during warming-up not only would be beneficial for STMP in Ramadan fasters, but also would counteract the negative effects of Ramadan observance on STMP. PMID:26301508

  6. Psycho-Circulatory Responses Caused by Listening to Music, and Exposure to Fluctuating Noise or Steady Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAKAMOTO, H.; HAYASHI, F.; SUGIURA, S.; TSUJIKAWA, M.

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of steady noise, fluctuating noise and music on circulatory function. Pulse-wave and blood pressure were continuously measured in 35 healthy young females who listened to three types of music or were exposed to steady noise or fluctuating noise, synchronized with each type of music with respect to intensity variations. The pulse-wave did not change during any exposure conditions. Regarding blood pressure, several modes were observed. The critical level for a blood pressure change was estimated to be 54 LAeqduring exposure to steady noise. The frequency of high-intensity peaks in the mode of sound fluctuation was associated with elevation in blood pressure. The blood pressure change was analyzed by distinguishing the intensity variation in sound fluctuation from other attributes of music. The effects of music on blood pressure were modified not only by the melody and timbre of the music but also by emotional responses during listing.

  7. Dichotic Listening Can Improve Perceived Clarity of Music in Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Vannson, Nicolas; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Musical enjoyment for cochlear implant (CI) recipients is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Our goal was to determine whether the musical experience of postlingually deafened adult CI recipients could be enriched by presenting the bass and treble clef parts of short polyphonic piano pieces separately to each ear (dichotic). Dichotic presentation should artificially enhance the lateralization cues of each part and help the listeners to better segregate them and thus provide greater clarity. We also hypothesized that perception of the intended emotion of the pieces and their overall enjoyment would be enhanced in the dichotic mode compared with the monophonic (both parts in the same ear) and the diotic mode (both parts in both ears). Twenty-eight piano pieces specifically composed to induce sad or happy emotions were selected. The tempo of the pieces, which ranged from lento to presto covaried with the intended emotion (from sad to happy). Thirty participants (11 normal-hearing listeners, 11 bimodal CI and hearing-aid users, and 8 bilaterally implanted CI users) participated in this study. Participants were asked to rate the perceived clarity, the intended emotion, and their preference of each piece in different listening modes. Results indicated that dichotic presentation produced small significant improvements in subjective ratings based on perceived clarity and preference. We also found that preference and clarity ratings were significantly higher for pieces with fast tempi compared with slow tempi. However, no significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentation were found for the participants' preference ratings, or their judgments of intended emotion. PMID:26316123

  8. The effect of vision and hearing loss on listeners' perception of referential meaning in music.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Novak, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of vision and hearing loss on listeners' perception of referential meaning in music. Participants were students at a state school for the deaf and blind, and students with typical hearing and vision who attended neighboring public schools (N = 96). The music stimuli consisted of six 37-second randomly ordered excerpts from Saint Saëns, Carnival of the Animals. The excerpts were chosen because of their use in similar studies and the composer's clearly intended meaning conveyed in the titles of the excerpts. After allowing for appropriate procedural accommodations for participants with hearing or vision loss, all participants were asked to select the image portrayed by the music. A univariate ANOVA was computed to address the research question, "Do students with vision or hearing loss assign the same visual images to music as students without such sensory losses?" Data were analyzed to examine the effects of sensory condition as well as age and gender. A significant main effect was found for sensory condition, with follow up tests indicating that participants with typical hearing and vision agreed with the composer's intended meaning significantly more often than did participants with vision or hearing loss. No significant main effects were found for gender or age, and no significant interactions were found. Summary data indicated that selected images were more easily identified, or were more difficult to identify across conditions. The data also revealed an order of difficulty and patterns of confusion that were similar across sensory conditions and ages, indicating participant responses were not random, and that some referential meaning in music is conventional.

  9. The Effect of Repeated Listenings on Ability to Recognize the Structural Elements of Music and the Influence of this Ability on Affective Shift. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Dale L.

    This study, conducted over a period of three weeks at the University of Kansas, attempted to determine whether knowledge of musical structure would effect greater understanding and, eventually, enjoyment of music. Experimental and control groups comprising freshmen who were not enrolled in a music course listened repeatedly to excerpts of…

  10. The Effects of Modeling, Self-Evaluation, and Self-Listening on Junior High Instrumentalists' Music Performance and Practice Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects that modeling, self-evaluation, and self-listening have on the music performance and attitudes about practice of junior high school students in the seventh (n=36), eighth (n=31), or ninth (n=15) grades who play woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. Includes references. (CMK)

  11. The Relationship between University Students' Attitude to Listening to Music and Their Level of Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between university students' attitude to listening to music and their level of optimism. The study group for the research consists of 508 students who studied at Aksaray University in the 2012-13 academic year. Simple random sampling is used. In this study, the "Attitude Scale for…

  12. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music.

    PubMed

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E; Lartillot, O; Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M

    2016-01-15

    Brain responses to discrete short sounds have been studied intensively using the event-related potential (ERP) method, in which the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is divided into epochs time-locked to stimuli of interest. Here we introduce and apply a novel technique which enables one to isolate ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase - and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases - followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible to utilize the tradition of ERP research with naturalistic paradigms. PMID:26550950

  13. Identification of musical instruments by normal-hearing subjects listening through a cochlear-implant simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Rebecca D.; Eddington, Donald

    2002-05-01

    Signal processing in a cochlear implant (CI) is primarily designed to convey speech and environmental sounds, and can cause distortion of musical timbre. Systematic investigation of musical instrument identification through a CI has not yet revealed how timbre is affected by the implant's processing. In this experiment, the bandpass filtering, rectification, and low-pass filtering of an implant are simulated in MATLAB. Synthesized signals representing 12 common instruments, each performing a major scale, are processed by simulations using up to 8 analysis channels. The unprocessed recordings, together with the 8 simulation conditions for 12 instruments, are presented in random order to each of the subjects. The subject's task is to identify the instrument represented by each item. The subjects also subjectively score each item based on similarity and pleasantness. We anticipate performance using the simulation will be worse than the unprocessed condition because of the limited information delivered by the envelopes of the analysis channels. These results will be analyzed as a confusion matrix and provide a basis for contrasting the information used by subjects listening to the unprocessed and processed materials. Understanding these differences should aid in the development of new processing strategies to better represent music for cochlear implant users.

  14. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music.

    PubMed

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E; Lartillot, O; Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M

    2016-01-15

    Brain responses to discrete short sounds have been studied intensively using the event-related potential (ERP) method, in which the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is divided into epochs time-locked to stimuli of interest. Here we introduce and apply a novel technique which enables one to isolate ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase - and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases - followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible to utilize the tradition of ERP research with naturalistic paradigms.

  15. Judgements of Quality, Listening, and Understanding Based Upon Vocal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationships between vocal activity and three other variables: attribution of quality contributions; perceived listening, and perceived understanding. Concludes that frequency and duration of speech serve as a major mediating variable in communicative relationships. (MH)

  16. Distraction and Pedestrian Safety: How Talking on the Phone, Texting, and Listening to Music Impact Crossing the Street

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W.; Davis, Tiffany; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.; de Jong, Desiree

    2011-01-01

    As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestrian safety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students’ pedestrian safety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestrian safety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509

  17. Listening Cloze Meets Info-Gap: A Hybrid Activity to Exploit Listening Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Juan Pablo Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    In twenty-first-century language teaching, the class should be student-centered and provide learners with skills that empower them in real-life situations. In this regard, it is commonly said that practice makes perfect. It therefore makes sense for teachers to ask themselves how much their listening activities demand from students and to evaluate…

  18. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener. PMID:25188354

  19. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Sugawara, Sho K.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener. PMID:25188354

  20. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients. PMID:24339807

  1. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  2. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  3. Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Vahid Kohpeima; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Rajabi, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the important causes of medical errors and unintentional harm to patients is ineffective communication. The important part of this skill, in case it has been forgotten, is listening. The objective of this study was to determine whether managers in hospitals listen actively. Methods This study was conducted between May and June 2014 among three levels of managers at teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Active Listening skill among hospital managers was measured by self-made Active Listening Skill Scale (ALSS), which consists of the key elements of active listening and has five subscales, i.e., Avoiding Interruption, Maintaining Interest, Postponing Evaluation, Organizing Information, and Showing Interest. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS software, version 20, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, the chi-squared test, and multiple linear regressions. Results The mean score of active listening in hospital managers was 2.32 out of 3.The highest score (2.27) was obtained by the first-level managers, and the top managers got the lowest score (2.16). Hospital mangers were best in showing interest and worst in avoiding interruptions. The area of employment was a significant predictor of avoiding interruption and the managers’ gender was a strong predictor of skill in maintaining interest (p < 0.05). The type of management and education can predict postponing evaluation, and the length of employment can predict showing interest (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is a necessity for the development of strategies to create more awareness among the hospital managers concerning their active listening skills. PMID:27123221

  4. An investigation of stride interval stationarity while listening to music or viewing television.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Vanden Kroonenberg, Alanna; Chau, Tom

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15min in duration, were performed at each participant's comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation. PMID:21820194

  5. An investigation of stride interval stationarity while listening to music or viewing television

    PubMed Central

    Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Kroonenberg, Alanna Vanden; Chau, Tom

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15 minutes in duration, were performed at each participant’s comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation. PMID:21820194

  6. An investigation of stride interval stationarity while listening to music or viewing television.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Vanden Kroonenberg, Alanna; Chau, Tom

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15min in duration, were performed at each participant's comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation.

  7. Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

  8. The relationship between the neural computations for speech and music perception is context-dependent: an activation likelihood estimate study.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Arianna N; Diaz, Alvaro F; Rogalsky, Corianne

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the neurobiology of speech and music has been investigated for more than a century. There remains no widespread agreement regarding how (or to what extent) music perception utilizes the neural circuitry that is engaged in speech processing, particularly at the cortical level. Prominent models such as Patel's Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH) and Koelsch's neurocognitive model of music perception suggest a high degree of overlap, particularly in the frontal lobe, but also perhaps more distinct representations in the temporal lobe with hemispheric asymmetries. The present meta-analysis study used activation likelihood estimate analyses to identify the brain regions consistently activated for music as compared to speech across the functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) literature. Eighty music and 91 speech neuroimaging studies of healthy adult control subjects were analyzed. Peak activations reported in the music and speech studies were divided into four paradigm categories: passive listening, discrimination tasks, error/anomaly detection tasks and memory-related tasks. We then compared activation likelihood estimates within each category for music vs. speech, and each music condition with passive listening. We found that listening to music and to speech preferentially activate distinct temporo-parietal bilateral cortical networks. We also found music and speech to have shared resources in the left pars opercularis but speech-specific resources in the left pars triangularis. The extent to which music recruited speech-activated frontal resources was modulated by task. While there are certainly limitations to meta-analysis techniques particularly regarding sensitivity, this work suggests that the extent of shared resources between speech and music may be task-dependent and highlights the need to consider how task effects may be affecting conclusions regarding the neurobiology of speech and music. PMID:26321976

  9. The relationship between the neural computations for speech and music perception is context-dependent: an activation likelihood estimate study

    PubMed Central

    LaCroix, Arianna N.; Diaz, Alvaro F.; Rogalsky, Corianne

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the neurobiology of speech and music has been investigated for more than a century. There remains no widespread agreement regarding how (or to what extent) music perception utilizes the neural circuitry that is engaged in speech processing, particularly at the cortical level. Prominent models such as Patel's Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH) and Koelsch's neurocognitive model of music perception suggest a high degree of overlap, particularly in the frontal lobe, but also perhaps more distinct representations in the temporal lobe with hemispheric asymmetries. The present meta-analysis study used activation likelihood estimate analyses to identify the brain regions consistently activated for music as compared to speech across the functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) literature. Eighty music and 91 speech neuroimaging studies of healthy adult control subjects were analyzed. Peak activations reported in the music and speech studies were divided into four paradigm categories: passive listening, discrimination tasks, error/anomaly detection tasks and memory-related tasks. We then compared activation likelihood estimates within each category for music vs. speech, and each music condition with passive listening. We found that listening to music and to speech preferentially activate distinct temporo-parietal bilateral cortical networks. We also found music and speech to have shared resources in the left pars opercularis but speech-specific resources in the left pars triangularis. The extent to which music recruited speech-activated frontal resources was modulated by task. While there are certainly limitations to meta-analysis techniques particularly regarding sensitivity, this work suggests that the extent of shared resources between speech and music may be task-dependent and highlights the need to consider how task effects may be affecting conclusions regarding the neurobiology of speech and music. PMID:26321976

  10. The MOC Reflex during Active Listening to Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garinis, Angela C.; Glattke, Theodore; Cone, Barbara K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that active listening to speech would increase medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent activity for the right vs. the left ear. Method: Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were evoked by 60-dB p.e. SPL clicks in 13 normally hearing adults in 4 test conditions for each ear: (a) in…

  11. Individual Subjective Preference of Listeners to Vocal Music Sources in Relation to the Subsequent Reverberation Time of Sound Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAKAI, H.; ANDO, Y.; SETOGUCHI, H.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate individual differences and intra-individual changes of subjective preference of simulated sound field judged by listeners in changing subsequent reverberation timeTsub using a vocal source. A great deal of effort has been made studying subjective preferences by using music or speech. Subjective preference tests were conducted by changing Tsub, which is one of the four orthogonal-objective parameters of sound field.

  12. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  13. Superior Analgesic Effect of an Active Distraction versus Pleasant Unfamiliar Sounds and Music: The Influence of Emotion and Cognitive Style

    PubMed Central

    Garza Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  14. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception.

  15. The Effect of Visual Cues on Difficulty Ratings for Segregation of Musical Streams in Listeners with Impaired Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy; Blamey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Enjoyment of music is an important part of life that may be degraded for people with hearing impairments, especially those using cochlear implants. The ability to follow separate lines of melody is an important factor in music appreciation. This ability relies on effective auditory streaming, which is much reduced in people with hearing impairment, contributing to difficulties in music appreciation. The aim of this study was to assess whether visual cues could reduce the subjective difficulty of segregating a melody from interleaved background notes in normally hearing listeners, those using hearing aids, and those using cochlear implants. Methodology/Principal Findings Normally hearing listeners (N = 20), hearing aid users (N = 10), and cochlear implant users (N = 11) were asked to rate the difficulty of segregating a repeating four-note melody from random interleaved distracter notes. The pitch of the background notes was gradually increased or decreased throughout blocks, providing a range of difficulty from easy (with a large pitch separation between melody and distracter) to impossible (with the melody and distracter completely overlapping). Visual cues were provided on half the blocks, and difficulty ratings for blocks with and without visual cues were compared between groups. Visual cues reduced the subjective difficulty of extracting the melody from the distracter notes for normally hearing listeners and cochlear implant users, but not hearing aid users. Conclusion/Significance Simple visual cues may improve the ability of cochlear implant users to segregate lines of music, thus potentially increasing their enjoyment of music. More research is needed to determine what type of acoustic cues to encode visually in order to optimise the benefits they may provide. PMID:22195046

  16. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions.

  17. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions. PMID:25994970

  18. Musical appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  19. Getting the beat: entrainment of brain activity by musical rhythm and pleasantness.

    PubMed

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Schön, Daniele; Labbé, Carolina; Pichon, Swann; Grandjean, Didier; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2014-12-01

    Rhythmic entrainment is an important component of emotion induction by music, but brain circuits recruited during spontaneous entrainment of attention by music and the influence of the subjective emotional feelings evoked by music remain still largely unresolved. In this study we used fMRI to test whether the metric structure of music entrains brain activity and how music pleasantness influences such entrainment. Participants listened to piano music while performing a speeded visuomotor detection task in which targets appeared time-locked to either strong or weak beats. Each musical piece was presented in both a consonant/pleasant and dissonant/unpleasant version. Consonant music facilitated target detection and targets presented synchronously with strong beats were detected faster. FMRI showed increased activation of bilateral caudate nucleus when responding on strong beats, whereas consonance enhanced activity in attentional networks. Meter and consonance selectively interacted in the caudate nucleus, with greater meter effects during dissonant than consonant music. These results reveal that the basal ganglia, involved both in emotion and rhythm processing, critically contribute to rhythmic entrainment of subcortical brain circuits by music.

  20. Effects of Active Versus Passive Group Music Therapy on Preadolescents with Emotional, Learning, and Behavioral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Montello; Coons

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to compare the behavioral effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy vs. those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. It was hypothesized that preadolescents who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviors than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among subjects in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Twelve music therapy sessions were conducted over a 4-month period with three different groups of subjects (n = 16), with two groups participating in active music therapy and the other receiving passive music therapy. Results indicate that subjects improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in subjects was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of serf-expression in emotionally disturbed/learning disabled adolescents and provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Discussion of results also includes recommendations for chousing one music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of subjects.

  1. A Survey of Studies of Brain Activities Associated with Music Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Iku

    Music, to many of us, is an indispensable ingredient of life for some unknown reason. Recently, it has become a quite popular research target for a number of reasons. Like language, it is learned from childhood either passively or actively. Unlike language, it cannot convey any precisely defined meaning but nevertheless can move us and make us happy. Unlike language only a small percentage of people can become truely proficient even in listening. In this survey paper, we look at how music has attracted many researchers who are endeavoring to find out how music attracts so many people from professionals to laymen.

  2. Listening to Music During Cystoscopy Decreases Anxiety, Pain, and Dissatisfaction in Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Cho, Dae Yeon; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Seok San

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To determine whether listening to music during cystoscopy decreases anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction among patients and results in a more comfortable and better-tolerated procedure. Materials and Methods Seventy male patients who underwent rigid cystoscopy between May 2011 and December 2011 were randomized into the following: no music (Group I, n=35) or classical music during procedure (Group II, n=35). Before cystoscopy, lidocaine gel was instilled in the urethra, and both groups viewed their procedures on a video monitor. Anxiety levels were quantified according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale (0–10) was used for a self-assessment of satisfaction, discomfort, and willingness among patients to repeat the cystoscopy. Results Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration, and procedure indications were statistically similar between the two groups. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of Group II were significantly lower than those of Group I (p<0.001 for both). Group II also carried a significant greater mean satisfaction score compared with Group I (p<0.001). Statistically significant differences were detected between groups in the postprocedural pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure (p=0.012 and p=0.008, respectively), whereas preprocedure pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were similar. Conclusions Listening to music during rigid cystoscopy significantly reduces feelings of pain, discomfort, and dissatisfaction. Music can serve as a simple, inexpensive, and effective adjunct to sedation during cystoscopy. We recommend the application of music during rigid cystoscopy for clinical use. PMID:23009573

  3. Web-Based Assessment Tool for Communication and Active Listening Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The website "Active Listening" was developed within a larger project--"Interactive Web-based training in the subtleties of communication and active listening skill development." The Active Listening site aims to provide beginning counseling psychology students with didactic and experimental learning activities and interactive tests so that…

  4. Dynamics of brain activity underlying working memory for music in a naturalistic condition.

    PubMed

    Burunat, Iballa; Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Numminen, Jussi; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-08-01

    We aimed at determining the functional neuroanatomy of working memory (WM) recognition of musical motifs that occurs while listening to music by adopting a non-standard procedure. Western tonal music provides naturally occurring repetition and variation of motifs. These serve as WM triggers, thus allowing us to study the phenomenon of motif tracking within real music. Adopting a modern tango as stimulus, a behavioural test helped to identify the stimulus motifs and build a time-course regressor of WM neural responses. This regressor was then correlated with the participants' (musicians') functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal obtained during a continuous listening condition. In order to fine-tune the identification of WM processes in the brain, the variance accounted for by the sensory processing of a set of the stimulus' acoustic features was pruned from participants' neurovascular responses to music. Motivic repetitions activated prefrontal and motor cortical areas, basal ganglia, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures, and cerebellum. The findings suggest that WM processing of motifs while listening to music emerges from the integration of neural activity distributed over cognitive, motor and limbic subsystems. The recruitment of the hippocampus stands as a novel finding in auditory WM. Effective connectivity and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analyses indicate that the hippocampal connectivity is modulated by motif repetitions, showing strong connections with WM-relevant areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - dlPFC, supplementary motor area - SMA, and cerebellum), which supports the role of the hippocampus in the encoding of the musical motifs in WM, and may evidence long-term memory (LTM) formation, enabled by the use of a realistic listening condition.

  5. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  6. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  7. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  8. Sensorimotor adaptation is influenced by background music.

    PubMed

    Bock, Otmar

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that listening to music can modify subjects' cognitive performance. The present study evaluates whether this so-called Mozart Effect extends beyond cognitive tasks and includes sensorimotor adaptation. Three subject groups listened to musical pieces that in the author's judgment were serene, neutral, or sad, respectively. This judgment was confirmed by the subjects' introspective reports. While listening to music, subjects engaged in a pointing task that required them to adapt to rotated visual feedback. All three groups adapted successfully, but the speed and magnitude of adaptive improvement was more pronounced with serene music than with the other two music types. In contrast, aftereffects upon restoration of normal feedback were independent of music type. These findings support the existence of a "Mozart effect" for strategic movement control, but not for adaptive recalibration. Possibly, listening to music modifies neural activity in an intertwined cognitive-emotional network.

  9. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development.

    PubMed

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount of passive exposure to music. Furthermore, infants assigned to the active musical experience showed superior development of prelinguistic communicative gestures and social behaviour compared to infants assigned to the passive musical experience. These results indicate that (1) infants can engage in meaningful musical training when appropriate pedagogical approaches are used, (2) active musical participation in infancy enhances culture-specific musical acquisition, and (3) active musical participation in infancy impacts social and communication development.

  10. Common modulation of limbic network activation underlies musical emotions as they unfold.

    PubMed

    Singer, Neomi; Jacoby, Nori; Lin, Tamar; Raz, Gal; Shpigelman, Lavi; Gilam, Gadi; Granot, Roni Y; Hendler, Talma

    2016-11-01

    Music is a powerful means for communicating emotions among individuals. Here we reveal that this continuous stream of affective information is commonly represented in the brains of different listeners and that particular musical attributes mediate this link. We examined participants' brain responses to two naturalistic musical pieces using functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI). Following scanning, as participants listened to the musical pieces for a second time, they continuously indicated their emotional experience on scales of valence and arousal. These continuous reports were used along with a detailed annotation of the musical features, to predict a novel index of Dynamic Common Activation (DCA) derived from ten large-scale data-driven functional networks. We found an association between the unfolding music-induced emotionality and the DCA modulation within a vast network of limbic regions. The limbic-DCA modulation further corresponded with continuous changes in two temporal musical features: beat-strength and tempo. Remarkably, this "collective limbic sensitivity" to temporal features was found to mediate the link between limbic-DCA and the reported emotionality. An additional association with the emotional experience was found in a left fronto-parietal network, but only among a sub-group of participants with a high level of musical experience (>5years). These findings may indicate two processing-levels underlying the unfolding of common music emotionality; (1) a widely shared core-affective process that is confined to a limbic network and mediated by temporal regularities in music and (2) an experience based process that is rooted in a left fronto-parietal network that may involve functioning of the 'mirror-neuron system'. PMID:27389788

  11. Listening to Music: Helping Children Regulate Their Emotions and Improve Learning in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Lucille M.

    2009-01-01

    Early education teachers are familiar with using music and rhythm as tools for learning language and building memory. However, the potential of music to help across all special education settings is largely unexplored. Work with music has been widely judged helpful in cases of psychological trauma, yet people do not know why it is helpful. The…

  12. Broaden Students' Music Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Blanc, Albert

    1983-01-01

    A model of music preference theory suggests ways that teachers can broaden their students' musical preferences. Teachers can change preferences by changing something in the listener, the social environment, the music, or the ways that the listener processes information. (AM)

  13. The Music within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Rekha S.

    2010-01-01

    Providing opportunity for musical exploration is essential to any early childhood program. Through music making, children are actively engaged with their senses: they listen to the complex sounds around them, move their bodies to the rhythms, and touch and feel the textures and shapes of the instruments. The inimitable strength of the Montessori…

  14. Active Listening Strategies of Academically Successful University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Murat; Kuzu, Sekvan; Yildirim, Bilal; Canpolat, Sevilay

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In formal educational environments, the quality of student listening affects learning considerably. Students who are uninterested in a lesson listen reluctantly, wanting time to pass quickly and the class to end as soon as possible. In such situations, students become passive and, though appearing to be listening, will not use…

  15. Web-Based Music Study: The Effects of Listening Repetition, Song Likeability, and Song Understandability on EFL Learning Perceptions and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Robert E.; Chuang, Yuangshan

    2008-01-01

    This study adds to the body of empirical knowledge regarding the use of music in the EFL classroom. This original investigation centered around the following question: Does listening repetition, song likeability, and/or song understandability influence learning environment perceptions, learning perceptions, and/or learning outcomes in Taiwanese…

  16. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel; Mouridsen, Kim; Ostergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Music is experienced and understood on the basis of foreground/background relationships and tension created between actual music and the underlying meter. Polyrhythms create tension between a counter meter and the main meter. Previously, we have shown that Brodmann area 47 (BA47), a brain area associated with processing of language, is activated bilaterally when musicians tap the main meter in a polymetric context emphasizing a counter meter, suggesting that processing of metric elements in music relies on brain areas also involved in language processing. In that study, the tension was created entirely by changes in the stimulus while participants were tapping the main meter. Here we find left-hemispheric BA47 activation in response to a self-produced counter meter on top of a main meter provided by an ecological music excerpt. This data indicates that the activation is linked to polyrhythmic tension, regardless of whether it arises from the stimulus or the task.

  17. Musical Experience: An Aid to the Development of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLullich, Helen H.

    Since all preschool children do not have fully developed listening abilities, a program of musical activities is useful for teachers as a diagnostic tool and as an enjoyable way to improve children's listening skills. A five stage program, involving (1) short span listening, (2) active responses to aural stimuli, (3) creative expression, (4)…

  18. Musical feedback during exercise machine workout enhances mood

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas H.; Halfpaap, Johanna; Grahl, Sophia; Kirkland, Ambika; Villringer, Arno

    2013-01-01

    Music making has a number of beneficial effects for motor tasks compared to passive music listening. Given that recent research suggests that high energy musical activities elevate positive affect more strongly than low energy musical activities, we here investigated a recent method that combined music making with systematically increasing physiological arousal by exercise machine workout. We compared mood and anxiety after two exercise conditions on non-cyclical exercise machines, one with passive music listening and the other with musical feedback (where participants could make music with the exercise machines). The results showed that agency during exercise machine workout (an activity we previously labeled jymmin – a cross between jammin and gym) had an enhancing effect on mood compared to workout with passive music listening. Furthermore, the order in which the conditions were presented mediated the effect of musical agency for this subscale when participants first listened passively, the difference in mood between the two conditions was greater, suggesting that a stronger increase in hormone levels (e.g., endorphins) during the active condition may have caused the observed effect. Given an enhanced mood after training with musical feedback compared to passively listening to the same type of music during workout, the results suggest that exercise machine workout with musical feedback (jymmin) makes the act of exercise machine training more desirable. PMID:24368905

  19. Musical feedback during exercise machine workout enhances mood.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Thomas H; Halfpaap, Johanna; Grahl, Sophia; Kirkland, Ambika; Villringer, Arno

    2013-01-01

    Music making has a number of beneficial effects for motor tasks compared to passive music listening. Given that recent research suggests that high energy musical activities elevate positive affect more strongly than low energy musical activities, we here investigated a recent method that combined music making with systematically increasing physiological arousal by exercise machine workout. We compared mood and anxiety after two exercise conditions on non-cyclical exercise machines, one with passive music listening and the other with musical feedback (where participants could make music with the exercise machines). The results showed that agency during exercise machine workout (an activity we previously labeled jymmin - a cross between jammin and gym) had an enhancing effect on mood compared to workout with passive music listening. Furthermore, the order in which the conditions were presented mediated the effect of musical agency for this subscale when participants first listened passively, the difference in mood between the two conditions was greater, suggesting that a stronger increase in hormone levels (e.g., endorphins) during the active condition may have caused the observed effect. Given an enhanced mood after training with musical feedback compared to passively listening to the same type of music during workout, the results suggest that exercise machine workout with musical feedback (jymmin) makes the act of exercise machine training more desirable. PMID:24368905

  20. The Relationship of Listening to Classical Music on First Graders' Ability To Retain Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Erin

    In traditional reading and CARE lessons (a curriculum used to help students learn to read and identify sounds), music is not played to enhance the learning environment. However, some studies have shown that when music is played during learning experiences there is more retention of the material. This research project compared the traditional…

  1. The Impact of Background Music on Adult Listeners: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Juliane; Sedlmeier, Peter; Renkewitz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background music has been found to have beneficial, detrimental, or no effect on a variety of behavioral and psychological outcome measures. This article reports a meta-analysis that attempts to summarize the impact of background music. A global analysis shows a null effect, but a detailed examination of the studies that allow the calculation of…

  2. Listen to the Fans: Elementary School Teachers Can Pique Students' Interest in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines how fandom for popular music can he used to enhance students' music experiences in and out of the classroom. Examples are given from the author's own teaching in elementary school and from an ongoing study he has been conducting with preservice teachers undertaking teaching practicum experiences in schools where there is a…

  3. Listening with a Whole Mind: Holistic Learning in the Music Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxcia-Bibbins, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on using a holistic learning approach in music education. Offers two lessons that were influenced by an instructional model called 4MAT and studies of modality and brain research in order to implement holistic learning. Explains that hands-on learning and action are both fundamental concepts in music education philosophy also. (CMK)

  4. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings.

  5. The effects of listening to music or viewing television on human gait.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Findlay, Briar; Merey, Celeste; Chau, Tom

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-part study with walking conditions involving music and television (TV) to investigate their effects on human gait. In the first part, we observed seventeen able-bodied adults as they participated in three 15-minute walking trials: (1) without music, (2) with music and (3) without music again. In the second part, we observed fifteen able-bodied adults as they walked on a treadmill for 15 min while watching (1) TV with sound (2) TV without sound and (3) TV with subtitles but no sound. Gait timing was recorded via bilateral heel sensors and center-of-mass accelerations were measured by tri-axial accelerometers. Measures of statistical persistence, dynamic stability and gait variability were calculated. Our results showed that none of the considered gait measures were statistically different when comparing music with no-music trials. Therefore, walking to music did not appear to affect intrinsic walking dynamics in the able-bodied adult population. However, stride interval variability and stride interval dynamics were significantly greater in the TV with sound walking condition when compared to the TV with subtitles condition. Treadmill walking while watching TV with subtitles alters intrinsic gait dynamics but potentially offers greater gait stability.

  6. Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing the Model of College English Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Activity theory signifies that activities are at the centre of human behaviour and it has been used to study cognitive process in many fields. Nowadays, college English listening learning is time-consuming but less effective in China, so enhancing the performance of listening instruction is a very hot topic. Theoretically, activity theory is able…

  7. The Effects of YouTube Listening/Viewing Activities on Taiwanese EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Li-Li

    2009-01-01

    Declared the year of YouTube, 2007 was hailed as bringing a technological revolution in relation to pedagogy, one that may provide more convenient access to materials for language input, such as auditory, visual, and other types of authentic resources in order to promote advancement in all four language learning skills--listening, speaking,…

  8. Changes in the representation of space and time while listening to music

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg; Smukalla, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to alter people's ordinary experience of space and time. Not only does this challenge the concept of invariant space and time tacitly assumed in psychology but it may also help us understand how music works and how music can be understood as an embodied experience. Yet research about these alterations is in its infancy. This review is intended to delineate a future research agenda. We review experimental evidence and subjective reports of the influence of music on the representation of space and time and present prominent approaches to explaining these effects. We discuss the role of absorption and altered states of consciousness and their associated changes in attention and neurophysiological processes, as well as prominent models of human time processing and time experience. After integrating the reviewed research, we conclude that research on the influence of music on the representation of space and time is still quite inconclusive but that integrating the different approaches could lead to a better understanding of the observed effects. We also provide a working model that integrates a large part of the evidence and theories. Several suggestions for further research in both music psychology and cognitive psychology are outlined. PMID:23964254

  9. Changes in the representation of space and time while listening to music.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg; Smukalla, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to alter people's ordinary experience of space and time. Not only does this challenge the concept of invariant space and time tacitly assumed in psychology but it may also help us understand how music works and how music can be understood as an embodied experience. Yet research about these alterations is in its infancy. This review is intended to delineate a future research agenda. We review experimental evidence and subjective reports of the influence of music on the representation of space and time and present prominent approaches to explaining these effects. We discuss the role of absorption and altered states of consciousness and their associated changes in attention and neurophysiological processes, as well as prominent models of human time processing and time experience. After integrating the reviewed research, we conclude that research on the influence of music on the representation of space and time is still quite inconclusive but that integrating the different approaches could lead to a better understanding of the observed effects. We also provide a working model that integrates a large part of the evidence and theories. Several suggestions for further research in both music psychology and cognitive psychology are outlined.

  10. Speech and music shape the listening brain: evidence for shared domain-general mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; McQueen, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Are there bi-directional influences between speech perception and music perception? An answer to this question is essential for understanding the extent to which the speech and music that we hear are processed by domain-general auditory processes and/or by distinct neural auditory mechanisms. This review summarizes a large body of behavioral and neuroscientific findings which suggest that the musical experience of trained musicians does modulate speech processing, and a sparser set of data, largely on pitch processing, which suggest in addition that linguistic experience, in particular learning a tone language, modulates music processing. Although research has focused mostly on music on speech effects, we argue that both directions of influence need to be studied, and conclude that the picture which thus emerges is one of mutual interaction across domains. In particular, it is not simply that experience with spoken language has some effects on music perception, and vice versa, but that because of shared domain-general subcortical and cortical networks, experiences in both domains influence behavior in both domains. PMID:23761776

  11. The bias of "music-infected consciousness": the aesthetics of listening in the laboratory and on the city streets of Fin-de-Siècle Berlin and Vienna.

    PubMed

    Hui, Alexandra E

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in the psychophysical study of sound sensation reinforced the changing status of musical expertise in the nineteenth century. The Carl Stumpf-Wilhelm Wundt debate about tone-differentiation experimentation narrowed the conception of hearing. For Stumpf, "music consciousness" (Musikbewusstsein) granted the experimental subjects exceptional insight into sound sensation. This belief reflected a cultural reevaluation of listening, exemplified in music critic Eduard Hanslick decrying the scourge of the city: the piano playing of the neighbors. Stumpf and Hanslick's defenses of subjective musical expertise both inside the laboratory and on the city streets reveal the increasingly divergent conceptions of hearing and listening.

  12. Music Listening Preferences in Early Life: Infants' Responses to Accompanied versus Unaccompanied Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilari, Beatriz; Sundara, Megha

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated infant listening preferences for two versions of an unfamiliar Chinese children's song: unaccompanied (i.e., voice only) and accompanied (i.e., voice and instrumental accompaniment). Three groups of 5-, 8- and 11-month-old infants were tested using the Headturn Preference Procedure. A general linear model analysis of…

  13. Empathy manipulation impacts music-induced emotions: a psychophysiological study on opera.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C; Balteş, Felicia Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntarily empathizing with a musical performer (i.e., cognitive empathy) on music-induced emotions and their underlying physiological activity. N = 56 participants watched video-clips of two operatic compositions performed in concerts, with low or high empathy instructions. Heart rate and heart rate variability, skin conductance level (SCL), and respiration rate (RR) were measured during music listening, and music-induced emotions were quantified using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale immediately after music listening. Listening to the aria with sad content in a high empathy condition facilitated the emotion of nostalgia and decreased SCL, in comparison to the low empathy condition. Listening to the song with happy content in a high empathy condition also facilitated the emotion of power and increased RR, in comparison to the low empathy condition. To our knowledge, this study offers the first experimental evidence that cognitive empathy influences emotion psychophysiology during music listening.

  14. Empathy Manipulation Impacts Music-Induced Emotions: A Psychophysiological Study on Opera

    PubMed Central

    Miu, Andrei C.; Balteş, Felicia Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntarily empathizing with a musical performer (i.e., cognitive empathy) on music-induced emotions and their underlying physiological activity. N = 56 participants watched video-clips of two operatic compositions performed in concerts, with low or high empathy instructions. Heart rate and heart rate variability, skin conductance level (SCL), and respiration rate (RR) were measured during music listening, and music-induced emotions were quantified using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale immediately after music listening. Listening to the aria with sad content in a high empathy condition facilitated the emotion of nostalgia and decreased SCL, in comparison to the low empathy condition. Listening to the song with happy content in a high empathy condition also facilitated the emotion of power and increased RR, in comparison to the low empathy condition. To our knowledge, this study offers the first experimental evidence that cognitive empathy influences emotion psychophysiology during music listening. PMID:22292000

  15. Effects of listening to music with headphones on hearing--especially under noisy conditions.

    PubMed

    Miyake, S; Kumashiro, M

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of exposure to music using headphones under noisy conditions on hearing. The most comfortable loudness (MCL) for three kinds of music (Rock, Popular, Japanese songs) decided by two normal hearing subjects was measured under 6 noisy conditions (Train, Subway, Tram, Bus, Underground, Street) in a soundproof room. In the same manner, the MCL of favorite tunes of five subjects were measured. Temporary threshold shift 2 min after exposure (TTS2) to music for 30 min at the highest MCL was obtained. Furthermore, the characteristics such as spectral structures in one-third octave band or level fluctuations (coefficient of variation) were obtained for noise and music and compared. Statistical analysis revealed that MCL in Street was significantly higher than under other conditions and there was no significant differences in MCL among the various types of music. However, the highest MCL was found for Rock. About 20 dB of TTS was observed in one ear and the hazardous of headphones use in noisy conditions was suggested.

  16. A Model for Speech Processing in Second Language Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoghbor, Wafa Shahada

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' understanding of the process of speech perception could inform practice in listening classrooms. Catford (1950) developed a model for speech perception taking into account the influence of the acoustic features of the linguistic forms used by the speaker, whereby the listener "identifies" and "interprets" these…

  17. Discovering Me: Music Activities for Special Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.; And Others

    The book contains information on musical activities which were field tested in Project PASE (Program in the Arts for Special Education, Pennsylvania) classrooms with a wide range of exceptionalities from preschool age to adolescence. Activities are seen to help children become more aware of their bodies, feelings, and themselves; feel important…

  18. The Effect of Activating Metacognitive Strategies on the Listening Performance and Metacognitive Awareness of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimirad, Maryam; Shams, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of activating metacognitive strategies on the listening performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) university students and explores the impact of such strategies on their metacognitive awareness of the listening task. The participants were N = 50 students of English literature at the state university of…

  19. The Effect of Listening to Music on Iranian Children's Segmental and Suprasegmental Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Fereshteh; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether children learning English by music can improve their ability in segmental and suprasegmental pronunciation or not. In this regard, three hypotheses were proposed. A total of 30 female elementary students with the age between 9 to 12 years old were chosen. They were learning English in a private…

  20. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  1. Improving Pupil Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Listening is relevant in all academic disciplines and in the "curriculum of life." The purpose or reasons for listening depend upon the speaking activity involved--thus listening in a conversation is different from listening to follow directions. The teacher needs to establish clear purposes or objectives for learners in the area of listening. To…

  2. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  3. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  4. Musical activity and emotional competence – a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Töres P.; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Mosing, Miriam A.; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that musical activities may contribute to the prevention of alexithymia. We tested whether musical creative achievement and musical practice are associated with lower alexithymia. 8000 Swedish twins aged 27–54 were studied. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Musical achievement was rated on a 7-graded scale. Participants estimated number of hours of music practice during different ages throughout life. A total life estimation of number of accumulated hours was made. They were also asked about ensemble playing. In addition, twin modelling was used to explore the genetic architecture of the relation between musical practice and alexithymia. Alexithymia was negatively associated with (i) musical creative achievement, (ii) having played a musical instrument as compared to never having played, and – for the subsample of participants that had played an instrument – (iii) total hours of musical training (r = -0.12 in men and -0.10 in women). Ensemble playing added significant variance. Twin modelling showed that alexithymia had a moderate heritability of 36% and that the association with musical practice could be explained by shared genetic influences. Associations between musical training and alexithymia remained significant when controlling for education, depression, and intelligence. Musical achievement and musical practice are associated with lower levels of alexithymia in both men and women. Musical engagement thus appears to be associated with higher emotional competence, although effect sizes are small. The association between musical training and alexithymia appears to be entirely genetically mediated, suggesting genetic pleiotropy. PMID:25076933

  5. Extreme Metal Music and Anger Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.

    2015-01-01

    The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277

  6. Equipment and Materials for Initiating Musical Activities in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel D.

    Music activities are an important part of the preschool experience, yet these activities are often guided by teachers who have had little musical training. Lack of formal music training can be greatly compensated for by access to quality equipment and materials. These resources include a basic accompanying instrument, toy instruments, a durable…

  7. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Charles T.; Teie, David

    2010-01-01

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech (‘motherese’) influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state. PMID:19726444

  8. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Teie, David

    2010-02-23

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech ('motherese') influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state.

  9. Tuned In Emotion Regulation Program Using Music Listening: Effectiveness for Adolescents in Educational Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dingle, Genevieve A.; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 “at risk” adolescents (76% males; Mage = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; Mage = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller “at risk” sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required. PMID:27375537

  10. Tuned In Emotion Regulation Program Using Music Listening: Effectiveness for Adolescents in Educational Settings.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 "at risk" adolescents (76% males; M age = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; M age = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller "at risk" sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required.

  11. Tuned In Emotion Regulation Program Using Music Listening: Effectiveness for Adolescents in Educational Settings.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 "at risk" adolescents (76% males; M age = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; M age = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller "at risk" sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required. PMID:27375537

  12. Mozart, music and medicine.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. PMID:25060169

  13. Mozart, music and medicine.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress.

  14. Musical Imagination: Perception and Production, Beauty and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In our recently-published book "Musical Imaginations" (Hargreaves, Miell, & MacDonald, 2012), I suggest that the creative aspects of music "listening" have been neglected, and that putting these at the centre of musical creativity (which is usually seen as being manifested in the activities of composition, improvisation and performance) can lead…

  15. Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

  16. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  17. Empirical analysis of individual popularity and activity on an online music service system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-Bo; Han, Ding-Yi

    2008-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human behaviors supplies basic comprehension of the dynamics of many socio-economic systems. Based on the log data of an online music service system, we investigate the statistical characteristics of individual activity and popularity, and find that the distributions of both of them follow a stretched exponential form which interpolates between exponential and power law distribution. We also study the human dynamics on the online system and find that the distribution of interevent time between two consecutive listenings of music shows the fat tail feature. Besides, with the reduction of user activity the fat tail becomes more and more irregular, indicating different behavior patterns for users with diverse activities. The research results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of collective behaviors in socio-economic systems.

  18. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L J M; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving performance. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether individually selected music can induce mood and maintain moods during a simulated drive. In addition, effects of positive, negative, and no music on driving behaviour and physiological measures were assessed for normal and high cognitive demanding rides. Subjective mood ratings indicated that music successfully maintained mood while driving. Narrow lane width drives increased task demand as shown in effort ratings and increased swerving. Furthermore, respiration rate was lower during music listening compared to rides without music, while no effects of music were found on heart rate. Overall, the current study demonstrates that music listening in car influences the experienced mood while driving, which in turn can impact driving behaviour. PRACTITIONERS SUMMARY: Even though it is a popular activity, little is known about the impact of music while driving on physiological state and performance. We examined whether music can induce moods during high and low simulated drives. The current study demonstrates that in car music listening influences mood which in turn can impact driving behaviour. The current study shows that listening to music can positively impact mood while driving, which can be used to affect state and safe behaviour. Additionally, driving performance in high demand situations is not negatively affected by music.

  19. Listener Habits and Choices — and Their Implications for Public Performance Venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DODD, G.

    2001-01-01

    An 11-year longitudinal survey of patterns and preferences in music listening has revealed that a large majority of people would prefer to listen to music performed live but that only a small percentage of their exposure to music actually occurs at live performances. An initial analysis of the first few years of the survey suggests that choices concerning music can be influenced by cultural background, and that predominant music sources change as new technology becomes available. Reasons given by listeners for preferring to listen to a traditional, mechanical instrument rather than an electro-acoustic version of it indicate they are sensitive to an “originality” criterion. As a consequence, concert halls should be designed to operate as passive acoustics spaces. Further, listeners' reasons for electing to attend a live performance rather than listen to a recording or a live broadcast suggest that hall designers should try to maximize the sense of two-way communication between performers and listeners. An implication of this is that where active acoustics systems are to be incorporated in variable acoustics auditoria, those active systems which use a non-in-line approach are to be preferred over in-line schemes. However, listener evolution and new expectations may require a fundamental change in our approach to the acoustics of live performance venues.

  20. Listening Skills in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grognet, Allene; Van Duzer, Carol

    This article examines the listening process and factors affecting listening. It also suggests general guidelines for teaching and assessing listening and gives examples of activities for practicing and developing listening skills for the workplace. Listening is a demanding process that involves the listener, speaker, message content, and…

  1. Listening to Learn: Boosting Vocabulary with Interactive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    Despite being one of our most important and most often used modalities, listening is an area of language instruction that is often overlooked by teachers and researchers alike as fertile ground for the enhancement of students' vocabulary knowledge. For low-level learners, especially those not in full control of the first 2000 most-frequent words…

  2. Understanding Musical Activity and Musical Learning as Sign Processes: Toward a Semiotic Approach to Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spychiger, Maria B.

    2001-01-01

    A view on music within the framework depicted in this article will show, first of all, that music is part of the semiotically organized connections between living creatures. Music is universally present in human culture, and if music is, as Francis Sparshott says, a system of its own, with elements such as intervals, keys, and scales that are…

  3. [Influence of music different in volume and style on human recognition activity].

    PubMed

    Pavlygina, R A; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I; Avdonkin, A V

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of recognition of masked visual images (Arabic numerals) under conditions of listening to classical (intensity 62 dB) or rock music (25 dB) increased. Coherence of potential in the frontal cortical region characteristic of the masked image recognition increased under conditions of listening to music. The changes in intercenter EEG relations were correlated with the formation of "the recognition dominant" at the behavioral level. Such behavioral and EEG changes were not observed during listening to louder music (85 dB) and listening to music of other styles, however, the coherence between potentials of the temporal and motor areas of the right hemisphere increased, and the latency of hand motor reactions decreased. The results suggest that the "recognition dominant" is formed under conditions of establishment of certain relations between the levels of excitation in the corresponding centers. These findings should be taken into consideration in case if it were necessary to increase the efficiency of the recognition.

  4. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. PMID:26778996

  5. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. PMID:26778996

  6. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 1--Art and Music Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    First of a series of 6 publications containing environmental education activities, this booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center describes 12 environmentally-based art and music activities for elementary and intermediate grades. Each activity description contains objectives, preparation, materials, directions, student evaluation, and…

  7. Home Listening Practices of Parents, Infants, and Toddlers: A Survey of Parents Enrolled in Early Childhood Music Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lani

    2014-01-01

    A national survey by Custodero & Johnson-Green (2003) examined how parents experienced music with their infants, and found that many reported playing and singing music frequently. More than half of the parents described playing recorded music for their children daily, and parents who had played an instrument and taken music lessons themselves…

  8. Music perception.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana

    2007-05-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between music perception as it is studied in the laboratory and as it occurs in the real world. We first examine general principles by which listeners group musical tones into perceptual configurations, and how these principles are implemented in music composition and performance. We then show that, for certain types of configuration, the music as it is perceived can differ substantially from the music that is notated in the score, or as might be imagined from reading the score. Furthermore, there are striking differences between listeners in the perception of certain musical passages. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Emotions induced by operatic music: psychophysiological effects of music, plot, and acting: a scientist's tribute to Maria Callas.

    PubMed

    Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Avram, Julia; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C

    2011-06-01

    Operatic music involves both singing and acting (as well as rich audiovisual background arising from the orchestra and elaborate scenery and costumes) that multiply the mechanisms by which emotions are induced in listeners. The present study investigated the effects of music, plot, and acting performance on emotions induced by opera. There were three experimental conditions: (1) participants listened to a musically complex and dramatically coherent excerpt from Tosca; (2) they read a summary of the plot and listened to the same musical excerpt again; and (3) they re-listened to music while they watched the subtitled film of this acting performance. In addition, a control condition was included, in which an independent sample of participants succesively listened three times to the same musical excerpt. We measured subjective changes using both dimensional, and specific music-induced emotion questionnaires. Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory responses were also recorded, and the participants kept track of their musical chills. Music listening alone elicited positive emotion and autonomic arousal, seen in faster heart rate, but slower respiration rate and reduced skin conductance. Knowing the (sad) plot while listening to the music a second time reduced positive emotions (peacefulness, joyful activation), and increased negative ones (sadness), while high autonomic arousal was maintained. Watching the acting performance increased emotional arousal and changed its valence again (from less positive/sad to transcendent), in the context of continued high autonomic arousal. The repeated exposure to music did not by itself induce this pattern of modifications. These results indicate that the multiple musical and dramatic means involved in operatic performance specifically contribute to the genesis of music-induced emotions and their physiological correlates.

  10. Neural Correlates of Boredom in Music Perception

    PubMed Central

    Fakhr Tabatabaie, Ashkan; Azadehfar, Mohammad Reza; Mirian, Negin; Noroozian, Maryam; Yoonessi, Ahmad; Saebipour, Mohammad Reza; Yoonessi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Music can elicit powerful emotional responses, the neural correlates of which have not been properly understood. An important aspect about the quality of any musical piece is its ability to elicit a sense of excitement in the listeners. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of boredom evoked by music in human subjects. Methods: We used EEG recording in nine subjects while they were listening to total number of 10 short-length (83 sec) musical pieces with various boredom indices. Subjects evaluated boringness of musical pieces while their EEG was recording. Results: Using short time Fourier analysis, we found that beta 2 rhythm was (16–20 Hz) significantly lower whenever the subjects rated the music as boring in comparison to non-boring. Discussion: The results demonstrate that the music modulates neural activity of various parts of the brain and can be measured using EEG. PMID:27284390

  11. Music Appreciation Scores!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergad, Ruth

    1980-01-01

    The author explains to the classroom teacher how to make music listening a daily part of early childhood education. She suggests a number of specific musical works--from the classics through rock music-- that young children will enjoy. (SJL)

  12. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  13. Against Music as Communication: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafine, Mary Louise

    1980-01-01

    Referring to the writings of L. Meyer, the author analyzes the view of music which emphasizes transmission of meaning and hence the reception and perception processes of the listener. She proposes an alternate view of music as an active mental construction and considers the teaching implications of both theories. (Author/SJL)

  14. Musical groove modulates motor cortex excitability: a TMS investigation.

    PubMed

    Stupacher, Jan; Hove, Michael J; Novembre, Giacomo; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Keller, Peter E

    2013-07-01

    Groove is often described as a musical quality that can induce movement in a listener. This study examines the effects of listening to groove music on corticospinal excitability. Musicians and non-musicians listened to high-groove music, low-groove music, and spectrally matched noise, while receiving single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex either on-beat or off-beat. We examined changes in the amplitude of the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), recorded from hand and arm muscles, as an index of activity within the motor system. Musicians and non-musicians rated groove similarly. MEP results showed that high-groove music modulated corticospinal excitability, whereas no difference occurred between low-groove music and noise. More specifically, musicians' MEPs were larger with high-groove than low-groove music, and this effect was especially pronounced for on-beat compared to off-beat pulses. These results indicate that high-groove music increasingly engages the motor system, and the temporal modulation of corticospinal excitability with the beat could stem from tight auditory-motor links in musicians. Conversely, non-musicians' MEPs were smaller for high-groove than low-groove music, and there was no effect of on- versus off-beat pulses, potentially stemming from suppression of overt movement. In sum, high-groove music engages the motor system, and previous training modulates how listening to music with a strong groove activates the motor system.

  15. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. PMID:26354957

  16. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music.

    PubMed

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of musical backgrounds were asked to compare 2 recordings of the same composition (15 pairs, grouped in 3 musical genres), 1 of which was tempo-transformed (manipulating the expressive timing). The results show that expressive timing judgments are not so much influenced by expertise levels, as is suggested by the expertise hypothesis, but by exposure to a certain musical idiom, as is suggested by the exposure hypothesis. As such, the current study provides evidence for the idea that some musical capabilities are acquired through mere exposure to music, and that these abilities are more likely enhanced by active listening (exposure) than by formal musical training (expertise).

  17. Reducing the risk of music-induced hearing loss from overuse of portable listening devices: understanding the problems and establishing strategies for improving awareness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Portnuff, Cory Df

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the "80-90 rule" and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise. PMID:26929674

  18. Reducing the risk of music-induced hearing loss from overuse of portable listening devices: understanding the problems and establishing strategies for improving awareness in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Portnuff, Cory DF

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the “80–90 rule” and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise. PMID:26929674

  19. The Rhythm of Language: Fostering Oral and Listening Skills in Singapore Pre-School Children through an Integrated Music and Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda; Chong, Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a year-long integrated language and music program (the Expressive Language and Music Project) to enhance Singaporean kindergartners' English oral-language competency. Found that the natural communicative setting and creative use of resources and activities based on the Orff and Kodaly approaches facilitated language…

  20. The Band Effect—Physically Strenuous Music Making Increases Esthetic Appreciation of Music

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas H.; Schneider, Lydia; Villringer, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal esthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed esthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants esthetically assessed similar music). Data are reported from two experiments with different patient groups: 1. Drug abuse patients, and 2. Chronic pain patients. Participants in both experiments performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments esthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more esthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion) is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived esthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal esthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical

  1. Moving to Music: Effects of Heard and Imagined Musical Cues on Movement-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.; Morcom, Alexa M.; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations. PMID:25309407

  2. Moving to music: effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Morcom, Alexa M; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  3. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  4. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings. PMID:25847861

  5. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Purabed, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  6. Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Blood, A J; Zatorre, R J; Bermudez, P; Evans, A C

    1999-04-01

    Neural correlates of the often-powerful emotional responses to music are poorly understood. Here we used positron emission tomography to examine cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes related to affective responses to music. Ten volunteers were scanned while listening to six versions of a novel musical passage varying systematically in degree of dissonance. Reciprocal CBF covariations were observed in several distinct paralimbic and neocortical regions as a function of dissonance and of perceived pleasantness/unpleasantness. The findings suggest that music may recruit neural mechanisms similar to those previously associated with pleasant/unpleasant emotional states, but different from those underlying other components of music perception, and other emotions such as fear.

  7. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  8. Investigation of musicality in birdsong.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, David; Roeske, Tina C; Voss, Henning U; Naguib, Marc; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2014-02-01

    Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches-and the transitions between acoustic states-affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for investigating how birdsong, like human music, employs the above "musical" features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for investigating whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to music's effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners' emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function - to affect behavioral state in listeners - could

  9. SmartMusicKIOSK: Music-playback interface based on chorus-section detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masataka

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes SmartMusicKIOSK, a new music-playback interface for trial listening. Traditionally in music stores, customers often search out the chorus or ``hook'' of a song by repeatedly pressing the fast-forward button, rather than passively listening to the music. This activity is not well-supported by current technology. This research achieves a function for jumping to the chorus section and other key parts of a song, plus a function for visualizing song structure. These functions eliminate the hassle of searching for the chorus and make it easier for a listener to find desired parts of a song, thereby facilitating an active listening experience. This interface, which enables a listener to look for a section of interest by interactively changing the playback position, is useful not only for trial listening but also for more general purposes in selecting and using music. The proposed functions are achieved through an automatic audio-based chorus-section detection method that can detect all the chorus sections by analyzing relationships between various repeated sections in a song. It can also detect modulated chorus sections by introducing an acoustic similarity that enables modulated repetition to be judged correctly. The results of implementing this method in SmartMusicKIOSK have demonstrated its usefulness.

  10. Clinical and Demographic Factors Associated with the Cognitive and Emotional Efficacy of Regular Musical Activities in Dementia.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Laitinen, Sari; Numminen, Ava; Kurki, Merja; Johnson, Julene K; Rantanen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that music-based interventions can be beneficial in maintaining cognitive, emotional, and social functioning in persons with dementia (PWDs). Our aim was to determine how clinical, demographic, and musical background factors influence the cognitive and emotional efficacy of caregiver-implemented musical activities in PWDs. In a randomized controlled trial, 89 PWD-caregiver dyads received a 10-week music coaching intervention involving either singing or music listening or standard care. Extensive neuropsychological testing and mood and quality of life (QoL) measures were performed before and after the intervention (n = 84) and six months later (n = 74). The potential effects of six key background variables (dementia etiology and severity, age, care situation, singing/instrument playing background) on the outcome of the intervention were assessed. Singing was beneficial especially in improving working memory in PWDs with mild dementia and in maintaining executive function and orientation in younger PWDs. Music listening was beneficial in supporting general cognition, working memory, and QoL especially in PWDs with moderate dementia not caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) who were in institutional care. Both music interventions alleviated depression especially in PWDs with mild dementia and AD. The musical background of the PWD did not influence the efficacy of the music interventions. Our findings suggest that clinical and demographic factors can influence the cognitive and emotional efficacy of caregiver-implemented musical activities and are, therefore, recommended to take into account when applying and developing the intervention to achieve the greatest benefit. PMID:26519435

  11. Clinical and Demographic Factors Associated with the Cognitive and Emotional Efficacy of Regular Musical Activities in Dementia.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Laitinen, Sari; Numminen, Ava; Kurki, Merja; Johnson, Julene K; Rantanen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that music-based interventions can be beneficial in maintaining cognitive, emotional, and social functioning in persons with dementia (PWDs). Our aim was to determine how clinical, demographic, and musical background factors influence the cognitive and emotional efficacy of caregiver-implemented musical activities in PWDs. In a randomized controlled trial, 89 PWD-caregiver dyads received a 10-week music coaching intervention involving either singing or music listening or standard care. Extensive neuropsychological testing and mood and quality of life (QoL) measures were performed before and after the intervention (n = 84) and six months later (n = 74). The potential effects of six key background variables (dementia etiology and severity, age, care situation, singing/instrument playing background) on the outcome of the intervention were assessed. Singing was beneficial especially in improving working memory in PWDs with mild dementia and in maintaining executive function and orientation in younger PWDs. Music listening was beneficial in supporting general cognition, working memory, and QoL especially in PWDs with moderate dementia not caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) who were in institutional care. Both music interventions alleviated depression especially in PWDs with mild dementia and AD. The musical background of the PWD did not influence the efficacy of the music interventions. Our findings suggest that clinical and demographic factors can influence the cognitive and emotional efficacy of caregiver-implemented musical activities and are, therefore, recommended to take into account when applying and developing the intervention to achieve the greatest benefit.

  12. The Effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Music Listening Sensitivity and Music Listening Enjoyment. The type of mindfulness investigated in this study was of the social-psychological type, which shares both commonalities with and distinctions from meditative mindfulness. Enhanced context awareness,…

  13. The Effects of Music Composition as a Classroom Activity on Engagement in Music Education and Academic and Music Achievement: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogenes, Michel; van Oers, Bert; Diekstra, René F. W.; Sklad, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of the effects of music education, in particular music composition as a classroom activity for fifth- and sixth-graders. The intervention (experimental condition) focused on a three-step-model for music composition, based on the Cultural Historical Activity Theory of education, and has been…

  14. Music Lending and Listening in Hospitals with Particular Reference to the Services Offered at Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, B.; Sorensen, M.

    Services provided by the library at Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, are discussed, including patient and personnel lending, exhibitions, films, nursing school library, medical library, and music lending. (RAO)

  15. Cross-cultural perspectives on music and musicality.

    PubMed

    Trehub, Sandra E; Becker, Judith; Morley, Iain

    2015-03-19

    Musical behaviours are universal across human populations and, at the same time, highly diverse in their structures, roles and cultural interpretations. Although laboratory studies of isolated listeners and music-makers have yielded important insights into sensorimotor and cognitive skills and their neural underpinnings, they have revealed little about the broader significance of music for individuals, peer groups and communities. This review presents a sampling of musical forms and coordinated musical activity across cultures, with the aim of highlighting key similarities and differences. The focus is on scholarly and everyday ideas about music--what it is and where it originates--as well the antiquity of music and the contribution of musical behaviour to ritual activity, social organization, caregiving and group cohesion. Synchronous arousal, action synchrony and imitative behaviours are among the means by which music facilitates social bonding. The commonalities and differences in musical forms and functions across cultures suggest new directions for ethnomusicology, music cognition and neuroscience, and a pivot away from the predominant scientific focus on instrumental music in the Western European tradition.

  16. Developing Students' Listening Metacognitive Strategies Using Online Videotext Self-Dictation-Generation Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…

  17. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  18. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  19. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  20. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    PubMed

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients. PMID:9584875

  1. Seizures induced by music.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, A O; Breen, H

    1993-01-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.

  2. Music and cerebral hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Marinoni, M; Grassi, E; Latorraca, S; Caruso, A; Sorbi, S

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies performed by positron emission tomography and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) found a different cerebral activation during musical stimuli in musicians compared to non-musicians. The aim of our study is to evaluate by means of TCD, possible different pattern of cerebral activation during the performance of different musical tasks in musicians, non-musicians and lyrical singers. Our findings show a left hemispheric activation in musicians and a right one in non-musicians. Preliminary data on lyrical singers' activation patterns need further confirmation with a larger population. These data could be related to a different approach to music listening in musicians (analytical) and non-musicians who are supposed to have an emotional approach to music. PMID:10942664

  3. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  4. Cross-cultural perspectives on music and musicality

    PubMed Central

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Becker, Judith; Morley, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Musical behaviours are universal across human populations and, at the same time, highly diverse in their structures, roles and cultural interpretations. Although laboratory studies of isolated listeners and music-makers have yielded important insights into sensorimotor and cognitive skills and their neural underpinnings, they have revealed little about the broader significance of music for individuals, peer groups and communities. This review presents a sampling of musical forms and coordinated musical activity across cultures, with the aim of highlighting key similarities and differences. The focus is on scholarly and everyday ideas about music—what it is and where it originates—as well the antiquity of music and the contribution of musical behaviour to ritual activity, social organization, caregiving and group cohesion. Synchronous arousal, action synchrony and imitative behaviours are among the means by which music facilitates social bonding. The commonalities and differences in musical forms and functions across cultures suggest new directions for ethnomusicology, music cognition and neuroscience, and a pivot away from the predominant scientific focus on instrumental music in the Western European tradition. PMID:25646519

  5. [Dementia and music].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia. PMID:19272287

  6. [Dementia and music].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia.

  7. Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

  8. Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity matters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

  9. Music therapy modulates fronto-temporal activity in rest-EEG in depressed clients.

    PubMed

    Fachner, Jörg; Gold, Christian; Erkkilä, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Fronto-temporal areas process shared elements of speech and music. Improvisational psychodynamic music therapy (MT) utilizes verbal and musical reflection on emotions and images arising from clinical improvisation. Music listening is shifting frontal alpha asymmetries (FAA) in depression, and increases frontal midline theta (FMT). In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients (with comorbid anxiety), we compared standard care (SC) versus MT added to SC at intake and after 3 months. We found that MT significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test whether or not MT has an impact on anterior fronto-temporal resting state alpha and theta oscillations. Correlations between anterior EEG, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), power spectral analysis (topography, means, asymmetry) and normative EEG database comparisons were explored. After 3 month of MT, lasting changes in resting EEG were observed, i.e., significant absolute power increases at left fronto-temporal alpha, but most distinct for theta (also at left fronto-central and right temporoparietal leads). MT differed to SC at F7-F8 (z scored FAA, p < .03) and T3-T4 (theta, p < .005) asymmetry scores, pointing towards decreased relative left-sided brain activity after MT; pre/post increased FMT and decreased HADS-A scores (r = .42, p < .05) indicate reduced anxiety after MT. Verbal reflection and improvising on emotions in MT may induce neural reorganization in fronto-temporal areas. Alpha and theta changes in fronto-temporal and temporoparietal areas indicate MT action and treatment effects on cortical activity in depression, suggesting an impact of MT on anxiety reduction.

  10. A Decrease in Brain Activation Associated with Driving When Listening to Someone Speak

    PubMed Central

    Just, Marcel Adam; Keller, Timothy A.; Cynkar, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that engaging in a secondary task, such as talking on a cellular telephone, disrupts driving performance. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the impact of concurrent auditory language comprehension on the brain activity associated with a simulated driving task. Participants steered a vehicle along a curving virtual road, either undisturbed or while listening to spoken sentences that they judged as true or false. The dual task condition produced a significant deterioration in driving accuracy caused by the processing of the auditory sentences. At the same time, the parietal lobe activation associated with spatial processing in the undisturbed driving task decreased by 37% when participants concurrently listened to sentences. The findings show that language comprehension performed concurrently with driving draws mental resources away from the driving and produces deterioration in driving performance, even when it does not require holding or dialing a phone. PMID:18353285

  11. [Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not?].

    PubMed

    Trappe, H-J

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that music not only may improve quality of life (QoL) but also have different effects on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases. A greater modulation of HR, HRV and modulations in cardiac autonomic nerve activity was revealed with a greater effect for music performance than music perception. Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p < 0,001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make preoperative relaxing music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery. Music intervention should be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to the patients that have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in under conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine. However, careful selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most benefit on health is visible in classic music, meditation music whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are even ineffective or dangerous and will lead to stress and/or life threatening arrhythmias. There are many

  12. [Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not?].

    PubMed

    Trappe, H-J

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that music not only may improve quality of life (QoL) but also have different effects on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases. A greater modulation of HR, HRV and modulations in cardiac autonomic nerve activity was revealed with a greater effect for music performance than music perception. Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p < 0,001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make preoperative relaxing music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery. Music intervention should be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to the patients that have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in under conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine. However, careful selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most benefit on health is visible in classic music, meditation music whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are even ineffective or dangerous and will lead to stress and/or life threatening arrhythmias. There are many

  13. The music instinct: the evolutionary basis of musicality.

    PubMed

    Mithen, Steven

    2009-07-01

    Why does music pervade our lives and those of all known human beings living today and in the recent past? Why do we feel compelled to engage in musical activity, or at least simply enjoy listening to music even if we choose not to actively participate? I argue that this is because musicality--communication using variations in pitch, rhythm, dynamics and timbre, by a combination of the voice, body (as in dance), and material culture--was essential to the lives of our pre-linguistic hominin ancestors. As a consequence we have inherited a desire to engage with music, even if this has no adaptive benefit for us today as a species whose communication system is dominated by spoken language. In this article I provide a summary of the arguments to support this view.

  14. Art and Music in America. Looking at Art: Thomas Cole, "The Oxbow" [and] Listening to Music: Edward MacDowell, "To a Wild Rose." [Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaskell, Joan Macy; Lauer, Elizabeth

    An exploration of the creative process in painting and musical composition, this kit, for use with grades 4-8, provides a structured plan that can extend over several class periods. In "Looking At Art," concentration is on one landscape painting with comparisons to related works. Historical and visual components are analyzed and works are placed…

  15. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  16. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing. PMID:26499261

  17. Listening to music in a risk-reward context: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and the orbitofrontal/insular cortices in reward-anticipation, reward-gain, and reward-loss.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2015-12-10

    Artificial rewards, such as visual arts and music, produce pleasurable feelings. Popular songs in the verse-chorus form provide a useful model for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of artificial rewards, because the chorus is usually the most rewarding element of a song. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the stimuli were excerpts of 10 popular songs with a tensioned verse-to-chorus transition. We examined the neural correlates of three phases of reward processing: (1) reward-anticipation during the verse-to-chorus transition, (2) reward-gain during the first phrase of the chorus, and (3) reward-loss during the unexpected noise followed by the verse-to-chorus transition. Participants listened to these excerpts in a risk-reward context because the verse was followed by either the chorus or noise with equal probability. The results showed that reward-gain and reward-loss were associated with left- and right-biased temporoparietal junction activation, respectively. The bilateral temporoparietal junctions were active during reward-anticipation. Moreover, we observed left-biased lateral orbitofrontal activation during reward-anticipation, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex was activated during reward-gain. The findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive and emotional aspects of reward processing.

  18. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... talking is 40 dB to 60 dB. A rock concert is between 110 dB and 120 ... when listening to music depends on: How loud the music is How ...

  19. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  20. The influence of music and music therapy on pain-induced neuronal oscillations measured by magnetencephalography.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Michael; Metzner, Susanne; Rohlffs, Fiona; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2013-04-01

    Modern forms of music therapy are clinically established for various therapeutic or rehabilitative goals, especially in the treatment of chronic pain. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that underlie pain modulation by music. Therefore, we attempted to characterize the effects of music therapy on pain perception by comparing the effects of 2 different therapeutic concepts, referred to as receptive and entrainment methods, on cortical activity recorded by magnetencephalography in combination with laser heat pain. Listening to preferred music within the receptive method yielded a significant reduction of pain ratings associated with a significant power reduction of delta-band activity in the cingulate gyrus, which suggests that participants displaced their focus of attention away from the pain stimulus. On the other hand, listening to self-composed "pain music" and "healing music" within the entrainment method exerted major effects on gamma-band activity in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. Pain music, in contrast to healing music, increased pain ratings in parallel with an increase in gamma-band activity in somatosensory brain structures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the 2 music therapy approaches operationalized in this study seem to modulate pain perception through at least 2 different mechanisms, involving changes of activity in the delta and gamma bands at different stages of the pain processing system. PMID:23414577

  1. The influence of music and music therapy on pain-induced neuronal oscillations measured by magnetencephalography.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Michael; Metzner, Susanne; Rohlffs, Fiona; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2013-04-01

    Modern forms of music therapy are clinically established for various therapeutic or rehabilitative goals, especially in the treatment of chronic pain. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that underlie pain modulation by music. Therefore, we attempted to characterize the effects of music therapy on pain perception by comparing the effects of 2 different therapeutic concepts, referred to as receptive and entrainment methods, on cortical activity recorded by magnetencephalography in combination with laser heat pain. Listening to preferred music within the receptive method yielded a significant reduction of pain ratings associated with a significant power reduction of delta-band activity in the cingulate gyrus, which suggests that participants displaced their focus of attention away from the pain stimulus. On the other hand, listening to self-composed "pain music" and "healing music" within the entrainment method exerted major effects on gamma-band activity in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. Pain music, in contrast to healing music, increased pain ratings in parallel with an increase in gamma-band activity in somatosensory brain structures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the 2 music therapy approaches operationalized in this study seem to modulate pain perception through at least 2 different mechanisms, involving changes of activity in the delta and gamma bands at different stages of the pain processing system.

  2. Musical pleasure and reward: mechanisms and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    Most people derive pleasure from music. Neuroimaging studies show that the reward system of the human brain is central to this experience. Specifically, the dorsal and ventral striatum release dopamine when listening to pleasurable music, and activity in these structures also codes the reward value of musical excerpts. Moreover, the striatum interacts with cortical mechanisms involved in perception and valuation of musical stimuli. Recent studies have begun to explore individual differences in the way that this complex system functions. Development of a questionnaire for music reward experiences has allowed the identification of separable factors associated with musical pleasure, described as music-seeking, emotion-evocation, mood regulation, sensorimotor, and social factors. Applying this questionnaire to a large sample uncovered approximately 5% of the population with low sensitivity to musical reward in the absence of generalized anhedonia or depression. Further study of this group revealed that there are individuals who respond normally both behaviorally and psychophysiologically to rewards other than music (e.g., monetary value) but do not experience pleasure from music despite normal music perception ability and preserved ability to identify intended emotions in musical passages. This specific music anhedonia bears further study, as it may shed light on the function and dysfunction of the reward system. PMID:25773636

  3. A dynamically minimalist cognitive explanation of musical preference: is familiarity everything?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery; Hargreaves, David J; North, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the idea that attraction to music is generated at a cognitive level through the formation and activation of networks of interlinked "nodes." Although the networks involved are vast, the basic mechanism for activating the links is relatively simple. Two comprehensive cognitive-behavioral models of musical engagement are examined with the aim of identifying the underlying cognitive mechanisms and processes involved in musical experience. A "dynamical minimalism" approach (after Nowak, 2004) is applied to re-interpret musical engagement (listening, performing, composing, or imagining any of these) and to revise the latest version of the reciprocal-feedback model (RFM) of music processing. Specifically, a single cognitive mechanism of "spreading activation" through previously associated networks is proposed as a pleasurable outcome of musical engagement. This mechanism underlies the dynamic interaction of the various components of the RFM, and can thereby explain the generation of positive affects in the listener's musical experience. This includes determinants of that experience stemming from the characteristics of the individual engaging in the musical activity (whether listener, composer, improviser, or performer), the situation and contexts (e.g., social factors), and the music (e.g., genre, structural features). The theory calls for new directions for future research, two being (1) further investigation of the components of the RFM to better understand musical experience and (2) more rigorous scrutiny of common findings about the salience of familiarity in musical experience and preference. PMID:24567723

  4. From the Functions of Music to Music Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…

  5. Attention-dependent changes of activation and connectivity in dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Brigitte; Kolinsky, Régine; Damhaut, Philippe; Wikler, David; Goldman, Serge

    2002-10-01

    Functional studies of auditory spatial attention generally report enhanced neural responses in auditory cortical regions. However, activity in regions of the spatial attentional network as described in the visual modality is not consistently observed. Data analysis limitations due to oppositely lateralized activity depending on the side of attentional orientation and heterogeneity of paradigms makes it hard to untangle the possible causes of these various activation patterns. In the present article we present a PET study of auditory spatial attention in which we manipulated orientation of attention, attentional load, and difficulty of the task by means of the dichotic listening paradigm. Moreover, we designed a systematic, voxel-specific, method in order to deal with oppositely lateralized activity. The results show that when listeners are involved in auditory spatial attention tasks an interacting network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions is activated. Selective orientation toward one side mostly yields activity and connectivity modulations in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended side while in divided attention activity is mostly bilateral. Taken together, our observations are consistent with the idea of a multimodal large-scale attentional network.

  6. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  7. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines.

  8. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. PMID:25976924

  9. Apollo's gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25725918

  10. Apollo's gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms.

  11. Music for the EMR: Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Special Education Curriculum Development Center.

    The goals of teaching music to the educable mentally handicapped are discussed and a sample unit lesson plan is provided. Also considered are presenting and teaching the song, using rhythm instruments, playing the autoharp, and planning listening activities. Over three-fourths of the handbook consists of singing activities for primary and…

  12. The influence of rhythm and personality in the endurance response to motivational asynchronous music.

    PubMed

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined participants' responses to motivational asynchronous music by isolating rhythmical properties and exploring personality correlates. Fifty-eight physically active participants (41 men and 17 women) aged 22.3 +/- 6.4 years performed an isometric weight-holding task on three occasions while being randomly exposed to no music, rhythm and motivational music. The rhythm and music conditions were edited portions of the same musical selection and had identical fast tempi, although the rhythm condition contained no melody, harmonies or lyrics. Participants each completed a copy of Cattell's 16PF following the third and final trial. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found the participants held the weight suspended for significantly longer when listening to motivational music in comparison to rhythm or no music. When listening to rhythm, participants endured the task for significantly longer than when listening to no music. The response to music was found to be significantly related to liveliness, while sensitivity correlated with responses to music factors (harmony, melody, lyrics, etc.) not present in the rhythm condition. These results suggest that responses to motivational music are subtle in nature and are determined by both musical factors and individual characteristics, and potentially an interaction between the two.

  13. Mozart’s music in children with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Coppola et al. reported 5 out of 11 patients suffering from drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathy associated with cerebral palsy had a ≥50% reduction in the total number of seizures after listening a set of Mozart’s compositions 2 h per day for 15 days. Our previous studies also revealed that both seizure frequencies, recurrence of first unprovoked seizure, and epileptiform discharges are significant reduced after listening to Mozart K.448. Until now, the real mechanism of music effect on epilepsy is still unclear. In this article, in addition to showing the beneficial effects of music on seizure, and epileptiform discharges, we are going to discuss the possible mechanism of music. The possible mechanisms include dopaminergic pathways, mirror neurons, and parasympathetic activation after listening to music. PMID:26835395

  14. Activation of premotor vocal areas during musical discrimination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Two same/different discrimination tasks were performed by amateur-musician subjects in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Melody Discrimination and Harmony Discrimination. Both tasks led to activations not only in classic working memory areas--such as the cingulate gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--but in a series of premotor areas involved in vocal-motor planning and production, namely the somatotopic mouth region of the primary and lateral premotor cortices, Broca's area, the supplementary motor area, and the anterior insula. A perceptual control task involving passive listening alone to monophonic melodies led to activations exclusively in temporal-lobe auditory areas. These results show that, compared to passive listening tasks, discrimination tasks elicit activation in vocal-motor planning areas. PMID:17027134

  15. Can empathy be taught? Reflections from a medical student active-listening workshop.

    PubMed

    Karp, Lianna

    2015-06-01

    Medical students deserve training in active listening and counseling before they encounter patients in distress. At the Alpert Medical School of Brown University we created and evaluated a workshop that trains first-year medical students to assess patients' emotional states and express empathy in an efficient and effective manner. Using second-year students as near-peer facilitators, we integrated the workshop into the existing preclinical first-year curriculum. We found that students' self-reported comfort in counseling a patient experiencing an emotionally challenging situation increased from 27% to 79% after the 90-minute workshop.

  16. Functional modulations in brain activity for the first and second music: a comparison of high- and low-proficiency bimusicals.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Bilingual studies have shown that brain activities for first (L1) and second (L2) languages are influenced by L2 proficiency. Does proficiency with a second musical system (M2) influence bimusical brains in a manner similar to that of bilingual brains? Our magnetoencephalography study assessed the influence of M2 proficiency on the spatial, strength, and temporal properties of brain activity in a musical syntactic-processing task (i.e., tonal processing) involving first (M1) and second (M2) music systems. Two bimusical groups, differing in M2 proficiency (high, low), listened to melodies from both their M1 and M2 musical cultures. All melodies ended with a tonally consistent or inconsistent tone. In both groups, tonal deviations in both M1 and M2 elicited magnetic early right anterior negativities (mERANs) that were generated from brain areas around the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). We also analyzed the dipole locations, dipole strengths, and peak latencies of mERAN. Results revealed: (a) the distances between dipole locations for M1 and M2 were shorter in the M2 high-proficiency group than in the M2 low-proficiency group; (b) the dipole strengths were greater in the high than the low group; (c) the peak latencies of M2 were shorter in the high than low group. The dipole location results were consistent with those from bilingual studies in that the distances between the (left) IFG peak activations for L1 and L2 syntactic processing shortened as L2 proficiency increased. The parallel results for bimusicals and bilinguals suggest that the functional changes induced by proficiency in a second (linguistic or musical) system are defined by domain-general neural constraints. PMID:24365653

  17. Functional modulations in brain activity for the first and second music: a comparison of high- and low-proficiency bimusicals.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Bilingual studies have shown that brain activities for first (L1) and second (L2) languages are influenced by L2 proficiency. Does proficiency with a second musical system (M2) influence bimusical brains in a manner similar to that of bilingual brains? Our magnetoencephalography study assessed the influence of M2 proficiency on the spatial, strength, and temporal properties of brain activity in a musical syntactic-processing task (i.e., tonal processing) involving first (M1) and second (M2) music systems. Two bimusical groups, differing in M2 proficiency (high, low), listened to melodies from both their M1 and M2 musical cultures. All melodies ended with a tonally consistent or inconsistent tone. In both groups, tonal deviations in both M1 and M2 elicited magnetic early right anterior negativities (mERANs) that were generated from brain areas around the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). We also analyzed the dipole locations, dipole strengths, and peak latencies of mERAN. Results revealed: (a) the distances between dipole locations for M1 and M2 were shorter in the M2 high-proficiency group than in the M2 low-proficiency group; (b) the dipole strengths were greater in the high than the low group; (c) the peak latencies of M2 were shorter in the high than low group. The dipole location results were consistent with those from bilingual studies in that the distances between the (left) IFG peak activations for L1 and L2 syntactic processing shortened as L2 proficiency increased. The parallel results for bimusicals and bilinguals suggest that the functional changes induced by proficiency in a second (linguistic or musical) system are defined by domain-general neural constraints.

  18. Informational masking and musical training.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Andrew J; Fligor, Brian J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between musical training and informational masking was studied for 24 young adult listeners with normal hearing. The listeners were divided into two groups based on musical training. In one group, the listeners had little or no musical training; the other group was comprised of highly trained, currently active musicians. The hypothesis was that musicians may be less susceptible to informational masking, which is thought to reflect central, rather than peripheral, limitations on the processing of sound. Masked thresholds were measured in two conditions, similar to those used by Kidd et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 3475-3480 (1994)]. In both conditions the signal was comprised of a series of repeated tone bursts at 1 kHz. The masker was comprised of a series of multitone bursts, gated with the signal. In one condition the frequencies of the masker were selected randomly for each burst; in the other condition the masker frequencies were selected randomly for the first burst of each interval and then remained constant throughout the interval. The difference in thresholds between the two conditions was taken as a measure of informational masking. Frequency selectivity, using the notched-noise method, was also estimated in the two groups. The results showed no difference in frequency selectivity between the two groups, but showed a large and significant difference in the amount of informational masking between musically trained and untrained listeners. This informational masking task, which requires no knowledge specific to musical training (such as note or interval names) and is generally not susceptible to systematic short- or medium-term training effects, may provide a basis for further studies of analytic listening abilities in different populations.

  19. Informational masking and musical training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Fligor, Brian J.; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between musical training and informational masking was studied for 24 young adult listeners with normal hearing. The listeners were divided into two groups based on musical training. In one group, the listeners had little or no musical training; the other group was comprised of highly trained, currently active musicians. The hypothesis was that musicians may be less susceptible to informational masking, which is thought to reflect central, rather than peripheral, limitations on the processing of sound. Masked thresholds were measured in two conditions, similar to those used by Kidd et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 3475-3480 (1994)]. In both conditions the signal was comprised of a series of repeated tone bursts at 1 kHz. The masker was comprised of a series of multitone bursts, gated with the signal. In one condition the frequencies of the masker were selected randomly for each burst; in the other condition the masker frequencies were selected randomly for the first burst of each interval and then remained constant throughout the interval. The difference in thresholds between the two conditions was taken as a measure of informational masking. Frequency selectivity, using the notched-noise method, was also estimated in the two groups. The results showed no difference in frequency selectivity between the two groups, but showed a large and significant difference in the amount of informational masking between musically trained and untrained listeners. This informational masking task, which requires no knowledge specific to musical training (such as note or interval names) and is generally not susceptible to systematic short- or medium-term training effects, may provide a basis for further studies of analytic listening abilities in different populations.

  20. Music-induced changes in functional cerebral asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Markus; Hodgetts, Sophie; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    After decades of research, it remains unclear whether emotion lateralization occurs because one hemisphere is dominant for processing the emotional content of the stimuli, or whether emotional stimuli activate lateralised networks associated with the subjective emotional experience. By using emotion-induction procedures, we investigated the effect of listening to happy and sad music on three well-established lateralization tasks. In a prestudy, Mozart's piano sonata (K. 448) and Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata were rated as the most happy and sad excerpts, respectively. Participants listened to either one emotional excerpt, or sat in silence before completing an emotional chimeric faces task (Experiment 1), visual line bisection task (Experiment 2) and a dichotic listening task (Experiment 3 and 4). Listening to happy music resulted in a reduced right hemispheric bias in facial emotion recognition (Experiment 1) and visuospatial attention (Experiment 2) and increased left hemispheric bias in language lateralization (Experiments 3 and 4). Although Experiments 1-3 revealed an increased positive emotional state after listening to happy music, mediation analyses revealed that the effect on hemispheric asymmetries was not mediated by music-induced emotional changes. The direct effect of music listening on lateralization was investigated in Experiment 4 in which tempo of the happy excerpt was manipulated by controlling for other acoustic features. However, the results of Experiment 4 made it rather unlikely that tempo is the critical cue accounting for the effects. We conclude that listening to music can affect functional cerebral asymmetries in well-established emotional and cognitive laterality tasks, independent of music-induced changes in the emotion state.

  1. Emotion-related changes in heart rate and its variability during performance and perception of music.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hidehiro; Furuya, Shinichi; Obata, Satoshi; Masuko, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated the differential effects of emotions evoked by music on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) during the playing of music on the piano compared to those in persons listening to the same music. Thirteen elite pianists underwent experiments under expressive piano playing, nonexpressive piano playing, expressive listening, and nonexpressive listening conditions. The expressive conditions produced significantly higher levels of HR and low-frequency component of HRV, as well as a lower level of its high-frequency component. A greater modulation of these was also revealed for performance than perception. The findings suggested that musical performance would lead to a greater effect of emotion-related modulation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity than musical perception.

  2. Use of Music Activities in Speech-Language Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Mary B.

    1991-01-01

    Music activities for use in public school speech-language therapy are described in theory and practice. Client, space and implementation considerations are discussed, as are uses of songs and more specific applications such as exercises for relaxation, body image, breathing, vocalization, articulation, and vocabulary/concept development.…

  3. [Effectiveness of music in brain rehabilitation. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Leo, Vera; Särkämö, Teppo; Soinila, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for diseases causing brain injury. Music causes extensive activation of the brain, promoting the repair of neural systems. Addition of music listening to rehabilitation enhances the regulation or motor functions in Parkinson and stroke patients, accelerates the recovery of speech disorder and cognitive injuries after stroke, and decreases the behavioral disorders of dementia patients. Music enhances the ability to concentrate and decreases mental confusion. The effect of music can also be observed as structural and functional changes of the brain. The effect is based, among other things, on lessening of physiologic stress and depression and on activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. PMID:25558627

  4. [Effectiveness of music in brain rehabilitation. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Leo, Vera; Särkämö, Teppo; Soinila, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for diseases causing brain injury. Music causes extensive activation of the brain, promoting the repair of neural systems. Addition of music listening to rehabilitation enhances the regulation or motor functions in Parkinson and stroke patients, accelerates the recovery of speech disorder and cognitive injuries after stroke, and decreases the behavioral disorders of dementia patients. Music enhances the ability to concentrate and decreases mental confusion. The effect of music can also be observed as structural and functional changes of the brain. The effect is based, among other things, on lessening of physiologic stress and depression and on activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system.

  5. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Spalek, Katharina; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning. PMID:26114942

  6. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Spalek, Katharina; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning.

  7. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Spalek, Katharina; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning. PMID:26114942

  8. Apollo’s gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music’s ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25725918

  9. Rainstorm Activities for Early Childhood Music Lessons Inspired by Teachable Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Harrison Grant

    2016-01-01

    Activities that focus on already familiar concepts are good starting points when designing early childhood music lessons. The author uses teachable moments, a spider in the classroom and a rainstorm, to design interdisciplinary preschool group activities that teach music, math, and science concepts. Dynamics and tempo are the music concepts that…

  10. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

  11. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music.

  12. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N; Barradas, Gonçalo; Eerola, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms. PMID:26442337

  13. From Sound to Significance: Exploring the Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N; Barradas, Gonçalo; Eerola, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

  14. EEG activity evoked in preparation for multi-talker listening by adults and children.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2016-06-01

    Selective attention is critical for successful speech perception because speech is often encountered in the presence of other sounds, including the voices of competing talkers. Faced with the need to attend selectively, listeners perceive speech more accurately when they know characteristics of upcoming talkers before they begin to speak. However, the neural processes that underlie the preparation of selective attention for voices are not fully understood. The current experiments used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the time course of brain activity during preparation for an upcoming talker in young adults aged 18-27 years with normal hearing (Experiments 1 and 2) and in typically-developing children aged 7-13 years (Experiment 3). Participants reported key words spoken by a target talker when an opposite-gender distractor talker spoke simultaneously. The two talkers were presented from different spatial locations (±30° azimuth). Before the talkers began to speak, a visual cue indicated either the location (left/right) or the gender (male/female) of the target talker. Adults evoked preparatory EEG activity that started shortly after (<50 ms) the visual cue was presented and was sustained until the talkers began to speak. The location cue evoked similar preparatory activity in Experiments 1 and 2 with different samples of participants. The gender cue did not evoke preparatory activity when it predicted gender only (Experiment 1) but did evoke preparatory activity when it predicted the identity of a specific talker with greater certainty (Experiment 2). Location cues evoked significant preparatory EEG activity in children but gender cues did not. The results provide converging evidence that listeners evoke consistent preparatory brain activity for selecting a talker by their location (regardless of their gender or identity), but not by their gender alone. PMID:27178442

  15. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    PubMed Central

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children. PMID:24009597

  16. Musical training and language-related brain electrical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Besson, Mireille

    2006-05-01

    This experiment aimed at testing whether 8 weeks of musical training affect the ability of 8-year-old children to detect pitch changes in language. Twenty nonmusician children listened to linguistic phrases that ended with prosodically congruous words or with weak or strong pitch incongruities. We recorded reaction times, error rates, and event-related brain potentials to the final words. Half of the children followed music training and the other half painting training, and all children were retested following training. For both groups, the weak incongruity was the most difficult to detect, but performance was not significantly different between groups. However, the amplitude of a late positive component was largest to strong incongruities and was reduced after training only in the music group. These results suggest that a relatively short exposure to pitch processing in music exerts some influence on pitch processing in language.

  17. Using Music and Musical Activities in Special Education: Developments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocabas, Ezgi Ozeke; Ozeke, Sezen

    2012-01-01

    Music, as an expressive art, plays a significant role in the lives of all children and it can be used in education to improve non-musical educational objectives as well as the musical ones. Music has also positive contributions to the development of children with special needs in terms of feeling the sense of achievement, giving self confidence,…

  18. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  19. The do re mi's of everyday life: the structure and personality correlates of music preferences.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Gosling, Samuel D

    2003-06-01

    The present research examined individual differences in music preferences. A series of 6 studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music an important aspect of their lives and listening to music an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, analyses of the music preferences of over 3,500 individuals converged to reveal 4 music-preference dimensions: Reflective and Complex, Intense and Rebellious, Upbeat and Conventional, and Energetic and Rhythmic. Preferences for these music dimensions were related to a wide array of personality dimensions (e.g., Openness), self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal IQ).

  20. Beneficial Effect of Preferential Music on Exercise Induced Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Mukilan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. Aim This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. Materials and Methods This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Results Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students. PMID:27437208

  1. Abstracts from the Cognitive Processes of Children Engaged in Music Activity Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Contains abstracts of the papers that were presented at the Cognitive Processes of Children Engaged in Musical Activity Conference (Champaign-Urbana, IL, June 3-5, 1999). Covers topics such as children's melodic improvisations, toddlers' kinesthetic reactions to music, mother-infant play, a theory of multiple musical intelligences, and reflective…

  2. The Labor of Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    This exercise is designed to illustrate how challenging it is to listen. Although listening is an activity that people use more than speaking, reading, or writing, it is typically not afforded the same level of instruction and focus (Adler & Rodman, 2011). In addition, humans are subject to such continual and diverse stimuli; most do not even…

  3. Teaching Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtchinova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…

  4. Listening Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolvin, Andrew D.; Coakley, Carolyn Gwynn

    Designed to aid high school and college teachers in teaching the fundamentals of listening, this booklet includes sections on theory and on practice. The section on theory discusses the listening process and its importance, examines five purposes for listening (appreciative, discriminative, comprehensive, therapeutic, and critical), and tells how…

  5. Music to Their Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McParland, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Music can be a powerful force in the language arts classroom and an important vehicle for teachers who want to lead students into literature. The paper discusses the power of popular music to first attract students, notes how to use other musical genres, describes guided listening, and explains important parallels between poetry and song. (SM)

  6. Make a Little Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    Music is vital to the development of language and listening skills. Both music and language arts consist of symbols and ideas; when the two content areas are used in combination, abstract concepts become more concrete. This article provides information that shows the role of music in helping children meet early learning standards, including those…

  7. Music as Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Deanna S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the musical interests of college students and what their musical preferences say about them. Students, through the nature of their music preferences, seem to intentionally or unintentionally convey messages. Students' listening habits can provide insight into messages that they are exposed to on a regular…

  8. Music Preferences in the U.S.: 1982-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Lee

    2005-01-01

    Music is everywhere. People listen to compact discs while relaxing at home, MP3s while jogging in the park, live music concerts in their free time, and internet radio on the computer. What are people listening to? Who is doing the listening? How have listening patterns changed over time? This report aims to answer those questions by using data…

  9. Teaching Active Listening Skills to Pre-Service Speech-Language Pathologists: A First Step in Supporting Collaboration with Parents of Young Children Who Require AAC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Jennifer J.; McNaughton, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of instruction in an active listening strategy on the communication skills of pre-service speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: Twenty-three pre-service SLPs in their 2nd year of graduate study received a brief strategy instruction in active listening skills. Participants were videotaped during a…

  10. [Functional changes in the central nervous system during music perception (study of positive emotions)].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, N N; Avdeev, V M

    1982-01-01

    Music as a factor of creating a certain emotional state, may be used for studying neurophysiological bases of human positive emotions. Investigations of conservatory students and people without special musical education have shown that music exerts complex influences on the CNS, manifested in changes of a number of neurophysiological reactions attesting changes in the flow of excitations in the cortico-thalamic and cortico-limbic circles. Listening to music is accompanied with a partial replacement of the dominating alpha-rhythm by activity in the frequency range of beta-, theta- and delta-waves and with a change of some vegetative reactions. It was possible to define some qualitative differences in the action of music on the CNS depending on the interpretation of the composition as well as the presence or absence of musical education of the listeners.

  11. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  12. Mozart versus new age music: relaxation states, stress, and ABC relaxation theory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonathan C; Joyce, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Smith's (2001) Attentional Behavioral Cognitive (ABC) relaxation theory proposes that all approaches to relaxation (including music) have the potential for evoking one or more of 15 factor-analytically derived relaxation states, or "R-States" (Sleepiness, Disengagement, Rested / Refreshed, Energized, Physical Relaxation, At Ease/Peace, Joy, Mental Quiet, Childlike Innocence, Thankfulness and Love, Mystery, Awe and Wonder, Prayerfulness, Timeless/Boundless/Infinite, and Aware). The present study investigated R-States and stress symptom-patterns associated with listening to Mozart versus New Age music. Students (N = 63) were divided into three relaxation groups based on previously determined preferences. Fourteen listened to a 28-minute tape recording of Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik and 14 listened to a 28-minute tape of Steven Halpern's New Age Serenity Suite. Others (n = 35) did not want music and instead chose a set of popular recreational magazines. Participants engaged in their relaxation activity at home for three consecutive days for 28 minutes a session. Before and after each session, each person completed the Smith Relaxation States Inventory (Smith, 2001), a comprehensive questionnaire tapping 15 R-States as well as the stress states of somatic stress, worry, and negative emotion. Results revealed no differences at Session 1. At Session 2, those who listened to Mozart reported higher levels of At Ease/Peace and lower levels of Negative Emotion. Pronounced differences emerged at Session 3. Mozart listeners uniquely reported substantially higher levels of Mental Quiet, Awe and Wonder, and Mystery. Mozart listeners reported higher levels, and New Age listeners slightly elevated levels, of At Ease/Peace and Rested/Refreshed. Both Mozart and New Age listeners reported higher levels of Thankfulness and Love. In summary, those who listened to Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik reported more psychological relaxation and less stress than either those who listened to

  13. From Research to the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.

    2011-01-01

    One challenge for music educators is to find techniques to help students "listen across time" to the examples they are assigned to study and to stay focused on a piece as they listen. Measurement tools to assess music listening have a long history, ranging from very simple to very complex, and very dated to very recent. This article traces the…

  14. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia. PMID:25336931

  15. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice

    PubMed Central

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound–music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic–rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic–rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia. PMID:25336931

  16. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia.

  17. Time course of EEG oscillations during repeated listening of a well-known aria.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Kühnis, Jürg; Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    be categorized as a psychological process that may be seen as a "drawing in" to the musical piece. However, this state is not stable and varies considerably throughout the music listening session and across subjects. Most important, however, is the finding that the neurophysiological activations occurring during music listening are dynamic and not stationary. PMID:26257624

  18. Time course of EEG oscillations during repeated listening of a well-known aria.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz; Kühnis, Jürg; Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    be categorized as a psychological process that may be seen as a "drawing in" to the musical piece. However, this state is not stable and varies considerably throughout the music listening session and across subjects. Most important, however, is the finding that the neurophysiological activations occurring during music listening are dynamic and not stationary.

  19. Time course of EEG oscillations during repeated listening of a well-known aria

    PubMed Central

    Jäncke, Lutz; Kühnis, Jürg; Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    state can be categorized as a psychological process that may be seen as a “drawing in” to the musical piece. However, this state is not stable and varies considerably throughout the music listening session and across subjects. Most important, however, is the finding that the neurophysiological activations occurring during music listening are dynamic and not stationary. PMID:26257624

  20. EFL Teaching in the Amazon Region of Ecuador: A Focus on Activities and Resources for Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…

  1. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  2. Sad music induces pleasant emotion

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion. PMID:23785342

  3. Recall and Intervening Mental Activities Involved in Listening to Expository Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Shirley

    A study was conducted to examine the various mental processes that occur during listening. Fifteen volunteers at an eastern United States college listened to a 14-minute taped lecture. The participants pressed a button, connected to a light hidden from their view, each time their minds wandered from the specifics of the lecture. They were then…

  4. Increased Lexical Activation and Reduced Competition in Second-Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how inaccurate phoneme processing affects recognition of partially onset-overlapping pairs like "DAFFOdil-DEFIcit" and of minimal pairs like "flash-flesh" in second-language listening. Two cross-modal priming experiments examined differences between native (L1) and second-language (L2) listeners at two stages of lexical…

  5. Preserved Coupling between the Reader's Voice and the Listener's Cortical Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Mathieu; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Marty, Brice; Deconinck, Nicolas; Soncarrieu, Marie-Vincianne; Goldman, Serge; Jousmäki, Veikko; Van Bogaert, Patrick; De Tiège, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Investigating the steadiness of the phase-coupling between the time-course of the reader's voice and brain signals of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) passively listening to connected speech using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In typically developed subjects, such coupling occurs at the right posterior temporal sulcus (pSTS) for frequencies below 1 Hz, and reflects the neural processing of sentence-level rhythmic prosody at the prelexical level. Methods Cortical neuromagnetic signals were recorded with MEG (Elekta Oy, Finland) while seven right-handed and native French-speaking ASD subjects (six males, one female, range: 13–20 years) listened to live (Live) or recorded (Recorded) voices continuously reading a text in French for five minutes. Coherence was computed between the reader's voice time-course and ASD subjects' MEG signals. Coherent neural sources were subsequently reconstructed using a beamformer. Key findings Significant coupling was found at 0.5 Hz in all ASD subjects in Live and in six subjects in Recorded. Coherent sources were located close to the right pSTS in both conditions. No significant difference was found in coherence levels between Live and Recorded, and between ASD subjects and ten typically developed subjects (right-handed, native French-speaking adults, 5 males, 5 females, age range: 21–38 years) included in a previous study. Significance This study discloses a preserved coupling between the reader's voice and ASD subjects' cortical activity at the right pSTS. These findings support the existence of preserved neural processing of sentence-level rhythmic prosody in ASD. The preservation of early cortical processing of prosodic elements in verbal language might be exploited in therapeutic interventions in ASD. PMID:24663673

  6. A dynamically minimalist cognitive explanation of musical preference: is familiarity everything?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery; Hargreaves, David J.; North, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the idea that attraction to music is generated at a cognitive level through the formation and activation of networks of interlinked “nodes.” Although the networks involved are vast, the basic mechanism for activating the links is relatively simple. Two comprehensive cognitive-behavioral models of musical engagement are examined with the aim of identifying the underlying cognitive mechanisms and processes involved in musical experience. A “dynamical minimalism” approach (after Nowak, 2004) is applied to re-interpret musical engagement (listening, performing, composing, or imagining any of these) and to revise the latest version of the reciprocal-feedback model (RFM) of music processing. Specifically, a single cognitive mechanism of “spreading activation” through previously associated networks is proposed as a pleasurable outcome of musical engagement. This mechanism underlies the dynamic interaction of the various components of the RFM, and can thereby explain the generation of positive affects in the listener’s musical experience. This includes determinants of that experience stemming from the characteristics of the individual engaging in the musical activity (whether listener, composer, improviser, or performer), the situation and contexts (e.g., social factors), and the music (e.g., genre, structural features). The theory calls for new directions for future research, two being (1) further investigation of the components of the RFM to better understand musical experience and (2) more rigorous scrutiny of common findings about the salience of familiarity in musical experience and preference. PMID:24567723

  7. Active Music Classes in Infancy Enhance Musical, Communicative and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random…

  8. Community Music Activity in a Refugee Camp--Student Music Teachers' Practicum Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeske-Danielsen, Brit Aagot

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of student music teachers' learning experiences whilst practising their teaching skills in a community music project in a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon. I will be discussing findings that relate those experiences to the student teachers' competence development as professional music teachers. In 2010,…

  9. Exploring how musical rhythm entrains brain activity with electroencephalogram frequency-tagging.

    PubMed

    Nozaradan, Sylvie

    2014-12-19

    The ability to perceive a regular beat in music and synchronize to this beat is a widespread human skill. Fundamental to musical behaviour, beat and meter refer to the perception of periodicities while listening to musical rhythms and often involve spontaneous entrainment to move on these periodicities. Here, we present a novel experimental approach inspired by the frequency-tagging approach to understand the perception and production of rhythmic inputs. This approach is illustrated here by recording the human electroencephalogram responses at beat and meter frequencies elicited in various contexts: mental imagery of meter, spontaneous induction of a beat from rhythmic patterns, multisensory integration and sensorimotor synchronization. Collectively, our observations support the view that entrainment and resonance phenomena subtend the processing of musical rhythms in the human brain. More generally, they highlight the potential of this approach to help us understand the link between the phenomenology of musical beat and meter and the bias towards periodicities arising under certain circumstances in the nervous system. Entrainment to music provides a highly valuable framework to explore general entrainment mechanisms as embodied in the human brain. PMID:25385771

  10. Listening Walks and Singing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    The Listening Walk by Paul Showers and illustrated by Aliki, and "It's My City: A Singing Map" by April Pulley Sayre with pictures by Denis Roche, provide two examples of texts that aid in building children's phonological awareness for reading and music. The author describes each narrative and discusses its function as a springboard to composition…

  11. Active audition for humanoid robots that can listen to three simultaneous talkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Nakadai, Kazuhiro

    2003-04-01

    The direction-pass filter (DPF) separates sounds originating from a particular direction by using a pair of microphones embedded in each ear of humanoid robot. DPF first extracts harmonic structures from each channel, finds a corresponding pair on right and left channels, and then calculates their interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural intensity difference (IID). These IPD and IID are matched with reference data obtained by HRTF or by the geometrical relation to determine the sound source direction. The direction obtained by face detection may be used as a candidate for the direction. Finally, all subbands from the direction are collected to synthesize a wave form by inverse FFT. The allowance of collection depends on the direction; narrow (10 deg) at center, while wide (30 deg) at the periphery. This property is called ``auditory fovea'' and is exploited by DPF actively to improve performance of sound source separation. In addition, a humanoid actively turns its head toward the speaker to listen better. Real-time DPF is implemented by distributed processing with five PCs. Preliminary experiments of active audition in speech recognition of three simultaneous utterances of digits in a normal room is also reported. [Work supported by JSPS.

  12. An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memory

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Steven J.; Stambaugh, Laura A.; Beken, Münir; Richards, Todd L.; Johnson, Clark

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the role of culture in shaping music perception and memory. We tested the hypothesis that listeners demonstrate different patterns of activation associated with music processing—particularly right frontal cortex—when encoding and retrieving culturally familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, with the latter evoking broader activation consistent with more complex memory tasks. Subjects (n = 16) were right-handed adults born and raised in the USA (n = 8) or Turkey (n = 8) with minimal music training. Using fMRI procedures, we scanned subjects during two tasks: (i) listening to novel musical examples from their own culture and an unfamiliar culture and (ii) identifying which among a series of brief excerpts were taken from the longer examples. Both groups were more successful remembering music of their home culture. We found greater activation for culturally unfamiliar music listening in the left cerebellar region, right angular gyrus, posterior precuneus and right middle frontal area extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Subjects demonstrated greater activation in the cingulate gyrus and right lingual gyrus when engaged in recall of culturally unfamiliar music. This study provides evidence for the influence of culture on music perception and memory performance at both a behavioral and neurological level. PMID:20035018

  13. An fMRI investigation of the cultural specificity of music memory.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J; Stambaugh, Laura A; Beken, Münir; Richards, Todd L; Johnson, Clark

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the role of culture in shaping music perception and memory. We tested the hypothesis that listeners demonstrate different patterns of activation associated with music processing-particularly right frontal cortex-when encoding and retrieving culturally familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, with the latter evoking broader activation consistent with more complex memory tasks. Subjects (n = 16) were right-handed adults born and raised in the USA (n = 8) or Turkey (n = 8) with minimal music training. Using fMRI procedures, we scanned subjects during two tasks: (i) listening to novel musical examples from their own culture and an unfamiliar culture and (ii) identifying which among a series of brief excerpts were taken from the longer examples. Both groups were more successful remembering music of their home culture. We found greater activation for culturally unfamiliar music listening in the left cerebellar region, right angular gyrus, posterior precuneus and right middle frontal area extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Subjects demonstrated greater activation in the cingulate gyrus and right lingual gyrus when engaged in recall of culturally unfamiliar music. This study provides evidence for the influence of culture on music perception and memory performance at both a behavioral and neurological level.

  14. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.

  15. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy. PMID:26379529

  16. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy. PMID:26379529

  17. Gender and the performance of music.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Desmond C; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical "message," gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music-communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four "music characteristics" scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  18. The Role of Hearing in Understanding Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    1990-01-01

    Explains how the ear and the brain work together to make music listening possible. Argues good hearing does not ensure skilled listening, stressing that listening is a mental process. Examines the aural process and properties of sound, and describes listening behaviors within the basic levels of auditory processing. Provides a guide for teaching…

  19. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music

    PubMed Central

    Miu, Andrei C.; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience. PMID:26779072

  20. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience.

  1. Aesthetic Emotions Across Arts: A Comparison Between Painting and Music.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C; Pițur, Simina; Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Emotional responses to art have long been subject of debate, but only recently have they started to be investigated in affective science. The aim of this study was to compare perceptions regarding frequency of aesthetic emotions, contributing factors, and motivation which characterize the experiences of looking at painting and listening to music. Parallel surveys were filled in online by participants (N = 971) interested in music and painting. By comparing self-reported characteristics of these experiences, this study found that compared to listening to music, looking at painting was associated with increased frequency of wonder and decreased frequencies of joyful activation and power. In addition to increased vitality, as reflected by the latter two emotions, listening to music was also more frequently associated with emotions such as tenderness, nostalgia, peacefulness, and sadness. Compared to painting-related emotions, music-related emotions were perceived as more similar to emotions in other everyday life situations. Participants reported that stimulus features and previous knowledge made more important contributions to emotional responses to painting, whereas prior mood, physical context and the presence of other people were considered more important in relation to emotional responses to music. Self-education motivation was more frequently associated with looking at painting, whereas mood repair and keeping company motivations were reported more frequently in relation to listening to music. Participants with visual arts education reported increased vitality-related emotions in their experience of looking at painting. In contrast, no relation was found between music education and emotional responses to music. These findings offer a more general perspective on aesthetic emotions and encourage integrative research linking different types of aesthetic experience. PMID:26779072

  2. Music Engineering as a Novel Strategy for Enhancing Music Enjoyment in the Cochlear Implant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D.; Mancuso, Dean M.; Chari, Divya A.; Lalwani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Methods. Normal hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9) evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Results. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1–3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Conclusions. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience. PMID:26543322

  3. Music lexical networks: the cortical organization of music recognition.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Gosselin, Nathalie; Belin, Pascal; Zatorre, Robert J; Plailly, Jane; Tillmann, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    Successful recognition of a familiar tune depends on a selection procedure that takes place in a memory system that contains all the representations of the specific musical phrases to which one has been exposed during one's lifetime. We refer to this memory system as the musical lexicon. The goal of the study was to identify its neural correlates. The brains of students with little musical training were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while the student listened to familiar musical themes, unfamiliar music, and random tones. The familiar themes were selected from instrumental pieces well-known to the participants; the unfamiliar music was the retrograde version of the familiar themes, which the participants did not recognize; and the random sequences contained the same musical tones but in a random order. All stimuli were synthesized and played with the sound of a piano, thereby keeping low-level acoustical factors similar across conditions. The comparison of cerebral responses to familiar versus unfamiliar music reveals focal activation in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS). Re-analysis of the data obtained in a previous study by Plailly et al. also points to the STS as the critical region involved in musical memories. The neuroimaging data further suggest that these auditory memories are tightly coupled with action (singing), by showing left activation in the planum temporale, in the supplementary motor area (SMA), and in the inferior frontal gyrus. Such a cortical organization of music recognition is analogous to the dorsal stream model of speech processing proposed by Hickok and Poeppel.

  4. High School Students' Participation in Music Activities beyond the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the music activities that high school band students are involved in and how these activities might lead to lifelong music participation. Specific research questions were the following: (a) In what activities are high school band students involved? (b) What are high school band directors…

  5. The structure of musical preferences: a five-factor model.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Levitin, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    Music is a cross-cultural universal, a ubiquitous activity found in every known human culture. Individuals demonstrate manifestly different preferences in music, and yet relatively little is known about the underlying structure of those preferences. Here, we introduce a model of musical preferences based on listeners' affective reactions to excerpts of music from a wide variety of musical genres. The findings from 3 independent studies converged to suggest that there exists a latent 5-factor structure underlying music preferences that is genre free and reflects primarily emotional/affective responses to music. We have interpreted and labeled these factors as (a) a Mellow factor comprising smooth and relaxing styles; (b) an Unpretentious factor comprising a variety of different styles of sincere and rootsy music such as is often found in country and singer-songwriter genres; (c) a Sophisticated factor that includes classical, operatic, world, and jazz; (d) an Intense factor defined by loud, forceful, and energetic music; and (e) a Contemporary factor defined largely by rhythmic and percussive music, such as is found in rap, funk, and acid jazz. The findings from a fourth study suggest that preferences for the MUSIC factors are affected by both the social and the auditory characteristics of the music.

  6. The structure of musical preferences: a five-factor model.

    PubMed

    Rentfrow, Peter J; Goldberg, Lewis R; Levitin, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    Music is a cross-cultural universal, a ubiquitous activity found in every known human culture. Individuals demonstrate manifestly different preferences in music, and yet relatively little is known about the underlying structure of those preferences. Here, we introduce a model of musical preferences based on listeners' affective reactions to excerpts of music from a wide variety of musical genres. The findings from 3 independent studies converged to suggest that there exists a latent 5-factor structure underlying music preferences that is genre free and reflects primarily emotional/affective responses to music. We have interpreted and labeled these factors as (a) a Mellow factor comprising smooth and relaxing styles; (b) an Unpretentious factor comprising a variety of different styles of sincere and rootsy music such as is often found in country and singer-songwriter genres; (c) a Sophisticated factor that includes classical, operatic, world, and jazz; (d) an Intense factor defined by loud, forceful, and energetic music; and (e) a Contemporary factor defined largely by rhythmic and percussive music, such as is found in rap, funk, and acid jazz. The findings from a fourth study suggest that preferences for the MUSIC factors are affected by both the social and the auditory characteristics of the music. PMID:21299309

  7. Performance of music elevates pain threshold and positive affect: implications for the evolutionary function of music.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I M; Kaskatis, Kostas; MacDonald, Ian; Barra, Vinnie

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making. PMID:23089077

  8. An Educational Leadership Listening Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nostrand, Peter F.; Shelly, Richard W.

    The model developed here has been designed to help educators become better listeners and thereby better leaders. The model is broken down into an active and a post-active phase. The active phase covers the period of time during which active verbal intercourse is in progress. Concentrative listening, the first skill in the active phase, is that…

  9. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  10. Beyond auditory cortex: working with musical thoughts.

    PubMed

    Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-04-01

    Musical imagery is associated with neural activity in auditory cortex, but prior studies have not examined musical imagery tasks requiring mental transformations. This paper describes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies requiring manipulation of musical information. In one set of experiments, listeners were asked to mentally reverse a familiar tune when presented backwards. This manipulation consistently elicits neural activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Separate experiments requiring judgments about melodies that have been transposed from one musical key to another also elicit IPS activation. Conjunction analyses indicate that the same portions of the IPS are recruited in both tasks. The findings suggest that the dorsal pathway of auditory processing is involved in the manipulation and transformation of auditory information, as has also been shown for visuomotor and visuospatial tasks. As such, it provides a substrate for the creation of new mental representations that are based on manipulation of previously experienced sensory events. PMID:22524363

  11. Making music after stroke: using musical activities to enhance arm function.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Frederike; Knox, Don; Dodds, Colin; Cassidy, Gianna; Alexander, Gillian; MacDonald, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    A common long-term consequence of stroke is impaired arm function, which affects independence and quality of life in a considerable proportion of stroke survivors. There is a growing need for self-management strategies that enable stroke survivors to continue their recovery after rehabilitation has ceased. Interventions with high-intensity, repetitive task training and feedback are most likely to improve function. Achieving the required amount of self-practice is challenging, however. Innovative approaches are required to translate therapies into rewarding activities that can be undertaken independently. This paper describes the key principles and development of a novel intervention that integrates individuals' preferred music with game technology in upper limb rehabilitation. The "tap tempo" paradigm, which uses rhythmic auditory cueing, provides repetitive upper limb task training, which can be tailored to individual goals and progress (e.g., in terms of movement range and complexity), while providing sensitive quantitative feedback to promote skill acquisition and enhance self-management.

  12. Study on Brain Dynamics by Non Linear Analysis of Music Induced EEG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Archi; Sanyal, Shankha; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Guhathakurta, Tarit; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak; Ghose, Partha

    2016-02-01

    Music has been proven to be a valuable tool for the understanding of human cognition, human emotion, and their underlying brain mechanisms. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of Hindustani music on brain activity during normal relaxing conditions using electroencephalography (EEG). Ten male healthy subjects without special musical education participated in the study. EEG signals were acquired at the frontal (F3/F4) lobes of the brain while listening to music at three experimental conditions (rest, with music and without music). Frequency analysis was done for the alpha, theta and gamma brain rhythms. The finding shows that arousal based activities were enhanced while listening to Hindustani music of contrasting emotions (romantic/sorrow) for all the subjects in case of alpha frequency bands while no significant changes were observed in gamma and theta frequency ranges. It has been observed that when the music stimulus is removed, arousal activities as evident from alpha brain rhythms remain for some time, showing residual arousal. This is analogous to the conventional 'Hysteresis' loop where the system retains some 'memory' of the former state. This is corroborated in the non linear analysis (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) of the alpha rhythms as manifested in values of fractal dimension. After an input of music conveying contrast emotions, withdrawal of music shows more retention as evidenced by the values of fractal dimension.

  13. A Limiting Feature of the Mozart Effect: Listening Enhances Mental Rotation Abilities in Non-Musicians but Not Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aheadi, Afshin; Dixon, Peter; Glover, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The "Mozart effect" occurs when performance on spatial cognitive tasks improves following exposure to Mozart. It is hypothesized that the Mozart effect arises because listening to complex music activates similar regions of the right cerebral hemisphere as are involved in spatial cognition. A counter-intuitive prediction of this hypothesis (and one…

  14. Gender and the performance of music

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Desmond C.; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical “message,” gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four “music characteristics” scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music. PMID:24795663

  15. Neural Correlates of Music Recognition in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, N.; Moiseev, A.; Sun, W.; Feng, T.; Moiseeva, N.; Watt, K. J.; Huotilainen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that subserve music recognition remain unclear despite increasing interest in this process. Here we report the results of a magnetoencephalography experiment to determine the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of brain regions activated during listening to a familiar and unfamiliar instrumental melody in control adults…

  16. A Minds-On Approach to Active Learning in General Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Minds-on engagement in active learning is explored through the experiences of Margaret Sanders, a general music teacher. Minds-on learners think about their experiences. They are actively involved as questioners and problem solvers while they complete musical tasks and reflect on their work after it is completed. Minds-off learners focus on their…

  17. A Philosophical Perspective on Leading Music Activities for the Over 50s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Hilary; Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea; Varvarigou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The basis of this article is findings from the Music for Life Project which investigated the benefits and challenges of music activity participation for the over 50s in three case study sites in the United Kingdom. The paper uses a philosophical lens to explore the leaders' and participants' views on the purpose of the activities, how…

  18. Self-Perceived Influences on Musically Active Nonmusic Majors Related to Continued Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Chelcy; Dobbs, Teryl; Jensen, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated influences encouraging active music engagement beyond the high school and college years among nonmusic majors who are actively engaged in music. A web survey yielded a 50% response rate (N = 476) from nonmajor students enrolled in performing organizations at a large Midwestern public university, whose responses addressed…

  19. Listening to the brainstem: musicianship enhances intelligibility of subcortical representations for speech.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-01-28

    Auditory experiences including musicianship and bilingualism have been shown to enhance subcortical speech encoding operating below conscious awareness. Yet, the behavioral consequence of such enhanced subcortical auditory processing remains undetermined. Exploiting their remarkable fidelity, we examined the intelligibility of auditory playbacks (i.e., "sonifications") of brainstem potentials recorded in human listeners. We found naive listeners' behavioral classification of sonifications was faster and more categorical when evaluating brain responses recorded in individuals with extensive musical training versus those recorded in nonmusicians. These results reveal stronger behaviorally relevant speech cues in musicians' neural representations and demonstrate causal evidence that superior subcortical processing creates a more comprehensible speech signal (i.e., to naive listeners). We infer that neural sonifications of speech-evoked brainstem responses could be used in the early detection of speech-language impairments due to neurodegenerative disorders, or in objectively measuring individual differences in speech reception solely by listening to individuals' brain activity.

  20. Lost and Found: Music Activities Delivered by Primary Classroom Generalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Primary classroom teachers can play a vital role in the music education of primary school students, providing a basis for lifelong learning in music and the arts. Research shows that not all Victorian primary school students have equitable access to music education and that the role of the classroom teacher becomes valuable in supplying or…