Science.gov

Sample records for active night vision

  1. Night Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. William Herschel opens up the invisible universe; 3. 1800-1950: slow progress - the moon, planets, bright stars, and the discovery of interstellar dust; 4. Dying stars shrouded in dust and stars being born: the emergence of infrared astronomy in the 60s and 70s; 5. Birth of far infrared and submillimetre astronomy: clouds of dust and molecules in our Galaxy; 6. The cosmic microwave background, echo of the Big Bang; 7. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite and the opening up of extragalactic infrared astronomy: starbursts and active galactic nuclei; 8. The Cosmic Background Explorer and the ripples, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer, and dark energy; 9. Giant ground-based infrared and submillimetre telescopes; 10. The Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope: the star-formation history of the universe and infrared galaxy populations; 11. Our dusty Solar System, debris disks and the search for exoplanets; 12. The future: pioneering space missions and giant ground-based telescopes; Notes; Credits for illustrations; Further reading; Bibliography; Glossary; Index of names; Index.

  2. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  3. Night Vision Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    PixelVision, Inc. developed the Night Video NV652 Back-illuminated CCD Camera, based on the expertise of a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory employee and a former employee of Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. The camera operates without an image intensifier, using back-illuminated and thinned CCD technology to achieve extremely low light level imaging performance. The advantages of PixelVision's system over conventional cameras include greater resolution and better target identification under low light conditions, lower cost and a longer lifetime. It is used commercially for research and aviation.

  4. Advanced night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, Clinton

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  5. Review of night vision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2015-06-01

    A review of night vision metrology is presented in this paper. A set of reasons that create a rather chaotic metrologic situation on night vision market is presented. It is shown that there has been made a little progress in night vision metrology during last decades in spite of a big progress in night vision technology at the same period of time. It is concluded that such a big discrep- ancy between metrology development level and technology development can be an obstacle in the further development of night vision technology.

  6. Review of night vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2013-06-01

    Night vision based on technology of image intensifier tubes is the oldest electro-optical surveillance technology. However, it receives much less attention from international scientific community than thermal imagers or visible/NIR imagers due to series of reasons. This paper presents a review of a modern night vision technology and can help readers to understand sophisticated situation on the international night vision market.

  7. Vision - night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms do you have? Do you have unusual stress, anxiety, or a fear of the dark? The eye exam will include: Color vision testing Pupil light reflex Refraction Retinal exam Slit lamp examination Visual acuity Other tests may be done: Electroretinogram ( ...

  8. Design of secondary optics for IRED in active night vision systems.

    PubMed

    Xin, Di; Liu, Hua; Jing, Lei; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wenbin; Lu, Zhenwu

    2013-01-14

    An effective optical design method is proposed to solve the problem of adjustable view angle for infrared illuminator in active night vision systems. A novel total internal reflection (TIR) lens with three segments of the side surface is designed as the secondary optics of infrared emitting diode (IRED). It can provide three modes with different view angles to achieve a complete coverage of the monitored area. As an example, a novel TIR lens is designed for SONY FCB-EX 480CP camera. Optical performance of the novel TIR lens is investigated by both numerical simulation and experiments. The results demonstrate that it can meet the requirements of different irradiation distances quit well with view angles of 7.5°, 22° and 50°. The mean optical efficiency is improved from 62% to 75% and the mean irradiance uniformity is improved from 65% to 85% compared with the traditional structure. PMID:23389004

  9. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  10. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  11. Night vision: changing the way we drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.

    2001-03-01

    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  12. Analysis of the development and the prospects about vehicular infrared night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Hua-ping; Xie, Zu-yun; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Yu, Hong-qiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Through the classification of vehicular infrared night vision system and comparing the mainstream vehicle infrared night vision products, we summarized the functions of vehicular infrared night vision system which conclude night vision, defogging , strong-light resistance and biological recognition. At the same time , the vehicular infrared night vision system's markets of senior car and fire protection industry were analyzed。Finally, the conclusion was given that vehicle infrared night vision system would be used as a safety essential active safety equipment to promote the night vision photoelectric industry and automobile industry.

  13. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  14. Progress in color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

  15. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  16. Evaluation of Two Night-Vision Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twelve legally blind men tested two night-vision devices: one wide-angle light and one with a high-intensity beam. The study concluded that no one night light is best for all individuals and in some cases a smaller angle, high-intensity light may be more useful than a wider angle one. (Author/JDD)

  17. Night vision adapter for an aiming telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granciu, Dana; Mitricica, Doina-Narcisa; Serban, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Actual requirements impose more and more to convert rapidly a daytime aiming telescope, (called also telescopic sight or riflescope) into a night vision device. Recent progress achieved in the development of various image sensors over a wide spectral range, from visible to Long-wave infrared (LWIR), made possible to develop new solutions for performant night vision adapters. These attachments can increase the visibility at night but can be designed to cover also some low visibility conditions during the day such as fog, smoke and dust, especially if we refer to the Short-wave infrared spectral band (SWIR). The paper analyzes possible constructive solutions for digital riflescope attachments, destined to work at night and/or in low visibility during the day.

  18. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  19. Night myopia is reduced in binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Chirre, Emmanuel; Prieto, Pedro M; Schwarz, Christina; Artal, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Night myopia, which is a shift in refraction with light level, has been widely studied but still lacks a complete understanding. We used a new infrared open-view binocular Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor to quantify night myopia under monocular and natural binocular viewing conditions. Both eyes' accommodative response, aberrations, pupil diameter, and convergence were simultaneously measured at light levels ranging from photopic to scotopic conditions to total darkness. For monocular vision, reducing the stimulus luminance resulted in a progression of the accommodative state that tends toward the subject's dark focus or tonic accommodation and a change in convergence following the induced accommodative error. Most subjects presented a myopic shift of accommodation that was mitigated in binocular vision. The impact of spherical aberration on the focus shift was relatively small. Our results in monocular conditions support the hypothesis that night myopia has an accommodative origin as the eye progressively changes its accommodation state with decreasing luminance toward its resting state in total darkness. On the other hand, binocularity restrains night myopia, possibly by using fusional convergence as an additional accommodative cue, thus reducing the potential impact of night myopia on vision at low light levels. PMID:27333457

  20. [Evaluation of condition and factors affecting activity effectiveness and visual performance of pilots who use night vision goggles during the helicopter flights].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A S; Davydov, V V; Lapa, V V; Minakov, A A; Sukhanov, V V; Chistov, S D

    2014-07-01

    According to analysis of questionnaire authors revealed factors, which affect activity effectiveness, and visual performance of pilots who use night vision goggles during the helicopter flights. These are: difficulty of flight tasks, flying conditions, illusion of attitude. Authors gave possible ways to reduce an impact of these factors. PMID:25286586

  1. Night Mobility Instruction for Child with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    The challenges of after-dark travel for low vision children are examined in terms of physical effects of low light on normal and abnormal vision and consequences for low vision travel and orientation skills. Techniques for efficient vision use are suggested along with night travel aids and considerations in night driver vision. (CL)

  2. Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2006-05-01

    New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

  3. The design of CY-1R night vision helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chang, Benkang

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, the research intention and design principle of CY-1R night vision helmet are explained which fills the gaps in active-passive combined night vision field in our country. The structure, composition, mechanism and overall performance of the goggle are analyzed. It is a new type device consisting of laser illuminator system, special optical system and high performance low-level-light intensifier. Based on these characteristics, the sensitivity of the system is high and the image observed is very clear. Taking advantage of it, we can complete the military operation under any atrocious weather conditions.

  4. Airborne Use of Night Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mepham, S.

    1990-04-01

    Mission Management Department of the Royal Aerospace Establishment has won a Queen's Award for Technology, jointly with GEC Sensors, in recognition of innovation and success in the development and application of night vision technology for fixed wing aircraft. This work has been carried out to satisfy the operational needs of the Royal Air Force. These are seen to be: - Operations in the NATO Central Region - To have a night as well as a day capability - To carry out low level, high speed penetration - To attack battlefield targets, especially groups of tanks - To meet these objectives at minimum cost The most effective way to penetrate enemy defences is at low level and survivability would be greatly enhanced with a first pass attack. It is therefore most important that not only must the pilot be able to fly at low level to the target but also he must be able to detect it in sufficient time to complete a successful attack. An analysis of the average operating conditions in Central Europe during winter clearly shows that high speed low level attacks can only be made for about 20 per cent of the 24 hours. Extending this into good night conditions raises the figure to 60 per cent. Whilst it is true that this is for winter conditions and in summer the situation is better, the overall advantage to be gained is clear. If our aircraft do not have this capability the potential for the enemy to advance his troops and armour without hinderance for considerable periods is all too obvious. There are several solutions to providing such a capability. The one chosen for Tornado GR1 is to use Terrain Following Radar (TFR). This system is a complete 24 hour capability. However it has two main disadvantages, it is an active system which means it can be jammed or homed into, and is useful in attacking pre-planned targets. Second it is an expensive system which precludes fitting to other than a small number of aircraft.

  5. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    2000-06-01

    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  6. New night vision goggle gain definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.

    2015-05-01

    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  7. The impact of changing night vision goggle spectral response on night vision imaging system lighting compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, Harry L.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2004-09-01

    The defining document outlining night-vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting, MIL-L-85762A, was written in the mid 1980's, based on what was then the state of the art in night vision and image intensification. Since that time there have been changes in the photocathode sensitivity and the minus-blue coatings applied to the objective lenses. Specifically, many aviation night-vision goggles (NVGs) in the Air Force are equipped with so-called "leaky green" or Class C type objective lens coatings that provide a small amount of transmission around 545 nanometers so that the displays that use a P-43 phosphor can be seen through the NVGs. However, current NVIS compatibility requirements documents have not been updated to include these changes. Documents that followed and replaced MIL-L-85762A (ASC/ENFC-96-01 and MIL-STD-3009) addressed aspects of then current NVIS technology, but did little to change the actual content or NVIS radiance requirements set forth in the original MIL-L-85762A. This paper examines the impact of spectral response changes, introduced by changes in image tube parameters and objective lens minus-blue filters, on NVIS compatibility and NVIS radiance calculations. Possible impact on NVIS lighting requirements is also discussed. In addition, arguments are presented for revisiting NVIS radiometric unit conventions.

  8. Human factors issues in the use of night vision devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Foyle, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the critical human factors that arise in field data on the differences between night vision displays and unaided day vision. Attention is given to the findings of empirical studies of performance on rotorcraft-flight-relevant perceptual tasks in which depth and distance perception are critical factors. Suggestions are made for man-machine-critical component design modifications in current night vision systems.

  9. The Night Vision Aid for Legally Blind People with Night Blindness: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissette, Diane L.; Goodrich, Gregory L.

    1983-01-01

    The Night Vision Aid (NVA) was evaluated to determine its effectiveness as an orientation and mobility aid for legally blind persons with night blindness. On the average, the NVA did not significantly improve the Ss' mobility at night; the majority of them preferred the Wide Angle Mobility Light. (CL)

  10. Visual anomalies and display night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.

  11. Psychophysical measurement of night vision goggle noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Rachael L.; Marasco, Peter L.; Havig, Paul R.; Martinsen, Gary L.; Reis, George A.; Heft, Eric L.

    2003-09-01

    Pilots, developers, and other users of night-vision goggles (NVGs) have pointed out that different NVG image intensifier tubes have different subjective noise characteristics. Currently, no good model of the visual impact of NVG noise exists. Because it is very difficult to objectively measure the noise of a NVG, a method for assessing noise subjectively using simple psychophysical procedures was developed. This paper discusses the use of a computer program to generate noise images similar to what an observer sees through an NVG, based on filtered white noise. The images generated were based on 1/f (where f is frequency) filtered white noise with several adjustable parameters. Adjusting each of these parameters varied different characteristics of the noise. This paper discusses a study where observers compared the computer-generated noise images to true NVG noise and were asked to determine which computer-generated image was the best representation of the true noise. This method was repeated with different types of NVGs and at different luminance levels to study what NVG parameters cause variations in NVG noise.

  12. Human Factors And Safety Considerations Of Night Vision Systems Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, Robert W.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1989-03-01

    Military aviation night vision systems greatly enhance the capability to operate during periods of low illumination. After flying with night vision devices, most aviators are apprehensive about returning to unaided night flight. Current night vision imaging devices allow aviators to fly during ambient light conditions which would be extremely dangerous, if not impossible, with unaided vision. However, the visual input afforded with these devices does not approach that experienced using the unencumbered, unaided eye during periods of daylight illumination. Many visual parameters, e,g., acuity, field-of-view, depth perception, etc., are compromised when night vision devices are used. The inherent characteristics of image intensification based sensors introduce new problems associated with the interpretation of visual information based on different spatial and spectral content from that of unaided vision. In addition, the mounting of these devices onto the helmet is accompanied by concerns of fatigue resulting from increased head supported weight and shift in center-of-gravity. All of these concerns have produced numerous human factors and safety issues relating to thb use of night vision systems. These issues are identified and discussed in terms of their possible effects on user performance and safety.

  13. Color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color and dual band night image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

    2009-07-01

    Color night vision technology can effectively improve the detection and identification probability. Current color night vision method based on gray scale modulation fusion, spectrum field fusion, special component fusion and world famous NRL method, TNO method will bring about serious color distortion, and the observers will be visual tired after long time observation. Alexander Toet of TNO Human Factors presents a method to fuse multiband night image a natural day time color appearance, but it need the true color image of the scene to be observed. In this paper we put forward a color night vision method based on the correlation between natural color image and dual band night image. Color display is attained through dual-band low light level images and their fusion image. Actual color image of the similar scene is needed to obtain color night vision image, the actual color image is decomposed to three gray-scale images of RGB color module, and the short wave LLL image, long wave LLL image and their fusion image are compared to them through gray-scale spatial correlation method, and the color space mapping scheme is confirmed by correlation. Gray-scale LLL images and their fusion image are adjusted through the variation of HSI color space coefficient, and the coefficient matrix is built. Color display coefficient matrix of LLL night vision system is obtained by multiplying the above coefficient matrix and RGB color space mapping matrix. Emulation experiments on general scene dual-band color night vision indicate that the color display effect is approving. This method was experimented on dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

  14. Evaluation of visual acuity with Gen 3 night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1994-01-01

    Using laboratory simulations, visual performance was measured at luminance and night vision imaging system (NVIS) radiance levels typically encountered in the natural nocturnal environment. Comparisons were made between visual performance with unaided vision and that observed with subjects using image intensification. An Amplified Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS6) binocular image intensifier was used. Light levels available in the experiments (using video display technology and filters) were matched to those of reflecting objects illuminated by representative night-sky conditions (e.g., full moon, starlight). Results show that as expected, the precipitous decline in foveal acuity experienced with decreasing mesopic luminance levels is effectively shifted to much lower light levels by use of an image intensification system. The benefits of intensification are most pronounced foveally, but still observable at 20 deg eccentricity. Binocularity provides a small improvement in visual acuity under both intensified and unintensified conditions.

  15. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

    2005-02-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

  16. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry

    2000-01-01

    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  17. Low light comparison of target visibility with night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Gregory; Brulotte, Michel; Carignan, Stephan; Macuda, Todd; Jennings, Sion

    2008-04-01

    Different night vision goggle image intensification technologies were tested to compare goggle performance in low light conditions. A total of four different night vision goggles were tested in a laboratory dark room. The laboratory tests consisted of viewing Landolt acuity stimuli of different contrast levels with each set of goggles and without the goggles in full light conditions (baseline performance). The results from the laboratory testing indicated that there were significant differences in acuity between the NVGs, particularly for low contrast targets. These data suggest that NVG standards developed using high contrast targets, even in low light conditions may not provide the full story of how the NVG will perform in flight.

  18. Helicopter flights with night-vision goggles: Human factors aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Night-vision goggles (NVGs) and, in particular, the advanced, helmet-mounted Aviators Night-Vision-Imaging System (ANVIS) allows helicopter pilots to perform low-level flight at night. It consists of light intensifier tubes which amplify low-intensity ambient illumination (star and moon light) and an optical system which together produce a bright image of the scene. However, these NVGs do not turn night into day, and, while they may often provide significant advantages over unaided night flight, they may also result in visual fatigue, high workload, and safety hazards. These problems reflect both system limitations and human-factors issues. A brief description of the technical characteristics of NVGs and of human night-vision capabilities is followed by a description and analysis of specific perceptual problems which occur with the use of NVGs in flight. Some of the issues addressed include: limitations imposed by a restricted field of view; problems related to binocular rivalry; the consequences of inappropriate focusing of the eye; the effects of ambient illumination levels and of various types of terrain on image quality; difficulties in distance and slope estimation; effects of dazzling; and visual fatigue and superimposed symbology. These issues are described and analyzed in terms of their possible consequences on helicopter pilot performance. The additional influence of individual differences among pilots is emphasized. Thermal imaging systems (forward looking infrared (FLIR)) are described briefly and compared to light intensifier systems (NVGs). Many of the phenomena which are described are not readily understood. More research is required to better understand the human-factors problems created by the use of NVGs and other night-vision aids, to enhance system design, and to improve training methods and simulation techniques.

  19. Low light level CMOS sensor for night vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Elad; Ginat, Ran; Nesher, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    For many years image intensifier tubes were used for night vision systems. In 2014, Elbit systems developed a digital low-light level CMOS sensor, with similar sensitivity to a Gen II image-intensifiers, down to starlight conditions. In this work we describe: the basic principle behind this sensor, physical model for low-light performance estimation and results of field testing.

  20. Advantages of fused night vision in complex urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alistair

    2014-10-01

    Fused night vision systems have been available for a number of years and have matured into practical devices for use by dismounted soldiers. This paper looks at the approaches taken to achieve fused systems and looks at the real world advantages of such systems in complex urban environments with multiple light sources.

  1. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  2. Wide-field-of-view (WFOV) night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, Wayne; Estrera, Joseph P.

    2003-09-01

    The United States' armed forces continue to be presented with increased challenges in adverse operational environments with increasing risk and complexity - especially at night. To ensure continued operational success and battlefield superiority during darkness, our armed forces must be equipped with night vision (NV) systems providing increased situational awareness. Doing so will significantly enhance threat detection and engagement, as well as survivability, thus ensuring greater mission success. Northrop Grumman Electro-Optical Systems (EOS) continues to develop its Wide Field of View (WFOV) image intensification (I2) night vision system for ground forces. This system will provide a significant increase in visual coverage enabling US forces to continue "to own the night". Until now, NV systems have typically been limited to a 40-degree field of view (FOV), vertically and horizontally. This limited FOV reduces off-axis detection, restricts an individual soldier's recognition and engagement capabilities and hinders added peripheral vision. To counter this operational deficiency, EOS proposes the Wide Field of View (WFOV) night vision binocular. The WFOV system will have a 70-degree horizontal FOV, with a 55-degree vertical FOV. The increased FOV will result in increased situational awareness of soldiers' surrounding environment (including terrain, hazards, threat, etc) during normal night operations. It will also allow for rapid and safer movement, especially in MOUT operations. Additionally, the increased visual coverage of large areas will enable soldiers to detect and engage targets faster and with greater reliability. The WFOV binocular will significantly enhance survivability, threat detection and engagement, and hence, greater mission success rate.

  3. What's crucial in night vision goggle simulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Training is required to correctly interpret NVG imagery. Training night operations with simulated intensified imagery has great potential. Compared to direct viewing with the naked eye, intensified imagery is relatively easy to simulate and the cost of real NVG training is high (logistics, risk, civilian sleep deprivation, pollution). On the surface NVG imagery appears to have a structure similar to daylight imagery. However, in actuality its characteristics differ significantly from those of daylight imagery. As a result, NVG imagery frequently induces visual illusions. To achieve realistic training, simulated NVG imagery should at least reproduce the essential visual limitations of real NVG imagery caused by reduced resolution, reduced contrast, limited field-of-view, the absence of color, and the systems sensitivity to nearby infrared radiation. It is particularly important that simulated NVG imagery represents essential NVG visual characteristics, such as the high reflection of chlorophyll and halos. Current real-time simulation software falls short for training purposes because of an incorrect representation of shadow effects. We argue that the development of shading and shadowing merits priority to close the gap between real and simulated NVG flight conditions. Visual conspicuity can be deployed as an efficient metric to measure the 'perceptual distance' between the real NVG and the simulated NVG image.

  4. Single-photon imaging camera development for night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Cheng, Jing; Lipson, Jerold; Liu, Jifeng; Michel, Jurgen

    2010-04-01

    Single-photon imaging in infrared will add a new valuable tool to night imaging cameras. Despite years of development, high-sensitivity SWIR cameras are still expensive and not ready for large-volume production. Germanium (Ge) is a promising semiconductor to convert SWIR radiation and it has seen extensive development in conjunction with highspeed optical communications. We are demonstrating a new low-light level infrared array technology based on the single-photon sensitive Geiger avalanche PhotoDiode (Si-GPD) array technology developed at aPeak and low-dislocation Germanium processing developed at MIT. The core of the imaging camera is a Ge:Si photon-counting GPD pixel with CMOS readout. The primary technology objective is to demonstrate through prototyping and semiconductor process development the technical feasibility of single-photon detection cameras sensitive in the SWIR and set the performance specifications. We report on prototype Ge:Si structures compatible with the GPD operation and technology. We demonstrate >80% quantum efficiency at 1310nm and 45%-60% quantum efficiency at 1550nm. Dark current measurements indicate that single-photon sensitivity (2.6x10-18W/pixel) is achievable by cooling the detector at cryogenic temperatures down to 53K. A digital developed to provide adjustable dynamic range and frame rate is reported. Because the GPD detectors have intrinsic excellent gating and ranging capability, the pixel architecture is developed to enable the dual mode operation - passive illumination two-dimensional imaging (night vision) and active illumination three-dimensional imaging.

  5. Visual range of LLL night vision goggle for drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Chang, Benkang; Li, Wei; Qian, Yunsheng; Fu, Rongguo; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, the fundamental theory about visual range of LLL imaging system is described. Based on the revised apparent distance detecting equation and combined with the research intention and design principle of night vision goggle, the relation of parameters which have an influence on performances of system are analyzed. The visual range of the goggle under the specific circumstances is estimated, which proves the revised apparent distance detecting equation is effective and the design of the system is feasible.

  6. All-CMOS night vision viewer with integrated microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosen, Marius E.; Venter, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Monuko; Faure, Nicolaas M.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    The unrivalled integration potential of CMOS has made it the dominant technology for digital integrated circuits. With the advent of visible light emission from silicon through hot carrier electroluminescence, several applications arose, all of which rely upon the advantages of mature CMOS technologies for a competitive edge in a very active and attractive market. In this paper we present a low-cost night vision viewer which employs only standard CMOS technologies. A commercial CMOS imager is utilized for near infrared image capturing with a 128x96 pixel all-CMOS microdisplay implemented to convey the image to the user. The display is implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, with no process alterations or post processing. The display features a 25 μm pixel pitch and a 3.2 mm x 2.4 mm active area, which through magnification presents the virtual image to the user equivalent of a 19-inch display viewed from a distance of 3 meters. This work represents the first application of a CMOS microdisplay in a low-cost consumer product.

  7. Modern night vision goggles for advanced infantry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.; Ostromek, Timothy E.; Isbell, Wayne; Bacarella, Antonio V.

    2003-09-01

    Northrop Grumman Electro-Optical Systems (NGEOS) has concentrated in recent years on the development of advanced night vision goggle (NVG) systems. These NVGs developments concentrate on past operational deficiencies such as high light/bright source conditions during military operations in urban terrain (MOUT), poor individual movement technique (IMT) infantry operations, and obscured battlefield and reduced weather conditions. The first area of NVG advancement involves direct image intensifier (I2) replacement involving automatic gated power supply technology for wide dynamic NVG operation and advanced Generation III halo free I2 technology for reduction of NVG image halo and "blooming" artifacts. The second significant development area is NVG individual movement technique (IMT) deficiencies such as reduced field of view, reduced depth perception, center of gravity problems, and limited operation flexibility. These issues of NVG IMT have resulted in the development of an IMT enhanced night vision goggle for the U.S. Army's enhanced night vision goggle (ENVG). Finally, Northrop Grumman EOS is developing a NVG with the capability of producing optimized real-time image fusion from an image intensified sensor and uncooled long wavelength infrared (LWIR) sensor. This new technology allows for optimum imaging in battlefield obscured and laser polluted environment. These image fusion NVG development efforts have concentrated on both optical overlay image fusion and digital image fusion. This paper will compare and contrast these two types of image fusion technologies.

  8. AMOLED image source for use in integrated panoramic night vision goggle (IPNVG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jeff A.; Parisi, Vince

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED) microdisplay used in the integrated panoramic night vision goggle (IPNVG). These devices will be used to insert independent and overlaid video imagery into the IPNVG. Interface and operational details of the microdisplay relative to the IPNVG implementation in military aircraft will be discussed.

  9. Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2007-10-01

    There are orders of magnitude differences between the ~0.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of night vision (NV) goggle measurements. NIST developed a night vision radiometer calibration facility including NV radiometer transfer standards. The transfer standards, that propagate the radiance responsivity scale to the military primary standards laboratories, are calibrated against a NIST reference radiometer. The reference radiometer has been calibrated on the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) for spectral power and irradiance responsivities. Spectral considerations are discussed to lower the uncertainties of the radiance responsivity scale transfer to the test sets and then to the goggles. Since direct determination of the final uncertainties in goggle calibrations and measurements is difficult, models have been made to estimate the most important uncertainty components based on individual spectral measurements of the applied source distributions and radiometer spectral responsivities. It is also shown, that because of source spectral mismatch problems, the goggle measurement uncertainty at applications can be much higher than at calibration. A suggestion is being made to mimic the no-moon (stars only) night sky radiation distribution using several LEDs in the test-sets to decrease the large spectral mismatch errors. A broad-band correction factor has been developed to further decrease calibration uncertainty when the goggles to be used have different spectral responsivities than the standard. Geometrical considerations to optimize the radiance measurement angle and the out-of-target blocking are also discussed to decrease the uncertainty in the radiance responsivity transfer.

  10. Development of a night vision device driving training aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Woodward, Kim G.; Piccione, Dino

    1999-07-01

    The use of night vision devices (NVDs) has the potential for enhancing driving operations at night by allowing increased mobility and safer operations. However, with this increased capability has come the requirement to manage risks and provide suitable training. Results from field experiments and accident analyses suggest that problems experienced by drivers with NVDs can be attributed to a limited understanding of the NVD capabilities and limitations and to perceptual problems. There is little formal training available to help drivers obtain the required knowledge and skills and little opportunity to obtain and practice perceptual skills prior to driving in the operational environment. NVD users need early and continued exposure to the night environment across a broad range of visual conditions to develop and maintain the necessary perceptual skills. This paper discusses the interim results of a project to develop a Night Driving Training Aid (NDTA) for driving with image intensification (I2) devices. The paper summarizes work to validate requirements, develop instructional materials and software, and deliver the instruction in a multimedia, interactive PC environment. In addition, we discuss issues and lessons learned for training NVD driving knowledge and skills in a PC environment and extending the NDTA to thermal NVDs.

  11. Visual illusions and other effects with night vision devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.; Stephens, Robert L.

    1992-10-01

    To investigate the breadth of visual illusions experienced by aviators flying with night vision devices (NVDs), an open-ended questionnaire was distributed to the military helicopter community. Of the 242 returned questionnaires, there were 221 image intensification (I2) reports and 21 thermal imaging system reports. Most sensory events occurred at night, during low illumination, good weather, and over varied terrain. Contributing factors included inexperience, division of attention, and fatigue. Frequently reported illusions were misjudgments of drift, clearance, height above the terrain, and attitude. Also reported were illusions due to external lights and disturbed depth perception caused by differences in brightness between I2 tubes. Other respondents cited hardware problems and physiological effects. There were no obvious differences between the experiences of I2 users and FLIR (forward-looking infrared) users. Although incidence rates cannot be inferred from these data, the variety of aviator reports will be useful to all those connected with the human factors and safety of NVDs.

  12. Some thoughts on the implementation of pilot night vision devices for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Night vision enhancement devices greatly expand the range and quality of services by extending night operational capabilities. Evolving military tactical concepts for helicopters survivability and battlefield effectiveness necessitate nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flying under both day and night conditions. From a pilot workload standpoint, flying a helicopter NOE in day VFR conditions with minimum clearance between rotors and obstacles is quite demanding. Doing the same job at night is several times more difficult. There are two general categories of night vision devices in operation in helicopter aviation: the Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) system. The capabilities and limitations of those two devices are discussed.

  13. Assessment of panoramic and conventional night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndycraft, David

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents results obtained during a flight evaluation of Night Vision Devices (NVDs) equipped with a symbology injection capability. The NVDs used represented both conventional and wide (Panoramic) Field of View Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) systems. The evaluation was conducted at the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Flying Simulator under the auspices of the Technical Co-operation Programme. 6 Pilots from 4 nations participated in the trial and some 36 hours of flight data and pilot performance were recorded. The metrics used to evaluate Pilot performance included conventional Visual Cue Ratings, estimates of workload, and objective measures obtained through advanced data-analysis techniques. The trial used both conventional ADS-33D manoeuvres and a novel 'Racetrack" course. The paper concludes that although PNVG compare favourably with NVGs the clarity of image currently available in standard NVGs surpasses that of the PNVG and negates some of the advantages gained by the wider Field of View. The manoeuvres favoured by the NVG include those where a high degree of foveal attention demanding processing is being performed, for example navigation tasks. The manoeuvres favoured by the PNVG include those where a more automatic peripheral processing is being performed, for example in reducing drift in the hover.

  14. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theleman, Scott; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Scott, Courtney; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.; Napier, S.

    2006-08-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. This paper describes work that is being performed for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG-WDT (Weather Dipiction Technology) system. NVG-WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5); and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) is being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs.

  15. Performance characterization of night vision equipment based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, N.; Lejard, C.; Deltel, G.; Bijl, P.

    2013-06-01

    Night vision equipment is crucial in order to accomplish supremacy and safety of the troops on the battlefield. Evidently, system integrators, MODs and end-users need access to reliable quantitative characterization of the expected field performance when using night vision equipment. The Image Intensifier tube is one of the most important engines driving the performance for night vision equipment. As a major tube manufacturer, PHOTONIS has investigated the link between its products physical design parameters and the actual end-user field performance. The developments include 1) an end-to-end performance measurement method and test facility, 2) an image-based night vision simulation and 3) a range estimation model. The purpose is twofold: i) being able to support the need of the integrators and end users, and ii) further systematic improvement of night vision equipment design. For the end-to-end test, PHOTONIS and TNO cooperated in the implementation of the TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) test for night vision equipment. This test provides a clear and rigorous ranking of the products with respect to their target acquisition performance level. With respect to the image-based simulation, PHOTONIS performs physical and performance comparisons between artificial and real imagery, promising exciting further development of a model based on the merging of the different approaches of night vision evaluation and modelling. In this paper, we present the PHOTONIS night vision test laboratory, provide TOD results for a set of night vision devices and show range prediction examples.

  16. Advanced helmet vision system (AHVS) integrated night vision helmet mounted display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Todd W.; Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation, under contract to Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 4.0T), designed the Advanced Helmet Vision System to provide aircrew with 24-hour, visor-projected binocular night vision and HMD capability. AHVS integrates numerous key technologies, including high brightness Light Emitting Diode (LED)-based digital light engines, advanced lightweight optical materials and manufacturing processes, and innovations in graphics processing software. This paper reviews the current status of miniaturization and integration with the latest two-part Gentex modular helmet, highlights the lessons learned from previous AHVS phases, and discusses plans for qualification and flight testing.

  17. Custom component generation in the night vision integrated performance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Haefner, David P.; Burks, Stephen D.

    2015-05-01

    The latest version of the U.S. Army imager performance model, the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM), is now contained within a single, system engineering oriented design environment. This new model interface allows sensor systems to be represented using modular, reusable components. A new feature, added in version 1.3 of the NV-IPM, allows users to create custom components which can be incorporated into modeled systems. The ability to modify existing component definitions and create entirely new components in the model greatly enhances the extensibility of the model architecture. In this paper we will discuss the structure of the custom component and parameter generators and provide several examples where this feature can be used to easily create new and unique component definitions within the model.

  18. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  19. Detection of Special Operations Forces Using Night Vision Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    2001-10-22

    Night vision devices, such image intensifiers and infrared imagers, are readily available to a host of nations, organizations, and individuals through international commerce. Once the trademark of special operations units, these devices are widely advertised to ''turn night into day''. In truth, they cannot accomplish this formidable task, but they do offer impressive enhancement of vision in limited light scenarios through electronically generated images. Image intensifiers and infrared imagers are both electronic devices for enhancing vision in the dark. However, each is based upon a totally different physical phenomenon. Image intensifiers amplify the available light energy whereas infrared imagers detect the thermal energy radiated from all objects. Because of this, each device operates from energy which is present in a different portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This leads to differences in the ability of each device to detect and/or identify objects. This report is a compilation of the available information on both state-of-the-art image intensifiers and infrared imagers. Image intensifiers developed in the United States, as well as some foreign made image intensifiers, are discussed. Image intensifiers are categorized according to their spectral response and sensitivity using the nomenclature of GEN I, GEN II, and GEN III. As the first generation of image intensifiers, GEN I, were large and of limited performance, this report will deal with only GEN II and GEN III equipment. Infrared imagers are generally categorized according to their spectral response, sensor materials, and related sensor operating temperature using the nomenclature Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) Cooled and Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Uncooled. MWIR Cooled refers to infrared imagers which operate in the 3 to 5 {micro}m wavelength electromagnetic spectral region and require either mechanical or thermoelectric coolers to keep the sensors operating at 77 K. LWIR Uncooled refers

  20. Machine vision-based night landing aids for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterji, Gano Broto

    The development of machine vision based pilot aids to help reduce night approach and landing accidents is explored in this thesis. The techniques developed in this thesis are motivated by the desire to use the available information sources for navigation such as the airport lighting layout, attitude sensors and Global Positioning System to derive more precise aircraft position and orientation information. The fact that airport lighting geometry is known and that images of airport lighting can be acquired by the camera, has lead to the synthesis of machine vision based algorithms for runway relative aircraft position and orientation estimation. The main contribution of this research is the synthesis of seven navigation algorithms based on two broad families of solutions. The first family of solution methods consists of techniques that reconstruct the airport lighting layout from the camera image and then estimate the aircraft position components by comparing the reconstructed lighting layout geometry with the known model of the airport lighting layout geometry. The second family of methods is comprised of techniques that synthesize the image of the airport lighting layout using a camera model and estimate the aircraft position and orientation by comparing this image with the actual image of the airport lighting acquired by the camera. Algorithms I through IV belong to the first family of solutions while Algorithms V through VII belong to the second family of solutions. Algorithms I and II are parameter optimization methods, Algorithms III and IV are feature correspondence methods and Algorithms V through VII are Kalman filter centered algorithms. In order to take advantage of the aircraft dynamics and the multiple images available along the glide path, the position estimates provided by Algorithms I through IV are used for driving a six-state Kalman filter for providing improved estimates of the aircraft position and inertial velocity components. Algorithms V

  1. Performance characterization of night vision equipment based on the triangle orientation discrimination methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Nicolas; Bijl, Piet; Deltel, Geoffroy

    2015-02-01

    Night vision equipment is crucial in order to accomplish supremacy and safety of the troops on the battlefield. Evidently, system integrators, ministry of defenses and end-users need access to reliable quantitative characterization of the expected field performance when using night vision equipment. The image intensifier tube is one of the most important engines driving the performance for night vision equipment. As a major tube manufacturer, Photonis investigates the link between its products' physical design parameters and the actual end-user field performance. The developments include (1) an end-to-end performance measurement method and test facility, (2) an image-based night vision simulation, and (3) a range estimation model. The purpose is twofold: (1) being able to support the need of the integrators and end-users and (2) further systematic improvement of night vision equipment design. For the end-to-end test, Photonis and TNO cooperated in the implementation of the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test for night vision equipment. This test provides a clear and rigorous ranking of the products with respect to their target acquisition performance level. We present the Photonis night vision test laboratory, provide TOD results for a set of night vision devices, and show range prediction examples.

  2. Night vision goggle luminance disparity and the Pulfrich phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, Harry L.

    2004-09-01

    When night vision goggle (NVG) image intensifier tubes (I2Ts) are replaced during maintenance, the output luminances of the two channels must not exceed a ratio of 1.5 (brighter channel luminance divided by the dimmer channel luminance) in order to meet the current allowed binocular luminance disparity specification. Two studies were performed to investigate the validity of this requirement. The first study estimated thresholds of binocular luminance disparity detection for observers looking through NVGs. For eight observers, the 25% corrected-for-chance probability of detecting an ocular luminance difference, yielded an average ratio of 1.43 indicating that the current 1.5 specification is perhaps too loose. The second study investigated the Pulfrich phenomenon, a pseudo-stereo effect that can be induced by presenting luminance imbalances to the eyes. This study created NVG luminance imbalances using neutral density (ND) filters and then investigated whether or not the various imbalance levels were sufficient to cause the Pulfrich phenomenon to be perceived. Results indicated an imbalance ratio of 1.10 was insufficient to cause the effect to be seen, but a ratio of 1.26 was sufficient (p <= 0.0003) for the effect to be seen, at least part of the time. Based on these results, it is apparent the allowed binocular luminance disparity ratio should probably be tightened to at least 1.3 with a goal of 1.2.

  3. Novel approach to characterize and compare the performance of night vision systems in representative illumination conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nathalie; Vallières, Alexandre; St-Germain, Daniel; Potvin, Simon; Dupuis, Michel; Bouchard, Jean-Claude; Villemaire, André; Bérubé, Martin; Breton, Mélanie; Gagné, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    A novel approach is used to characterize and compare the performance of night vision systems in conditions more representative of night operation in terms of spectral content. Its main advantage compared to standard testing methodologies is that it provides a fast and efficient way for untrained observers to compare night vision system performances with realistic illumination spectra. The testing methodology relies on a custom tumbling-E target and on a new LED-based illumination source that better emulates night sky spectral irradiances from deep overcast starlight to quarter-moon conditions. In this paper, we describe the setup and we demonstrate that the novel approach can be an efficient method to characterize among others night vision goggles (NVG) performances with a small error on the photogenerated electrons compared to the STANAG 4351 procedure.

  4. A Most Rare Vision: Improvisations on "A Midsummer Night's Dream."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakaim, Charles J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of improvisation, experimentation, and innovation. Discusses numerous techniques for fostering such skills when working with William Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." (HB)

  5. Night vision imaging systems design, integration, and verification in military fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Cantiello, Maurizio; Toscano, Mario; Fiorini, Pietro; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the developmental and testing activities conducted by the Italian Air Force Official Test Centre (RSV) in collaboration with Alenia Aerospace, Litton Precision Products and Cranfiled University, in order to confer the Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS) capability to the Italian TORNADO IDS (Interdiction and Strike) and ECR (Electronic Combat and Reconnaissance) aircraft. The activities consisted of various Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) activities, including Night Vision Goggles (NVG) integration, cockpit instruments and external lighting modifications, as well as various ground test sessions and a total of eighteen flight test sorties. RSV and Litton Precision Products were responsible of coordinating and conducting the installation activities of the internal and external lights. Particularly, an iterative process was established, allowing an in-site rapid correction of the major deficiencies encountered during the ground and flight test sessions. Both single-ship (day/night) and formation (night) flights were performed, shared between the Test Crews involved in the activities, allowing for a redundant examination of the various test items by all participants. An innovative test matrix was developed and implemented by RSV for assessing the operational suitability and effectiveness of the various modifications implemented. Also important was definition of test criteria for Pilot and Weapon Systems Officer (WSO) workload assessment during the accomplishment of various operational tasks during NVG missions. Furthermore, the specific technical and operational elements required for evaluating the modified helmets were identified, allowing an exhaustive comparative evaluation of the two proposed solutions (i.e., HGU-55P and HGU-55G modified helmets). The results of the activities were very satisfactory. The initial compatibility problems encountered were progressively mitigated by incorporating modifications both in the front and

  6. Improved colorization for night vision system based on image splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E.; Kozaitis, S. P.

    2015-03-01

    The success of a color night navigation system often depends on the accuracy of the colors in the resulting image. Often, small regions can incorrectly adopt the color of large regions simply due to size of the regions. We presented a method to improve the color accuracy of a night navigation system by initially splitting a fused image into two distinct sections before colorization. We split a fused image into two sections, generally road and sky regions, before colorization and processed them separately to obtain improved color accuracy of each region. Using this approach, small regions were colored correctly when compared to not separating regions.

  7. The impact of target luminance and radiance on night vision device visual performance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.; Task, H. Lee

    2003-09-01

    Visual performance through night-vision devices (NVDs) is a function of many parameters such as target contrast, objective and eyepiece lens focus, signal/noise of the image intensifier tube, quality of the image intensifier, night-vision goggle (NVG) gain, and NVG output luminance to the eye. The NVG output luminance depends on the NVG sensitive radiance emitted (or reflected) from the visual acuity target (usually a vision testing chart). The primary topic of this paper is the standardization (or lack thereof) of the radiance levels used for NVG visual acuity testing. The visual acuity chart light level might be determined in either photometric (luminance) units or radiometric (radiance) units. The light levels are often described as "starlight," "quarter moon," or "optimum" light levels and may not actually provide any quantitative photometric or radiometric information. While these terms may be useful to pilots and the users of night-vision devices, they are inadequate for accurate visual performance testing. This is because there is no widely accepted agreement in the night vision community as to the radiance or luminance level of the target that corresponds to the various named light levels. This paper examines the range of values for "starlight," "quarter moon," and "optimum" light commonly used by the night vision community and referenced in the literature. The impact on performance testing of variations in target luminance/radiance levels is also examined. Arguments for standardizing on NVG-weighted radiometric units for testing night-vision devices instead of photometric units are presented. In addition, the differences between theoretical weighted radiance and actual weighted radiance are also discussed.

  8. Wide-band imaging for enhanced day and night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafferty, Conor; King, Clifford; Ackland, Bryan; Sproul, Jason; Aberg, Ingvar; O'Neill, Jay; Sriram, T. S.; Godek, Corbin; Lattes, Analisa; Pappas, Seth; Buck, Arnie; Jovanovic, Vasilije

    2010-04-01

    Visible-band cameras using silicon imagers provide excellent video under daylight conditions, but become blind at night. The night sky provides illumination from 1-2 μm which cannot be detected with a silicon sensor. Adding short-wave infrared detectors to a CMOS imager would enable a camera which can be used day or night. A germanium-enhanced CMOS imager (TriWave®) has been developed with broadband sensitivity from 0.4 μm to 1.6 μm. A 744 x 576 format imager with 10 μm pixel pitch provides a large field of view without incurring a size and weight penalty in the optics. The small pixel size is achieved by integrating a germanium photodetector into a mainstream CMOS process. A sensitive analog signal chain provides a noise floor of 5 electrons. The imagers are hermetically packaged with a thermo-electric cooler in a windowed metal package 5 cm3 in volume. A compact (<650 cm3) camera core has been designed around the imager. Camera functions implemented include correlated double sampling, dark frame subtraction and non-uniformity corrections. In field tests, videos recorded with different filters in daylight show useful fog and haze penetration over long distances. Under clear moonless conditions, short-wave infrared (SWIR) images recorded with TriWave make visible individuals that cannot be seen in videos recorded simultaneously using an EMCCD. Band-filtered videos confirm that the night-sky illumination is dominated by wavelengths above 1200 nm.

  9. Peripheral vision horizon display on the single seat night attack A-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nims, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of the peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD) held promise for significant reduction in workload for the single seat night attack pilot. For this reason it was incorporated in the single seat night attack (SSNA) A-10. The implementation and results of the PVHD on the SSNA A-10 are discussed as well as the SSNA program. The part the PVHD played in the test and the results and conclusions of that effort are also considered.

  10. Night vision: requirements and possible roadmap for FIR and NIR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källhammer, Jan-Erik

    2006-04-01

    A night vision system must increase visibility in situations where only low beam headlights can be used today. As pedestrians and animals have the highest risk increase in night time traffic due to darkness, the ability of detecting those objects should be the main performance criteria, and the system must remain effective when facing the headlights of oncoming vehicles. Far infrared system has been shown to be superior to near infrared system in terms of pedestrian detection distance. Near infrared images were rated to have significantly higher visual clutter compared with far infrared images. Visual clutter has been shown to correlate with reduction in detection distance of pedestrians. Far infrared images are perceived as being more unusual and therefore more difficult to interpret, although the image appearance is likely related to the lower visual clutter. However, the main issue comparing the two technologies should be how well they solve the driver's problem with insufficient visibility under low beam conditions, especially of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. With the addition of an automatic detection aid, a main issue will be whether the advantage of FIR systems will vanish given NIR systems with well performing automatic pedestrian detection functionality. The first night vision introductions did not generate the sales volumes initially expected. A renewed interest in night vision systems are however to be expected after the release of night vision systems by BMW, Mercedes and Honda, the latter with automatic pedestrian detection.

  11. Instruments of night vision sensitive to a scatter of points of observed objects in the depth of the mapped scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Valeri A.; Kravtchenko, Vitali S.

    2000-11-01

    In the report the sold principle of an operation of a gear of night vision of an active type (with impulse illumination), having a property staining of relief objects in a target image is offered technically. The separate information processing about contrast and volumetric performances of mapped objects of observation is supposed. The shaping of a target image happens for one impulse illumination, the application of scanning is not required.

  12. Perceptual adaptation in the use of night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgin, Frank H.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    The image intensification (I sup 2) systems studied for this report were the biocular AN/PVS-7(NVG) and the binocular AN/AVS-6(ANVIS). Both are quite impressive for purposes of revealing the structure of the environment in a fairly straightforward way in extremely low-light conditions. But these systems represent an unusual viewing medium. The perceptual information available through I sup 2 systems is different in a variety of ways from the typical input of everyday vision, and extensive training and practice is required for optimal use. Using this sort of system involves a kind of perceptual skill learning, but is may also involve visual adaptations that are not simply an extension of normal vision. For example, the visual noise evident in the goggles in very low-light conditions results in unusual statistical properties in visual input. Because we had recently discovered a strong and enduring aftereffect of perceived texture density which seemed to be sensitive to precisely the sorts of statistical distortions introduced by I sup 2 systems, it occurred to use that visual noise of this sort might be a very adapting stimulus for texture density and produce an aftereffect that extended into normal vision once the goggles were removed. We have not found any experimental evidence that I sup 2 systems produce texture density aftereffects. The nature of the texture density aftereffect is briefly explained, followed by an accounting of our studies of I sup 2 systems and our most recent work on the texture density aftereffect. A test for spatial frequency adaptation after exposure to NVG's is also reported, as is a study of perceived depth from motion (motion parallax) while wearing the biocular goggles. We conclude with a summary of our findings.

  13. Fusion of infrared and visible images for night-vision context enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiqiang; Dong, Mingjie; Xie, Xiaozhu; Gao, Zhifeng

    2016-08-10

    Because of the poor lighting conditions at night time, visible images are often fused with corresponding infrared (IR) images for context enhancement of the scenes in night vision. In this paper, we present a novel night-vision context enhancement algorithm through IR and visible image fusion with the guided filter. First, to enhance the visibility of poorly illuminated details in the visible image before the fusion, an adaptive enhancement method is developed by incorporating the processes of dynamic range compression and contrast restoration based on the guided filter. Then, a hybrid multi-scale decomposition based on the guided filter is introduced to inject the IR image information into the visible image through a multi-scale fusion approach. Moreover, a perceptual-based regularization parameter selection method is used to determine the relative amount of the injected IR spectral features by comparing the perceptual saliency of the IR and visible image information. This fusion method can successfully transfer the important IR image information into the fused image, and simultaneously preserve the details and background scenery in the input visible image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve better context enhancement results in night vision. PMID:27534499

  14. Rotary Wing Flight Test Methods Used for the Evaluation of Night Vision Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran; Blanken, Christopher; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A number of rotary wing flight tests have been conducted by the Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate in cooperation with NASA which involved the use of night vision devices and simulated devices. The test set up and data analysis have been taken from two perspectives. Some of the flight tests were structured to look at aircraft handling qualities when the pilot's image quality was reduced from normal daylight levels. In this case, aircraft flight path information was given to the pilot as one input into the Handling Qualities Ratings. Other flight tests were structured to look at pilot and workload directly. In this second case, aircraft position was accurately measured and used as pilot performance data. This paper provides an overview of the test methods used, lessons learned, and recommendations for future tam of night vision devices.

  15. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Coffey, Brendan; Albert, Wayne J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain occurs at a significant rate in the military helicopter community. It is often attributed to the use of night vision goggles (NVG) and to a number of additional factors such as anthropometrics, posture, vibration, mission length, physical fitness, and helmet fit or load. A number of research studies have addressed many aspects of this epidemic, but an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature is not currently available. This paper reviews the spinal anatomy in general and then summarizes what is known about the incidence and prevalence of neck injuries, how the operational environments and equipment may contribute to these injuries, and what can be done to address them from a prevention and/or rehabilitation perspective. Harrison MF, Coffey B, Albert WJ, Fischer SL. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review. PMID:25565533

  16. Visual fatigue induced by optical misalignment in binocular devices: application to night vision binocular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Battista, Josephine; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Gibbs, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The additional and perhaps unnatural eye-movements required to fuse misaligned binocular images can lead to visual fatigue and decreased task performance. The eyes have some tolerance to optical misalignment. However, a survey of the scientific literature reveals a wide range of recommended tolerances but offers little supporting experimental evidence. Most experimental studies are based on small numbers of participants exposed to brief periods of optical misalignment. Therefore, these published tolerance limits might have limited relevance for long-duration exposure to misaligned binocular devices. Prolonged use of binocular devices may cause visual fatigue irrespective of binocular alignment especially for complex tasks such as night vision flying. This study attempts to identify measures most sensitive to misalignment in order to establish relevant tolerance limits for in-service binocular night vision devices. Firstly, we developed a rugged and deployable test bench that can measure binocular alignment with a reproducibility error of less than 1 arcmin. The bench was used to identify and investigate major factors affecting the stability of the optical misalignment over time. Our results indicated that the optical misalignment of a given device changed over time as a function of the in-service usage and thermal history of the device. Secondly, participants were exposed to experimentally controlled levels of optical misalignment typical of those measured on in-service binocular night vision devices. The visual fatigue of each participant was assessed via a set of oculomotor parameters. The oculomotor parameters showing high sensitivity to optical misalignment were compared for subjects exposed to extended periods of misalignment in a baseline reading task and a task using an actual night vision device.

  17. Design of refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Fu, Ru-Lian; Sun, Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Wu

    A refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle was designed. This objective consists of six elements, including one binary surface and two hyperboloids. It has a 40[degree sign] field of view, a 1.25 f-number, and a 18 mm image diameter, with a compact structure and a light weight. All optical specifications reach proposed designing targets. Besides, we considered fabrication issues about special surfaces of the system.

  18. Low light level color night vision technology study on triple-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yichao; Hu, Wengang

    2015-08-01

    Single-channel triple-band color night vision system is able to gain low-light color imagery. The core design idea of one-channel triple-band color night vision system is increasing a scanner than traditional low-light night vision system in the front of the image intensifier. The scanner is consisted of several filters which is used for dividing the emitted light or reflected light of the aim into three parts, R, G and B. Each part is taken a frame image respectively and then fused three frames into color imagery by Color Mapping Guidelines. The addition of filters makes the SNR of each frame image decreases, it means that images detail loss and gray value is low. To overcome this difficult, on the basis of three frame images fusion, a frame image of all band is added to fusion. Experimental results show that fused image which is fused by R, G, B and all band improve image brightness and detail information obviously through calculating the variance and entropy. This fused method is more conducive to the human eye.

  19. Study on real-time registration in dual spectrum low level light night vision technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lian-fa; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chuang; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-hua

    2009-07-01

    In low level light (LLL) color night vision technology, dual spectrum images with respective special information were acquired, and target identification probability would be effectively improved through dual spectrum image fusion. Image registration is one of the key technologies during this process. Current dual spectrum image registration methods mainly include dual imaging channel common optical axis scheme and image characteristic pixel searching scheme. In dual imaging channel common optical axis scheme, additional prismatic optical components should be used, and large amount of radiative energy was wasted. In image characteristic pixel searching scheme, complicated arithmetic made it difficult for its real time realization. In this paper, dual channel dual spectrum LLL color night vision system structure feature and dual spectrum image characteristics was studied, dual spectrum image gray scale symbiotic matrix 2-dimensional histogram was analysed, and a real time image registration method including electronic digital shifting, pixel extension and extraction was put forward. By the analysis of spatial gray-scale relativity of fusion image, registration precision is quantitatively expressed. Emulation experiments indicate that this arithmetic is fast and exact for our dual channel dual spectrum image registration. This method was realized on dual spectrum LLL color night vision experimental apparatus based on Texas Instruments digital video processing device DM642.

  20. G-MAP: a novel night vision system for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletti, Thomas; Maresi, Luca; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Pontetti, Giorgia

    2015-10-01

    The recent developments of single-photon counting array detectors opens the door to a novel type of systems that could be used on satellites in low Earth orbit. One possible application is the detection of non-cooperative vessels or illegal fishing activities. Currently only surveillance operations conducted by Navy or coast guard address this topic, operations by nature costly and with limited coverage. This paper aims to describe the architectural design of a system based on a novel single-photon counting detector, which works mainly in the visible and features fast readout, low noise and a 256x256 matrix of 64 μm-pixels. This detector is positioned in the focal plane of a fully aspheric reflective f/6 telescope, to guarantee state of the art performance. The combination of the two grants optimal ground sampling distance, compatible with the average dimension of a vessel, and overall performance. A radiative analysis of the light transmitted from emission to detection is presented, starting from models of lamps used for attracting fishes and illuminating the deck of the boats. A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the amount of photons emitted by such vessels reaching the detector. Since the novel detector features high framerate and low noise, the system as it is envisaged is able to properly serve the proposed goal. The paper shows the results of a trade-off between instrument parameters and spacecraft operations to maximize the detection probability and the covered sea surface. The status of development of both detector and telescope are also described.

  1. Night-time neuronal activation of Cluster N in a day- and night-migrating songbird

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Manuela; Heyers, Dominik; Liedvogel, Miriam; Jarvis, Erich D; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in a night-migratory songbird requires that Cluster N, a cluster of forebrain regions, is functional. Cluster N, which receives input from the eyes via the thalamofugal pathway, shows high neuronal activity in night-migrants performing magnetic compass-guided behaviour at night, whereas no activation is observed during the day, and covering up the birds’ eyes strongly reduces neuronal activation. These findings suggest that Cluster N processes light-dependent magnetic compass information in night-migrating songbirds. The aim of this study was to test if Cluster N is active during daytime migration. We used behavioural molecular mapping based on ZENK activation to investigate if Cluster N is active in the meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis), a day- and night-migratory species. We found that Cluster N of meadow pipits shows high neuronal activity under dim-light at night, but not under full room-light conditions during the day. These data suggest that, in day- and night-migratory meadow pipits, the light-dependent magnetic compass, which requires an active Cluster N, may only be used during night-time, whereas another magnetosensory mechanism and/or other reference system(s), like the sun or polarized light, may be used as primary orientation cues during the day. PMID:20618826

  2. Shortwave infrared for night vision applications: illumination levels and sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, Uwe; Krieg, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Radiation created by stimulation and recombination/deactivation of atoms and molecules in the higher earth atmosphere is called nightglow. This nightglow can be found in the spectral range from the ultraviolet up to the thermal infrared, with a maximum in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). During moonless nights the illumination in the SWIR is by an order of magnitude higher than the visual one. Within the last years the SWIR sensor technology improved to a level of using the nightglow for night vision applications. This necessitates understanding of the highly variable illumination levels created by the nightglow and the performance assessment of the SWIR detectors in comparison to the image intensifiers respectively Si focal plane array detectors. Whereas the night illumination levels for the visual are standardized, corresponding ones for the SWIR are missing. IOSB started measuring and comparing night illumination levels and camera performance in both spectral ranges based on continuous illumination measurements as well as recording imagery of reflectance reference targets with cameras and analyzing the resulting signal-to-noise ratios. To date the number of illumination measurements are not yet statistically sufficient to standardize the levels, but at least allowed a first comparison of the two technologies for moonless night, clear sky conditions. With comparable F-number, integration time and frame rate, the SWIR sensors available in Europe were found to be inferior to the visual technology. An improvement of at least one magnitude would be necessary to ensure similarity between SWIR and visual technologies for all environmental conditions.

  3. Multi-capability color night vision HD camera for defense, surveillance, and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Francis; Powell, Gareth; Fereyre, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    e2v has developed a family of high performance cameras based on our next generation CMOS imagers that provide multiple features and capabilities to meet the range of challenging imaging applications in defense, surveillance, and security markets. Two resolution sizes are available: 1920x1080 with 5.3 μm pixels, and an ultra-low light level version at 1280x1024 with 10μm pixels. Each type is available in either monochrome or e2v's unique bayer pattern color version. The camera is well suited to accommodate many of the high demands for defense, surveillance, and security applications: compact form factor (SWAP+C), color night vision performance (down to 10-2 lux), ruggedized housing, Global Shutter, low read noise (<6e- in Global shutter mode and <2.5e- in Rolling shutter mode), 60 Hz frame rate, high QE especially in the enhanced NIR range (up to 1100nm). Other capabilities include active illumination and range gating. This paper will describe all the features of the sensor and the camera. It will be followed with a presentation of the latest test data with the current developments. Then, it will conclude with a description of how these features can be easily configured to meet many different applications. With this development, we can tune rather than create a full customization, making it more beneficial for many of our customers and their custom applications.

  4. Research on the jamming mechanism for intense light bomb by antagonizing low-light level night-vision device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jinxi; Li, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jinchun

    2013-08-01

    The low-light level night-vision device was widely applied in military and common field. The working principle of the low-light level night-vision device and radiation shine mechanism of highlight interference bomb were analysed. The tactical use way of the highlight interference bomb was briefly analysed. In addition, the computing method of flash radiation was provided. The jamming mechanism for intense light bomb by antagonizing low-light level night-vision device was analysed from the relation between surroundings illuminate and luminance of fluorescent screen, the relation between target illuminate and damage threshold of fluorescent screen and the influence on lifetime of instrument by intense light, which provided reference to study the jamming technology on the low-light level night-vision device.

  5. Rotary-wing flight test methods used for the evaluation of night vision devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Blanken, Christopher J.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan P.

    2001-08-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation mission includes flying helicopters at low altitude, at night, and in adverse weather. Night Vision Devices (NVDs) are used to supplement the pilot's visual cues for night flying. As the military requirement to conduct night helicopter operations has increased, the impact of helicopter flight operations with NVD technology in the Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) became increasingly important to quantify. Aeronautical Design Standard-33 (ADS- 33) was introduced to update rotorcraft handling qualities requirements and to quantify the impact of the NVDs in the DVE. As reported in this paper, flight test methodology in ADS-33 has been used by the handling qualities community to measure the impact of NVDs on task performance in the DVE. This paper provides the background and rationale behind the development of ADS-33 flight test methodology for handling qualities in the DVE, as well as the test methodology developed for human factor assessment of NVDs in the DVE. Lessons learned, shortcomings and recommendations for NVD flight test methodology are provided in this paper.

  6. High performance CMOS image sensor for digitally fused day/night vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Boyd; Vu, Paul; Liu, Chiao; Mims, Steve; Do, Hung; Li, Wang; Appelbaum, Jeff

    2010-04-01

    We present the performance of a CMOS image sensor optimized for next generation fused day/night vision systems. The device features 5T pixels with pinned photodiodes on a 6.5μm pitch with integrated micro-lens. The 5T pixel architecture enables both correlated double sampling (CDS) to reduce noise for night time operation, and a lateral antiblooming drain for day time operation. The measured peak quantum efficiency of the sensor is above 55% at 600nm, and the median read noise is less than 1e- RMS at room temperature. The sensor features dual gain 11-bit data output ports and supports 30 fps and 60 fps. The full well capacity is greater than 30ke-, the dark current is less than 3.8pA/cm2 at 20ºC, and the MTF at 77 lp/mm is 0.4 at 550nm. The sensor also achieves an intra-scene linear dynamic range of greater than 90dB (30000:1) for night time operation, and an inter-scene linear dynamic range of greater than 150dB for complete day/night operability.

  7. Improvement of relief algorithm to prevent inpatient's downfall accident with night-vision CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Miwa, Masafumi; Nukumi, Shinobu; Mori, Kumiko; Kuinose, Yuko; Maeda, Etuko; Miura, Hirokazu; Taki, Hirokazu; Hori, Satoshi; Abe, Norihiro

    2005-12-01

    "ROSAI" hospital, Wakayama City in Japan, reported that inpatient's bed-downfall is one of the most serious accidents in hospital at night. Many inpatients have been having serious damages from downfall accidents from a bed. To prevent accidents, the hospital tested several sensors in a sickroom to send warning-signal of inpatient's downfall accidents to a nurse. However, it sent too much inadequate wrong warning about inpatients' sleeping situation. To send a nurse useful information, precise automatic detection for an inpatient's sleeping situation is necessary. In this paper, we focus on a clustering-algorithm which evaluates inpatient's situation from multiple angles by several kinds of sensor including night-vision CCD camera. This paper indicates new relief algorithm to improve the weakness about exceptional cases.

  8. Night vision goggle stimulation using LCoS and DLP projection technology, which is better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Masoud H.; Lyon, Paul; De Meerleer, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High fidelity night-vision training has become important for many of the simulation systems being procured today. The end-users of these simulation-training systems prefer using their actual night-vision goggle (NVG) headsets. This requires that the visual display system stimulate the NVGs in a realistic way. Historically NVG stimulation was done with cathode-ray tube (CRT) projectors. However, this technology became obsolete and in recent years training simulators do NVG stimulation with laser, LCoS and DLP projectors. The LCoS and DLP projection technologies have emerged as the preferred approach for the stimulation of NVGs. Both LCoS and DLP technologies have advantages and disadvantages for stimulating NVGs. LCoS projectors can have more than 5-10 times the contrast capability of DLP projectors. The larger the difference between the projected black level and the brightest object in a scene, the better the NVG stimulation effects can be. This is an advantage of LCoS technology, especially when the proper NVG wavelengths are used. Single-chip DLP projectors, even though they have much reduced contrast compared to LCoS projectors, can use LED illuminators in a sequential red-green-blue fashion to create a projected image. It is straightforward to add an extra infrared (NVG wavelength) LED into this sequential chain of LED illumination. The content of this NVG channel can be independent of the visible scene, which allows effects to be added that can compensate for the lack of contrast inherent in a DLP device. This paper will expand on the differences between LCoS and DLP projectors for stimulating NVGs and summarize the benefits of both in night-vision simulation training systems.

  9. Broad Band Antireflection Coating on Zinc Sulphide Window for Shortwave infrared cum Night Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, A. S.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    In state of art technology, integrated devices are widely used or their potential advantages. Common system reduces weight as well as total space covered by its various parts. In the state of art surveillance system integrated SWIR and night vision system used for more accurate identification of object. In this system a common optical window is used, which passes the radiation of both the regions, further both the spectral regions are separated in two channels. ZnS is a good choice for a common window, as it transmit both the region of interest, night vision (650 - 850 nm) as well as SWIR (0.9 - 1.7 μm). In this work a broad band anti reflection coating is developed on ZnS window to enhance the transmission. This seven layer coating is designed using flip flop design method. After getting the final design, some minor refinement is done, using simplex method. SiO2 and TiO2 coating material combination is used for this work. The coating is fabricated by physical vapour deposition process and the materials were evaporated by electron beam gun. Average transmission of both side coated substrate from 660 to 1700 nm is 95%. This coating also acts as contrast enhancement filter for night vision devices, as it reflect the region of 590 - 660 nm. Several trials have been conducted to check the coating repeatability, and it is observed that transmission variation in different trials is not very much and it is under the tolerance limit. The coating also passes environmental test for stability.

  10. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  11. Development of an aviator's helmet-mounted night-vision goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gerry H.; McFarlane, Robert J.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  12. Comparison of Topas cyclic olefin copolymers to BK7 glass in night vision goggle objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, James S.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of Topas cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) as an optical plastic for use in military-grade night vision goggle (NVG) lens objectives. Test objective lenses that could include either a Topas COC window element or BK7 glass window element were manufactured. The test objectives were evaluated for low light resolution, MTF, off-axis veiling glare, and on-axis stray light. Additionally, the spectral transmittance of the individual windows elements was measured. This paper compares the evaluation results of test objectives containing Topas COC with test objectives containing BK7 glass.

  13. Low dark current InGaAs detector arrays for night vision and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Liao, Shirong; Getty, Jonathan; Holmes, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Aerius Photonics has developed large InGaAs arrays (1K x 1K and greater) with low dark currents for use in night vision applications in the SWIR regime. Aerius will present results of experiments to reduce the dark current density of their InGaAs detector arrays. By varying device designs and passivations, Aerius has achieved a dark current density below 1.0 nA/cm2 at 280K on small-pixel, detector arrays. Data is shown for both test structures and focal plane arrays. In addition, data from cryogenically cooled InGaAs arrays will be shown for astronomy applications.

  14. A TRM4 component for the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Repasi, Endre

    2015-05-01

    The Thermal Range Model (TRM4)1 developed by the Fraunhofer IOSB of Germany is a commonly used performance model for military target acquisition systems. There are many similarities between the U.S Army Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM)2 and TRM4. Almost all of the camera performance characterizations, such as signal-to-noise calculations and modulation transfer theory are identical, only the human vision model and performance metrics differ. Utilizing the new Custom Component Generator in the NV-IPM we develop a component to calculate the Average Modulation at Optimal Phase (AMOP) and Minimum Difference Signal Perceived (MDSP) calculations used in TRM4. The results will be compared with the actual TRM4 results for a variety of imaging systems. This effort demonstrates that the NV-IPM is a versatile system design tool which can easily be extended to include a variety of image quality and performance metrics.

  15. Detection of motion-defined form under simulated night vision conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macuda, Todd; Allison, Robert S.; Thomas, Paul J.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2004-09-01

    The influence of Night Vision Goggle-produced noise on the perception of motion-defined form was investigated using synthetic imagery and standard psychophysical procedures. Synthetic image sequences incorporating synthetic noise were generated using a software model developed by our research group. This model is based on the physical properties of the Aviator Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS-9) image intensification tube. The image sequences either depicted a target that moved at a different speed than the background, or only depicted the background. For each trial, subjects were shown a pair of image sequences and required to indicate which sequence contained the target stimulus. We tested subjects at a series of target speeds at several realistic noise levels resulting from varying simulated illumination. The results showed that subjects had increased difficulty detecting the target with increased noise levels, particularly at slower target speeds. This study suggests that the capacity to detect motion-defined form is degraded at low levels of illumination. Our findings are consistent with anecdotal reports of impaired motion perception in NVGs. Perception of motion-defined form is important in operational tasks such as search and rescue and camouflage breaking. These degradations in performance should be considered in operational planning.

  16. Perception-based synthetic cueing for night vision device rotorcraft hover operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; McRuer, Duane

    2002-08-01

    Helicopter flight using night-vision devices (NVDs) is difficult to perform, as evidenced by the high accident rate associated with NVD flight compared to day operation. The approach proposed in this paper is to augment the NVD image with synthetic cueing, whereby the cues would emulate position and motion and appear to be actually occurring in physical space on which they are overlaid. Synthetic cues allow for selective enhancement of perceptual state gains to match the task requirements. A hover cue set was developed based on an analogue of a physical target used in a flight handling qualities tracking task, a perceptual task analysis for hover, and fundamentals of human spatial perception. The display was implemented on a simulation environment, constructed using a virtual reality device, an ultrasound head-tracker, and a fixed-base helicopter simulator. Seven highly trained helicopter pilots were used as experimental subjects and tasked to maintain hover in the presence of aircraft positional disturbances while viewing a synthesized NVD environment and the experimental hover cues. Significant performance improvements were observed when using synthetic cue augmentation. This paper demonstrates that artificial magnification of perceptual states through synthetic cueing can be an effective method of improving night-vision helicopter hover operations.

  17. Advanced electro-mechanical micro-shutters for thermal infrared night vision imaging and targeting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, David; Johnson, Walter; McLeod, Scott

    2007-04-01

    Un-cooled microbolometer sensors used in modern infrared night vision systems such as driver vehicle enhancement (DVE) or thermal weapons sights (TWS) require a mechanical shutter. Although much consideration is given to the performance requirements of the sensor, supporting electronic components and imaging optics, the shutter technology required to survive in combat is typically the last consideration in the system design. Electro-mechanical shutters used in military IR applications must be reliable in temperature extremes from a low temperature of -40°C to a high temperature of +70°C. They must be extremely light weight while having the ability to withstand the high vibration and shock forces associated with systems mounted in military combat vehicles, weapon telescopic sights, or downed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Electro-mechanical shutters must have minimal power consumption and contain circuitry integrated into the shutter to manage battery power while simultaneously adapting to changes in electrical component operating parameters caused by extreme temperature variations. The technology required to produce a miniature electro-mechanical shutter capable of fitting into a rifle scope with these capabilities requires innovations in mechanical design, material science, and electronics. This paper describes a new, miniature electro-mechanical shutter technology with integrated power management electronics designed for extreme service infra-red night vision systems.

  18. Computer-based and web-based applications for night vision goggle training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffner, John W.; Woodward, Kim G.

    2001-08-01

    Night vision goggles (NVGs) can enhance military and civilian operations at night. With this increased capability comes the requirement to provide suitable training. Results from field experience and accident analyses suggest that problems experienced by NVG users can be attributed to a limited understanding of NVG limitations and to perceptual problems. In addition, there is evidence that NVG skills are perishable and require frequent practice. Format training is available to help users obtain the required knowledge and skills. However, there often is insufficient opportunity to obtain and practice perceptual skills prior to using NVGs in the operational environment. NVG users need early and continued exposure to the night environment across a broad range of visual and operational conditions to develop and maintain the necessary knowledge and perceptual skills. NVG training has consisted of classroom instruction, hands-on training, and simulator training. Advances in computer-based training (CBT) and web-based training (WBT) have made these technologies very appealing as additions to the NVG training mix. This paper discusses our efforts to develop NVG training using multimedia, interactive CBT and WBT for NVG training. We discuss how NVG CBT and WBT can be extended to military and civilian ground, maritime, and aviation NVG training.

  19. Integration of a Legacy System with Night Vision Training System (NVTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gretchen M.; Vrana, Craig A.; Riegler, Joseph T.; Martin, Elizabeth L.

    2002-08-01

    The increase in tactical night operations resulted in the requirement for improved night vision goggle (NVG) training and simulation. The Night Vision Training System (NVTS), developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Warfighter Training Research Division (AFRL/HEA), provides high-fidelity NVG imagery required to support effective NVG training and mission rehearsal. Acquisition of a multichannel NVTS, to drive both an out-the-window (OTW) view and a helmet-mounted display (HMD), may exceed resources of some training units. An alternative could be to add one channel of NVG imagery to the existing OTW imagery provided by the legacy system. This evaluation addressed engineering and training issues associated with integrating a single NVTS HMD channel with an existing legacy system. Pilots rated the degree of disparity between the HMD and OTW scenes for various scene attributes and effect on flight performance. Findings demonstrated the potential for integration of an NVTS channel with an existing legacy system. Latency and terrain elevation differences between the two databases were measured and did not significantly impact system integration or pilot ratings. When integrating other legacy systems with NVTS, significant disparities may exist between the two databases. Pilot ratings and comments indicate that (a) display brightness and contrast levels of the OTW scene should be set to correspond to real-world, (b) unaided luminance values for a given illumination condition; disparity in moon phase and position between the two sky models should be minimized; and (c) star quantity and brightness in the OTW scene and the NVG scene, as rendered on the HMD, should be as consistent with real-world conditions as possible.

  20. Aviator's night vision system (ANVIS) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF): user acceptability survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Trollman, Christopher J.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    In 1973, the U.S. Army adopted night vision devices for use in the aviation environment. These devices are based on the principle of image intensification (I2) and have become the mainstay for the aviator's capability to operate during periods of low illumination, i.e., at night. In the nearly four decades that have followed, a number of engineering advancements have significantly improved the performance of these devices. The current version, using 3rd generation I2 technology is known as the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). While considerable experience with performance has been gained during training and peacetime operations, no previous studies have looked at user acceptability and performance issues in a combat environment. This study was designed to compare Army Aircrew experiences in a combat environment to currently available information in the published literature (all peacetime laboratory and field training studies) and to determine if the latter is valid. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess aircrew satisfaction with the ANVIS and any visual performance issues or problems relating to its use in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The study consisted of an anonymous survey (based on previous validated surveys used in the laboratory and training environments) of 86 Aircrew members (64% Rated and 36% Non-rated) of an Aviation Task Force approximately 6 months into their OEF deployment. This group represents an aggregate of >94,000 flight hours of which ~22,000 are ANVIS and ~16,000 during this deployment. Overall user acceptability of ANVIS in a combat environment will be discussed.

  1. Spectral matching technology of a low-light-level night-vision system with a laser illuminator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu

    2010-01-20

    According to the spectral distribution of a laser illuminator and the reflectivity of the objects, the reflective spectral distributions of dark green paint, rough concrete, and green vegetation under laser radiation are deduced for a low-light-level night-vision system with a laser illuminator. The spectral-matching factors of Super S(25) and New S(25) photocathodes for dark green paint, rough concrete, and green vegetation are calculated and compared. The results show that the evaluation of visual range for a night-vision system with a laser illuminator under field circumstances is greatly influenced by the spectral-matching factor. PMID:20090790

  2. Night vision goggle visual acuity assessment: results of an interagency test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee

    2001-08-01

    There are several parameters that are used to characterize the quality of a night vision goggle (NVG) such as resolution, gain, field-of-view, visual acuity, etc. One of the primary parameters is visual acuity or resolution of the NVG. These two terms are often used interchangeably primarily because of the measurement methods employed. The objectives of this paper are to present: (1) an argument as to why NVG visual acuity and resolution should be considered as distinctly different parameters, (2) descriptions of different methods of measuring visual acuity and resolution, and (3) the results of a blind test by several agencies to measure the resolution of the same two NVGs (four oculars).

  3. Theoretical and applied aspects of night vision goggle resolution and visual acuity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Pinkus, Alan R.

    2007-04-01

    The image quality of night vision goggles is often expressed in terms of visual acuity, resolution or modulation transfer function. The primary reason for providing a measure of image quality is the underlying assumption that the image quality metric correlates with the level of visual performance that one could expect when using the device, for example, target detection or target recognition performance. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the relationships between these three image quality metrics: visual acuity, resolution and modulation transfer function. Results from laboratory and field studies were used to relate these metrics to visual performance. These results can also be applied to non-image intensifier based imaging systems such as a helmet-mounted display coupled to an imaging sensor.

  4. Psychophysical measurement of night vision goggle noise using a binocular display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, George A.; Marasco, Peter L.; Havig, Paul R.; Heft, Eric L.

    2004-09-01

    Users of night vision goggles (NVGs) have reported differences in perceived noise across various NVGs. To understand these differences, we need to measure NVG noise in a psychophysical context. In the precursory study, subjects attempted to characterize NVG noise by examining choices across different parameters of filtered white noise generated on a computer monitor. Subjects adjusted parameters of the filtered noise to match the noise for each combination of two goggles and two luminance levels. Significant differences were found between luminance levels, NVG type, and parameter relationships. Concerns from the previous experiment have yielded this study to better understand if this characterization process has merit. In the previous study, the parameter sequence was constant across trials. We increased the number of trials and subjects, and we included an accounting for parameter sequence. In addition, we used a modified Wheatstone stereoscope to simulate NVG tube independence. We discuss our results in terms of luminance levels, parameter sequence, subject variability, and relationships between parameters.

  5. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  6. Characterizing night vision goggle noise using the method of paired comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, George A.; Marasco, Peter L.; Havig, Paul R.; Heft, Eric L.; Goodyear, Charles D.

    2005-05-01

    Users of night vision goggles (NVGs) have reported differences in NVG noise across different as well as the same type of NVG. To better understand these differences, we attempted to characterize NVG noise by having subjects choose parameters in an NVG simulation to best match the noise in real NVGs. From our previous efforts, we observed interdependence of simulation parameters and variability across observers. This has lead us to use the method of paired comparisons as a process for characterizing NVG noise. The results suggest that people perceive NVG noise differently in terms of spatial, temporal, and contrast combinations. In addition, we provide a methodology for determining psychophysically the best parameter combinations in a simulation"s algorithm to match the real environment that the simulation represents.

  7. Performance of high resolution visible-InGaAs imager for day/night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Marlon D.; Blessinger, Michael A.; Groppe, Joseph V.; Sudol, Thomas M.; Battaglia, Jesse; Passe, Joseph; Stern, Mark; Onat, Bora M.

    2008-04-01

    Goodrich, SUI has developed a 15 μm pitch, 1280 x 1024 pixel InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) with low noise, and visible to near infrared (0.4 μm to 1.7 μm) wavelength response for day and night vision applications. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC), which uses a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) pixel, is designed to achieve a noise level of less than 50 electrons, due to its small integration capacitor. The ROIC can be read out at 120 frames per second, and has a dynamic range of 3000:1 using rolling, non-snapshot integration. The ROIC was fabricated in a standard CMOS foundry process, and was bump-bonded to Vis-InGaAs TM detector arrays. SUI has successfully hybridized 15 μm pitch 1280 x 1024 pixel FPAs, and produced imagery.

  8. Sensor fusion to enable next generation low cost Night Vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiger, R.; Franz, S.; Löhlein, O.; Ritter, W.; Källhammer, J.-E.; Franks, J.; Krekels, T.

    2010-04-01

    The next generation of automotive Night Vision Enhancement systems offers automatic pedestrian recognition with a performance beyond current Night Vision systems at a lower cost. This will allow high market penetration, covering the luxury as well as compact car segments. Improved performance can be achieved by fusing a Far Infrared (FIR) sensor with a Near Infrared (NIR) sensor. However, fusing with today's FIR systems will be too costly to get a high market penetration. The main cost drivers of the FIR system are its resolution and its sensitivity. Sensor cost is largely determined by sensor die size. Fewer and smaller pixels will reduce die size but also resolution and sensitivity. Sensitivity limits are mainly determined by inclement weather performance. Sensitivity requirements should be matched to the possibilities of low cost FIR optics, especially implications of molding of highly complex optical surfaces. As a FIR sensor specified for fusion can have lower resolution as well as lower sensitivity, fusing FIR and NIR can solve performance and cost problems. To allow compensation of FIR-sensor degradation on the pedestrian detection capabilities, a fusion approach called MultiSensorBoosting is presented that produces a classifier holding highly discriminative sub-pixel features from both sensors at once. The algorithm is applied on data with different resolution and on data obtained from cameras with varying optics to incorporate various sensor sensitivities. As it is not feasible to record representative data with all different sensor configurations, transformation routines on existing high resolution data recorded with high sensitivity cameras are investigated in order to determine the effects of lower resolution and lower sensitivity to the overall detection performance. This paper also gives an overview of the first results showing that a reduction of FIR sensor resolution can be compensated using fusion techniques and a reduction of sensitivity can be

  9. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  10. Collaboration between human and nonhuman players in Night Vision Tactical Trainer-Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglie, Stephen T.; Gallogly, James J.

    2016-05-01

    The Night Vision Tactical Trainer - Shadow (NVTT-S) is a U.S. Army-developed training tool designed to improve critical Manned-Unmanned Teaming (MUMT) communication skills for payload operators in Unmanned Aerial Sensor (UAS) crews. The trainer is composed of several Government Off-The-Shelf (GOTS) simulation components and takes the trainee through a series of escalating engagements using tactically relevant, realistically complex, scenarios involving a variety of manned, unmanned, aerial, and ground-based assets. The trainee is the only human player in the game and he must collaborate, from his web-based mock operating station, with various non-human players via spoken natural language over simulated radio in order to execute the training missions successfully. Non-human players are modeled in two complementary layers - OneSAF provides basic background behaviors for entities while NVTT provides higher level models that control entity actions based on intent extracted from the trainee's spoken natural dialog with game entities. Dialog structure is modeled based on Army standards for communication and verbal protocols. This paper presents an architecture that integrates the U.S. Army's Night Vision Image Generator (NVIG), One Semi- Automated Forces (OneSAF), a flight dynamics model, as well as Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) speech recognition and text to speech products to effect an environment with sufficient entity counts and fidelity to enable meaningful teaching and reinforcement of critical communication skills. It further demonstrates the model dynamics and synchronization mechanisms employed to execute purpose-built training scenarios, and to achieve ad-hoc collaboration on-the-fly between human and non-human players in the simulated environment.

  11. Binocular depth acuity research to support the modular multi-spectral stereoscopic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, John O.; CuQlock-Knopp, V. Grayson; Paicopolis, Peter; Smoot, Jennifer; Kregel, Mark; Corona, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the depth acuity research conducted in support of the development of a Modular Multi-Spectral Stereoscopic (M2S2) night vision goggle (NVG), a customizable goggle that lets the user select one of five goggle configurations: monocular thermal, monocular image intensifier (I2), binocular I2, binocular thermal, and binocular dual-waveband (thermal imagery to one eye and I2 imagery to the other eye). The motives for the development of this type of customizable goggle were (1) the need for an NVG that allows the simultaneous use of two wavebands, (2) the need for an alternative sensor fusion method to avoid the potential image degradation that may accompany digitally fused images, (3) a requirement to provide the observer with stereoscopic, dual spectrum views of a scene, and (4) the need to handle individual user preferences for sensor types and ocular configurations employed in various military operations. Among the increases in functionality that the user will have with this system is the ability to convert from a binocular I2 device (needed for detailed terrain analysis during off-road mobility) to a monocular thermal device (for increased situational awareness in the unaided eye during nights with full moon illumination). Results of the present research revealed potential depth acuity advantages that may apply to off-road terrain hazard detection for the binocular thermal configuration. The results also indicated that additional studies are needed to address ways to minimize binocular incompatibility for the dual waveband configuration.

  12. Hyperstereopsis in night vision devices: basic mechanisms and impact for training requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Hourlier, Sylvain; Giraudet, Guillaume; Leger, Alain; Roumes, Corinne

    2006-05-01

    Including night vision capabilities in Helmet Mounted Displays has been a serious challenge for many years. The use of "see through" head mounted image intensifiers systems is particularly challenging as it introduces some peculiar visual characteristics usually referred as "hyperstereopsis". Flight testing of such systems has started in the early nineties, both in US and Europe. While the trials conducted in US yielded quite controversial results, convergent positive ones were obtained from European testing, mainly in UK, Germany and France. Subsequently, work on integrating optically coupled I2 tubes on HMD was discontinued in the US, while European manufacturers developed such HMDs for various rotary wings platforms like the TIGER. Coping with hyperstereopsis raises physiological and cognitive human factors issues. Starting in the sixties, effects of increased interocular separation and adaptation to such unusual vision conditions has been quite extensively studied by a number of authors as Wallach, Schor, Judge and Miles, Fisher and Ciuffreda. A synthetic review of literature on this subject will be presented. According to users' reports, three successive phases will be described for habituation to such devices: initial exposure, building compensation phase and behavioral adjustments phase. An habituation model will be suggested to account for HMSD users' reports and literature data bearing on hyperstereopsis, cue weighting for depth perception, adaptation and learning processes, task cognitive control. Finally, some preliminary results on hyperstereopsis spatial and temporal adaptation coming from the survey of training of TIGER pilots, currently conducted at the French-German Army Aviation Training Center, will be unveiled.

  13. A 5.4 MDOT OLED microdisplay for digital night vision and image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Gunther; Espuno, Laurent; Marcellin-Dibon, Eric; Prat, Christophe; Gohri, Vipul

    2012-06-01

    We developed a 0.61'' diagonal OLED microdisplay dedicated to electronic viewfinders for digital vision systems, e.g. for security or other professional applications. The microdisplay has a very high resolution of 5.4 million subpixels and combines excellent image quality with low power consumption and a 10bit per color digital input. Subpixel pitch is 4.7x4.7μm². Thanks to the versatile architecture of the underlying ASIC circuit, the device can be easily adapted to different applications and image formats: In the standard full color version, the resulting resolution is 1300 by 1044 pixels (SXGA). In a monochrome version, the resolution is 2600 by 2088 independent pixels, enabling e.g. digital night vision at full 2K by 2K resolution. In addition to this, we developed two- and three color versions of the display that allow to merge high resolution monochrome images e.g.in 2K by 2K resolution with lower resolution images e.g., from an infrared sensor for image fusion or for adding colored graphical overlays.

  14. Computational simulation of night vision of retroreflective road markers under poor atmospheric visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, Vladimir V.; Ivanov, Arkady P.

    1997-02-01

    A method is developed and investigations of the contrast and limiting visibility range of a retroreflective marker defining, for example, the overall-dimensions of a heavy truck are carried out for a case of illumination by anti-fog headlamps, upper or low beam of another vehicle through fog of various optical density with no other external lighting. The studies simulate night vision of non-Lambertian road markers from the viewpoint of the modern image transfer theory. The method enables one to include analytically the effects of multiple light scattering by fog aerosols, different mutual positions of the headlamps, vehicle driver, and object observed, as well as real retroreflective properties of the marker to derive vision characteristics via quite simple formulas. The visual contrast and limiting visibility range values of, respectively, retrorefractive and Lambertian markers are compared to demonstrate the advantages of applying the former for enhancing traffic safety and increasing allowable road speed. The recommendations are made with respect to the use of retroreflective markers as an auxiliary signaling means to show the overall dimensions.

  15. Automated and semi-automated field testing of night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopatz, Stephen; Paszkeicz, Dominic; Langsdorf, Brent

    2016-05-01

    This paper will discuss the development and results of a new field portable test set for Gen 2 and Gen 3 night vision goggles that automates many of the tests supported by currently available NVG test products. The major innovation is the use of MTF testing with a knife edge target. MTF testing is established in the laboratory environment and well suited to replace the operator's interpretation of the USAF 1951 resolution chart. Results will be presented to show the more consistent performance of the MTF approach as compared to the known operator variations when humans determine resolution. Other standard tests are semi-automated and/or video-assisted, such as infinity focus, spot defects, and distortion. The presentation will show repeatability across test units and operators on the key tests. The presentation will include automatically generated examples of the report files for each test run on each goggle. All of these capabilities are provided in a package that matches the form factor of other products in use to test NVG's. A discussion of the user interface and the ease of use of the system will be included as well as the improvement in the test time for each goggle type.

  16. Effects of saturation contrast on color recognition in night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, Paul R.; Marasco, Peter L.; Post, David L.; Ellwanger, Harold L.; Reis, George A.

    2004-09-01

    In the past we have examined the luminance contrast ratios required to maintain color recognition in helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Using typical daytime viewing conditions as simulated backgrounds we were able to determine 95% correct color recognition thresholds resulting in luminance contrast ratios averaging 1.17:1. Last year we adapted this research to determine the best colors to maintain color recognition of symbology that is on a night vision goggle (NVG) image. We simulated NVG P43 green phosphor and determined 95% correct color recognition thresholds. Results indicated that, on average, a luminance contrast ratio of nearly 1.5:1 was required to maintain color recognition. Review of the studies indicated that our simulated P43 phosphor was a much more saturated background, so saturation contrast may play as important a role as luminance contrast. A P45 white phosphor NVG may therefore be less problematic. Here we investigate the effects of both luminance and saturation contrast by manipulating color mixtures of green, yellow, and red symbology against two different backgrounds, P43 green and P45 white. We discuss our results in terms of both luminance and saturation contrast required for the maintenance of color recognition in NVGs.

  17. NIST traceable measurements of radiance and luminance levels of night-vision-goggle test-instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2014-05-01

    In order to perform radiance and luminance level measurements of night-vision-goggle (NVG) test instruments, NIST developed new-generation transfer-standard radiometers (TR). The new TRs can perform low-level radiance and luminance measurements with SI traceability and low uncertainty. The TRs were calibrated against NIST detector/radiometer standards holding the NIST photometric and radiometric scales. An 815 nm diode laser was used at NIST for the radiance responsivity calibrations. A spectrally flat (constant) filter correction was made for the TRs to correct the spectral responsivity change of the built-in Si photodiode for LEDs peaking at different wavelengths in the different test sets. The radiance responsivity transfer to the test instruments (test-sets) is discussed. The radiance values of the test instruments were measured with the TRs. The TRs propagate the traceablity to the NIST detector-based reference scales. The radiance uncertainty obtained from three TR measurements was 4.6 % (𝑘=2) at a luminance of 3.43 x 10-4 cd/m2. The output radiance of the previously used IR sphere source and the radiance responsivity of a previously used secondary standard detector unit, which was originally calibrated against an IR sphere source, were also measured with the TRs. The performances of the NVG test instruments were evaluated and the manufacturer produced radiance and luminance levels were calibrated with SI/NIST traceability.

  18. Aircrew visual acuity viewing with different night vision goggle eyepiece diopter settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Share-Dawn P.; Baldwin, J. Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The AN/AVS-9 night vision goggle (NVG) has an eyepiece lens that can be adjusted from +2 to -6 diopters (D). We have shown previously1,2,3 that on average NVG users tend to select about -1D, with a range of +0.5D to -4D3. This study was designed to evaluate NVG visual acuity (NVG VA) and subjective ratings for a range of diopter settings including user-selected and three fixed settings of -0.25D, -1D and -2D. Twenty-one experienced USAF Special Operations aircrew members, including 15 pilots, served as subjects. The median user-selected setting was -1.25D and ranged from +0.5D to -3.5D. Only 2 of the 21 subjects had user-selected NVG VA significantly better than a fixed setting of -1D. Of those two, one was not wearing prescribed glasses and the other was 49 years old, presbyopic, and could not focus through the -1D lenses. Subjective ratings and NVG VA indicated that most people could fly with a fixed setting of -1D for each eye, although two individuals needed different diopter settings for the right and left eyes. The new Panoramic NVG (PNVG) has a fixed eyepiece focus of -1D. Results suggest the PNVG should have a limited set of accessory lenses available.

  19. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol

    2000-01-01

    A flight test was conducted to assess any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of a current generation night vision goggle (the AVS-9) and one variant of the prototype panoramic night vision goggle (the PNVGII). The panoramic goggle has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. Overall the panoramic goggles compared well to the AVS-9 goggles. However, pilot comment and data are consistent with the assertion that some of the benefits of additional field-of-view with the panoramic goggles were negated by the reduced image quality of the particular variant of the panoramic goggles tested.

  20. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this flight test was to measure any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of the current generation AVS-9 Night Vision Goggle and one variant of the prototype Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (the PNV.GII). The PNVGII has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. The flight path of the AH-1S helicopter was used as a measure of pilot-vehicle performance. Also recorded were subjective measures of flying qualities, physical reserves of the pilot, situational awareness, and display usability. Pilot comment and data indicate that the benefits of additional FOV with the PNVGIIs are to some extent negated by the reduced image quality of the PNVGIIs.

  1. Qualitative evaluations and comparisons of six night-vision colorization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Reese, Kristopher; Blasch, Erik; McManamon, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Current multispectral night vision (NV) colorization techniques can manipulate images to produce colorized images that closely resemble natural scenes. The colorized NV images can enhance human perception by improving observer object classification and reaction times especially for low light conditions. This paper focuses on the qualitative (subjective) evaluations and comparisons of six NV colorization methods. The multispectral images include visible (Red-Green- Blue), near infrared (NIR), and long wave infrared (LWIR) images. The six colorization methods are channel-based color fusion (CBCF), statistic matching (SM), histogram matching (HM), joint-histogram matching (JHM), statistic matching then joint-histogram matching (SM-JHM), and the lookup table (LUT). Four categries of quality measurements are used for the qualitative evaluations, which are contrast, detail, colorfulness, and overall quality. The score of each measurement is rated from 1 to 3 scale to represent low, average, and high quality, respectively. Specifically, high contrast (of rated score 3) means an adequate level of brightness and contrast. The high detail represents high clarity of detailed contents while maintaining low artifacts. The high colorfulness preserves more natural colors (i.e., closely resembles the daylight image). Overall quality is determined from the NV image compared to the reference image. Nine sets of multispectral NV images were used in our experiments. For each set, the six colorized NV images (produced from NIR and LWIR images) are concurrently presented to users along with the reference color (RGB) image (taken at daytime). A total of 67 subjects passed a screening test ("Ishihara Color Blindness Test") and were asked to evaluate the 9-set colorized images. The experimental results showed the quality order of colorization methods from the best to the worst: CBCF < SM < SM-JHM < LUT < JHM < HM. It is anticipated that this work will provide a benchmark for NV

  2. Family Science Night: Fun Tips, Activities, and Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    At last! A practical, readable guide for teachers, school leaders, and parent/teacher associations that shows how to plan fun, hands-on science nights! Get easy-to-implement, content-rich tips and ideas that will cultivate positive attitudes toward science! Learn how to involve and actively engage families in their children's science education.…

  3. Establishing Mobility Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Night Vision Devices: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zimmerman, George J.; Bowers, Alex R.; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their restricted peripheral fields, persons with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) report significant problems seeing in low levels of illumination, which causes difficulty with night travel. Several devices have been developed to support the visual needs of persons who have night blindness. These devices include wide-angle flashlights,…

  4. Visual adaptations in the night-active wasp Apoica pallens.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit

    2006-03-20

    The apposition compound eye of the nocturnal polistine wasp Apoica pallens shows, in comparison to the closely related diurnal wasp Polistes occidentalis, specific adaptations to vision at low light intensities. When considering recent work on nocturnal and diurnal bees, general principles for dim-light vision in hymenopterans become evident: The rhabdom diameters in nocturnal bees and wasps are 4 times wider compared to their diurnal relatives, leading to wide receptive fields, which in turn account for a 25-fold higher optical sensitivity. Interestingly, the rhabdom diameters in both nocturnal bees and wasps measure 8 mum, which may represent the maximum width for nocturnal hymenopteran apposition eyes. A ratio of 1.8 times larger eyes is present in the nocturnal bees and wasps, which in A. pallens is achieved by increasing the facet number, instead of enlarging the facets, as in nocturnal bees. Although this initially indicates spatial resolution to be important for the nocturnal wasp, the wide receptive fields of the rhabdoms will reduce its potentially high acuity. As the optical sensitivity alone cannot account for the 8 log units intensity difference between day and night, a possible role of neural summation within the first optic ganglion (lamina) of nocturnal hymenopterans is discussed. PMID:16440299

  5. The effects of moon illumination, moon angle, cloud cover, and sky glow on night vision goggle flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loro, Stephen Lee

    This study was designed to examine moon illumination, moon angle, cloud cover, sky glow, and Night Vision Goggle (NVG) flight performance to determine possible effects. The research was a causal-comparative design. The sample consisted of 194 Fort Rucker Initial Entry Rotary Wing NVG flight students being observed by 69 NVG Instructor Pilots. The students participated in NVG flight training from September 1992 through January 1993. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Observations were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a Wilcox matched pairs signed-ranks test for difference. Correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. The analyses results indicated that performance at high moon illumination levels is superior to zero moon illumination, and in most task maneuvers, superior to >0%--50% moon illumination. No differences were found in performance at moon illumination levels above 50%. Moon angle had no effect on night vision goggle flight performance. Cloud cover and sky glow have selective effects on different maneuvers. For most task maneuvers, cloud cover does not affect performance. Overcast cloud cover had a significant effect on seven of the 14 task maneuvers. Sky glow did not affect eight out of 14 task maneuvers at any level of sky glow.

  6. Performance of low-light-level night vision device affected by backscattered electron from ion barrier film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Shi, Feng; Cheng, Yaojin; Hou, Zhipeng; Shi, Hongli; Zhu, Wanping; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Ni

    2012-10-01

    In order to suggest the performance of low-light-level night vision device affected by backscattered electron from ion barrier film(IBF), in this paper, based on the idea of Monte-Carlo, the track of electron impinging and rebounding on ion barrier film is simulated. The Lambert distribution and Beta distribution are used to calculate electron's emission. The Mott cross section and the Bethe formula rewrited by Joy are used to describe and calculate the elastic and inelastic scattering electron traversing in the film. With the statistic of the total transmitted electron and the discussion on the effect of cathode voltage, proximity between ion barrier film and photocathode on performance of low-light-level night vision device, we get the point diffusion function of ion barrier film, and we conclude that in low light level backscattered electron hardly affect working of image intensifier and higher cathode voltage, closer proximity between cathode and ion film will reduce the impact of backscattered electron in high light level.

  7. Müller cells separate between wavelengths to improve day vision with minimal effect upon night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labin, Amichai M.; Safuri, Shadi K.; Ribak, Erez N.; Perlman, Ido

    2014-07-01

    Vision starts with the absorption of light by the retinal photoreceptors—cones and rods. However, due to the ‘inverted’ structure of the retina, the incident light must propagate through reflecting and scattering cellular layers before reaching the photoreceptors. It has been recently suggested that Müller cells function as optical fibres in the retina, transferring light illuminating the retinal surface onto the cone photoreceptors. Here we show that Müller cells are wavelength-dependent wave-guides, concentrating the green-red part of the visible spectrum onto cones and allowing the blue-purple part to leak onto nearby rods. This phenomenon is observed in the isolated retina and explained by a computational model, for the guinea pig and the human parafoveal retina. Therefore, light propagation by Müller cells through the retina can be considered as an integral part of the first step in the visual process, increasing photon absorption by cones while minimally affecting rod-mediated vision.

  8. Vision Loss With Sexual Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michele D; Odel, Jeffrey G; Rudich, Danielle S; Ritch, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old white man presented with multiple episodes of transient painless unilateral vision loss precipitated by sexual intercourse. Examination was significant for closed angles bilaterally. His visual symptoms completely resolved following treatment with laser peripheral iridotomies. PMID:25265010

  9. Numerical and experimental evaluation of road infrastructure perception in fog and/or night conditions using infrared and photometric vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Boucher, Vincent; Greffier, Florian

    2009-08-01

    Use of infrared vision in automotive industry has mainly focused on detection of pedestrians or animals at night or under poor weather conditions. In those approaches, the road infrastructure behavior in infrared range has not been investigated. So, research work was realized using numerical simulations associated with specific experiments in a fog tunnel. The present paper deals with numerical simulations developed for both visible spectrum (visibility in fog) and infrared vision applied to road infrastructure perception in foggy night conditions. Results obtained as a function of fog nature (radiation or advection) are presented and discussed.

  10. Design of IR omni-directional optical system for night vision and surveillance of defense and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jong-goo; Ryu, Jae Myung; Jo, Jae Heung

    2015-05-01

    In the omni-directional optical system used for real-time surveillance, we established the theory of basic optical design for a two-reflector catadioptric omni-directional optical system which has a convex primary mirror and a plane secondary mirror as its reflection imaging part. We also established an algorithm and programmed to analyze the variables of the theory. By using this method, the key optical elements related to the primary and secondary mirrors in the system can be simply and easily designed based on the optical system variables such as radius of curvature for the primary mirror and position of the secondary mirror, and location and radius of entrance pupil of the refractive imaging optics. And we achieved readily and successfully an infrared omni-directional optical system for night vision and surveillance of defense and safety by using the basic design theory.

  11. Generic motion platform for active vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.; Vincze, Markus

    1996-10-01

    The term 'active vision' was first used by Bajcsy at a NATO workshop in 1982 to describe an emerging field of robot vision which departed sharply from traditional paradigms of image understanding and machine vision. The new approach embeds a moving camera platform as an in-the-loop component of robotic navigation or hand-eye coordination. Visually served steering of the focus of attention supercedes the traditional functions of recognition and gaging. Custom active vision platforms soon proliferated in research laboratories in Europe and North America. In 1990 the National Science Foundation funded the design of a common platform to promote cooperation and reduce cost in active vision research. This paper describes the resulting platform. The design was driven by payload requirements for binocular motorized C-mount lenses on a platform whose performance and articulation emulate those of the human eye- head system. The result was a 4-DOF mechanisms driven by servo controlled DC brush motors. A crossbeam supports two independent worm-gear driven camera vergence mounts at speeds up to 1,000 degrees per second over a range of +/- 90 degrees from dead ahead. This crossbeam is supported by a pan-tilt mount whose horizontal axis intersects the vergence axes for translation-free camera rotation about these axes at speeds up to 500 degrees per second.

  12. Visual performance with night vision goggles (NVGs) measured in U.S. Air Force aircrew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVilbiss, Carita A.; Ercoline, William R.; Antonio, Joseph C.

    1994-06-01

    Since vision is by far the most important sensory input for spatial orientation, it is important to obtain the best visual performance possible from any device. To determine whether current devices were being properly adjusted, visual performance data were obtained from USAF NVG aircrew members after they (1) adjusted the goggle using their usual method of adjustment, (2) used the NVG resolution chart to augment their usual method, and (3) used goggle-adjustment procedures learned in the training class. Results show that without a standard target or procedures, aircrew members were not able to obtain optimal goggle performance - the average visual performance was 20/53 for the 218 aviators in this study. For the 158 aviators who also used the standard target with their usual procedure, there was a significant improvement (average of 20/47). Finally, significantly better goggle performance (average of 20/37) was obtained when 48 aviators adjusted their goggles using procedures learned in the adjustment training class. While these data support the importance of preflight adjustment of NVGs, they represent visual performance under optimal, controlled conditions. It is important to remember that visual performance under actual flight conditions can be significantly impaired with reduced illumination, low contrast levels, improper cockpit lighting, and poor transmissivity of infrared energy through the transparencies.

  13. Coevolution of active vision and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Kato, Toshifumi; Marocco, Davide; Sauser, Eric

    2004-03-01

    We show that complex visual tasks, such as position- and size-invariant shape recognition and navigation in the environment, can be tackled with simple architectures generated by a coevolutionary process of active vision and feature selection. Behavioral machines equipped with primitive vision systems and direct pathways between visual and motor neurons are evolved while they freely interact with their environments. We describe the application of this methodology in three sets of experiments, namely, shape discrimination, car driving, and robot navigation. We show that these systems develop sensitivity to a number of oriented, retinotopic, visual-feature-oriented edges, corners, height, and a behavioral repertoire to locate, bring, and keep these features in sensitive regions of the vision system, resembling strategies observed in simple insects. PMID:15052484

  14. Kiwi Forego Vision in the Guidance of Their Nocturnal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Graham R.; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Martin Wild, J.; Parsons, Stuart; Fabiana Kubke, M.; Corfield, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Background In vision, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and resolution, and any eye which maximises information gain at low light levels needs to be large. This imposes exacting constraints upon vision in nocturnal flying birds. Eyes are essentially heavy, fluid-filled chambers, and in flying birds their increased size is countered by selection for both reduced body mass and the distribution of mass towards the body core. Freed from these mass constraints, it would be predicted that in flightless birds nocturnality should favour the evolution of large eyes and reliance upon visual cues for the guidance of activity. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that in Kiwi (Apterygidae), flightlessness and nocturnality have, in fact, resulted in the opposite outcome. Kiwi show minimal reliance upon vision indicated by eye structure, visual field topography, and brain structures, and increased reliance upon tactile and olfactory information. Conclusions/Significance This lack of reliance upon vision and increased reliance upon tactile and olfactory information in Kiwi is markedly similar to the situation in nocturnal mammals that exploit the forest floor. That Kiwi and mammals evolved to exploit these habitats quite independently provides evidence for convergent evolution in their sensory capacities that are tuned to a common set of perceptual challenges found in forest floor habitats at night and which cannot be met by the vertebrate visual system. We propose that the Kiwi visual system has undergone adaptive regressive evolution driven by the trade-off between the relatively low rate of gain of visual information that is possible at low light levels, and the metabolic costs of extracting that information. PMID:17332846

  15. Technology Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Albert P.

    1998-01-01

    A Maryland elementary school enlightened parents and community members about school technology by hosting a technology night showcasing student work. Through staff and community members' cooperative efforts, the technology committee created a comprehensive program composed of several elements: student involvement, district vision,…

  16. Semiautomated methodology for measurement of field-of-view, magnification, and distortion of night vision devices as defined in MIL-A-49425(CR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John S.; Beasley, Howard H.; Vernona, Robert W.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1994-05-01

    As new and improved designs for night vision imaging systems based on the principle of image intensification are produced, it is advantageous to have a system which can accurately and quickly assess the performance of various configurations of intensifiers and associated optics. Parameters which define system performance include field-of-view (FOV), magnification, and distortion. The availability of precision positioners and personal computers enable the measurement of performance as specified in Military Specification MIL-A-49425 (CR), Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System AN/AVS-6(V)1. AN/AVS-6(V)2, with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. A measurement system which provides high flexibility in the evaluation of image intensification devices is described.

  17. Global Night-Time Lights for Observing Human Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hipskind, Stephen R.; Elvidge, Chris; Gurney, K.; Imhoff, Mark; Bounoua, Lahouari; Sheffner, Edwin; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Pettit, Donald R.; Fischer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present a concept for a small satellite mission to make systematic, global observations of night-time lights with spatial resolution suitable for discerning the extent, type and density of human settlements. The observations will also allow better understanding of fine scale fossil fuel CO2 emission distribution. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey recommends more focus on direct observations of human influence on the Earth system. The most dramatic and compelling observations of human presence on the Earth are the night light observations taken by the Defence Meteorological System Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Beyond delineating the footprint of human presence, night light data, when assembled and evaluated with complementary data sets, can determine the fine scale spatial distribution of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding fossil fuel carbon emissions is critical to understanding the entire carbon cycle, and especially the carbon exchange between terrestrial and oceanic systems.

  18. Evaluating a prototype device designed to alleviate night vision goggle induced neck strain among military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dibblee, Jenna; Worthy, Portia; Farrell, Philip; Hetzler, Markus; Reid, Susan; Stevenson, Joan; Fischer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was verify the design of a novel Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) that can be used by military aircrew to help intervene on and reduce the high prevalence of neck trouble. Twelve healthy participants repeated simulated helicopter aircrew tasks on 3 separate days. On each day they wore a different helmet configuration, where measures of performance, perceived demand/preference and muscular demand were recorded. The results showed that vigilance tasks were performed over 10% faster with the HSSD configuration compared to wearing the normal helmet configuration. Participants were able to maintain static (endurance) postures for 28% longer, and use of the HSSD helped to prevent neck muscle fatigue in the most demanding task. The results of this design verification study indicate that the HSSD may be a realistic, feasible near-term solution to intervene on the high prevalence of neck trouble among rotary-wing aircrew. Practitioner Summary: This paper verifies the effectiveness of the Helmet System Support Device (HSSD) as an on-body personal protective device to help control exposures associated with aircrew neck trouble. The HSSD reduced perceived demand, reduced cumulative muscle activity in select muscles and provided improved fatigue resistance, meeting its desired design objectives. PMID:25932658

  19. Vision - night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa ... Sieving PA, Caruso RC. Retinitis pigmentosa and related disorders. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology . 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2008:chap 6. ...

  20. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  1. Daytime cardiac autonomic activity during one week of continuous night shift.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A L; Burgess, H J; McCulloch, K; Lamond, N; Fletcher, A; Dorrian, J; Roach, G; Dawson, D

    2001-12-01

    Shift workers encounter an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to their day working counterparts. To explore this phenomenon, the effects of one week of simulated night shift on cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) activity were assessed. Ten (5m; 5f) healthy subjects aged 18-29 years attended an adaptation and baseline night before commencing one week of night shift (2300-0700 h). Sleep was recorded using a standard polysomnogram and circadian phase was tracked using salivary melatonin data. During sleep, heart rate (HR), cardiac PNS activity (RMSSD) and cardiac SNS activity (pre-ejection period) were recorded. Night shift did not influence seep quality, but reduced sleep duration by a mean of 52 +/- 29 min. One week of night shift evoked a small chronic sleep debt of 5 h 14 +/- 56 min and a cumulative circadian phase delay of 5 h +/- 14 min. Night shift had no significant effect on mean HR, but mean cardiac SNS activity during sleep was consistently higher and mean cardiac PNS activity during sleep declined gradually across the week. These results suggest that shiftwork has direct and unfavourable effects on cardiac autonomic activity and that this might be one mechanism via which shiftwork increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is postulated that sleep loss could be one mediator of the association between shiftwork and cardiovascular health. PMID:14564886

  2. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  3. Part task investigation of multispectral image fusion using gray scale and synthetic color night-vision sensor imagery for helicopter pilotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Paul M.; Perconti, Philip

    1997-06-01

    Today, night vision sensor and display systems used in the pilotage or navigation of military helicopters are either long wave IR thermal sensors (8 - 12 microns) or image intensified, visible and near IR (0.6 - 0.9 microns), sensors. The sensor imagery is displayed using a monochrome phosphor on a Cathode Ray Tube or night vision goggle. Currently, there is no fielded capability to combine the best attributes of the emissive radiation sensed by the thermal sensor and the reflected radiation sensed by the image intensified sensor into a single fused image. However, recent advances in signal processing have permitted the real time image fusion and display of multispectral sensors in either monochrome or synthetic chromatic form. The merits of such signal processing is explored. A part task simulation using a desktop computer, video playback unit, and a biocular head mounted display was conducted. Response time and accuracy measures of test subject responses to visual perception tasks were taken. Subjective ratings were collected to determine levels of pilot acceptance. In general, fusion based formats resulted in better subject performance. The benefits of integrating synthetic color to fused imagery, however, is dependent on the color algorithm used, the visual task performed, and scene content.

  4. ROVER: A prototype active vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, David J.; Marsh, Brian D.

    1987-08-01

    The Roving Eyes project is an experiment in active vision. We present the design and implementation of a prototype that tracks colored balls in images from an on-line charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Rover is designed to keep up with its rapidly changing environment by handling best and average case conditions and ignoring the worst case. This allows Rover's techniques to be less sophisticated and consequently faster. Each of Rover's major functional units is relatively isolated from the others, and an executive which knows all the functional units directs the computation by deciding which jobs would be most effective to run. This organization is realized with a priority queue of jobs and their arguments. Rover's structure not only allows it to adapt its strategy to the environment, but also makes the system extensible. A capability can be added to the system by adding a functional module with a well defined interface and by modifying the executive to make use of the new module. The current implementation is discussed in the appendices.

  5. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. Methods In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. Results We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusions A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment. PMID:25079703

  6. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training: 3D virtual/augmented reality scene-weather-atmosphere-target simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folaron, Michelle; Deacutis, Martin; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.

    2007-04-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. A previous SPIE presentation described our work for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG - WDT(Weather Depiction Technology) system (Colby, et al.). NVG -WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the WRF (Weather Research μ Forecasting) model; and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) are being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs. This paper expands on the work described in the previous presentation and will describe the 3D Virtual/Augmented Reality Scene - Weather - Atmosphere - Target Simulation part of the NVG - WDT. The 3D virtual reality software is a complete simulation system to generate realistic

  7. Long-range night/day human identification using active-SWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoff, Brian E.; Martin, Robert B.; Sluch, Mikhail; Kafka, Kristopher M.; McCormick, William; Ice, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Positive identification of personnel from a safe distance is a long-standing need for security and defense applications. Advances in computer face recognition have made this a reliable means of identification when facial imagery of sufficient resolution is available to be matched against a database of mug shots. Long-range identification at night requires that the face be actively illuminated; however, for visible and NIR illumination, the intensity required to produce high-resolution long-range imagery typically creates an eye-safety hazard. SWIR illumination makes active- SWIR imaging a promising approach to long-range night-time identification. We will describe an active-SWIR imaging system that is being developed to covertly detect, track, zoom in on, and positively identify a human target, night or day, at hundreds of meters range. The SWIR illuminator pans, tilts, and zooms with the imager to always just fill the imager field of view. The illuminator meets Class 1 eye-safety limits (safe even with magnifying optics) at the intended target, and meets Class 1M eye-safety limits (safe to the naked eye) at point-blank range. Close-up night-time facial imagery will be presented along with experimental face recognition performance results for matching SWIR imagery to a database of visible mug shots at distance.

  8. Stay out (almost) all night: contrasting responses in flight activity among tropical moth assemblages.

    PubMed

    Lamarre, G P A; Mendoza, I; Rougerie, R; Decaëns, T; Hérault, B; Bénéluz, F

    2015-04-01

    Variations in diel activity among hyperdiverse tropical communities of moths, despite representing a key component of niche partitioning between species, have barely been studied so far. Using light trapping from dawn to sunset over a 1-year period in French Guiana, we investigated these variations within and between two families of moths (Sphingidae and Saturniidae). Our results revealed contrasting patterns in flight activity at night between Sphingidae and Saturniidae. Sphingidae reached their peak in species richness and abundance between 7:00 and 8:00 p.m., followed by a decrease around 11:00 p.m. to midnight, whereas Saturniidae were continuously present throughout the night, with a peak around midnight. In addition, we found changes in diel activity among some of the most common genera in each family, highlighting distinct behavioral, physiological, and functional traits among taxa. Given differences in flight activity at different taxonomic levels, it is strongly recommended to monitor by light trapping throughout the night to effectively sample saturniid and sphingid assemblages, even though the activity of Sphingidae sharply declines after midnight. These results improve the general natural history information of tropical moths and reinforce the need of further research on the ecological and taxonomic consequences of differences in diel activity. PMID:26013127

  9. Neural activation in arousal and reward areas of the brain in day-active and night-active grass rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ruiz, A; Nixon, J P; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    2010-01-20

    In the diurnal unstriped Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) access to a running wheel can trigger a shift in active phase preference, with some individuals becoming night-active (NA), while others continue to be day-active (DA). To investigate the contributions of different neural systems to the support of this shift in locomotor activity, we investigated the association between chronotype and Fos expression during the day and night in three major nuclei in the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic (ACh) arousal system - medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal diagonal band of Broca (VDB and HDB respectively) -, and whether neural activation in these areas was related to neural activity in the orexinergic system. We also measured Fos expression in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cells of two components of the reward system that also participate in arousal - the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and supramammillary nucleus (SUM). NAs and DAs were compared to animals with no wheels. NAs had elevated Fos expression at night in ACh cells, but only in the HDB. In the non-cholinergic cells of the BF of NAs, enhanced nocturnal Fos expression was almost universally seen, but only associated with activation of the orexinergic system for the MS/VDB region. For some of the areas and cell types of the BF, the patterns of Fos expression of DAs appeared similar to those of NAs, but were never associated with activation of the orexinergic system. Also common to DAs and NAs was a general increase in Fos expression in non-dopaminergic cells of the SUM and anterior VTA. Thus, in this diurnal species, voluntary exercise and a shift to a nocturnal chronotype changes neural activity in arousal and reward areas of the brain known to regulate a broad range of neural functions and behaviors, which may be also affected in human shift workers. PMID:19837140

  10. Active-SWIR signatures for long-range night/day human detection and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert B.; Sluch, Mikhail; Kafka, Kristopher M.; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian E.

    2013-05-01

    The capability to detect, observe, and positively identify people at a distance is important to numerous security and defense applications. Traditional solutions for human detection and observation include long-range visible imagers for daytime and thermal infrared imagers for night-time use. Positive identification, through computer face recognition, requires facial imagery that can be repeatably matched to a database of visible facial signatures (i.e. mug shots). Nighttime identification at large distance is not possible with visible imagers, due to lack of light, or with thermal infrared imagers, due to poor correlation with visible facial imagery. An active-SWIR imaging system was developed that is both eye-safe and invisible, capable of producing close-up facial imagery at distances of several hundred meters, even in total darkness. The SWIR facial signatures correlate well to visible signatures, allowing for biometric face recognition night or day. Night-time face recognition results for several distances will be presented. Human detection and observation results at larger distances will also be presented. Example signatures will be presented and discussed.

  11. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    PubMed

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension. PMID:23389675

  12. Day/Night Variability in Blood Pressure: Influence of Posture and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) is highest during the day and lowest at night. Absence of this rhythm is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contributions of changes in posture and physical activity to the 24-hour day/night rhythm in BP are not well understood. We hypothesized that postural changes and physical activity contribute substantially to the day/night rhythm in BP. METHODS Fourteen healthy, sedentary, nonobese, normotensive men (aged 19–50 years) each completed an ambulatory and a bed rest condition during which BP was measured every 30–60 minutes for 24 hours. When ambulatory, subjects followed their usual routines without restrictions to capture the “normal” condition. During bed rest, subjects were constantly confined to bed in a 6-degree head-down position; therefore posture was constant, and physical activity was minimized. Two subjects were excluded from analysis because of irregular sleep timing. RESULTS The systolic and diastolic BP reduction during the sleep period was similar in ambulatory (−11±2mmHg/−8±1mmHg) and bed rest conditions (−8±3mmHg/−4±2mmHg; P = 0.38/P = 0.12). The morning surge in diastolic BP was attenuated during bed rest (P = 0.001), and there was a statistical trend for the same effect in systolic BP (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS A substantial proportion of the 24-hour BP rhythm remained during bed rest, indicating that typical daily changes in posture and/or physical activity do not entirely explain 24-hour BP variation under normal ambulatory conditions. However, the morning BP increase was attenuated during bed rest, suggesting that the adoption of an upright posture and/or physical activity in the morning contributes to the morning BP surge. PMID:23535155

  13. ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2009-04-01

    We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

  14. Teacher Activism: Enacting a Vision for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picower, Bree

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on educators who participated in grassroots social justice groups to explore the role teacher activism can play in the struggle for educational justice. Findings show teacher activists made three overarching commitments: to reconcile their vision for justice with the realities of injustice around them; to work within…

  15. Physical workload, trapezius muscle activity, and neck pain in nurses' night and day shifts: a physiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Corinne; Spengler, Christina M; Läubli, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical workload, electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscle, neck pain and mental well-being at work between night and day shifts in twenty Swiss nurses. Work pulse (average increase of heart rate over resting heart rate) was lower during night (27 bpm) compared to day shifts (34 bpm; p < 0.01). Relative arm acceleration also indicated less physical activity during night (82% of average) compared to day shifts (110%; p < 0.01). Rest periods were significantly longer during night shifts. Trapezius muscle rest time was longer during night (13% of shift duration) than day shifts (7%; p < 0.01) and the 50th percentile of EMG activity was smaller (p = 0.02), indicating more opportunities for muscle relaxation during night shifts. Neck pain and mental well-being at work were similar between shifts. Subjective perception of burden was similar between shifts despite less physical burden at night, suggesting there are other contributing factors. PMID:24140243

  16. The Thursday Night Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History and Social Science Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A Los Angeles based grassroots organization, the Thursday Night Group, promotes the vision that the world can be different and that we all--adults and children--can do something to find solutions to the nuclear threat. How the group serves as a resource to elementary and secondary schools is described. (RM)

  17. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas (USA) increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas and California (USA) also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  18. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets, snowy egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbmate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increase with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night -herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas, and California also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  19. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets, snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Ohlendorf, H M

    1989-07-01

    inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas (USA) increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas and California (USA) also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors. PMID:2761008

  20. Unexpected Levels of Biological Activity during the Polar Night Offer New Perspectives on a Warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jørgen; Daase, Malin; Renaud, Paul E; Ambrose, William G; Darnis, Gerald; Last, Kim S; Leu, Eva; Cohen, Jonathan H; Johnsen, Geir; Moline, Mark A; Cottier, Finlo; Varpe, Øystein; Shunatova, Natalia; Bałazy, Piotr; Morata, Nathalie; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kosobokova, Ksenia; Hoppe, Clara J M; Węsławski, Jan Marcin; Kukliński, Piotr; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Nikishina, Daria; Cusa, Marine; Kędra, Monika; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Vogedes, Daniel; Camus, Lionel; Tran, Damien; Michaud, Emma; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Granovitch, Andrei; Gonchar, Anya; Krapp, Rupert; Callesen, Trine A

    2015-10-01

    The current understanding of Arctic ecosystems is deeply rooted in the classical view of a bottom-up controlled system with strong physical forcing and seasonality in primary-production regimes. Consequently, the Arctic polar night is commonly disregarded as a time of year when biological activities are reduced to a minimum due to a reduced food supply. Here, based upon a multidisciplinary ecosystem-scale study from the polar night at 79°N, we present an entirely different view. Instead of an ecosystem that has entered a resting state, we document a system with high activity levels and biological interactions across most trophic levels. In some habitats, biological diversity and presence of juvenile stages were elevated in winter months compared to the more productive and sunlit periods. Ultimately, our results suggest a different perspective regarding ecosystem function that will be of importance for future environmental management and decision making, especially at a time when Arctic regions are experiencing accelerated environmental change [1]. PMID:26412132

  1. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision—the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized. PMID:26240420

  2. Cholinesterase activity in black-crowned night-herons exposed to fenthion-treated water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.J.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Fenthion, (O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl) phosphorothioate), a widely used mosquito control agent, has caused wildlife mortality. To simulate a shallow wetland environment, an exposure chamber was used containing water treated with fenthion at 1 and 10 times the field application rate of 112 g active ingredient (AI)/ha. This system permitted an evaluation of exposure routes and the effects of fenthion in a representative species of wading bird, the black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). The results suggested that herons received only a dermal exposure, and that their brain acetylcholinesterase activity was not significantly inhibited. In contrast, however, plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity was inhibited, suggesting the herons were exposed to the insecticide. The application rates and types of exposures were not life-threatening in this species.

  3. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P.; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system. PMID:22438737

  4. A low-noise 15-μm pixel-pitch 640×512 hybrid InGaAs image sensor for night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guellec, Fabrice; Dubois, Sébastien; de Borniol, Eric; Castelein, Pierre; Martin, Sébastien; Guiguet, Romain; Tchagaspanian, Micha"l.; Rouvié, Anne; Bois, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid InGaAs focal plane arrays are very interesting for night vision because they can benefit from the nightglow emission in the Short Wave Infrared band. Through a collaboration between III-V Lab and CEA-Léti, a 640x512 InGaAs image sensor with 15μm pixel pitch has been developed. The good crystalline quality of the InGaAs detectors opens the door to low dark current (around 20nA/cm2 at room temperature and -0.1V bias) as required for low light level imaging. In addition, the InP substrate can be removed to extend the detection range towards the visible spectrum. A custom readout IC (ROIC) has been designed in a standard CMOS 0.18μm technology. The pixel circuit is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable charge-to-voltage conversion gains. Relying on a thorough noise analysis, this input stage has been optimized to deliver low-noise performance in high-gain mode with a reasonable concession on dynamic range. The exposure time can be maximized up to the frame period thanks to a rolling shutter approach. The frame rate can be up to 120fps or 60fps if the Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) capability of the circuit is enabled. The first results show that the CDS is effective at removing the very low frequency noise present on the reference voltage in our test setup. In this way, the measured total dark noise is around 90 electrons in high-gain mode for 8.3ms exposure time. It is mainly dominated by the dark shot noise for a detector temperature settling around 30°C when not cooled. The readout noise measured with shorter exposure time is around 30 electrons for a dynamic range of 71dB in high-gain mode and 108 electrons for 79dB in low-gain mode.

  5. Evaluation of active vision by a car's antifog headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barun, Vladimir V.; Levitin, Konstantin M.

    1996-10-01

    A special case of civilian active vision has been investigated here, namely, a vision system by car anti-fog headlamps. A method to estimate the light-engineering criteria for headlamp performances and simulate the operation of the system through a turbid medium, such as fog, is developed on the base of the analytical procedures of the radiative transfer theory. This method features in include the spaced light source and receiver of a driver's active vision system, the complicated azimuth-nonsymmetrical emissive pattern of the headlamps, and the fine angular dependence of the fog phase function near the backscattering direction. The final formulas are derived in an analytical form providing additional convenience and simplicity for the computations. The image contrast of a road object with arbitrary orientation, dimensions, and shape and its limiting visibility range are studied as a function of meteorological visibility range in fog as well as of various emissive pattern, mounting, and adjustment parameters of the headlamps. Optimization both light-engineering and geometrical characteristics of the headlamps is shown to be possible to enable the opportunity to enhance the visibility range and, hence, traffic safety.

  6. Night-Time Light Data: A Good Proxy Measure for Economic Activity?

    PubMed

    Mellander, Charlotta; Lobo, José; Stolarick, Kevin; Matheson, Zara

    2015-01-01

    Much research has suggested that night-time light (NTL) can be used as a proxy for a number of variables, including urbanization, density, and economic growth. As governments around the world either collect census data infrequently or are scaling back the amount of detail collected, alternate sources of population and economic information like NTL are being considered. But, just how close is the statistical relationship between NTL and economic activity at a fine-grained geographical level? This paper uses a combination of correlation analysis and geographically weighted regressions in order to examine if light can function as a proxy for economic activities at a finer level. We use a fine-grained geo-coded residential and industrial full sample micro-data set for Sweden, and match it with both radiance and saturated light emissions. We find that the correlation between NTL and economic activity is strong enough to make it a relatively good proxy for population and establishment density, but the correlation is weaker in relation to wages. In general, we find a stronger relation between light and density values, than with light and total values. We also find a closer connection between radiance light and economic activity, than with saturated light. Further, we find the link between light and economic activity, especially estimated by wages, to be slightly overestimated in large urban areas and underestimated in rural areas. PMID:26496428

  7. Laser gated viewing at ISL for vision through smoke, active polarimetry, and 3D imaging in NIR and SWIR wavelength bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we want to give a review on the application of laser gated viewing for the improvement of vision cross-diffusing obstacles (smoke, turbid medium, …), the capturing of 3D scene information, or the study of material properties by polarimetric analysis at near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) wavelengths. Laser gated viewing has been studied since the 1960s as an active night vision method. Owing to enormous improvements in the development of compact and highly efficient laser sources and in the development of modern sensor technologies, the maturity of demonstrator systems rose during the past decades. Further, it was demonstrated that laser gated viewing has versatile sensing capabilities with application for long-range observation under certain degraded weather conditions, vision through obstacles and fog, active polarimetry, and 3D imaging.

  8. Night locomotor activity and quality of sleep in quetiapine-treated patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Todder, Doron; Caliskan, Serdal; Baune, Bernhard T

    2006-12-01

    This research assesses the development of the night-activity rhythm and quality of sleep during course of treatment among patients with unipolar or bipolar depression and receiving antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Twenty-seven patients with major depressive episode were included into a 4-week follow-up study and compared with 27 healthy controls. Motor activity was continuously measured with an electronic wrist device (actigraphy), sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and patients were clinically assessed with the Hamilton depression score. All patients received a standard antidepressant treatment plus quetiapine. Whereas we found a rapid and maintaining improvement of subjective sleep parameters during the 4-week study, we observed a rapid improvement of some objective sleep parameters (actigraph) within the first week, but no further significant change of objective sleep parameters during the rest of the study. Another main finding of this study is that changes of subjectively and objectively assessed sleep parameters do not necessarily reflect clinical improvement of depression during the same timeline. Despite partial clinical remission, objective sleep parameters still showed significantly different patterns compared with controls. This study is the first to examine the effect of quetiapine on locomotor activity alongside with sleep in depression. As the studied patients with depression showed improvement in subjective and objective sleep parameters, quetiapine may be a promising drug for patients with depression and insomnia. Further studies need to investigate in detail the timeline of clinical remission and alterations of objective and subjective sleep parameters. PMID:17110822

  9. Active Vision in Marmosets: A Model System for Visual Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John H.; Miller, Cory T.

    2014-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small-bodied New World primate, offers several advantages to complement vision research in larger primates. Studies in the anesthetized marmoset have detailed the anatomy and physiology of their visual system (Rosa et al., 2009) while studies of auditory and vocal processing have established their utility for awake and behaving neurophysiological investigations (Lu et al., 2001a,b; Eliades and Wang, 2008a,b; Osmanski and Wang, 2011; Remington et al., 2012). However, a critical unknown is whether marmosets can perform visual tasks under head restraint. This has been essential for studies in macaques, enabling both accurate eye tracking and head stabilization for neurophysiology. In one set of experiments we compared the free viewing behavior of head-fixed marmosets to that of macaques, and found that their saccadic behavior is comparable across a number of saccade metrics and that saccades target similar regions of interest including faces. In a second set of experiments we applied behavioral conditioning techniques to determine whether the marmoset could control fixation for liquid reward. Two marmosets could fixate a central point and ignore peripheral flashing stimuli, as needed for receptive field mapping. Both marmosets also performed an orientation discrimination task, exhibiting a saturating psychometric function with reliable performance and shorter reaction times for easier discriminations. These data suggest that the marmoset is a viable model for studies of active vision and its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:24453311

  10. Vision Drives Correlated Activity without Patterned Spontaneous Activity in Developing Xenopus Retina

    PubMed Central

    Demas, James A.; Payne, Hannah; Cline, Hollis T.

    2011-01-01

    Developing amphibians need vision to avoid predators and locate food before visual system circuits fully mature. Xenopus tadpoles can respond to visual stimuli as soon as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) innervate the brain, however, in mammals, chicks and turtles, RGCs reach their central targets many days, or even weeks, before their retinas are capable of vision. In the absence of vision, activity-dependent refinement in these amniote species is mediated by waves of spontaneous activity that periodically spread across the retina, correlating the firing of action potentials in neighboring RGCs. Theory suggests that retinorecipient neurons in the brain use patterned RGC activity to sharpen the retinotopy first established by genetic cues. We find that in both wild type and albino Xenopus tadpoles, RGCs are spontaneously active at all stages of tadpole development studied, but their population activity never coalesces into waves. Even at the earliest stages recorded, visual stimulation dominates over spontaneous activity and can generate patterns of RGC activity similar to the locally correlated spontaneous activity observed in amniotes. In addition, we show that blocking AMPA and NMDA type glutamate receptors significantly decreases spontaneous activity in young Xenopus retina, but that blocking GABAA receptor blockers does not. Our findings indicate that vision drives correlated activity required for topographic map formation. They further suggest that developing retinal circuits in the two major subdivisions of tetrapods, amphibians and amniotes, evolved different strategies to supply appropriately patterned RGC activity to drive visual circuit refinement. PMID:21312343

  11. Vision of the active limb impairs bimanual motor tracking in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Van Halewyck, Florian; Corporaal, Sharissa H. A.; Willacker, Lina; Van Den Bergh, Veerle; Beets, Iseult A. M.; Levin, Oron; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the intensive investigation of bimanual coordination, it remains unclear how directing vision toward either limb influences performance, and whether this influence is affected by age. To examine these questions, we assessed the performance of young and older adults on a bimanual tracking task in which they matched motor-driven movements of their right hand (passive limb) with their left hand (active limb) according to in-phase and anti-phase patterns. Performance in six visual conditions involving central vision, and/or peripheral vision of the active and/or passive limb was compared to performance in a no vision condition. Results indicated that directing central vision to the active limb consistently impaired performance, with higher impairment in older than young adults. Conversely, directing central vision to the passive limb improved performance in young adults, but less consistently in older adults. In conditions involving central vision of one limb and peripheral vision of the other limb, similar effects were found to those for conditions involving central vision of one limb only. Peripheral vision alone resulted in similar or impaired performance compared to the no vision (NV) condition. These results indicate that the locus of visual attention is critical for bimanual motor control in young and older adults, with older adults being either more impaired or less able to benefit from a given visual condition. PMID:25452727

  12. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  13. A vision architecture for the extravehicular activity retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) is a robotic device currently being developed by the Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to support activities in the neighborhood of the Space Shuttle or Space Station Freedom. As the name implies, the Retriever's primary function will be to provide the capability to retrieve tools, equipment or other objects which have become detached from the spacecraft, but it will also be able to rescue a crew member who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. Later goals will include cooperative operations between a crew member and the Retriever such as fetching a tool that is required for servicing or maintenance operations. This report documents a preliminary design for a Vision System Planner (VSP) for the EVAR that is capable of achieving visual objectives provided to it by a high level task planner. Typical commands which the task planner might issue to the VSP relate to object recognition, object location determination, and obstacle detection. Upon receiving a command from the task planner, the VSP then plans a sequence of actions to achieve the specified objective using a model-based reasoning approach. This sequence may involve choosing an appropriate sensor, selecting an algorithm to process the data, reorienting the sensor, adjusting the effective resolution of the image using lens zooming capability, and/or requesting the task planner to reposition the EVAR to obtain a different view of the object. An initial version of the Vision System Planner which realizes the above capabilities using simulated images has been implemented and tested. The remaining sections describe the architecture and capabilities of the VSP and its relationship to the high level task planner. In addition, typical plans that are generated to achieve visual goals for various scenarios will be discussed. Specific topics to be addressed will include object search strategies, repositioning of the EVAR to improve the

  14. Using Light-at-Night (LAN) Satellite Data for Identifying Clusters of Economic Activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybnikova, N. A.; Portnov, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    Enterprises organized in clusters are often efficient in stimulating urban development, productivity and profit outflows. Identifying clusters of economic activities (EAs) thus becomes an important step in devising regional development policies, aimed at facilitating regional economic development. However, a major problem with cluster identification stems from limited reporting of specific EAs by individual countries and administrative entities. Even Eurostat, which maintains most advances regional databases, provides data for less than 50% of all regional subdivisions of the 3rd tier of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS3). Such poor reporting impedes identification of EA clusters and economic forces behind them. In this study, we test a possibility that missing data on geographic concentrations of EAs can be reconstructed using Light-at-Night (LAN) satellite measurements, and that such reconstructed data can then be used for the identification of EA clusters. As we hypothesize, LAN, captured by satellite sensors, is characterized by different intensity, depending on its source - production facilities, services, etc., - and this information can be used for EA identification. The study was carried out in three stages. First, using nighttime satellite images, we determined what types of EAs can be identified, with a sufficient degree of accuracy, by LAN they emit. Second, we calculated multivariate statistical models, linking EAs concentrations with LAN intensities and several locational and development attributes of NUTS3 regions in Europe. Next, using the obtained statistical models, we restored missing data on EAs across NUTS3 regions in Europe and identified clusters of EAs, using spatial analysis tools.

  15. Effect of melatonin-rich night-time milk on sleep and activity in elderly institutionalized subjects.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, Maija; Niskanen, Leo; Kangas, Antti-Pekka; Koskinen, Teuvo

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin production decreases with advancing age, leading to insomnia and changes in circadian rhythmicity. Administration of melatonin in variable doses resulting in supraphysiological or physiological night-time blood levels of melatonin has been shown to improve sleep quality in the elderly. To study the effect of low doses of melatonin, which do not affect daytime blood melatonin concentrations, night-time milk containing 10-40 ng/l melatonin was used as a drink with meals. The effect of about 0.5 l night-time milk daily on sleep quality and circadian activity was studied in elderly institutionalized subjects in two long-term double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Night-time milk was given for 8 weeks and normal day-time milk for 8 weeks with a 1-week washout period in between. In the first study, which was performed during spring with sleep quality evaluated subjectively by specially trained nurses, 70 demented patients showed only a seasonal effect on their sleep quality. In the second study performed around the winter solstice, 81 fairly healthy subjects living in rest-homes were divided into three groups, two for the crossover study as in the first investigation with a third group consuming only normal daytime milk as a control group to evaluate the effect of season. Caregivers graded the sleep quality and activity that was monitored separately for the morning before noon and for the evening after noon. In the second study, the effect of season was recognizable in the scores for sleep quality, which increased in all groups after the winter solstice. However, there were no changes in activity in the control group or in the group that consumed night-time milk during the first period of the crossover study, whereas both morning and evening activity increased significantly in the group that consumed night-time milk during the later period. Even ultra-low doses of melatonin may benefit the elderly by increasing their daytime activity. PMID

  16. Aurora Activities Observed by SNPP VIIRS Day-Night Band during St. Patrick's Day, 2015 G4 Level Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. C.; Shao, X.; Cao, C.; Zhang, B.; Fung, S. F.; Sharma, S.

    2015-12-01

    A G4 level (severe) geomagnetic storm occurred on March 17 (St. Patrick's Day), 2015 and it is among the strongest geomagnetic storms of the current solar cycle (Solar Cycle 24). The storm is identified as due to the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) which erupted on March 15 from Region 2297 of solar surface. During this event, the geomagnetic storm index Dst reached -223 nT and the geomagnetic aurora electrojet (AE) index increased and reached as high as >2200 nT with large amplitude fluctuations. Aurora occurred in both hemispheres. Ground auroral sightings were reported from Michigan to Alaska and as far south as southern Colorado. The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance that can span 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. In this paper, DNB observations of aurora activities during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm are analyzed. Aurora are observed to evolve with salient features by DNB for orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in both hemispheres. The radiance data from DNB observation are collected at the night sides of southern and northern hemispheres and geo-located onto geomagnetic local time (MLT) coordinates. Regions of aurora during each orbital pass are identified through image processing by contouring radiance values and excluding regions with stray light near day-night terminator. The evolution of aurora are characterized with time series of the poleward and low latitude boundary of aurora, their latitude-span and area, peak radiance and total light emission of the aurora region in DNB observation. These characteristic parameters are correlated with solar wind and geomagnetic index parameters.

  17. The night-time temporal window of locomotor activity in the Namib Desert long-distance wandering spider, Leucorchestris arenicola.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Henschel, Joh R; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2006-04-01

    Even though being active exclusively after sunset, the male Leucorchestris arenicola spiders are able to return to their point of departure by following bee-line routes of up to several hundreds of meters in length. While performing this kind of long-distance path integration they must rely on external cues to adjust for navigational errors. Many external cues which could be used by the spiders change dramatically or disappear altogether in the transition period from day to night. Hence, it is therefore imperative to know exactly when after sunset the spiders navigate in order to find out how they do it. To explore this question, we monitored their locomotor activity with data loggers equipped with infrared beam sensors. Our results show that the male spiders are most active in the period between the end and the beginning of the astronomical twilight period. Moreover, they prefer the moonless, i.e. darkest times at night. Hence, we conclude that the males are truly-and extremely-nocturnal. We further show that they are able to navigate under the very dim light conditions prevailing on moonless nights, and thus do not have to rely on the moon or on moon-related patterns of polarised light as potential compass cues. PMID:16283328

  18. Cormorants dive through the Polar night.

    PubMed

    Grémillet, David; Kuntz, Grégoire; Gilbert, Caroline; Woakes, Antony J; Butler, Patrick J; le Maho, Yvon

    2005-12-22

    Most seabirds are visual hunters and are thus strongly affected by light levels. Dependence on vision should be problematic for species wintering at high latitudes, as they face very low light levels for extended periods during the Polar night. We examined the foraging rhythms of male great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) wintering north of the Polar circle in West Greenland, conducting the first year-round recordings of the diving activity in a seabird wintering at high latitudes. Dive depth data revealed that birds dived every day during the Arctic winter and did not adjust their foraging rhythms to varying day length. Therefore, a significant proportion of the dive bouts were conducted in the dark (less than 1 lux) during the Polar night. Our study underlines the stunning adaptability of great cormorants and raises questions about the capacity of diving birds to use non-visual cues to target fish. PMID:17148235

  19. A possible role of galactic cosmic rays in chlorine activation during polar night

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.; Crutzen, P.J.

    1993-11-20

    The authors look at the concentration of HCl in the polar stratosphere, just at the end of the polar night in Antarctica, and conclude that heterogeneous reactions of HCl with ClONO{sub 2} and HOCl are not able to account for the observed decline in its density. They propose additional processing of HCl by reactions with N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which could be formed by cosmic ray reactions which create NO radicals. OH radicals are also formed by cosmic ray reactions, and can also contribute to HCl processing. Including these type reactions they are able to predict an additional factor of 2 decrease in HCl densities following polar night.

  20. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Bob; Hall, Jan D.

    1992-01-01

    Installation of a new metal halide lighting system at an old athletic high school stadium serving the Red Lion School District in Pennsylvania made night games possible. Community members raised funds for the installation. Because of increased attendance, the district made a $10,000 profit. Provides facts and figures on the stadium lighting. (MLF)

  1. Application of remote thermal imaging and night vision technology to improve endangered wildlife resource management with minimal animal distress and hazard to humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, C.; Franks, K.; Floyd, M.; Plowman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced electromagnetic sensor systems more commonly associated with the hightech military battlefield may be applied to remote surveillance of wildlife. The first comprehensive study of a wide global variety of Near Infra Red (NIR) and thermal wildlife portraits are presented with this technology: for mammals, birds and other animals. The paper illustrates the safety aspects afforded to zoo staff and personnel in the wild during the day and night from potentially lethal and aggressive animals, and those difficult to approach normally. Such remote sensing systems are non-invasive and provide minimal disruption and distress to animals both in captivity and in the wild. We present some of the veterinarian advantages of such all weather day and night systems to identify sickness and injuries at an early diagnostic stage, as well as age related effects and mammalian cancer. Animals have very different textured surfaces, reflective and emissive properties in the NIR and thermal bands than when compared with the visible spectrum. Some surface features may offer biomimetic materials design advantages.

  2. Overview of NETL In-House Vision 21 Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, David J.

    2001-11-06

    The Office of Science and Technology at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, conducts research in support of Department of Energy's Fossil Energy Program. The research is funded through a variety of programs with each program focusing on a particular aspect of fossil energy. Since the Vision 21 Concept is based on the Advanced Power System Programs (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluid Bed, HIPPS, Advanced Turbine Systems, and Fuel Cells) it is not surprising that much of the research supports the Vision 21 Concept. The research is classified and presented according to ''enabling technologies'' and ''supporting technologies'' as defined by the Vision 21 Program. Enabling technology include fuel flexible gasification, fuel flexible combustion, hydrogen separation from fuel gas, advanced combustion systems, circulating fluid bed technology, and fuel cells. Supporting technologies include development of advanced materials, computer simulations, computation al fluid dynamics modeling, and advanced environmental control. An overview of Vision 21 related research is described, emphasizing recent accomplishments and capabilities.

  3. Robust active binocular vision through intrinsically motivated learning

    PubMed Central

    Lonini, Luca; Forestier, Sébastien; Teulière, Céline; Zhao, Yu; Shi, Bertram E.; Triesch, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The efficient coding hypothesis posits that sensory systems of animals strive to encode sensory signals efficiently by taking into account the redundancies in them. This principle has been very successful in explaining response properties of visual sensory neurons as adaptations to the statistics of natural images. Recently, we have begun to extend the efficient coding hypothesis to active perception through a form of intrinsically motivated learning: a sensory model learns an efficient code for the sensory signals while a reinforcement learner generates movements of the sense organs to improve the encoding of the signals. To this end, it receives an intrinsically generated reinforcement signal indicating how well the sensory model encodes the data. This approach has been tested in the context of binocular vison, leading to the autonomous development of disparity tuning and vergence control. Here we systematically investigate the robustness of the new approach in the context of a binocular vision system implemented on a robot. Robustness is an important aspect that reflects the ability of the system to deal with unmodeled disturbances or events, such as insults to the system that displace the stereo cameras. To demonstrate the robustness of our method and its ability to self-calibrate, we introduce various perturbations and test if and how the system recovers from them. We find that (1) the system can fully recover from a perturbation that can be compensated through the system's motor degrees of freedom, (2) performance degrades gracefully if the system cannot use its motor degrees of freedom to compensate for the perturbation, and (3) recovery from a perturbation is improved if both the sensory encoding and the behavior policy can adapt to the perturbation. Overall, this work demonstrates that our intrinsically motivated learning approach for efficient coding in active perception gives rise to a self-calibrating perceptual system of high robustness. PMID:24223552

  4. Robust active binocular vision through intrinsically motivated learning.

    PubMed

    Lonini, Luca; Forestier, Sébastien; Teulière, Céline; Zhao, Yu; Shi, Bertram E; Triesch, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The efficient coding hypothesis posits that sensory systems of animals strive to encode sensory signals efficiently by taking into account the redundancies in them. This principle has been very successful in explaining response properties of visual sensory neurons as adaptations to the statistics of natural images. Recently, we have begun to extend the efficient coding hypothesis to active perception through a form of intrinsically motivated learning: a sensory model learns an efficient code for the sensory signals while a reinforcement learner generates movements of the sense organs to improve the encoding of the signals. To this end, it receives an intrinsically generated reinforcement signal indicating how well the sensory model encodes the data. This approach has been tested in the context of binocular vison, leading to the autonomous development of disparity tuning and vergence control. Here we systematically investigate the robustness of the new approach in the context of a binocular vision system implemented on a robot. Robustness is an important aspect that reflects the ability of the system to deal with unmodeled disturbances or events, such as insults to the system that displace the stereo cameras. To demonstrate the robustness of our method and its ability to self-calibrate, we introduce various perturbations and test if and how the system recovers from them. We find that (1) the system can fully recover from a perturbation that can be compensated through the system's motor degrees of freedom, (2) performance degrades gracefully if the system cannot use its motor degrees of freedom to compensate for the perturbation, and (3) recovery from a perturbation is improved if both the sensory encoding and the behavior policy can adapt to the perturbation. Overall, this work demonstrates that our intrinsically motivated learning approach for efficient coding in active perception gives rise to a self-calibrating perceptual system of high robustness. PMID:24223552

  5. Active vision and sensor fusion for inspection of metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente Leon, Fernando; Beyerer, Juergen

    1997-09-01

    This paper deals with strategies for reliably obtaining the edges and the surface texture of metallic objects. Since illumination is a critical aspect regarding robustness and image quality, it is considered here as an active component of the image acquisition system. The performance of the methods presented is demonstrated -- among other examples -- with images of needles for blood sugar tests. Such objects show an optimized form consisting of several planar grinded surfaces delimited by sharp edges. To allow a reliable assessment of the quality of each surface, and a measurement of their edges, methods for fusing data obtained with different illumination constellations were developed. The fusion strategy is based on the minimization of suitable energy functions. First, an illumination-based segmentation of the object is performed. To obtain the boundaries of each surface, directional light-field illumination is used. By formulating suitable criteria, nearly binary images are selected by variation of the illumination direction. Hereafter, the surface edges are obtained by fusing the contours of the areas obtained before. Following, an optimally illuminated image is acquired for each surface of the object by varying the illumination direction. For this purpose, a criterion describing the quality of the surface texture has to be maximized. Finally, the images of all textured surfaces of the object are fused to an improved result, in which the whole object is contained with high contrast. Although the methods presented were designed for inspection of needles, they also perform robustly in other computer vision tasks where metallic objects have to be inspected.

  6. Surveillance photonic fence based on active range-gated imaging for night intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; He, Jun; Fan, Songtao; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-06-01

    We propose a surveillance photonic fence for night remote intrusion detection, especially in bad environmental conditions. The photonic fence is established by the synchronization of a pulsed infrared laser and a gated imaging sensor. Since the wavelength of the laser is invisible, the photonic fence is also invisible. Only when targets pass the fence, their image information can be collected. Objects and backgrounds out of the fence are all filtered directly which decreases the complexity of image processing about target extraction. For the fence, its location can be easily adjusted by the delay time between the laser pulse and the gate pulse, and its thickness can be set by changing the gate time and the laser pulse width. Furthermore, target space information can also be estimated in terms of the range information of the photonic fence.

  7. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID:27003884

  8. The reported incidence of man-machine interface issues in Army aviators using the Aviator's Night Vision System (ANVIS) in a combat theatre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2011-06-01

    Background: Army Aviators rely on the ANVIS for night operations. Human factors literature notes that the ANVIS man-machine interface results in reports of visual and spinal complaints. This is the first study that has looked at these issues in the much harsher combat environment. Last year, the authors reported on the statistically significant (p<0.01) increased complaints of visual discomfort, degraded visual cues, and incidence of static and dynamic visual illusions in the combat environment [Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7688, 76880G (2010)]. In this paper we present the findings regarding increased spinal complaints and other man-machine interface issues found in the combat environment. Methods: A survey was administered to Aircrew deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Results: 82 Aircrew (representing an aggregate of >89,000 flight hours of which >22,000 were with ANVIS) participated. Analysis demonstrated high complaints of almost all levels of back and neck pain. Additionally, the use of body armor and other Aviation Life Support Equipment (ALSE) caused significant ergonomic complaints when used with ANVIS. Conclusions: ANVIS use in a combat environment resulted in higher and different types of reports of spinal symptoms and other man-machine interface issues over what was previously reported. Data from this study may be more operationally relevant than that of the peacetime literature as it is derived from actual combat and not from training flights, and it may have important implications about making combat predictions based on performance in training scenarios. Notably, Aircrew remarked that they could not execute the mission without ANVIS and ALSE and accepted the degraded ergonomic environment.

  9. Intelligent robots and computer vision XII: Active vision and 3D methods; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Sept. 8, 9, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed include active vision for intelligent robots, 3D vision methods, tracking in robotic and vision, visual servoing and egomotion in robotics, egomotion and time-sequential processing, and control and planning in robotics and vision. Particular attention is given to invariant in visual motion, generic target tracking using color, recognizing 3D articulated-line-drawing objects, range data acquisition from an encoded structured light pattern, and 3D edge orientation detection. Also discussed are acquisition of randomly moving objects by visual guidance, fundamental principles of robot vision, high-performance visual servoing for robot end-point control, a long sequence analysis of human motion using eigenvector decomposition, and sequential computer algorithms for printed circuit board inspection.

  10. Exploring Techniques for Vision Based Human Activity Recognition: Methods, Systems, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Tang, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Yimin

    2013-01-01

    With the wide applications of vision based intelligent systems, image and video analysis technologies have attracted the attention of researchers in the computer vision field. In image and video analysis, human activity recognition is an important research direction. By interpreting and understanding human activities, we can recognize and predict the occurrence of crimes and help the police or other agencies react immediately. In the past, a large number of papers have been published on human activity recognition in video and image sequences. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the recent development of the techniques, including methods, systems, and quantitative evaluation of the performance of human activity recognition. PMID:23353144

  11. Polarised skylight and the landmark panorama provide night-active bull ants with compass information during route following.

    PubMed

    Reid, Samuel F; Narendra, Ajay; Hemmi, Jan M; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-02-01

    Navigating animals are known to use a number of celestial and terrestrial compass cues that allow them to determine and control their direction of travel. Which of the cues dominate appears to depend on their salience. Here we show that night-active bull ants attend to both the pattern of polarised skylight and the landmark panorama in their familiar habitat. When the two directional cues are in conflict, ants choose a compromise direction. However, landmark guidance appears to be the primary mechanism of navigation used by forager ants, with those cues in the direction of heading having the greatest influence on navigation. Different colonies respond to the removal of these cues to different degrees, depending on the directional information provided by the local landmark panorama. Interestingly, other parts of the surrounding panorama also influence foraging speed and accuracy, suggesting that they too play a role in navigation. PMID:21228195

  12. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  13. Neural correlates of active vision: An fMRI comparison of natural reading and scene viewing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Henderson, John M

    2015-08-01

    Theories of eye movement control during active vision tasks such as reading and scene viewing have primarily been developed and tested using data from eye tracking and computational modeling, and little is currently known about the neurocognition of active vision. The current fMRI study was conducted to examine the nature of the cortical networks that are associated with active vision. Subjects were asked to read passages for meaning and view photographs of scenes for a later memory test. The eye movement control network comprising frontal eye field (FEF), supplementary eye fields (SEF), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), commonly activated during single-saccade eye movement tasks, were also involved in reading and scene viewing, suggesting that a common control network is engaged when eye movements are executed. However, the activated locus of the FEF varied across the two tasks, with medial FEF more activated in scene viewing relative to passage reading and lateral FEF more activated in reading than scene viewing. The results suggest that eye movements during active vision are associated with both domain-general and domain-specific components of the eye movement control network. PMID:26026255

  14. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are no mental images to recall. continue What Causes Night Terrors? Night terrors are caused by over- ... I Be Worried About My Child's Nightmares? What Causes Night Terrors? Nightmares All About Sleep Nightmares What ...

  15. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  16. Evidence for Day-to-Night Ion Transport at Low Solar Activity in the Venus Pre-Dawn Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brannon, J. F.; Fox, J. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    Periapsis of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft 2 dropped below 180 km on August 28, 1992 near midnight, and 42 orbits of low altitude data at moderately low solar activity in the pre-dawn sector were obtained before contact was lost to the spacecraft in October, 1992. Through a combination of analysis of data from the PV orbiter ion mass spectrometer (OIMS) and modeling, we consider here what can be learned about the relative importance of plasma transport from the dayside and electron precipitation in maintaining the nightside ionosphere during the re-entry period. In particular, we examine here the atomic ion density profiles. We compute the average peak density of O(+) as a function of solar zenith angle and determine what fluxes of atomic ions or precipitating electrons would he necessary to produce those values. We then compare model calculations of the ion densities to those observed during the re-entry period. We find that the low solar activity nightside ionosphere shows evidence of significant day-to-night plasma transport.

  17. Evidence for day-to-night ion transport at low solar activity in the Venus pre-dawn ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brannon, J. F.; Fox, J. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    Periapsis of the Pioneer Venus (PV) spacecraft dropped below 180 km on August 28, 1992 near midnight, and 42 orbits of low altitude data at moderately low solar activity in the pre-dawn sector were obtained before contact was lost to the spacecraft in October, 1992. Through a combination of analysis of data from the PV orbiter ion mass spectrometer (OIMS) and modeling, we consider here what can be learned about the relative importance of plasma transport from the dayside and electron precipitation in maintaining the nightside ionosphere during the re-entry period. In particular, we examine here the atomic ion density profiles. We compute the average peak density of O(+) as a function of solar zenith angle and determine what fluxes of atomic ions or precipitating electrons would be necessary to produce those values. We then compare model calculations of the ion densities to those observed during the re-entry period. We find that the low solar activity nightside ionosphere shows evidence of significant day-to-night plasma transport.

  18. Evidence for Day-to-Night Ion Transport at Low Solar Activity in the Venus Pre-Dawn Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brannon, J. F.; Fox, J. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    Periapsis of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft dropped below 180 km on August 28, 1992 near midnight, and 42 orbits of low altitude data at moderately low solar activity in the pre-dawn sector were obtained before contact was lost to the spacecraft in October, 1992. Through a combination of analysis of data from the PV orbiter ion mass spectrometer (OIMS) and modeling, we consider here what can be learned about the relative importance of plasma transport from the dayside and electron precipitation in maintaining the nightside ionosphere during the re-entry period. In particular, we examine here the atomic ion density profiles. We compute the average peak density of O(+) as a function of solar zenith angle and determine what fluxes of atomic ions or precipitating electrons would be necessary to produce those values. We then compare model calculations of the ion densities to those observed during the re-entry period. We find that the low solar activity nightside ionosphere shows evidence of significant day-to-night plasma transport.

  19. An Inquiry-Based Vision Science Activity for Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Research Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, N. M.; Maness, H. L.; Rossi, E. A.; Hunter, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The vision science activity was originally designed for the 2007 Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Summer School. Participants were graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and professionals studying the basics of adaptive optics. The majority were working in fields outside vision science, mainly astronomy and engineering. The primary goal of the activity was to give participants first-hand experience with the use of a wavefront sensor designed for clinical measurement of the aberrations of the human eye and to demonstrate how the resulting wavefront data generated from these measurements can be used to assess optical quality. A secondary goal was to examine the role wavefront measurements play in the investigation of vision-related scientific questions. In 2008, the activity was expanded to include a new section emphasizing defocus and astigmatism and vision testing/correction in a broad sense. As many of the participants were future post-secondary educators, a final goal of the activity was to highlight the inquiry-based approach as a distinct and effective alternative to traditional laboratory exercises. Participants worked in groups throughout the activity and formative assessment by a facilitator (instructor) was used to ensure that participants made progress toward the content goals. At the close of the activity, participants gave short presentations about their work to the whole group, the major points of which were referenced in a facilitator-led synthesis lecture. We discuss highlights and limitations of the vision science activity in its current format (2008 and 2009 summer schools) and make recommendations for its improvement and adaptation to different audiences.

  20. Pleiades Visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  1. Poor Vision, Functioning, and Depressive Symptoms: A Test of the Activity Restriction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila; Lawson, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the applicability of the activity restriction model of depressed affect to the context of poor vision in late life. This model hypothesizes that late-life stressors contribute to poorer mental health not only directly but also indirectly by restricting routine everyday functioning. Method: We used data from a national…

  2. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  3. GLOBE at Night in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongfeng

    2015-03-01

    The GLOBE at Night citizen-science campaign was introduced in China in 2010. Observations and works made by students are presented. The students were guided to participate in this meaningful international activity by 1) taking light pollution observations of the night sky at different locations, 2) becoming aware of the severity of the effects of light pollution, and 3) making the whole society aware of the importance to save energy by reducing light pollution.

  4. Time variability of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kleer, Katherine; de Pater, Imke

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is a dynamic target, exhibiting extreme and time-variable volcanic activity powered by tidal forcing from Jupiter. We have conducted a campaign of high-cadence observations of Io with the goal of characterizing its volcanic activity. Between Aug 2013 and the end of 2015, we imaged Io on 100 nights in the near-infrared with adaptive optics on the Keck and Gemini N telescopes, which resolve emission from individual volcanic hot spots. During our program, we made over 400 detections of 48 distinct hot spots, some of which were detected 30+ times. We use these observations to derive a timeline of global volcanic activity on Io, which exhibits wide variability from month to month. The timelines of thermal activity at individual volcanic centers have geophysical implications, and will permit future characterization by others. We evaluate hot spot detection limits and give a simple parameterization of the minimum detectable intensity as a function of emission angle, which can be applied to other analyses. We detected three outburst eruptions in August 2013, but no other outburst-scale events were observed in the subsequent ∼90 observations. Either the cluster of events in August 2013 was a rare occurrence, or there is a mechanism causing large events to occur closely-spaced in time. We also detected large eruptions (though not of outburst scale) within days of one another at Kurdalagon Patera and Sethlaus/Gabija Paterae in 2015. As was also seen in the Galileo dataset, the hot spots we detected can be separated into two categories based on their thermal emission: those that are persistently active for 1 year or more at moderate intensity, and those that are only briefly active, are time-variable, and often reach large intensities. A small number of hot spots in the latter category appear and subside in a matter of days, reaching particularly high intensities; although these are not bright enough to qualify as outbursts, their thermal signatures follow

  5. Reduction of computational complexity in the image/video understanding systems with active vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2003-10-01

    The vision system evolved not only as a recognition system, but also as a sensory system for reaching, grasping and other motion activities. In advanced creatures, it became a component of prediction function, allowing creation of environmental models and activity planning. Fast information processing and decision making is vital for any living creature, and requires reduction of informational and computational complexities. The brain achieves this goal using symbolic coding, hierarchical compression, and selective processing of visual information. Network-Symbolic representation, where both systematic structural / logical methods and neural / statistical methods are the parts of a single mechanism, is the most feasible for such models. It converts visual information into the relational Network-Symbolic structures, instead of precise computations of a 3-dimensional models. Narrow foveal vision provides separation of figure from ground, object identification, semantic analysis, and precise control of actions. Rough wide peripheral vision identifies and tracks salient motion, guiding foveal system to salient objects. It also provides scene context. Objects with rigid bodies and other stable systems have coherent relational structures. Hierarchical compression and Network-Symbolic transformations derive more abstract structures that allow invariably recognize a particular structure as an exemplar of class. Robotic systems equipped with such smart vision will be able effectively navigate in any environment, understand situation, and act accordingly.

  6. Disability Awareness Night[TM]: 2006 Honorees, Sponsors, Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the 2006 honorees, sponsors, and teams for the Disability Awareness Night[TM]. Disability Awareness Night[TM] is a unique and powerful community outreach program. Its vision is to continue to raise awareness outside of the community of individuals with disabilities to continue the goal that this program will open doors to…

  7. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  8. Night Spectra Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)

  9. Night terrors. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    PubMed

    Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D

    1980-12-01

    The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors. PMID:7447622

  10. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  11. Adnyamathanha Night Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnow, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Aboriginal Australians have been viewing the night skies of Australia for some 45,000 years and possibly much longer. During this time they have been able to develop a complex knowledge of the night sky, the terrestrial environment in addition to seasonal changes. However, few of us in contemporary society have an in-depth knowledge of the nightly waltz of stars above.

  12. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  13. Low Vision Bicycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.

    1992-01-01

    This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

  14. Design and control of active vision based mechanisms for intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liwei; Marefat, Michael M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a design of an active vision system for intelligent robot application purposes. The system has the degrees of freedom of pan, tilt, vergence, camera height adjustment, and baseline adjustment with a hierarchical control system structure. Based on this vision system, we discuss two problems involved in the binocular gaze stabilization process: fixation point selection and vergence disparity extraction. A hierarchical approach to determining point of fixation from potential gaze targets using evaluation function representing human visual behavior to outside stimuli is suggested. We also characterize different visual tasks in two cameras for vergence control purposes, and a phase-based method based on binarized images to extract vergence disparity for vergence control is presented. A control algorithm for vergence control is discussed.

  15. Retinal Structures and Visual Cortex Activity are Impaired Prior to Clinical Vision Loss in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Matthew C; Conner, Ian P; Teng, Cindy Y; Lawrence, Jesse D; Safiullah, Zaid; Wang, Bo; Bilonick, Richard A; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Chan, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we measured the structure, metabolism and function of the visual system by optical coherence tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients with different degrees of vision loss. We found that inner retinal layer thinning, optic nerve cupping and reduced visual cortex activity occurred before patients showed visual field impairment. The primary visual cortex also exhibited more severe functional deficits than higher-order visual brain areas in glaucoma. Within the visual cortex, choline metabolism was perturbed along with increasing disease severity in the eye, optic radiation and visual field. In summary, this study showed evidence that glaucoma deterioration is already present in the eye and the brain before substantial vision loss can be detected clinically using current testing methods. In addition, cortical cholinergic abnormalities are involved during trans-neuronal degeneration and can be detected non-invasively in glaucoma. The current results can be of impact for identifying early glaucoma mechanisms, detecting and monitoring pathophysiological events and eye-brain-behavior relationships, and guiding vision preservation strategies in the visual system, which may help reduce the burden of this irreversible but preventable neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27510406

  16. Retinal Structures and Visual Cortex Activity are Impaired Prior to Clinical Vision Loss in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew C.; Conner, Ian P.; Teng, Cindy Y.; Lawrence, Jesse D.; Safiullah, Zaid; Wang, Bo; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we measured the structure, metabolism and function of the visual system by optical coherence tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients with different degrees of vision loss. We found that inner retinal layer thinning, optic nerve cupping and reduced visual cortex activity occurred before patients showed visual field impairment. The primary visual cortex also exhibited more severe functional deficits than higher-order visual brain areas in glaucoma. Within the visual cortex, choline metabolism was perturbed along with increasing disease severity in the eye, optic radiation and visual field. In summary, this study showed evidence that glaucoma deterioration is already present in the eye and the brain before substantial vision loss can be detected clinically using current testing methods. In addition, cortical cholinergic abnormalities are involved during trans-neuronal degeneration and can be detected non-invasively in glaucoma. The current results can be of impact for identifying early glaucoma mechanisms, detecting and monitoring pathophysiological events and eye-brain-behavior relationships, and guiding vision preservation strategies in the visual system, which may help reduce the burden of this irreversible but preventable neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27510406

  17. Light at Night - The Latest Science

    SciTech Connect

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2010-10-04

    Discussions about possible health implications of exposure to light at night run the gamut, but given the available research, should any changes be made to currently recommended lighting practices? A panel of leading experts was assembled to explore what today's science can tell us about light at night. While it remains unproven that typical exposures to outdoor lighting have negative health impacts, this cannot be ruled out without more data and a standard metric for quantifying the relevant light exposures. LED technology holds tremendous potential for energy savings, but it is not yet clear whether its spectral characteristics will offer advantages over other light sources in terms of vision and circadian entrainment.

  18. Forward-looking activities: incorporating citizens' visions: A critical analysis of the CIVISTI method.

    PubMed

    Gudowsky, Niklas; Peissl, Walter; Sotoudeh, Mahshid; Bechtold, Ulrike

    2012-11-01

    Looking back on the many prophets who tried to predict the future as if it were predetermined, at first sight any forward-looking activity is reminiscent of making predictions with a crystal ball. In contrast to fortune tellers, today's exercises do not predict, but try to show different paths that an open future could take. A key motivation to undertake forward-looking activities is broadening the information basis for decision-makers to help them actively shape the future in a desired way. Experts, laypeople, or stakeholders may have different sets of values and priorities with regard to pending decisions on any issue related to the future. Therefore, considering and incorporating their views can, in the best case scenario, lead to more robust decisions and strategies. However, transferring this plurality into a form that decision-makers can consider is a challenge in terms of both design and facilitation of participatory processes. In this paper, we will introduce and critically assess a new qualitative method for forward-looking activities, namely CIVISTI (Citizen Visions on Science, Technology and Innovation; www.civisti.org), which was developed during an EU project of the same name. Focussing strongly on participation, with clear roles for citizens and experts, the method combines expert, stakeholder and lay knowledge to elaborate recommendations for decision-making in issues related to today's and tomorrow's science, technology and innovation. Consisting of three steps, the process starts with citizens' visions of a future 30-40 years from now. Experts then translate these visions into practical recommendations which the same citizens then validate and prioritise to produce a final product. The following paper will highlight the added value as well as limits of the CIVISTI method and will illustrate potential for the improvement of future processes. PMID:23204998

  19. Effectiveness of the anaesthetic MS-222 in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata: effect of feeding time and day-night variations in plasma MS-222 concentration and GST activity.

    PubMed

    Vera, L M; Montoya, A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2013-02-17

    Feeding time is a potent zeitgeber capable of synchronising behavioural and physiological daily rhythms in fish. However, the effect of feeding time on the daily rhythm of drugs toxicity and/or effectiveness remains unexplored to date. In this paper we investigated the day/night variations in the effectiveness of an anaesthetic commonly used in fish (Tricaine, MS-222) in a teleost of great chronobiological and aquaculture interest (gilthead seabream). To this end, fish were kept under LD 12:12 and fed at mid-light (ML), mid-darkness (MD) or random times (RD). The time needed to induce anaesthesia (reduction of locomotor activity) during MS-222 exposure (65 mg/L) as well as the recovery period were investigated at ML and MD in the three experimental groups using specialised video tracking software. In addition, daily rhythms of GST activity in the liver (as an indicator of detoxification processes) and plasma MS-222 concentration (related to uptake) were determined. The results revealed that MS-222 effectiveness in the ML group was higher during the day than at night (significant reduction of activity after 3 min vs. 5 min) whereas in the MD group, the daily variation of MS-222 effectiveness was inverted (significant reduction of activity after 7 min at ML vs. 2 min at MD), suggesting that feeding time can shift the day-night variations in the effectiveness of MS-222. Hepatic GST also seemed to be affected by feeding time: in fish fed at MD or RD this enzyme activity showed significant differences during the day, and the highest levels were found at different times of the day in each group. Plasma MS-222 concentrations were higher at ML (142.4±12.8 ng/ml) than at MD (96.3±10.9 ng/ml) (t-Student, p<0.05). These results suggest that the daily variation in MS-222 concentration following exposure might be involved, among other factors, in the existence of day-night variations in the effectiveness of this anaesthetic. Furthermore, manipulation of the feeding schedule

  20. Defining filled and empty space: reassessing the filled space illusion for active touch and vision.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    In the filled space illusion, an extent filled with gratings is estimated as longer than an equivalent extent that is apparently empty. However, researchers do not seem to have carefully considered the terms filled and empty when describing this illusion. Specifically, for active touch, smooth, solid surfaces have typically been used to represent empty space. Thus, it is not known whether comparing gratings to truly empty space (air) during active exploration by touch elicits the same illusionary effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, gratings were estimated as longer if they were compared to smooth, solid surfaces rather than being compared to truly empty space. Consistent with this, Experiment 3 showed that empty space was perceived as longer than solid surfaces when the two were compared directly. Together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that, for touch, the standard filled space illusion only occurs if gratings are compared to smooth, solid surfaces and that it may reverse if gratings are compared to empty space. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that gratings were estimated as longer than both solid and empty extents in vision, so the direction of the filled space illusion in vision was not affected by the nature of the comparator. These results are discussed in relation to the dual nature of active touch. PMID:27233286

  1. An Active Vision Approach to Understanding and Improving Visual Training in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, J.; Tarduno, J. A.; Jacobs, R. A.; Pelz, J. B.; Rosen, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Experience in the field is a fundamental aspect of geologic training, and its effectiveness is largely unchallenged because of anecdotal evidence of its success among expert geologists. However, there have been only a few quantitative studies based on large data collection efforts to investigate how Earth Scientists learn in the field. In a recent collaboration between Earth scientists, Cognitive scientists and experts in Imaging science at the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology, we are investigating such a study. Within Cognitive Science, one school of thought, referred to as the Active Vision approach, emphasizes that visual perception is an active process requiring us to move our eyes to acquire new information about our environment. The Active Vision approach indicates the perceptual skills which experts possess and which novices will need to acquire to achieve expert performance. We describe data collection efforts using portable eye-trackers to assess how novice and expert geologists acquire visual knowledge in the field. We also discuss our efforts to collect images for use in a semi-immersive classroom environment, useful for further testing of novices and experts using eye-tracking technologies.

  2. Abundance and nightly activity behavior of a sylvan population of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from the Yucatan, México.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Escobedo-Ortegón, Javier; Balam-Briceño, Paola; May-Concha, Irving

    2009-12-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP). Earlier studies have shown that domestic and peri-domestic populations of the vector originated from the sylvan stock and that effectiveness of insecticide-spraying was affected by re-infestations of houses from the sylvan T. dimidiata population. In addition, in the YP most previously published reports have focused on domestic and peri-domestic populations and very little is known about the nocturnal behavior of the sylvan populations. The main aim of our study was to determine the nightly activity patterns of adult T. dimidiata in a selected location in the YP. Secondly, we sought to document the reproductive status and infection rate of active females. During eight sampling nights spaced from late March to late July, 2007, we collected 544 adult T. dimidiata. We found that square-cloth illuminated white traps were effective to attract the sylvan individuals and that T. dimidiata adults exhibited a unimodal activity pattern throughout the night. The accumulated mean of captured bugs also showed a non-linear distribution for females and males. Furthermore, we found that male and female catches were significantly correlated with the means of temperature and humidity recorded during the sampling period. Out of 46 dissected females, we observed that 43.5% of females had fully-formed eggs in their abdomens, and only two females (4.4%) had sperm within the spermatheca. The infection rate of T. dimidiata harboring T. cruzi was found to be 3.7%. The implications of the light attraction to bugs and potential dispersal capabilities are discussed in the paper in the context of infestation/re-infestation of rural houses by sylvan T. dimidiata flying adults. PMID:20836833

  3. Altered Vision-Related Resting-State Activity in Pituitary Adenoma Patients with Visual Damage

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Haiyan; Wang, Xingchao; Wang, Zhongyan; Wang, Zhenmin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes of vision-related resting-state activity in pituitary adenoma (PA) patients with visual damage through comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Methods 25 PA patients with visual damage and 25 age- and sex-matched corrected-to-normal-vision HCs underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, including automated perimetry, fundus examinations, and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, including structural and resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) sequences. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the vision-related cortex and the functional connectivity (FC) of 6 seeds within the visual cortex (the primary visual cortex (V1), the secondary visual cortex (V2), and the middle temporal visual cortex (MT+)) were evaluated. Two-sample t-tests were conducted to identify the differences between the two groups. Results Compared with the HCs, the PA group exhibited reduced ReHo in the bilateral V1, V2, V3, fusiform, MT+, BA37, thalamus, postcentral gyrus and left precentral gyrus and increased ReHo in the precuneus, prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and putamen. Compared with the HCs, V1, V2, and MT+ in the PAs exhibited decreased FC with the V1, V2, MT+, fusiform, BA37, and increased FC primarily in the bilateral temporal lobe (especially BA20,21,22), prefrontal cortex, PCC, insular, angular gyrus, ACC, pre-SMA, SMG, hippocampal formation, caudate and putamen. It is worth mentioning that compared with HCs, V1 in PAs exhibited decreased or similar FC with the thalamus, whereas V2 and MT+ exhibited increased FCs with the thalamus, especially pulvinar. Conclusions In our study, we identified significant neural reorganization in the vision-related cortex of PA patients with visual damage compared with HCs. Most subareas within the visual cortex exhibited remarkable neural dysfunction. Some subareas, including the MT+ and V2, exhibited enhanced FC with the thalamic

  4. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  5. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  6. Auroral activities observed by SNPP VIIRS day/night band during a long period geomagnetic storm event on April 29-30, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Liu, Tung-chang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wenhui; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-10-01

    The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance that can span 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. When the satellite passes through the day-night terminator, the DNB sensor is affected by stray light due to solar illumination on the instrument. With the implementation of stray light correction, stray light-corrected DNB images enable the observation of aurora occurred in the high latitude regions during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, DNB observations of auroral activities are analyzed during a long period (> 20 hours) of geomagnetic storm event occurred on Apr. 29-30, 2014. The storm event has the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) pointing southward for more than 20 hours. During this event, the geomagnetic storm index Dst reached -67 nT and the geomagnetic auroral electrojet (AE) index increased and reached as high as 1200 nT with large amplitude fluctuations. The event occurred during new moon period and DNB observation has minimum moon light contamination. During this event, auroras are observed by DNB for each orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in the southern hemisphere. DNB radiance data are processed to identify regions of aurora during each orbital pass. The evolution of aurora is characterized with time series of the poleward and equatorward boundary of aurora, area, peak radiance and total light emission of the aurora in DNB observation. These characteristic parameters are correlated with solar wind and geomagnetic index parameters. It is found that the evolution of total area-integrated radiance of auroral region over the southern hemisphere correlated well with the ground geomagnetic AE index with correlation

  7. Space Shuttle night landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenstein, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    The tracking and guidance requirements of the Indian National Satellite during its transition from the low-earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit dictated a night launch and subsequent night landing. The development of an Orbiter-independent external lighting system (ELS) that would work in conjunction with the Orbiter navigation, guidance, and control systems used for day approach and landing is described. The ELS includes the night landing visual aids; the heading alignment circle precision approach path indicator lights, as an aid for the outer glide slope; the runway floodlight, to accommodate for the transition area between preflare and intercepting inner glide slope (IGS) system; the ball/bar reference IGS system; and heads-up displays. The aspects of the lakebed dust problems are discussed. Diagrams illustrating the approach trajectory, final night-lighting configurations, and the approach and land symbology are included.

  8. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  9. Night Pass over Malaysia

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video showing night lights over Malaysia was taken by the crew of Expedition 28 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Aug. 21, 2011, from 19:33:05 to 19:3...

  10. Ascertaining Human Identity in Night Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourlai, T.; Kalka, N.; Cao, D.; Decann, B.; Jafri, Z.; Nicolo, F.; Whitelam, C.; Zuo, J.; Adjeroh, D.; Cukic, B.; Dawson, J.; Hornak, L.; Ross, A.; Schmid, N. A.

    Understanding patterns of human activity from the fusion of multimodal sensor surveillance sources is an important capability. Most related research emphasizes improvement in the performance of biometric systems in controlled conditions characterized by suitable lighting and favorable acquisition distances. However, the need for monitoring humans in night environments is of equal if not greater importance. This chapter will present techniques for the extraction, processing and matching of biometrics under adverse night conditions in the presence of either natural or artificial illumination. Our work includes capture, analysis and evaluation of a broad range of electromagnetic bands suitable for night-time image acquisition, including visible light, near infrared (IR), extended near IR and thermal IR. We develop algorithms for human detection and tracking from night-time imagery at ranges between 5 and 200 meters. Identification algorithms include face, iris, and gait recognition, supplemented by soft biometric features. Our preliminary research indicates the challenges in performing human identification in night-time environments.

  11. Day-night differences in neural activation in histaminergic and serotonergic areas with putative projections to the cerebrospinal fluid in a diurnal brain.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Ruiz, A; Gall, A J; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    2013-10-10

    In nocturnal rodents, brain areas that promote wakefulness have a circadian pattern of neural activation that mirrors the sleep/wake cycle, with more neural activation during the active phase than during the rest phase. To investigate whether differences in temporal patterns of neural activity in wake-promoting regions contribute to differences in daily patterns of wakefulness between nocturnal and diurnal species, we assessed Fos expression patterns in the tuberomammillary (TMM), supramammillary (SUM), and raphe nuclei of male grass rats maintained in a 12:12 h light-dark cycle. Day-night profiles of Fos expression were observed in the ventral and dorsal TMM, in the SUM, and in specific subpopulations of the raphe, including serotonergic cells, with higher Fos expression during the day than during the night. Next, to explore whether the cerebrospinal fluid is an avenue used by the TMM and raphe in the regulation of target areas, we injected the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) into the ventricular system of male grass rats. While CTB labeling was scarce in the TMM and other hypothalamic areas including the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which contains the main circadian pacemaker, a dense cluster of CTB-positive neurons was evident in the caudal dorsal raphe, and the majority of these neurons appeared to be serotonergic. Since these findings are in agreement with reports for nocturnal rodents, our results suggest that the evolution of diurnality did not involve a change in the overall distribution of neuronal connections between systems that support wakefulness and their target areas, but produced a complete temporal reversal in the functioning of those systems. PMID:23867764

  12. A vision system planner for increasing the autonomy of the Extravehicular Activity Helper/Retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) is a robotic device currently being developed by the Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to support activities in the neighborhood of the Space Shuttle or Space Station Freedom. As the name implies, the Retriever's primary function will be to provide the capability to retrieve tools and equipment or other objects which have become detached from the spacecraft, but it will also be able to rescue a crew member who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. Later goals will include cooperative operations between a crew member and the Retriever such as fetching a tool that is required for servicing or maintenance operations. This paper documents a preliminary design for a Vision System Planner (VSP) for the EVAR that is capable of achieving visual objectives provided to it by a high level task planner. Typical commands which the task planner might issue to the VSP relate to object recognition, object location determination, and obstacle detection. Upon receiving a command from the task planner, the VSP then plans a sequence of actions to achieve the specified objective using a model-based reasoning approach. This sequence may involve choosing an appropriate sensor, selecting an algorithm to process the data, reorienting the sensor, adjusting the effective resolution of the image using lens zooming capability, and/or requesting the task planner to reposition the EVAR to obtain a different view of the object. An initial version of the Vision System Planner which realizes the above capabilities using simulated images has been implemented and tested. The remaining sections describe the architecture and capabilities of the VSP and its relationship to the high level task planner. In addition, typical plans that are generated to achieve visual goals for various scenarios are discussed. Specific topics to be addressed will include object search strategies, repositioning of the EVAR to improve the

  13. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black- crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85- fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r super(2) often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah- active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  14. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  15. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... which nothing can be seen) Vision loss and blindness are the most severe vision problems. Causes Vision ... that look faded. The most common cause of blindness in people over age 60. Eye infection, inflammation, ...

  16. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  17. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  18. Night cough and general practice research

    PubMed Central

    Toop, L.J.; Howie, J.G.R.; Paxton, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four children, aged between three and nine years, presenting with nocturnal cough, were studied on successive nights using an automatic voice activated tape recorder system. Children with a family history of atopy coughed significantly more than children without such a family history. A wide variation in cough frequency was found both between and within subjects. No effects of treatment on cough frequency were demonstrated. Some of the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying night cough are discussed. PMID:3712337

  19. 2005 Disability Awareness Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The mission of Disability Awareness Night is to expand awareness of the 54 million Americans with disabilities, by highlighting their extraordinary achievements and the perseverance and dedication of the families, caregivers, physicians, nurses, therapists and teachers involved in their care and development. The presentation of the EP Maxwell…

  20. "Twelfth Night" for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Lois; Coburn, Christine

    Aimed at primary-age children, this book brings William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" to them, recognizing that children, properly guided, will take to Shakespeare's characters and stories like "ducks to water"; in the process they find their inner voices, they collaborate, they improvise, and they communicate. Illustrated with pictures, letters,…

  1. A night sky model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  2. Posterior Parietal Cortex Drives Inferotemporal Activations During Three-Dimensional Object Vision

    PubMed Central

    Van Dromme, Ilse C.; Premereur, Elsie; Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The primate visual system consists of a ventral stream, specialized for object recognition, and a dorsal visual stream, which is crucial for spatial vision and actions. However, little is known about the interactions and information flow between these two streams. We investigated these interactions within the network processing three-dimensional (3D) object information, comprising both the dorsal and ventral stream. Reversible inactivation of the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reduced fMRI activations in posterior parietal cortex in the dorsal stream and, surprisingly, also in the inferotemporal cortex (ITC) in the ventral visual stream. Moreover, CIP inactivation caused a perceptual deficit in a depth-structure categorization task. CIP-microstimulation during fMRI further suggests that CIP projects via posterior parietal areas to the ITC in the ventral stream. To our knowledge, these results provide the first causal evidence for the flow of visual 3D information from the dorsal stream to the ventral stream, and identify CIP as a key area for depth-structure processing. Thus, combining reversible inactivation and electrical microstimulation during fMRI provides a detailed view of the functional interactions between the two visual processing streams. PMID:27082854

  3. Overview of passive and active vision techniques for hand-held 3D data acquistion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mada, Sreenivasa K.; Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.; Midha, Prema S.

    2003-03-01

    The digitization of the 3D shape of real objects is a rapidly expanding discipline, with a wide variety of applications, including shape acquisition, inspection, reverse engineering, gauging and robot navigation. Developments in computer product design techniques, automated production, and the need for close manufacturing tolerances will be facts of life for the foreseeable future. A growing need exists for fast, accurate, portable, non-contact 3D sensors. However, in order for 3D scanning to become more commonplace, new methods are needed for easily, quickly and robustly acquiring accurate full geometric models of complex objects using low cost technology. In this paper, a brief survey is presented of current scanning technologies available for acquiring range data. An overview is provided of current 3D-shape acquisition using both active and passive vision techniques. Each technique is explained in terms of its configuration, principle of operation, and the inherent advantages and limitations. A separate section then focuses on the implications of scannerless scanning for hand held technology, after which the current status of 3D acquisition using handheld technology, together with related issues concerning implementation, is considered more fully. Finally, conclusions for further developments in handheld devices are discussed. This paper may be of particular benefit to new comers in this field.

  4. Lambda Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  5. Monooxygenase activity of black-crowned night-heron (BCNH) nestlings in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate cytochrome P-450 related parameters as biomarkers of pollutant exposure, rates of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) were studied in 10-day-old BCNHs (Nycticorax nycticorax). Nestlings were collected from Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA ('controls') and from polluted sites including. Cat Island, Green Bay, WI, and Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA. Livers were frozen (-70.C) for monooxygenase assays and SDS-PAGE. Microsomal AHH and BROD activities were greater (P2 standard deviations from the control mean (induced up to 3-fold). EROD, PROD and ECOD did not differ among sites. Absence of an EROD response with AHH and BROD induction in BCNHs is different than responses in other species. The association of pollutant burdens with P-450 parameters is being studied. These biomarkers may serve as a rapid screen of exposure in a national contaminant biomonitoring program and other assessment activities.

  6. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  7. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  8. Exercise for People with Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be a Partner Exercise for People with Low Vision People with low vision can be active in many ways! Before you ... your orientation. Learn more about living with low vision from the National Eye Institute on NIH . Find ...

  9. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  10. Emergency/Night Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    UDEC's highly efficient lighting system is finding wide acceptance among industrial and commercial firms as an energy savings means of providing emergency and night lighting. Originating from Skylab, the system consists of small high frequency fluorescent light fixtures powered by solar cells. Advantages of UDEC's lighting system stem from high reliability and high light output with very low energy drain. Principal components of system are long life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed gelatine cell battery that needs no maintenance for eight years and a solid-state automatic battery charger. Installation of UDEC lighting in a company's six-and-a-half acre warehouse office cut the annual night lighting electric bill from $8,000 a year to $300 per year.

  11. Active vision and image/video understanding with decision structures based on the network-symbolic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2003-08-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. The ability of human brain to emulate knowledge structures in the form of networks-symbolic models is found. And that means an important shift of paradigm in our knowledge about brain from neural networks to "cortical software". Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such active multilevel hierarchical networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type decision structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Mid-level vision processes like clustering, perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of graph/network transformations. They convert low-level image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models works similar to frames and agents, combines learning, classification, analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework. Such models do not require supercomputers. Based on such principles, and using methods of Computational intelligence, an Image Understanding system can convert images into the network-symbolic knowledge models, and effectively resolve uncertainty and ambiguity, providing unifying representation for perception and cognition. That allows creating new intelligent computer vision systems for robotic and defense industries.

  12. Limulus vision in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Barlow, R B; Hitt, J M; Dodge, F A

    2001-04-01

    Horseshoe crabs use vision to find mates. They can reliably detect objects resembling potential mates under a variety of lighting conditions. To understand how they achieve this remarkable performance, we constructed a cell based realistic model of the lateral eye to compute the ensembles of optic nerve activity ("neural images") it transmits to the brain. The neural images reveal a robust encocding of mate-like objects that move underwater during the day. The neural images are much less clear at night, even though the eyes undergo large circadian increases of sensitivity that nearly compensate for the millionfold decreasein underwater lighting after sundown. At night the neurral images are noisy, dominated by bursts of nerve impulses from random photon events that occur at low nighttime levels of illumination. Deciphering the eye's input to the brain begins at the first synaptic level with lowpass temporal and spatial filtering. Both neural filtering mechanisms improve the signal-to-noise properties of the eye's input, yielding clearer neural images of potential mates, especiallyat night. Insights about visual processing by the relatively simple visual system of Limulus may aid in the designof robotic sensors for the marine environment. PMID:11341579

  13. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  14. Day, night and all-weather security surveillance automation synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnson, Andrew; Johnston, Chris; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2006-07-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, night-time and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics. (authors)

  15. Active vision system for planning and programming of industrial robots in one-of-a-kind manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Schmidt, Achim

    1995-10-01

    The aspects of automation technology in industrial one-of-a-kind manufacturing are discussed. An approach to improve the quality and cost relation is developed and an overview of an 3D- vision supported automation system is given. This system is based on an active vision sensor for 3D-geometry feedback. Its measurement principle, the coded light approach, is explained. The experimental environment for the technical validation of the automation approach is demonstrated, where robot based processes (assembly, arc welding and flame cutting) are graphically simulated and off-line programmed. A typical process sequence for automated one- of-a-kind manufacturing is described. The results of this research development are applied to a project on the automated disassembling of car parts for recycling using industrial robots.

  16. Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cases of Low Vision (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ... Cases of Low Vision (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2000 U.S. Prevalent ...

  17. Night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate results in increased morning resting energy expenditure in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Madzima, Takudzwa A; Panton, Lynn B; Fretti, Sarah K; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether whey protein (WP), casein protein (CP), carbohydrate (CHO) or a non-energy-containing placebo (PLA) consumed before sleep alters morning appetite and resting energy expenditure (REE) in active men. A total of eleven men (age: 23·6 (sem 1·0) years; body fat: 16·3 (sem 2·5) %) participated in this randomised, double-blind, cross-over study. A single dose of WP (30 g), CP (30 g), CHO (33 g) or PLA was consumed 30 min before sleep, and each trial was separated by 48-72 h. The next morning (05.00-08.00 hours), measurements of satiety, hunger and desire to eat and REE were taken. After a 30 min equilibration period, REE in the supine position was measured for 60 min. An analysis of 10 min mean intervals over the final 50 min of the measurement period was conducted. Statistical analyses were conducted using repeated-measures ANOVA for metabolic variables, and a one-way ANOVA was used for measuring changes in appetite markers. Group differences were examined by Tukey's post hoc analysis. There were no significant differences in appetite measures among the groups. There was a main group effect for REE. The predicted REE was significantly greater after consumption of the WP (8151 (sem 67) kJ/d), CP (8126 (sem 67) kJ/d) and CHO (7988 (sem 67) kJ/d) than after that of the PLA (7716 (sem 67) kJ/d, P <0·0001). There were no significant differences between the WP and CP groups in any metabolic measurements. Night-time consumption of WP, CP or CHO, in the hours close to sleep, elicits favourable effects on the next-morning metabolism when compared with that of a PLA in active young men. PMID:23768612

  18. GARGOYLE: An environment for real-time, context-sensitive active vision

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopowicz, P.N.; Swain, M.J.; Firby, R.J.; Kahn, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Researchers in robot vision have access to several excellent image processing packages (e.g., Khoros, Vista, Susan, MIL, and X Vision to name only a few) as a base for any new vision software needed in most navigation and recognition tasks. Our work in automonous robot control and human-robot interaction, however, has demanded a new level of run-time flexibility and performance: on-the-fly configuration of visual routines that exploit up-to-the-second context from the task, image, and environment. The result is Gargoyle: an extendible, on-board, real-time vision software package that allows a robot to configure, parameterize, and execute image-processing pipelines at run-time. Each operator in a pipeline works at a level of resolution and over regions of interest that are computed by upstream operators or set by the robot according to task constraints. Pipeline configurations and operator parameters can be stored as a library of visual methods appropriate for different sensing tasks and environmental conditions. Beyond this, a robot may reason about the current task and environmental constraints to construct novel visual routines that are too specialized to work under general conditions, but that are well-suited to the immediate environment and task. We use the RAP reactive plan-execution system to select and configure pre-compiled processing pipelines, and to modify them for specific constraints determined at run-time.

  19. Lidar multi-range integrated Dewar assembly (IDA) for active-optical vision navigation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayner, Philip; Clemet, Ed; Asbrock, Jim; Chen, Isabel; Getty, Jonathan; Malone, Neil; De Loo, John; Giroux, Mark

    2013-09-01

    A multi-range focal plane was developed and delivered by Raytheon Vision Systems for a docking system that was demonstrated on STS-134. This required state of the art focal plane and electronics synchronization to capture nanosecond length laser pulses to determine ranges with an accuracy of less than 1 inch.

  20. Tempel Fades into Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Quick Time Movie for PIA02140 Tempel Fades into Night

    This movie is made up of images taken by Deep Impact's flyby spacecraft after it turned around to capture last shots of a receding comet Tempel 1. Earlier, the mission's probe had smashed into the surface of Tempel 1, kicking up the fan-shaped plume of dust seen here behind the comet. These pictures were taken by the flyby craft's high-resolution camera over a period beginning 50 minutes after impact, and ending about 12 hours after impact. Impact occurred at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3, 2005.

  1. Kaurna Night Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnow, Paul

    2006-06-01

    Before Europeans first came to colonise the Adelaide Plains in 1836, the night skies would have been truly dark by today's standards. There was no street lighting, no security lighting and no industrial pollution to obscure the view of our galaxy. However, within a short period of time of just over 150 years we have managed to create a large metropolis of approximately 1 million people with industries, communities and lots of street lighting. Although, Adelaide's skies are still quite good by world standards this light pollution has managed to obscure the faint light, which has often been travelling for aeons from reaching the Earth and the Adelaide Plains.

  2. Comparative randomised active drug controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop in computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab Kr; Bairagi, Debasis; Roy, Sudipta; Majumder, Nilay Kr; Paul, Ratish Ch; Bagchi, Sunil Ch

    2005-07-01

    A comparative double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a herbal eye drop (itone) was conducted to find out its efficacy and safety in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computers for more than 3 hours continuously per day having symptoms of watering, redness, asthenia, irritation, foreign body sensation and signs of conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal filaments and mucus were studied. One hundred and twenty patients were randomly given either placebo, tears substitute (tears plus) or itone in identical vials with specific code number and were instructed to put one drop four times daily for 6 weeks. Subjective and objective assessments were done at bi-weekly intervals. In computer vision syndrome both subjective and objective improvements were noticed with itone drops. Itone drop was found significantly better than placebo (p<0.01) and almost identical results were observed with tears plus (difference was not statistically significant). Itone is considered to be a useful drug in computer vision syndrome. PMID:16366195

  3. [THE METHODICAL APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSTIC OF NIGHT PAROXYSMAL HEMOGLOBINURIA].

    PubMed

    Plekhanova, O S; Naumova, E V; Lugovskaya, S A; Potchtar, M E; Bugrov, I Yu; Dolgov, V V

    2016-03-01

    The article presents diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is an orphan disease characterized by absence of GPI-anchor on blood cells as a result of mutation of PIG-A gene on the short arm of X-chromosome. The particular proteins bounded with GPI-anchor implement function of defense from activation of components of complement and development of membrane-attacking complex. The erythrocytes exposed to destruction in bloodstream are among the most impacted. Therefore, one of the main signs of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is complement-depending intravascular hemolysis which indicators for a long time played a key role in diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The actual technique of diagnostic of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria is flow cytometry. The analysis of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone is recommended to patients with hemolysis of unclear genesis, thrombosis of cerebral and abdominal veins, thrombocytopenia and macrocytosis and also patients with AA, myelodysplastic syndrome, myelofibrosis. The international protocol recommended by the International Society of Clinical Cytometry (2010) is implemented to diagnose night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. The original technique of evaluation of reticulocytes was developed with purpose to detect night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone. The high correlation was substantiated between size of night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone measured among reticulocytes according to proposed mode and night paroxysmal hemoglobinuria clone measured among granulocytes and monocytes detected according international standardized approach. PMID:27506106

  4. Night Side Jovian Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian aurora on the night side of the planet. The upper bright arc is auroral emission seen 'edge on' above the planetary limb with the darkness of space as a background. The lower bright arc is seen against the dark clouds of Jupiter. The aurora is easier to see on the night side of Jupiter because it is fainter than the clouds when they are illuminated by sunlight. Jupiter's north pole is out of view to the upper right. The images were taken in the clear filter (visible light) and are displayed in shades of blue.

    As on Earth, the auroral emission is caused by electrically charged particles striking the upper atmosphere from above. The particles travel along the magnetic field lines of the planet, but their origin is not fully understood. The field lines where the aurora is most intense cross the Jovian equator at large distances (many Jovian radii) from the planet. The faint background throughout the image is scattered light in the camera. This stray light comes from the sunlit portion of Jupiter, which is out of the image to the right. In multispectral observations the aurora appears red, consistent with glow from atomic hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo's unique perspective allows it to view the night side of the planet at short range, revealing details that cannot be seen from Earth. These detailed features are time dependent, and can be followed in sequences of Galileo images.

    North is at the top of the picture. A grid of planetocentric latitude and west longitude is overlain on the images. The images were taken on November 5, 1997 at a range of 1.3 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the

  5. Building Student Understanding of the Cause of Day and Night: A Study of Literacy- and Spatial Thinking-Integrated Activities Compared to a Commercial Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Webb, Angela Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The cause of day and night is a difficult concept to master without concrete foundational skills of understanding shadows, rotation, changing point of view, and relative positions of objects in the sky. This pretest-posttest experimental-control group study examined student learning in a science-literacy-spatial skills integrated unit with…

  6. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  7. Dead of night.

    PubMed

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience. PMID:20726184

  8. Family Literacy Night: A Celebration of Reading!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Becky; Morton, Shirley; Rumschlag, Hella

    2011-01-01

    Family Literacy Night is an exciting way to engage students and their parents in meaningful literacy activities while building community spirit and strengthening the partnership between school and home. It is an opportunity for students to show their parents what they do in school; how they create in the computer lab, how they work in the art…

  9. Invite an Alien to Astronomy Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor, Donna; Richwine, Pebble

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of inflatable aliens recently "descended" upon the authors' middle school to kick-off their first school-wide Astronomy night. With an estimated attendance of over 500, their eighth-grade students hosted over a dozen activity-rich sessions designed to entertain and educate students and their families about the wonders of the solar system…

  10. Dew Worms in the White Nights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lumbricus terrestris L. (the dew worm) forages, mates and migrates on the soil surface during the night. Its distribution covers a broad latitudinal gradient and variation in day length conditions. Since soil-surface activity is crucial for the survival and reproduction of dew worms, it is conceivab...

  11. Saturday Night Retinopathy: Characterization of a Rare Ophthalmic Condition.

    PubMed

    Peracha, Zuhair H; Ahmed, Shareef B; Desai, Ankit; Peracha-Riyaz, Manal; Kumar, Nitin; Desai, Uday R

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old, black female with a history of heroin and daily alcohol abuse presented to the emergency room in a lethargic state with severe right eye pain and vision loss. She had been unconscious for 10 hours prior to presentation. On exam she was found to have no light perception vision, severe retinal edema, and complete ophthalmoplegia of the right eye. Imaging and clinical course confirmed the diagnosis of Saturday Night Retinopathy--only the second documented case to be published. PMID:26731217

  12. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  13. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Low Vision > Low Vision FAQs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is ...

  14. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  15. Computer vision: automating DEM generation of active lava flows and domes from photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Varley, N. R.; Tuffen, H.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) form fundamental data for assessing many volcanic processes. We present a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community to produce DEMs from a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. Two case studies, based on the Volcán de Colima lava dome and the Puyehue Cordón-Caulle obsidian flow, highlight the advantages of the technique in terms of the minimal expertise required, the speed of data acquisition and the automated processing involved. The reconstruction procedure combines structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated software (e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/). SfM-MVS reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional geo-referencing software has been developed. Although this step requires the presence of some control points, the SfM-MVS approach has significantly easier image acquisition and control requirements than traditional photogrammetry, facilitating its use in a broad range of difficult environments. At Colima, the lava dome surface was reconstructed from recent and archive images taken from light aircraft over flights (2007-2011). Scaling and geo-referencing was carried out using features identified in web-sourced ortho-imagery obtained as a basemap layer in ArcMap - no ground-based measurements were required. Average surface measurement densities are typically 10-40 points per m2. Over mean viewing distances of ~500-2500 m (for different surveys), RMS error on the control features is ~1.5 m. The derived DEMs (with 1-m grid resolution) are sufficient to quantify volumetric change, as well as to highlight the structural evolution of the upper surface of the dome following an explosion in June 2011. At Puyehue Cord

  16. Dynamically re-configurable CMOS imagers for an active vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guang (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A vision system is disclosed. The system includes a pixel array, at least one multi-resolution window operation circuit, and a pixel averaging circuit. The pixel array has an array of pixels configured to receive light signals from an image having at least one tracking target. The multi-resolution window operation circuits are configured to process the image. Each of the multi-resolution window operation circuits processes each tracking target within a particular multi-resolution window. The pixel averaging circuit is configured to sample and average pixels within the particular multi-resolution window.

  17. BBC's All Night Star Party !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.

    2003-12-01

    Coinciding with the closest approach of Mars to Earth in the last 60,000 years, BBC Two had a party. The All Night Star Party, a special live Open University programme for BBC Two, took place on 23 August night and lasted for one hour and a half.

  18. Leading Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    2004-01-01

    The current educational landscape makes it imperative that a vision statement become more than a fine-sounding statement that is laminated, hung on the wall, and quickly forgotten. If educators do not have a clear image of the future they wish to create, then someone will be ready to create it for them. But with a clear vision of the future, a…

  19. Learning Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Margaret S.; And Others

    This paper describes LEARNing Visions, a K-12 intervention program for at-risk youth in Jackson County, Tennessee, involving a partnership between the schools, local businesses, Tennessee Technological University, and Visions Five (a private company). Jackson County is characterized by an undereducated population, a high employment rate, and a low…

  20. Hunting in Bioluminescent Light: Vision in the Nocturnal Box Jellyfish Copula sivickisi.

    PubMed

    Garm, Anders; Bielecki, Jan; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cubomedusae all have a similar set of six eyes on each of their four rhopalia. Still, there is a great variation in activity patterns with some species being strictly day active while others are strictly night active. Here we have examined the visual ecology of the medusa of the night active Copula sivickisi from Okinawa using optics, morphology, electrophysiology, and behavioral experiments. We found the lenses of both the upper and the lower lens eyes to be image forming but under-focused, resulting in low spatial resolution in the order of 10-15°. The photoreceptor physiology is similar in the two lens eyes and they have a single opsin peaking around 460 nm and low temporal resolution with a flicker fusion frequency (fff) of 2.5 Hz indicating adaptions to vision in low light intensities. Further, the outer segments have fluid filled swellings, which may concentrate the light in the photoreceptor membrane by total internal reflections, and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio in the eyes. Finally our behavioral experiments confirmed that the animals use vision when hunting. When they are active at night they seek out high prey-concentration by visual attraction to areas with abundant bioluminescent flashes triggered by their prey. PMID:27065877

  1. Hunting in Bioluminescent Light: Vision in the Nocturnal Box Jellyfish Copula sivickisi

    PubMed Central

    Garm, Anders; Bielecki, Jan; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cubomedusae all have a similar set of six eyes on each of their four rhopalia. Still, there is a great variation in activity patterns with some species being strictly day active while others are strictly night active. Here we have examined the visual ecology of the medusa of the night active Copula sivickisi from Okinawa using optics, morphology, electrophysiology, and behavioral experiments. We found the lenses of both the upper and the lower lens eyes to be image forming but under-focused, resulting in low spatial resolution in the order of 10–15°. The photoreceptor physiology is similar in the two lens eyes and they have a single opsin peaking around 460 nm and low temporal resolution with a flicker fusion frequency (fff) of 2.5 Hz indicating adaptions to vision in low light intensities. Further, the outer segments have fluid filled swellings, which may concentrate the light in the photoreceptor membrane by total internal reflections, and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio in the eyes. Finally our behavioral experiments confirmed that the animals use vision when hunting. When they are active at night they seek out high prey-concentration by visual attraction to areas with abundant bioluminescent flashes triggered by their prey. PMID:27065877

  2. Vision without the Image

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  3. Vision without the Image.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Perona, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Novel image sensors transduce the stream of photons directly into asynchronous electrical pulses, rather than forming an image. Classical approaches to vision start from a good quality image and therefore it is tempting to consider image reconstruction as a first step to image analysis. We propose that, instead, one should focus on the task at hand (e.g., detection, tracking or control) and design algorithms that compute the relevant variables (class, position, velocity) directly from the stream of photons. We discuss three examples of such computer vision algorithms and test them on simulated data from photon-counting sensors. Such algorithms work just-in-time, i.e., they complete classification, search and tracking with high accuracy as soon as the information is sufficient, which is typically before there are enough photons to form a high-quality image. We argue that this is particularly useful when the photons are few or expensive, e.g., in astronomy, biological imaging, surveillance and night vision. PMID:27058543

  4. Attentional selection of location and modality in vision and touch modulates low-frequency activity in associated sensory cortices

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Steffan; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention allows us to focus on particular sensory modalities and locations. Relatively little is known about how attention to a sensory modality may relate to selection of other features, such as spatial location, in terms of brain oscillations, although it has been proposed that low-frequency modulation (α- and β-bands) may be key. Here, we investigated how attention to space (left or right) and attention to modality (vision or touch) affect ongoing low-frequency oscillatory brain activity over human sensory cortex. Magnetoencephalography was recorded while participants performed a visual or tactile task. In different blocks, touch or vision was task-relevant, whereas spatial attention was cued to the left or right on each trial. Attending to one or other modality suppressed α-oscillations over the corresponding sensory cortex. Spatial attention led to reduced α-oscillations over both sensorimotor and occipital cortex contralateral to the attended location in the cue-target interval, when either modality was task-relevant. Even modality-selective sensors also showed spatial-attention effects for both modalities. The visual and sensorimotor results were generally highly convergent, yet, although attention effects in occipital cortex were dominant in the α-band, in sensorimotor cortex, these were also clearly present in the β-band. These results extend previous findings that spatial attention can operate in a multimodal fashion and indicate that attention to space and modality both rely on similar mechanisms that modulate low-frequency oscillations. PMID:22323628

  5. Objectively measured night-to-night sleep variations are associated with body composition in very elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between objectively measured sleep patterns and body composition in very elderly community-dwelling women. Participants included 191 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 years (mean age: 83.4 ± 2.6 years; age range: 80-92 years). Sleep and physical activity were monitored via accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) during at least five consecutive 24-h periods. Night-to-night sleep pattern variability across all nights of recording was assessed using standard deviations (SDs). Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. The mean number of nights with usable actigraphy data was 7.3 ± 1.3. On average, participants went to bed at 22:57 hours (SD: 1.11 h) and rose from bed at 6:27 hours (SD: 1.01 h). Night-to-night bedtime, sleep duration and sleep timing mid-point variations correlated slightly with the percentage body fat and percentage lean mass (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of night-to-night bedtime variations and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns with all body composition indices after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including mean nightly sleep duration, self-reported nap duration and daily physical activity. After further adjusting for night-to-night wake time, sleep timing mid-point and sleep duration variations, greater bedtime variability remained associated significantly with all body composition indices except lean/fat mass ratio. Inconsistent sleep-wake patterns were associated independently with an increased fat mass and decreased lean mass among very elderly women. These findings suggest that in most elderly individuals, sleep patterns might be an important modifiable factor associated with obesity and sarcopenia development. PMID:26250860

  6. Diagnosis of night blindness and serum vitamin A level: a population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, A.; Kvåle, G.; Odland, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of 5420 children in northern Bangladesh, 124 were reported to have night blindness by their parents. Of these, 105 cases along with controls matched for age, sex, and neighbourhood had their scotopic vision examined under standard condition using a luxometer, underwent an ophthalmological examination, and had their serum vitamin A level determined. The mean serum vitamin A level was lowest among children identified as night blind by both their parents and the investigators (16.3 micrograms/dl; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13.9-18.7) and highest among those identified as not night blind by both their parents and the investigators (23.6 micrograms/dl; 95% CI, 21.3-25.9). The results show that parents' report of their children's night blindness had low sensitivity compared with diagnosis using standard observations of scotopic vision with a luxometer. PMID:7554018

  7. Computational vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  8. Computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  9. Improving Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many people are familiar with the popular science fiction series Star Trek: The Next Generation, a show featuring a blind character named Geordi La Forge, whose visor-like glasses enable him to see. What many people do not know is that a product very similar to Geordi's glasses is available to assist people with vision conditions, and a NASA engineer's expertise contributed to its development. The JORDY(trademark) (Joint Optical Reflective Display) device, designed and manufactured by a privately-held medical device company known as Enhanced Vision, enables people with low vision to read, write, and watch television. Low vision, which includes macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, describes eyesight that is 20/70 or worse, and cannot be fully corrected with conventional glasses.

  10. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dealing with eye emergencies if: You experience partial or complete blindness in one or both eyes, ... a family history of diabetes Eye itching or discharge Vision changes that seem related to medication (DO ...

  11. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  12. Myopia and night lighting in children in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Saw, S.; Wu, H.; Hong, C.; Chua, W.; Chia, K.; Tan, D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine the role of night time lighting and myopia in children in Singapore
METHODS—A cross sectional study was conducted on 1001 children in two Singapore schools. Cycloplegic refraction and A-scan biometry measurements were made in both eyes. A detailed questionnaire was completed by the parents to obtain information on night time lighting, near work activity, educational and demographic factors.
RESULTS—There was no difference in myopia prevalence rates in children exposed to night time light (33.1%) compared with children who slept in the dark (31.4%) before age 2. In addition, vitreous chamber depth was not related to night light (p=0.58) before age 2. These results remained even after controlling for near work.
CONCLUSION—Myopia is not associated with night light in Asian populations.

 PMID:11316706

  13. Cold-night responses in grapevine inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Mélodie; Ait Barka, Essaid; Clément, Christophe; Gilard, Françoise; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Baillieul, Fabienne; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cédric

    2015-10-01

    Cold nights impact grapevine flower development and fruit set. Regulation at the female meiosis stepmay be of considerable importance for further understanding on how flower reacts to cold stress. In this study, the impact of chilling temperature (0 °C overnight) on carbon metabolism was investigated in the inflorescencesof two cultivars, Pinot noir (Pinot) and Gewurztraminer (Gewurtz.). Fluctuations in photosynthetic activity and carbohydrate metabolism were monitored by analyzing gas exchanges, simultaneous photosystem I and II activities, andcarbohydrate content. Further, the expression of PEPc, PC, FNR, ISO, OXO, AGPase, amylases and invertase genes, activities of various enzymes, as well as metabolomic analysis were attained. Results showed that the chilling night has different impacts depending on cultivars. Thus, in Gewurtz., net photosynthesis (Pn) was transiently increased whereas, in Pinot, the Pn increase was persistent and concomitant with an inhibition of respiration. However, during the days following the cold night, photosynthetic activity was decreased, and the cyclic electron flow was inhibited in Gewurtz., suggesting lower efficient energy dissipation. Likewise, metabolomic analysis revealed that several metabolites contents (namely alanine, GABA, lysine and succinate)were distinctly modulated in the two cultivars. Taking together, these results reflect a photosynthetic metabolism alteration or internal CO2 conductance in Gewurtz. explaining partly why Pinot is less susceptible to cold stress. PMID:26398796

  14. Day, night, and all-weather security surveillance automation: synergy from combining two powerful technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellas, Vassilios; Johnston, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Roberts, Sharon D.; Francisco, Glen L.

    2005-05-01

    Thermal imaging is rightfully a real-world technology proven to bring confidence to daytime, nighttime and all weather security surveillance. Automatic image processing intrusion detection algorithms are also a real world technology proven to bring confidence to system surveillance security solutions. Together, day, night and all weather video imagery sensors and automated intrusion detection software systems create the real power to protect early against crime, providing real-time global homeland protection, rather than simply being able to monitor and record activities for post event analysis. These solutions, whether providing automatic security system surveillance at airports (to automatically detect unauthorized aircraft takeoff and landing activities) or at high risk private, public or government facilities (to automatically detect unauthorized people or vehicle intrusion activities) are on the move to provide end users the power to protect people, capital equipment and intellectual property against acts of vandalism and terrorism. As with any technology, infrared sensors and automatic image intrusion detection systems for global homeland security protection have clear technological strengths and limitations compared to other more common day and night vision technologies or more traditional manual man-in-the-loop intrusion detection security systems. This paper addresses these strength and limitation capabilities. False Alarm (FAR) and False Positive Rate (FPR) is an example of some of the key customer system acceptability metrics and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) and Minimum Resolvable Temperature are examples of some of the sensor level performance acceptability metrics.

  15. Definition of display/control requirements for assault transport night/adverse weather capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milelli, R. J.; Mowery, G. W.; Pontelandolfo, C.

    1982-01-01

    A Helicopter Night Vision System was developed to improve low-altitude night and/or adverse weather assult transport capabilities. Man-in-the-loop simulation experiments were performed to define the minimum display and control requirements for the assult transport mission and investigate forward looking infrared sensor requirements, along with alternative displays such as panel mounted displays (PMD) helmet mounted displays (HMD), and integrated control display units. Also explored were navigation requirements, pilot/copilot interaction, and overall cockpit arrangement. Pilot use of an HMD and copilot use of a PMD appear as both the preferred and most effective night navigation combination.

  16. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  17. Vision Problems: How Teachers Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Joyce

    1999-01-01

    Describes common vision problems in young children such as myopia, strabismus, and amblyopia. Presents suggestions for helping children with vision problems in the early childhood classroom and in outdoor activities. Lists related resources and children's books. (KB)

  18. Machine vision is not computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Charlier, Jean-Ray

    1998-10-01

    The identity of Machine Vision as an academic and practical subject of study is asserted. In particular, the distinction between Machine Vision on the one hand and Computer Vision, Digital Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence on the other is emphasized. The article demonstrates through four cases studies that the active involvement of a person who is sensitive to the broad aspects of vision system design can avoid disaster and can often achieve a successful machine that would not otherwise have been possible. This article is a transcript of the key- note address presented at the conference. Since the proceedings are prepared and printed before the conference, it is not possible to include a record of the response to this paper made by the delegates during the round-table discussion. It is hoped to collate and disseminate these via the World Wide Web after the event. (A link will be provided at http://bruce.cs.cf.ac.uk/bruce/index.html.).

  19. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  20. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    PubMed

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents. PMID:26959270

  1. Night Myopia Studied with an Adaptive Optics Visual Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Artal, Pablo; Schwarz, Christina; Cánovas, Carmen; Mira-Agudelo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called “night myopia” has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. Methods We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration) as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m2 to the lowest luminance of 22×10−6 cd/m2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. Results We found large inter-subject variability and an average of −0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. Conclusions An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors. PMID:22768343

  2. TWAN: The World at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The World at Night (TWAN) is a global program to produce, collect, and present stunning photographs and time-lapse videos of the world's most beautiful and historic sites against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. TWAN is a bridge between art, science and humanity to bring the message of peace, concealed in the sky. Organised by ``Astronomers Without Borders'', the project consist of world's best night sky photographers in over countries and coordinators, regional event organisers, and consultants. TWAN was also designated as a Special Project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. While the project's global exhibitions and educational events peaked during IYA2009, TWAN is planned for long term in several phases and will continue to create and exhibit images in the next years.

  3. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  4. Night blindness and ancient remedy.

    PubMed

    Al Binali, H A Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  5. Vision by Man and Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Tomaso

    1984-01-01

    Studies of stereo vision guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo vision). (JN)

  6. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  7. Visions 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor; Norman, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the views of 18 educational leaders regarding their vision on the future of education in an information age. Topics include people's diverse needs; relationships between morality, ethics, values, and technology; leadership; parental involvement; online courses from multiple higher education institutions; teachers' role; technology…

  8. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  9. Agrarian Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

  10. Saturday night burns: an increasing problem?

    PubMed

    Bollero, D; Malvasio, V; Gangemi, E N; Giunta, G; Collard, B; Stella, M

    2015-03-31

    In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of burn injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all burns patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an average age of 20 years old: four were burned by flaming cocktails and one was burned by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of burn injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565

  11. Saturday night burns: an increasing problem?

    PubMed Central

    Bollero, D.; Malvasio, V.; Gangemi, E.N.; Giunta, G.; Collard, B.; Stella, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of burn injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all burns patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an average age of 20 years old: four were burned by flaming cocktails and one was burned by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of burn injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565

  12. Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

    2008-08-01

    Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health

  13. Single-neuron activity and eye movements during human REM sleep and awake vision.

    PubMed

    Andrillon, Thomas; Nir, Yuval; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Fried, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Are rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep associated with visual-like activity, as during wakefulness? Here we examine single-unit activities (n=2,057) and intracranial electroencephalography across the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) and neocortex during sleep and wakefulness, and during visual stimulation with fixation. During sleep and wakefulness, REM onsets are associated with distinct intracranial potentials, reminiscent of ponto-geniculate-occipital waves. Individual neurons, especially in the MTL, exhibit reduced firing rates before REMs as well as transient increases in firing rate immediately after, similar to activity patterns observed upon image presentation during fixation without eye movements. Moreover, the selectivity of individual units is correlated with their response latency, such that units activated after a small number of images or REMs exhibit delayed increases in firing rates. Finally, the phase of theta oscillations is similarly reset following REMs in sleep and wakefulness, and after controlled visual stimulation. Our results suggest that REMs during sleep rearrange discrete epochs of visual-like processing as during wakefulness. PMID:26262924

  14. Single-neuron activity and eye movements during human REM sleep and awake vision

    PubMed Central

    Andrillon, Thomas; Nir, Yuval; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Fried, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Are rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep associated with visual-like activity, as during wakefulness? Here we examine single-unit activities (n=2,057) and intracranial electroencephalography across the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) and neocortex during sleep and wakefulness, and during visual stimulation with fixation. During sleep and wakefulness, REM onsets are associated with distinct intracranial potentials, reminiscent of ponto-geniculate-occipital waves. Individual neurons, especially in the MTL, exhibit reduced firing rates before REMs as well as transient increases in firing rate immediately after, similar to activity patterns observed upon image presentation during fixation without eye movements. Moreover, the selectivity of individual units is correlated with their response latency, such that units activated after a small number of images or REMs exhibit delayed increases in firing rates. Finally, the phase of theta oscillations is similarly reset following REMs in sleep and wakefulness, and after controlled visual stimulation. Our results suggest that REMs during sleep rearrange discrete epochs of visual-like processing as during wakefulness. PMID:26262924

  15. Vision Loss, Sudden

    MedlinePlus

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  16. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ( chemical burns or sports injuries) Diabetes Glaucoma Macular degeneration The type of partial vision loss may differ, ... tunnel vision and missing areas of vision With macular degeneration, the side vision is normal but the central ...

  17. Giving night shift staff healthy food choices is a priority, says NHS chief.

    PubMed

    Kleebauer, Alistair

    2014-11-01

    Night shift staff will have access to healthy food options as part of a drive to improve the health of hospital staff in England, NHS chief executive Simon Stevens said as he announced his vision for the health service last week. PMID:25351052

  18. Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

  19. Integrating National Space Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  20. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  1. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  2. Students' Research-Informed Socio-scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.

  3. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be

  4. Computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses material from areas such as artificial intelligence, psychology, computer graphics, and image processing. The intent is to assemble a selection of this material in a form that will serve both as a senior/graduate-level academic text and as a useful reference to those building vision systems. This book has a strong artificial intelligence flavour, emphasising the belief that both the intrinsic image information and the internal model of the world are important in successful vision systems. The book is organised into four parts, based on descriptions of objects at four different levels of abstraction. These are: generalised images-images and image-like entities; segmented images-images organised into subimages that are likely to correspond to interesting objects; geometric structures-quantitative models of image and world structures; relational structures-complex symbolic descriptions of image and world structures. The book contains author and subject indexes.

  5. Simplified night sky display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A portable structure, simply constructed with inexpensive and generally lightweight materials, for displaying a selected portion of the night sky and selected planets, satellites, comets and other astronomically observable objects that are visually perceptible within that portion of the night sky. The structure includes a computer having stored signals representing the observable objects, an image projector that converts and projects the stored signals as visually perceptible images, a first curvilinear light-reflecting surface to receive and reflect the visually perceptible images, and a second curvilinear surface to receive and display the visually perceptible images reflected from the first surface. The images may be motionless or may move with passage of time. In one embodiment, the structure includes an inflatable screen surface that receives gas in an enclosed volume, supports itself without further mechanical support, and optionally self-regulates pressure of the received gas within the enclosed volume.

  6. Low-cost day/night helmet-mounted displays (HMD) in airborne operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    1999-07-01

    Current doctrine dictates a requirement for conducting 24-hour operations on the modern battlefield either in a rural or urban environment. To date, Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) along with Infrared sensors provide the bulk of vision aids that allow crew members to engage in tactical operations at night and during periods of low and reduced visibility. Since operations employing these devices, as well as operational doctrine, require the crewmember to fly 'heads-out,' Heads-Up Displays (HUDs), enumerating flight parameters, engine and navigation information have come into existence, greatly reducing the workload on today's combat aviators. A fine example is the Marconi/Tracor ANVS-7. This device employs a symbol generator and CRT to project symbology of critical aircraft parameters into the Night Vision Goggle giving the aviator a HUD capability while engaged in NVG night operations. The system is limited to aided vision night operations employing NVGs. The same criteria that create a need for supplying critical flight information at night exist for day and night unaided vision operations. However, there is no system in production to answer this obvious need. There are several reasons for this: (1) Available technology that will offer a low-cost solution for days ops, (2) Ergonomic and Human factors Issues, (3) Competition with currently fielded systems (ANVS-7), (4) Cost. Highly sophisticated HMDs such as the Apache IHADSS and the Comanche HIDSS, which combine navigation, targeting as well as weapons and flight status for 24 hour, all-weather operations are far too expensive and, in many cases, inappropriate for the majority of Combat Support aircraft. Using internal R&D Kaiser Electronics has developed a low-cost HMD -- called Lite EyeTM HMD -- that is capable of being used in day and night operations that addresses the aforementioned issues. The solution, using recent advances in solid state display technology, maximizes the use of currently fielded equipment

  7. Activating a Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Carroll L.

    1973-01-01

    International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) is an organized effort to study physiology, endocrinology, genetics, and related processes of five insects. Location of the center in Kenya encourages developing countries to conduct research for the control of harmful insects. (PS)

  8. In the darkness of the polar night, scallops keep on a steady rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Damien; Sow, Mohamedou; Camus, Lionel; Ciret, Pierre; Berge, Jorgen; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevailing paradigm has held that the polar night is a period of biological quiescence, recent studies have detected noticeable activity levels in marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the circadian rhythm of the scallop Chlamys islandica by continuously recording the animal’s behaviour over 3 years in the Arctic (Svalbard). Our results showed that a circadian rhythm persists throughout the polar night and lasts for at least 4 months. Based on observations across three polar nights, we showed that the robustness and synchronicity of the rhythm depends on the angle of the sun below the horizon. The weakest rhythm occurred at the onset of the polar night during the nautical twilight. Surprisingly, the circadian behaviour began to recover during the darkest part of the polar night. Because active rhythms optimize the fitness of an organism, our study brings out that the scallops C. islandica remain active even during the polar night. PMID:27577847

  9. In the darkness of the polar night, scallops keep on a steady rhythm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Damien; Sow, Mohamedou; Camus, Lionel; Ciret, Pierre; Berge, Jorgen; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevailing paradigm has held that the polar night is a period of biological quiescence, recent studies have detected noticeable activity levels in marine organisms. In this study, we investigated the circadian rhythm of the scallop Chlamys islandica by continuously recording the animal's behaviour over 3 years in the Arctic (Svalbard). Our results showed that a circadian rhythm persists throughout the polar night and lasts for at least 4 months. Based on observations across three polar nights, we showed that the robustness and synchronicity of the rhythm depends on the angle of the sun below the horizon. The weakest rhythm occurred at the onset of the polar night during the nautical twilight. Surprisingly, the circadian behaviour began to recover during the darkest part of the polar night. Because active rhythms optimize the fitness of an organism, our study brings out that the scallops C. islandica remain active even during the polar night. PMID:27577847

  10. Pediatric Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  11. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  12. From geospatial observations of ocean currents to causal predictors of spatio-economic activity using computer vision and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Florin; Ayache, Stephane; Escalera, Sergio; Baró Solé, Xavier; Capponi, Cecile; Panciatici, Patrick; Guyon, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    The big data transformation currently revolutionizing science and industry forges novel possibilities in multi-modal analysis scarcely imaginable only a decade ago. One of the important economic and industrial problems that stand to benefit from the recent expansion of data availability and computational prowess is the prediction of electricity demand and renewable energy generation. Both are correlates of human activity: spatiotemporal energy consumption patterns in society are a factor of both demand (weather dependent) and supply, which determine cost - a relation expected to strengthen along with increasing renewable energy dependence. One of the main drivers of European weather patterns is the activity of the Atlantic Ocean and in particular its dominant Northern Hemisphere current: the Gulf Stream. We choose this particular current as a test case in part due to larger amount of relevant data and scientific literature available for refinement of analysis techniques. This data richness is due not only to its economic importance but also to its size being clearly visible in radar and infrared satellite imagery, which makes it easier to detect using Computer Vision (CV). The power of CV techniques makes basic analysis thus developed scalable to other smaller and less known, but still influential, currents, which are not just curves on a map, but complex, evolving, moving branching trees in 3D projected onto a 2D image. We investigate means of extracting, from several image modalities (including recently available Copernicus radar and earlier Infrared satellites), a parameterized representation of the state of the Gulf Stream and its environment that is useful as feature space representation in a machine learning context, in this case with the EC's H2020-sponsored 'See.4C' project, in the context of which data scientists may find novel predictors of spatiotemporal energy flow. Although automated extractors of Gulf Stream position exist, they differ in methodology

  13. Flight test of monocular day/night HMD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Craig; Longman, Peter J.; Makepeace, Nat R.

    2002-08-01

    The Crew Systems Group at QinetiQ Farnborough, formerly part of the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), have recently conducted development and flight evaluations of two monocular display systems that provided dynamic symbology for the pilot. The systems were the Pilkington Optronics (now Thales) Guardian monocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) used for daytime operations and the QinetiQ Display Night Vision Goggles (DNVGs) used at night. Test flights of the two systems were performed in a modified Jaguar T2B combat aircraft, that was based at the QinetiQ Boscombe Down research facility. Good performance was obtained from each system with both producing clear, legible symbology. During day and night Air to Ground (A-G) sorties both the Guardian and the DNVGs were used for simulated attacks and reconnaissance tasks on a variety of operationally realistic targets. In addition the Guardian HMD was used with an ASRAAM in the day Air to Air (A-A) environment to provide high off-boresight capability. The results from the test program have validated a range of significant capability enhancements offered by either a HMD or a DNVG, and have provided a significant increase in the technical and operational understanding of fast-jet helmet display systems.

  14. The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Cosgrove, W.; Rijsberman, F.; Strzepek, K.; Strzepek, K.

    2001-05-01

    The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be participatory in nature, including input from both developed and developing regions, with a special focus on the needs of the poor, women, youth, children and the environment. Three overall objectives were to: (i)raise awareness of water issues among both the general population and decision-makers so as to foster the necessary political will and leadership to tackle the problems seriously and systematically; (ii) develop a vision of water management for 2025 that is shared by water sector specialists as well as international, national and regional decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society; and (iii) provide input to a Framework for Action to be elaborated by the Global Water Partnership, with steps to go from vision to action, including recommendations to funding agencies for investment priorities. This exercise was characterized by the principles of: (i) a participatory approach with extensive consultation; (ii) Innovative thinking; (iii) central analysis to assure integration and co-ordination; and (iv) emphasis on communication with groups outside the water sector. The primary activities included, developing global water scenarios that fed into regional consultations and sectoral consultations as water for food, water for people - water supply and sanitation, and water and environment. These consultations formulated the regional and sectoral visions that were synthesized to form the World Water Vision. The findings from this exercise were reported and debated at the Second World Water Forum and the Ministerial Conference held in The Hague, The Netherlands during April 2000. This paper

  15. Human gene therapy for RPE65 isomerase deficiency activates the retinoid cycle of vision but with slow rod kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Boye, Sanford L.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Kaushal, Shalesh; Roman, Alejandro J.; Pang, Ji-jing; Sumaroka, Alexander; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Wilson, James M.; Flotte, Terence R.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Heon, Elise; Stone, Edwin M.; Byrne, Barry J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Hauswirth, William W.

    2008-01-01

    The RPE65 gene encodes the isomerase of the retinoid cycle, the enzymatic pathway that underlies mammalian vision. Mutations in RPE65 disrupt the retinoid cycle and cause a congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). We used adeno-associated virus-2-based RPE65 gene replacement therapy to treat three young adults with RPE65-LCA and measured their vision before and up to 90 days after the intervention. All three patients showed a statistically significant increase in visual sensitivity at 30 days after treatment localized to retinal areas that had received the vector. There were no changes in the effect between 30 and 90 days. Both cone- and rod-photoreceptor-based vision could be demonstrated in treated areas. For cones, there were increases of up to 1.7 log units (i.e., 50 fold); and for rods, there were gains of up to 4.8 log units (i.e., 63,000 fold). To assess what fraction of full vision potential was restored by gene therapy, we related the degree of light sensitivity to the level of remaining photoreceptors within the treatment area. We found that the intervention could overcome nearly all of the loss of light sensitivity resulting from the biochemical blockade. However, this reconstituted retinoid cycle was not completely normal. Resensitization kinetics of the newly treated rods were remarkably slow and required 8 h or more for the attainment of full sensitivity, compared with <1 h in normal eyes. Cone-sensitivity recovery time was rapid. These results demonstrate dramatic, albeit imperfect, recovery of rod- and cone-photoreceptor-based vision after RPE65 gene therapy. PMID:18809924

  16. Machine Vision Giving Eyes to Robots. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This module introduces machine vision, which can be used for inspection, robot guidance and part sorting. The future for machine vision will include new technology and will bring vision systems closer to the ultimate vision processor, the human eye. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and activities. (JOW)

  17. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  18. Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Retina Treatment Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Mar. 01, 2016 How does a detached or torn retina affect your vision? If a retinal tear is occurring, you may ...

  19. A real-time monitoring system for night glare protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang

    2010-11-01

    When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.

  20. Binocular Vision

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study. PMID:20951722

  1. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  2. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  3. 2010 National Observe the Moon Night!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

    2010-05-01

    We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

  4. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  5. Low Vision Aids and Low Vision Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... The future will offer even more solutions. Newer technology for low vision aids While low vision devices ... magnifiers have long been the standard in assistive technology, advances in consumer electronics are also improving quality ...

  6. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE <90%), as well as projected low noise (<2h+) readout. Power consumption is minimized in the camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  7. Melas Chasma, Day and Night.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of day and night infrared images of Melas Chasma taken by the camera system on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The daytime temperature images are shown in black and white, superimposed on the martian topography. A single nighttime temperature image is superimposed in color. The daytime temperatures range from approximately -35 degrees Celsius (-31 degrees Fahrenheit) in black to -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit) in white. Overlapping landslides and individual layers in the walls of Melas Chasma can be seen in this image. The landslides flowed over 100 kilometers (62 miles) across the floor of Melas Chasma, producing deposits with ridges and grooves of alternating warm and cold materials that can still be seen. The temperature differences in the daytime images are due primarily to lighting effects, where sunlit slopes are warm (bright) and shadowed slopes are cool (dark). The nighttime temperature differences are due to differences in the abundance of rocky materials that retain their heat at night and stay relatively warm (red). Fine grained dust and sand (blue) cools off more rapidly at night. These images were acquired using the thermal infrared imaging system infrared Band 9, centered at 12.6 micrometers.

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. Additional science partners are located at the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL. Aviation and Space Agency and at Los Alamos National

  8. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  9. Night sky photometry and spectroscopy performed at the Vienna University Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschnig, Johannes; Posch, Thomas; Uttenthaler, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    We present night sky brightness measurements performed at the Vienna University Observatory and at the Leopold-Figl-Observatorium für Astrophysik, which is located about 35 km to the southwest of Vienna. The measurements have been performed with Sky Quality Meters made by Unihedron. They cover a time span of roughly one year and have been carried out every night, yielding a luminance value every 7 s and thus delivering a large amount of data. In this paper, the level of skyglow in Vienna, which ranges from 15 to 19.25 magSQM arcsec-2 is presented for the very first time in a systematic way. We discuss the influence of different environmental conditions on the night sky brightness and implications for human vision. We show that the circalunar rhythm of night sky brightness is almost extinguished at our observatory due to light pollution. Additionally, we present spectra of the night sky in Vienna, taken with a 0.8 m telescope. The goal of these spectroscopic measurements was to identify the main types of light sources and the spectral lines which cause the skyglow in Vienna. It turned out that fluorescent lamps are responsible for the strongest lines of the night sky above Vienna (e.g. lines at 546 nm and at 611 nm).

  10. International computer vision directory

    SciTech Connect

    Flora, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains information on: computerized automation technologies. State-of-the-art computer vision systems for many areas of industrial use are covered. Other topics discussed include the following automated inspection systems; robot/vision systems; vision process control; cameras (vidicon and solid state); vision peripherals and components; and pattern processor.

  11. On the architecture of the micro machine vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zong, Guanghua

    2006-01-01

    Micro machine vision system is an important part of a micromanipulating system which has been used widely in many fields. As the research activities on the micromanipulating system go deeper, micro machine vision system catches more attention. In this paper, micro machine vision system is treated as a kind of machine vision system with constrains and characteristics introduced by specific application environment. Unlike the traditional machine vision system, a micro machine vision system usually does not aim at the reconstruction of the scene. It is introduced to obtain expected position information so that the manipulation can be accomplished accurately. The architecture of the micro machine vision system is proposed. The key issues related to a micro machine vision system such as system layout, optical imaging device and vision system calibration are discussed to explain the proposed architecture further. A task-oriented micro machine vision system for biological micromanipulating system is shown as an example, which is in compliance with the proposed architecture.

  12. (Computer vision and robotics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.

    1989-02-13

    The traveler attended the Fourth Aalborg International Symposium on Computer Vision at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled, Concurrent Computer Vision on a Hypercube Multicomputer'', The Butterfly Accumulator and its Application in Concurrent Computer Vision on Hypercube Multicomputers'', and Concurrency in Mobile Robotics at ORNL'', and a ten-minute editorial entitled, It Concurrency an Issue in Computer Vision.'' The traveler obtained information on current R D efforts elsewhere in concurrent computer vision.

  13. Expert system modeling of a vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reihani, Kamran; Thompson, Wiley E.

    1992-05-01

    The proposed artificial intelligence-based vision model incorporates natural recognition processes depicted as a visual pyramid and hierarchical representation of objects in the database. The visual pyramid, with based and apex representing pixels and image, respectively, is used as an analogy for a vision system. This paper provides an overview of recognition activities and states in the framework of an inductive model. Also, it presents a natural vision system and a counterpart expert system model that incorporates the described operations.

  14. Development of Air Force Aerial Spray Night Operations: High Altitude Swath Characterizations.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Karl A; Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVGs). Higher altitude application of pesticide (more than 400 ft (121.9 m) above ground level (AGL)) suggested that effective vector control might be possible under ideal meteorological conditions. A series of lower altitude daytime applications (300 ft (91.4 m) AGL) demonstrated effective and repeatable mortality of target sentinel insects more than 5,000 ft (1,524 m) downwind, and control of natural vector populations. From these results we believe further pursuit of aerial night applications of pesticide using NVGs at 300 ft (91.4 m) AGL by this group is warranted. PMID:26276945

  15. Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  16. 77 FR 62147 - Night Definition; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Canada. In 14 CFR 1.1 the definition of night refers to twilight times as published in the ``American Air... Administration 14 CFR Part 1 Night Definition; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Technical amendment. SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting the title of the publication ``American...

  17. An Optical Altitude Indicator for Night Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    One of the most ingenious of the devices intended for use in night landing, especially emergency landing, is a very simple optical instrument known as the Jenkins night altitude indicator. The design and operation of this instrument, which allows a pilot to determine the altitude of the aircraft, is discussed. The author discusses various modifications and improvements that might be made to the instrument.

  18. NASA Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

  19. Naked-eye astronomy: optics of the starry night skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salva

    2014-07-01

    The world at night offers a wealth of stimuli and opportunities as a resource for Optics education, at all age levels and from any (formal, non formal or informal) perspective. The starry sky and the urban nightscape provide a unique combination of pointlike sources with extremely different emission spectra and brightness levels on a generally darker, locally homogeneous background. This fact, combined with the particular characteristics of the human visual system under mesopic and scotopic conditions, provides a perfect setting for experiencing first-hand different optical phenomena of increasing levels of complexity: from the eye's point spread function to the luminance contrast threshold for source detection, from basic diffraction patterns to the intricate irradiance fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. Looking at the nightscape is also a perfect occasion to raise awareness on the increasing levels of light pollution associated to the misuse of public and private artificial light at night, to promote a sustainable use of lighting, and to take part in worldwide citizen science campaigns. Last but not least, night sky observing activities can be planned and developed following a very flexible schedule, allowing individual students to carry them out from home and sharing the results in the classroom as well as organizing social events and night star parties with the active engagement of families and groups of the local community. This contribution describes these possibilities and introduces some of the free resources available to put them in practice.

  20. Is part-night lighting an effective measure to limit the impacts of artificial lighting on bats?

    PubMed

    Azam, Clémentine; Kerbiriou, Christian; Vernet, Arthur; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Plichard, Laura; Maratrat, Julie; Le Viol, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    As light pollution is currently considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, different lighting management options are being explored to mitigate the impact of artificial lighting on wildlife. Although part-night lighting schemes have been adopted by many local authorities across Europe to reduce the carbon footprint and save energy, their effects on biodiversity are unknown. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we compared the activity levels of 8 bat species under unlit, part-night, and full-night lighting treatments in a rural area located 60 km south of Paris, France. We selected 36 study locations composed of 1 lit site and a paired unlit control site; 24 of these sites were located in areas subject to part-night lighting schemes, and 12 sites were in areas under standard, full-night lighting. There was significantly more activity on part-night lighting sites compared to full-night lighting sites for the late-emerging, light-sensitive Plecotus spp., and a similar pattern was observable for Myotis spp., although not significant. In contrast, part-night lighting did not influence the activity of early emerging bat species around streetlights, except for Pipistrellus pipistrellus for which there was significantly less activity on part-night lighting sites than on full-night lighting sites. Overall, no significant difference in activity between part- and full-night lighting sites were observed in 5 of the 8 species studied, suggesting that current part-night lighting schemes fail to encompass the range of activity of most bat species. We recommend that such schemes start earlier at night to effectively mitigate the adverse effects of artificial lighting on light-sensitive species, particularly along ecological corridors that are especially important to the persistence of biodiversity in urban landscapes. PMID:26179558

  1. Organization and management of ATLAS nightly builds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luehring, F.; Obreshkov, E.; Quarrie, D.; Rybkine, G.; Undrus, A.

    2010-04-01

    The automated multi-platform software nightly build system is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation and code approval schemes. Code developers from ATLAS participating Institutes spread all around the world use about 30 branches of nightly releases for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers. The nightly releases lead up to, and are the basis of, stable software releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS nightly builds are managed by the fully automated NICOS framework on the computing farm with 44 powerful multiprocessor nodes. The ATN test tool is embedded within the nightly system and provides results shortly after full compilations complete. Other test frameworks are synchronized with NICOS jobs and run larger scale validation jobs using the nightly releases. NICOS web pages dynamically provide information about the progress and results of the builds. For faster feedback, e-mail notifications about nightly releases problems are automatically distributed to the developers responsible.

  2. Identifying the computational requirements of an integrated top-down-bottom-up model for overt visual attention within an active vision system.

    PubMed

    McBride, Sebastian; Huelse, Martin; Lee, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Computational visual attention systems have been constructed in order for robots and other devices to detect and locate regions of interest in their visual world. Such systems often attempt to take account of what is known of the human visual system and employ concepts, such as 'active vision', to gain various perceived advantages. However, despite the potential for gaining insights from such experiments, the computational requirements for visual attention processing are often not clearly presented from a biological perspective. This was the primary objective of this study, attained through two specific phases of investigation: 1) conceptual modeling of a top-down-bottom-up framework through critical analysis of the psychophysical and neurophysiological literature, 2) implementation and validation of the model into robotic hardware (as a representative of an active vision system). Seven computational requirements were identified: 1) transformation of retinotopic to egocentric mappings, 2) spatial memory for the purposes of medium-term inhibition of return, 3) synchronization of 'where' and 'what' information from the two visual streams, 4) convergence of top-down and bottom-up information to a centralized point of information processing, 5) a threshold function to elicit saccade action, 6) a function to represent task relevance as a ratio of excitation and inhibition, and 7) derivation of excitation and inhibition values from object-associated feature classes. The model provides further insight into the nature of data representation and transfer between brain regions associated with the vertebrate 'active' visual attention system. In particular, the model lends strong support to the functional role of the lateral intraparietal region of the brain as a primary area of information consolidation that directs putative action through the use of a 'priority map'. PMID:23437044

  3. The Medawar Lecture 2001 Knowledge for vision: vision for knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary development of perception is suggested—from passive reception to active perception to explicit conception—earlier stages being largely retained and incorporated in later species. A key is innate and then individually learned knowledge, giving meaning to sensory signals. Inappropriate or misapplied knowledge produces rich cognitive phenomena of illusions, revealing normally hidden processes of vision, tentatively classified here in a ‘peeriodic table’. Phenomena of physiology are distinguished from phenomena of general rules and specific object knowledge. It is concluded that vision uses implicit knowledge, and provides knowledge for intelligent behaviour and for explicit conceptual understanding including science. PMID:16147519

  4. Dose-dependent responses of avian daily rhythms to artificial light at night.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maaike; Jeninga, Lizanne; Ouyang, Jenny Q; van Oers, Kees; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that animals are affected by night-time light exposure. Light is a continuous variable, but our knowledge on how individuals react to different light intensities during the night is limited. We therefore determined the relationship between night light intensity and the behaviour and physiology of great tits (Parus major). We measured daily activity patterns and melatonin levels in 35 males exposed to five different light intensities and found strong, dose-dependent effects. Activity onset was increasingly advanced, and activity offset delayed with higher light intensities. Furthermore, night-time activity increased and melatonin levels measured at midnight decreased with higher intensities. In this experimental study, we demonstrate for the first time dose-dependent effects of artificial light at night on birds' daily activity patterns and melatonin levels. Our results imply that these effects are not limited to a certain threshold, but emerge even when nocturnal light levels are slightly increased. However, in a natural area, these effects may be limited as artificial light levels are commonly low; light intensities drop rapidly with distance from a light source and birds can avoid exposure to light at night. Future studies should thus focus on examining the impact of different intensities of light at night in the wild. PMID:26703233

  5. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Dec. 12, 2015 Wearing eyeglasses is an easy way to correct refractive errors. Improving your vision with eyeglasses offers the opportunity to select from ...

  6. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  7. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test -- color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  8. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  9. Behavioral phenotypic properties of a natural occurring rat model of congenital stationary night blindness with Cacna1f mutation.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Wang, Li; Guo, Qun; Li, Li; Xia, Feng; Zhang, Zuoming

    2012-09-01

    Cacna1f gene mutation could lead to incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB) disease. The CSNB-like phenotype rat is a spontaneous rat model caused by Cacna1f gene mutation. The present study explored the phenotypic properties of behavior performance in CSNB rats further. The vision-related behaviors of CSNB rats were assessed with a Morris water maze (MWM), passive avoidance tests, and open-field test. Motor ability was evaluated with a rotarod test and a wire hang test, and mechanical pain and thermalgia were used to evaluate sensory system function. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to evaluate the function of the retina. The vision-related results showed that longer latencies of escape and reduced probe trial in MWM for CSNB rats. There were more errors in avoidance test; CSNB rats were more active in the open field and presented a different pattern of exploration. The locomotor-related behaviors showed shorter falling latencies in the rotarod test and shorter gripping time in CSNB rats. And mechanical thresholds of pain increased in CSNB rats. The ERGs indicated that both the amplitude and latency of rod and cone systems were impaired in the CSNB rats. In summary, Cacna1f gene mutation changed the performance of various behaviors in the CSNB rat aside from vision-related phenotype. Cacna1f gene might play a role in a wide range of responses in the organism. These results confirm the importance of a comprehensive profile for understanding the behavior phenotype of Cacna1f gene mutation in CSNB rat. PMID:22800190

  10. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  11. Antenna Technology and other Radio Frequency (RF) Communications Activities at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA's Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Vision for Space Exploration outlines a very ambitious program for the next several decades of the Space Agency endeavors. Ahead is the completion of the International Space Station (ISS); safely flight the shuttle (STS) until 2010; develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) by no later than 2014; return to the moon by no later than 2020; extend human presence across the solar system and beyond; implement a sustainable and affordable human and robotic program; develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge and infrastructure; and promote international and commercial participation in exploration. To achieve these goals, a series of enabling technologies must be developed or matured in a timely manner. Some of these technologies are: spacecraft RF technology (e.g., high power sources and large antennas which using surface receive arrays can get up to 1 Gbps from Mars), uplink arraying (reduce reliance on large ground-based antennas and high operation costs; single point of failure; enable greater data-rates or greater effective distance; scalable, evolvable, flexible scheduling), software define radio (i.e., reconfigurable, flexible interoperability allows for in flight updates open architecture; reduces mass, power, volume), and optical communications (high capacity communications with low mass/power required; significantly increases data rates for deep space). This presentation will discuss some of the work being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in antenna technology as well as other on-going RF communications efforts.

  12. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  13. MSFC Catches Geminids In The Night Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows meteors captured by a wide-field camera at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on the night of December 12. There are 141 events; at least 77 of these are Geminids, based on thei...

  14. [Ophthalmologist and "computer vision syndrome"].

    PubMed

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu-Brasov, L

    2007-01-01

    The authors had tried to collect the data available on the Internet about a subject that we consider as being totally ignored in the Romanian scientific literature and unexpectedly insufficiently treated in the specialized ophthalmologic literature. Known in the specialty literature under the generic name of "Computer vision syndrome", it is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex of eye and vision problems related to the activities which stress the near vision and which are experienced in relation, or during, the use of the computer. During the consultations we hear frequent complaints of eye-strain - asthenopia, headaches, blurred distance and/or near vision, dry and irritated eyes, slow refocusing, neck and backache, photophobia, sensation of diplopia, light sensitivity, and double vision, but because of the lack of information, we overlooked them too easily, without going thoroughly into the real motives. In most of the developed countries, there are recommendations issued by renowned medical associations with regard to the definition, the diagnosis, and the methods for the prevention, treatment and periodical control of the symptoms found in computer users, in conjunction with an extremely detailed ergonomic legislation. We found out that these problems incite a much too low interest in our country. We would like to rouse the interest of our ophthalmologist colleagues in the understanding and the recognition of these symptoms and in their treatment, or at least their improvement, through specialized measures or through the cooperation with our specialist occupational medicine colleagues. PMID:18064965

  15. Robotic vision. [process control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. S.; Wilf, J. M.; Cunningham, R. T.; Eskenazi, R.

    1979-01-01

    Robotic vision, involving the use of a vision system to control a process, is discussed. Design and selection of active sensors employing radiation of radio waves, sound waves, and laser light, respectively, to light up unobservable features in the scene are considered, as are design and selection of passive sensors, which rely on external sources of illumination. The segmentation technique by which an image is separated into different collections of contiguous picture elements having such common characteristics as color, brightness, or texture is examined, with emphasis on the edge detection technique. The IMFEX (image feature extractor) system performing edge detection and thresholding at 30 frames/sec television frame rates is described. The template matching and discrimination approach to recognize objects are noted. Applications of robotic vision in industry for tasks too monotonous or too dangerous for the workers are mentioned.

  16. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  17. [Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of antocyan pigments as components of dietary supplements and drugs for vision].

    PubMed

    Gottikh, M B; Tashlitskiĭ, V N

    2010-01-01

    Bilberry has been long used in folk medicine and credited for an ability to improve vision, primarily night vision. The major active ingredients of bilberries are antocyans. Experimental and clinical studies confirmed the ability of bilberry antocyans to accelerate the regeneration of the photosensitive pigment rhodopsin, to improve nutrition of the retina, and to restore the tissue mechanisms of its protection. The authors studied the level of bilberry antocyans in 5 samples of dietary supplements and medicines for eyes, which had been bought in Moscow drugstores. The total content of antocyans was determined by pH-differential spectrophotometry. All the test samples were shown to contain antocyan pigments; however, their concentration in different samples varied in a wide range of 0.01 to 4.2%. The maximum content was found in the drug "Focus". The qualitative composition of antocyan pigments was estimated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All the test samples other than Vitrum vision forte turned out to contain just bilberry antocyans. The chromatographic profile of a Vitrum vision forte sample was inconsistent with bilberry antocyan pigments and the agent was likely to have another source. PMID:21328891

  18. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  19. Programming parallel vision algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Computer vision requires the processing of large volumes of data and requires parallel architectures and algorithms to be useful in real-time, industrial applications. The INSIGHT dataflow language was designed to allow encoding of vision algorithms at all levels of the computer vision paradigm. INSIGHT programs, which are relational in nature, can be translated into a graph structure that represents an architecture for solving a particular vision problem or a configuration of a reconfigurable computational network. The authors consider here INSIGHT programs that produce a parallel net architecture for solving low-, mid-, and high-level vision tasks.

  20. Computational approaches to vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  1. Study of a dual mode SWIR active imaging system for direct imaging and non-line-of-sight vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Velten, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The application of non-line of sight vision and see around a corner has been demonstrated in the recent past on laboratory level with round trip path lengths on the scale of 1 m as well as 10 m. This method uses a computational imaging approach to analyze the scattered information of objects which are hidden from the direct sensors field of view. Recent demonstrator systems were driven at laser wavelengths (800 nm and 532 nm) which are far from the eye-safe shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelength band i.e. between 1.4 μm and 2 μm. Therefore, the application in public or inhabited areas is difficult with respect to international laser safety conventions. In the present work, the authors evaluate the application of recent eye safe laser sources and sensor devices for non-line of sight sensing and give predictions on range and resolution. Further, the realization of a dual mode concept is studied enabling both, the direct view on a scene and the indirect view on a hidden scene. While recent laser gated viewing sensors have high spatial resolution, their application in non-line of sight imaging suffer from a too low temporal resolution due to minimal sensor gate width of around 150 ns. On the other hand, Geiger-mode single photon counting devices have high temporal resolution, but their spatial resolution is (until now) limited to array sizes of some thousand sensor elements. In this publication the authors present detailed theoretical and experimental evaluations.

  2. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  3. Chemiluminescents Light Up the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashiell, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides a general description of chemiluminescence and distinguishes between the two types of chemistry that contribute to our understanding of chemiluminescence: fluorescence and the excitation process. Presents an activity that explores the phenomenon. (DDR)

  4. Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.

    2006-05-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is

  5. Family Science Night: Changing Perceptions One Family at a Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Drobnes, E.; Mitchell, S.; Colina-Trujillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    If students are not encouraged to succeed in science, mathematics, and technology classes at school, efforts to improve the quality of content and teaching in these subjects may be futile. Parents and families are in a unique position to encourage children to enroll and achieve in these classes. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Family Science Night program invites middle school students and their families to explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by providing a venue for families to comfortably engage in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science - making it more practical and approachable for participants of all ages. Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond.

  6. Polysomnographic findings in nights preceding a migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Göder, R; Fritzer, G; Kapsokalyvas, A; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Strenge, H; Gerber, W D; Aldenhoff, J B

    2001-02-01

    Sleep recordings were performed in eight patients to analyse sleep alterations preceding migraine attacks. Polysomnographic recordings from nights before an attack were compared with nights without following migraine. We analysed standard sleep parameters and electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra. The main findings preceding migraine attacks were a significant decrease in the number of arousals, a decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) density, a significant decrease of beta power in the slow wave sleep, and a decrease of alpha power during the first REM period. The results suggest a decrease in cortical activation during sleep preceding migraine attacks. According to the models of sleep regulation, alterations in the function of aminergic or cholinergic brainstem nuclei have to be discussed. PMID:11298661

  7. Bioluminescence in the high Arctic during the polar night.

    PubMed

    Berge, J; Båtnes, A S; Johnsen, G; Blackwell, S M; Moline, M A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the composition and activity of the planktonic community during the polar night in the high Arctic Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Our results are the first published evidence of bioluminescence among zooplankton during the Arctic polar night. The observations were collected by a bathyphotometer detecting bioluminescence, integrated into an autonomous underwater vehicle, to determine the concentration and intensity of bioluminescent flashes as a function of time of day and depth. To further understand community dynamics and composition, plankton nets were used to collect organisms passing through the bathyphotometer along with traditional vertical net tows. Additionally, using a moored bathyphotometer closed to the sampling site, the bioluminescence potential itself was shown not to have a diurnal or circadian rhythm. Rather, our results provide evidence for a diel vertical migration of bioluminescent zooplankton that does not correspond to any externally detectable changes in illumination. PMID:24489409

  8. Day night variation of cohesive sediment stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, P. L.; Lucas, C. H.; Rossington, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    Surface sediment properties related to cohesive sediment stability were measured over 8 consecutive day- and night-time emersion periods at three upper intertidal sites on a mudflat in August 2003, during the transition from spring to neap tides. Significant differences between day- and night-time critical erosion shear stress ( τc) and chlorophyll a were found. A high degree of temporal and spatial variability existed between the sediment properties. During the first half of the study period, a rhythmic day-night variation occurred between τc, chl a, colloidal-S- and EDTA-extracted carbohydrate. During the second part of the study, the magnitude of variation of these parameters diminished. Results showed that sediments were more stable during the day than at night. Differences between day- and night-time sediment stability were related not only to diatom migration, but also to wave energy during preceding immersion periods. No significant relationships existed between τc and either chl a, or colloidal-S- or EDTA-extracted carbohydrate sediment content. It is suggested that tidal phasing, in terms of both the time during the day at which low water spring and neap tides occur, as well as the duration of the emersion period, control the biomass dynamics. The tidal phasing effect is expected to be more pronounced on a cohesive intertidal flat where low water spring tides occur at noon and midnight. The results of this study will be of use in time-dependent estuarine models.

  9. A Night on the Nile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Maureen E.; Heathwood, Neil

    1984-01-01

    Two New Rochelle, New York, teachers who developed a unit on ancient Egypt for gifted fifth and sixth grade students give tips on preparing interdisciplinary units which involve independent student research. Their unit incorporated social studies, science, language art, and mathematics activities. (PP)

  10. Development of VIPER: a simulator for assessing vision performance of warfighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Jide; Thompson, Roger; Moyer, Steve; Mueller, Gregory; Williams, Tim; Nguyen, Hung-Quang; Espinola, Richard L.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Rivers, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    activities. In the military context, in addition to reading road signs, this includes vision with night sensors and identification of objects of military interest. Once completed and validated, VIPER will be used to evaluate functional performance before and after refractive surgery. Results: This initial study was to prove the principle, and its results at the time of this publication were very preliminary. Nine Soldiers viewed visible-day and IR-day VIPER simulations with civilian and military targets, separately, at 10 and 30 miles/hour. Analyses were performed separately for visible and IR, and also aggregated. Only the civilian targets are discussed in this report. At 10 miles/hour, the population detected civilian road signs at an aggregated average of 90.11 +/- 64.20 m, and identified them at 26.93 +/- 22.27m. At 30 miles/hour, the corresponding distances were 103.03 +/- 58.81 and 26.26 +/- 8.55, respectively. Conclusion: This preliminary report proves the principle and suggests that VIPER could be a useful clinical tool in longitudinal assessment of functional vision in warfighters.

  11. Mathematical leadership vision.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, Y A

    2000-11-01

    This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision. PMID:11092414

  12. Making Space Cool - Successful Outreach at Yuri's Night Stuttgart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Christine; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Grossmann, Agnes

    Yuri’s Night - also known as the “World Space Party” - is the annual celebration commemorating Gagarin’s historic flight on April 12, 1961, and the maiden voyage of the American space shuttle on April 12, 1981. It was created by young space enthusiasts in 2000 at the annual Space Generation Congress and was first celebrated in 2001, registering more than 60 events around the world from the start. Since then the interest in celebrating human spaceflight grew constantly to over 350 events across all seven continents in 2013. The honoring of Yuri Gagarin’s first spaceflight in Stuttgart started in 2007 and resulted in one of the largest events outside the US, with five parties following in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013. The Stuttgart event was originally organized as space party for an audience at the age of 20 and beyond including informative aspects at the afternoon and a following party far into the night. Since 2010 the focus of the Yuri’s Night Stuttgart is to bring awareness of space exploration to people of all ages, including particularly many participatory hands-on space activities for kids and families that attract hundreds of visitors every year. As much as Yuri’s Night is a worldwide party, the events in Stuttgart successfully concentrate on educational aspects that help to inspire new generations of space enthusiasts who will ultimately shape the future of space exploration. It is therefore not only a look back to one of the greatest achievements of the 20th Century, but it is also a look into the future: from multinational cooperation on the International Space Station to benefit of space flight to the introduction of the next generation of space technology. This paper will introduce the celebrations of Yuri’s Night in Stuttgart of the past four years and compare them to the early events. It provides a summary of the development of the Yuri’s Night including educational aspects, public relations and media attraction and gives

  13. Night sweats: it may be hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Murday, H K M; Rusli, F D; Blandy, C; Vollenhoven, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this case report is to show that hemochromatosis can present, unusually, with night sweats. At presentation, hemochromatosis often tends to have non-specific symptoms, making it easy to misdiagnose, especially if it presents with rare symptoms. Misdiagnosis of hemochromatosis can lead to lethal outcomes, given it can cause multiple organ dysfunctions if left untreated and hence the need to identify it early on. The case we present is a 41-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hemochromatosis complaining of night sweats. She thought she was menopausal. The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made solely on investigations given that she did not have any other symptoms other than night sweats. Her serum iron concentrations were within the normal range due to menstruation. It is uncommon for women to present with symptoms of hemochromatosis during their reproductive life since their iron concentration is kept within normal range through monthly menstrual bleeding. PMID:27296845

  14. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  15. Solar power for the lunar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    Providing power over the 354 hour lunar night provides a considerable challenge to solar power concepts for a moonbase. Concepts are reviewed for providing night power for a solar powered moonbase. The categories of solutions considered are electrical storage, physical storage, transmitted power, and innovative concepts. Electrical storage is the most well-developed option. Less developed electrical storage options are capacitors and superconducting inductors. Physical storage options include storage of potential energy and storage of energy in flywheels. Thermal storage has potentially high energy/weight, but problems of conduction and radiation losses during the night need to be addressed. Transmitted power considers use of microwave or laser beams to transmit power either from orbit or directly from the Earth. Finally, innovative concepts proposed include reflecting light from orbital mirrors, locating the moonbase at a lunar pole, converting reflected Earthlight, or moving the moonbase to follow the sun.

  16. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  17. Vision Changes in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This Human Research Program 'Research to Outreach' video featuring NASA Clinical Translational Scientist Jennifer Fogarty explains the risk of vision impairment both during and after spaceflight, i...

  18. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  19. Night side electromagnetic response of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1973-01-01

    The inductive response of the moon to interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations has been measured by the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer. The dependence of the night side lunar response on frequency in the band from about 0.001 to 0.01 Hz is reported. It is shown that the night side response of the moon is not that of a sphere in vacuum. Instead, hydromagnetic radiation scattered from the moon is strongly confined to the interior of the cavity formed downstream from the moon in the solar wind.

  20. A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2014-06-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  1. NVG adjustment methods, eyepiece focus settings, and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdel, Richard; Baldwin, J. Bruce; Hausmann, Martha A.; Harrington, Lawrence K.; Craig, Jeffrey L.; Koepke, Corbin G.

    2006-05-01

    Several studies and many anecdotal reports indicate that aircrew members focus night vision goggle (NVG) eyepiece lenses to more negative powers than would be expected based on refractive error, presumably due to instrument myopia, "dark focus" myopia, and other factors. Excessive negative power stimulates accommodation, introducing risks from discomfort, fatigue, and blurred vision. Aircrew members are trained to employ specific adjustment techniques to minimize "over-minusing" of eyepiece lens powers, but those techniques are prone to error. The currently fielded AN/AVS-9 NVG (F4949) has a focus range of (+2.0) to (-6.0) diopters, and meets the needs of most aircrew. However, the new AN/AVS-10 NVG panoramic night vision goggle (PNVG) has a fixed focus of (-1.0) diopters due to engineering design constraints. Accessory snap-on lenses are available, but data are needed to optimize the distribution of lens powers to be acquired and maintained. This study involved the characterization of vision (visual acuity, perceived quality, and comfort) as a function of: 1) eyepiece focus setting using trial lenses; 2) F4949 eyepiece focus adjustments using a point source vs. a Hoffman 20/20 box; and 3) PNVG eyepiece lens selections using a lens bar vs. snap-on lens selections. Eight subjects with normal (20/20 corrected) vision ranging in age from 23 years to 49 participated in this study. The experiments were conducted in the Aerospace Vision Experimental Laboratory and the Dynamic Vision Assessment Facility at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio using F4949 and PNVG devices with a custom-designed NVG-compatible computer-based visual acuity acquisition system.

  2. [Air rescue missions at night: Data analysis of primary and secondary missions by the DRF air rescue service in 2014].

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, U; Neppl, S; Ahollinger, F; Schweigkofler, U; Weigt, J O; Frank, M; Zimmermann, M; Braun, J

    2015-06-01

    The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime. Particular requirements should be imposed for air rescue operations at night: a strict indication system for alerting, 4-man helicopter crews solely during the night as well as pilots (and copilots) with the correct qualifications and experience in dealing with night vision devices on a regular basis. Moreover, the helicopters need to be suitable and approved for night flying including cabin upgrades and the appropriate medical technology equipment. To increase the benefits of air rescue for specific diseases and injuries, a nationwide review of the processes is needed to further develop the primary air rescue service. PMID:26013391

  3. Health Impact Modelling of Active Travel Visions for England and Wales Using an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool (ITHIM)

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Givoni, Moshe; Morgan, Andrei Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving health benefits while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport offers a potential policy win-win; the magnitude of potential benefits, however, is likely to vary. This study uses an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling tool (ITHIM) to evaluate the health and environmental impacts of high walking and cycling transport scenarios for English and Welsh urban areas outside London. Methods Three scenarios with increased walking and cycling and lower car use were generated based upon the Visions 2030 Walking and Cycling project. Changes to carbon dioxide emissions were estimated by environmental modelling. Health impact assessment modelling was used to estimate changes in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) resulting from changes in exposure to air pollution, road traffic injury risk, and physical activity. We compare the findings of the model with results generated using the World Health Organization's Health Economic Assessment of Transport (HEAT) tools. Results This study found considerable reductions in disease burden under all three scenarios, with the largest health benefits attributed to reductions in ischemic heart disease. The pathways that produced the largest benefits were, in order, physical activity, road traffic injuries, and air pollution. The choice of dose response relationship for physical activity had a large impact on the size of the benefits. Modelling the impact on all-cause mortality rather than through individual diseases suggested larger benefits. Using the best available evidence we found fewer road traffic injuries for all scenarios compared with baseline but alternative assumptions suggested potential increases. Conclusions Methods to estimate the health impacts from transport related physical activity and injury risk are in their infancy; this study has demonstrated an integration of transport and health impact modelling approaches. The findings add to the case for a move from car transport to

  4. Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-herons at Falkner Island, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut, in 2004: Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Westbrook, Connecticut and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5 Regional Office, Hadley, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Kuter, M.

    2004-01-01

    night-herons and the behavior and productivity of the terns are affected by the activities of management personnel (or researchers) that may be moving around the island at night. The second objective is to develop new structures (or to modify existing ones) that can be used by adult Roseate Terns for nesting sites and/or by chicks as hiding sites so that tern eggs and chicks will be less susceptible to night-heron predation. Work on the development and comparative use of various man-made structures began prior to the start of the 2003 nesting season; work on the evaluation and testing of a video surveillance system to study the nocturnal behavior of the terns and night-herons began in June 2003. Reported here are (1) the results of work on the placement and use by Roseate Terns of several types of structures in different habitats, and (2) a description of the set-up, testing, and evaluation of a multi-camera video system to record tern and predator behavior during both day and night. Also given here is some additional information on other factors that affected the productivity of the Roseate Terns at FICT collected as part of the CRTMP which served as the underlying foundation for the additional work done with support of the 2003 Quick Response Funds.

  5. Which general surgical operations must be done at night?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Priest, P.; Ginzler, M.; Black, N.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s there has been increasing concern about hospital medical staffing. Achieving a Balance will lead to a reduction in the number of registrars and a possible increase in the work done out-of-hours by consultants. The deleterious effects of long hours of work have also attracted attention and, in particular, there is concern about the safety of operations performed at night by unsupervised junior doctors. There is an urgent need to examine how out-of-hours work can be reduced. This study was conducted in two phases. The out-of-hours surgical workload in four hospitals was examined. Appropriateness of the procedures and activities being carried out was then considered by a consensus panel, aided by a literature review. Most out-of-hours operations were performed by junior staff. The principal reasons suggested for operating at night are lack of day-time theatre space and the need to gain experience. There was considerable variation in the frequency with which different types of operation were performed among hospitals. The views of the panel suggest that up to one-third of operations currently performed at night could be postponed. It may be possible to postpone a higher proportion of operations performed after midnight. The appropriateness of the remaining operations has major implications for the work of consultants following the implementation of Achieving a Balance. PMID:1929131

  6. Night blindness precipitated by isotretinoin in the setting of hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Welsh, B M; Smith, A L; Elder, J E; Varigos, G A

    1999-11-01

    A 16-year-old male developed night blindness 2 weeks after starting isotretinoin at a dose of 20 mg per day for cystic acne. He also had cystic fibrosis, complicated by hepatic cirrhosis. Despite long-term oral vitamin A supplementation, serum vitamin A levels were found to be 0.3 mumol/L (normal range 0.9-2.5 mumol/L). Oral vitamin A replacement was instituted with resolution of his visual symptoms in 6 months. Isotretinoin therapy was successfully continued with no deterioration in liver function. Isotretinoin has been reported to cause deterioration in night vision. In vitro evidence suggests isotretinoin may interfere with the processing of endogenous vitamin A in the retina. This case highlights the need for careful monitoring of serum vitamin A status in patients with malabsorptive states on isotretinoin therapy. PMID:10570558

  7. Requirements of an HMS/D for a night-flying helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Schranner, R.

    1990-10-01

    Helicopter pilots prefer for the night-flying tasks a combination of electro-optical sensors with different physical principles in the Infra-Red (IR) and in the near IR spectrum: Thermal Imager (TI or FLIR), Night Vision Goggles (NVG) or Low Light Level Television (LLLTV) . The limits of these three sensors are in extreme darkness with less than 1 mLux illumination or in heavy rain, fog or snow with temperature differences below 0.1 K or with cross-over effects respectively. The development goal for the near future should be an integrated, lightweight helmet h a binocular display on the visor providing two or three sensor images. The paper describes operational requirements, human engineering aspects and the requirements of an integrated light-weight helmet with two NVG-tubes and two CRTs to display superimposed NVG and TI images with flight symbologies.

  8. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  9. GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements

  10. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  11. Excitation of the Venus night airglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, G. M.; Barth, C. A.; Argabright, V.

    1977-01-01

    The strongest spectral features in the Venus night airglow between 3000 and 8000 A are identified as the Herzberg II bands of molecular oxygen. These bands have been produced in a laboratory afterglow by the recombination of oxygen atoms in the presence of carbon dioxide molecules. It is hypothesized that the same mechanism produces this emission in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  12. Family Math Night: Math Standards in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Why should your school have a Family Math Night?: (1) Help students learn essential math concepts; (2) Give parents a chance to serve as models of motivation, persistence and competence; and (3) Promote math success in a supportive setting. With its step-by-step directions and suggestions for both teachers and parents, this book takes the worry…

  13. Globe at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Sze Leung; Pun, Jason Chun Shing; SO, Chu-wing; Shibata, Yukiko; Walker, Constance Elaine; Agata, Hidehiko

    2015-08-01

    The Global at Night - Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (GaN-MN) is an international project for long-term monitoring of night sky conditions around the world. The GaN-MN consists of fixed monitoring stations each equipped with a Sky Quality Meter - Lensed Ethernet (SQM-LE), which is a specialized light sensor for night sky brightness (NSB) measurement. NSB data are continuously collected at high sampling frequency throughout the night, and these data will be instantly made available to the general public to provide a real-time snapshot of the global light pollution condition. A single data collection methodology, including data sampling frequency, data selection criteria, device design and calibration, and schemes for data quality control, was adopted to ensure uniformity in the data collected. This is essential for a systematic and global study of the level of light pollution. The data collected will also provide the scientific backbone in our efforts to contribute to dark sky conservation through education to the general public and policy makers. The GaN-MN project is endorsed by the IAU IYL Executive Committee Working Group as a major Cosmic Light program in the International Year of Light.

  14. Why things go bump in the night

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    Visual processing leads to false security. Professor Emeritus Herschel W. Leibowitz of Pennsylvania State University pointed out some important facts about night-time navigation-vehicular or other - in a 1995 Distinguished Scientific Award Address, printed last spring in American Psychologist. People are often more tired at night. If they are working overtime or doing shift work, their systems are probably off-kilter. Unquestionably, they cannot see as well at night-night myopia has been investigated since the 18th century. The problem is this: with those factors so obvious, why do people fail to compensate for them by changing their driving habits enough to balance out the risks? First, researchers poking around in, among other places, the brains of hamsters, discovered that there are two functionally separate visual processing systems. The orientation and guidance system is much less sensitive to the amount of light than is the focal systems; the latter is the system with which we recognize objects. That means a worker can securely find his or her way to the substation entrance form the parking lot, despite low light, but can easily stumble in an unexpected pot-hole on the way. Or a driver can stick to his lane, with the familiar help of feedback from the steering wheel, but be too slow to identify objects in the road.

  15. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  16. Things That Go "Peent" in the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidich, Carole Louise

    1981-01-01

    Describes early spring night field trips by two naturalists and ten adults, armed with cameras and flashlights, in search of Spotted Salamanders performing ritual mating dances. Although dancing salamanders proved elusive, their habits and those of other pond life were examined and Spring American Woodcock nuptial flights were observed. (NEC)

  17. Analysis of Thursday Night NFL Winning Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a dataset and associated analysis of the scores of National Football League (NFL) games over the 2012, 2013, and first five weeks of the 2014 season. In the face of current media attention to "lopsided" scores in Thursday night games in the early part of the 2014 season, t-test results indicate no statistically…

  18. Protein Kinase C Activation as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease: Is there a Role for Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision-like Proteins?

    PubMed

    Talman, Virpi; Pascale, Alessia; Jäntti, Maria; Amadio, Marialaura; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It affects predominantly brain areas that are critical for memory and learning and is characterized by two main pathological hallmarks: extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been classified as one of the cognitive kinases controlling memory and learning. By regulating several signalling pathways involved in amyloid and tau pathologies, it also plays an inhibitory role in AD pathophysiology. Among downstream targets of PKC are the embryonic lethal abnormal vision (ELAV)-like RNA-binding proteins that modulate the stability and the translation of specific target mRNAs involved in synaptic remodelling linked to cognitive processes. This MiniReview summarizes the current evidence on the role of PKC and ELAV-like proteins in learning and memory, highlighting how their derangement can contribute to AD pathophysiology. This last aspect emphasizes the potential of pharmacological activation of PKC as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:27001133

  19. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  20. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral vision. All the lines, both vertical and horizontal, should appear straight and unbroken. They should meet ... You need a well-lit area at least 10 feet long for the distance vision test, and the following: Measuring tape or a ...

  1. Overview of computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  2. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The Future of Reading and Learning To…

  3. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in the…

  4. Taking Care of Your Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  5. Clinical Trials in Vision Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people who volunteer. ... about the treatment. How are clinical trials in vision different from other clinical trials? Eyes are one ...

  6. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  7. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  8. (Computer) Vision without Sight.

    PubMed

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  9. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  10. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undrus, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  11. Single-Unit Activity during Natural Vision: Diversity, Consistency, and Spatial Sensitivity among AF Face Patch Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Brian E.; Elnaiem, Heba D.; Kurnikova, Anastasia I.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene. PMID:25855170

  12. Near Vision Test for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eyes Education Series Online Training and Certification Patient Education Materials Star Pupils ... Test for Adults Testing Near Vision and Distance Vision Prevent Blindness does NOT recommend that you ...

  13. Three-dimensional motion estimation using genetic algorithms from image sequence in an active stereo vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipanda, Albert; Ajot, Jerome; Woo, Sanghyuk

    2003-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for estimating 3D rigid motion parameters from an image sequence of a moving object. The 3D surface measurement is achieved using an active stereovision system composed of a camera and a light projector, which illuminates objects to be analyzed by a pyramid-shaped laser beam. By associating the laser rays and the spots in the 2D image, the 3D points corresponding to these spots are reconstructed. Each image of the sequence provides a set of 3D points, which is modeled by a B-spline surface. Therefore, estimating the motion between two images of the sequence boils down to matching two B-spline surfaces. We consider the matching environment as an optimization problem and find the optimal solution using Genetic Algorithms. A chromosome is encoded by concatenating six binary coded parameters, the three angles of rotation and the x-axis, y-axis and z-axis translations. We have defined an original fitness function to calculate the similarity measure between two surfaces. The matching process is performed iteratively: the number of points to be matched grows as the process advances and results are refined until convergence. Experimental results with a real image sequence are presented to show the effectiveness of the method.

  14. Vision, eye disease, and art: 2015 Keeler Lecture.

    PubMed

    Marmor, M F

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine normal vision and eye disease in relation to art. Ophthalmology cannot explain art, but vision is a tool for artists and its normal and abnormal characteristics may influence what an artist can do. The retina codes for contrast, and the impact of this is evident throughout art history from Asian brush painting, to Renaissance chiaroscuro, to Op Art. Art exists, and can portray day or night, only because of the way retina adjusts to light. Color processing is complex, but artists have exploited it to create shimmer (Seurat, Op Art), or to disconnect color from form (fauvists, expressionists, Andy Warhol). It is hazardous to diagnose eye disease from an artist's work, because artists have license to create as they wish. El Greco was not astigmatic; Monet was not myopic; Turner did not have cataracts. But when eye disease is documented, the effects can be analyzed. Color-blind artists limit their palette to ambers and blues, and avoid greens. Dense brown cataracts destroy color distinctions, and Monet's late canvases (before surgery) showed strange and intense uses of color. Degas had failing vision for 40 years, and his pastels grew coarser and coarser. He may have continued working because his blurred vision smoothed over the rough work. This paper can barely touch upon the complexity of either vision or art. However, it demonstrates some ways in which understanding vision and eye disease give insight into art, and thereby an appreciation of both art and ophthalmology. PMID:26563659

  15. Object tracking in a stereo and infrared vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colantonio, S.; Benvenuti, M.; Di Bono, M. G.; Pieri, G.; Salvetti, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time detection, recognition and tracking of moving objects in open and unknown environments using an infrared (IR) and visible vision system. A thermo-camera and two stereo visible-cameras synchronized are used to acquire multi-source information: three-dimensional data about target geometry and its thermal information are combined to improve the robustness of the tracking procedure. Firstly, target detection is performed by extracting its characteristic features from the images and then by storing the computed parameters on a specific database; secondly, the tracking task is carried on using two different computational approaches. A Hierarchical Artificial Neural Network (HANN) is used during active tracking for the recognition of the actual target, while, when partial occlusions or masking occur, a database retrieval method is used to support the search of the correct target followed. A prototype has been tested on case studies regarding the identification and tracking of animals moving at night in an open environment, and the surveillance of known scenes for unauthorized access control.

  16. Light exposure before learning improves memory consolidation at night.

    PubMed

    Shan, Li-Li; Guo, Hao; Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Hu, Xin-Tian; Huang, Jing-Fei; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Richter-Levin, Gal; Richter-Levine, Gal; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light is recently recognized as a modulator able to activate the hippocampus and modulate memory processing, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms. Here, we report that in mice, a short pulse of white light before learning dramatically improves consolidation of contextual fear memory during the night. The light exposure increases hippocampal active p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP). These light effects are abolished in PAK1 knockout and dominant-negative transgenic mice, but preserved by expression of constitutively active PAK1 in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that light can act as a switch of PAK1 activity that modulate CA1 LTP and thereby memory consolidation without affecting learning and short-term memory. PMID:26493375

  17. Light exposure before learning improves memory consolidation at night

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Li-Li; Guo, Hao; Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Zheng-Ping; Hu, Xin-Tian; Huang, Jing-Fei; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Richter-Levine, Gal; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light is recently recognized as a modulator able to activate the hippocampus and modulate memory processing, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms. Here, we report that in mice, a short pulse of white light before learning dramatically improves consolidation of contextual fear memory during the night. The light exposure increases hippocampal active p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP). These light effects are abolished in PAK1 knockout and dominant-negative transgenic mice, but preserved by expression of constitutively active PAK1 in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that light can act as a switch of PAK1 activity that modulate CA1 LTP and thereby memory consolidation without affecting learning and short-term memory. PMID:26493375

  18. Vision Voice: A Multimedia Exploration of Diabetes and Vision Loss in East Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Brett; Nedelman, Michael; Redwood, Charysse; Ramos, Michelle A.; Hughson-Andrade, Jessica; Hernandez, Evelyn; Jordan, Dioris; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background East Harlem, New York, is a community actively struggling with diabetes and its complications, including vision-related conditions that can affect many aspects of daily life. Objectives Vision Voice was a qualitative community-based participatory research (CBPR) study that intended to better understand the needs and experiences of people living with diabetes, other comorbid chronic illnesses, and vision loss in East Harlem. Methods Using photovoice methodology, four participants took photographs, convened to review their photographs, and determined overarching themes for the group’s collective body of work. Lessons Learned Identified themes included effect of decreased vision function on personal independence/mobility and self-management of chronic conditions and the importance of informing community members and health care providers about these issues. The team next created a documentary film that further develops the narratives of the photovoice participants. Conclusions The Vision Voice photovoice project was an effective tool to assess community needs, educate and raise awareness. PMID:26548784

  19. The Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Vision, announced by President Bush in January 2004, will extend humanity's presence across the solar system, starting with a return to the moon by the end of the next decade, followed by journeys to Mars and beyond. Building on the best of Apollo and shuttle technology, NASA's 21st century exploration system will be affordable, reliable, versatile and safe. The exploratory voyages of the next few decades have the potential, in this lifetime, to answer age-old questions about how life begins, whether life exists elsewhere, and how the inevitable discoveries along the way will help better our lives here on Earth. Over the next century, the Vision for Space Exploration will set in motion activities to improve our understanding of age-old questions, and inspire new generations to pursue math and science. We'll see new industries and technologies evolve and discoveries that will benefit all.

  20. Photosynthesis affects following night leaf conductance in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Richards, James H

    2009-01-01

    Night-time stomatal opening in C(3) plants may result in significant water loss when no carbon gain is possible. The objective of this study was to determine if endogenous patterns of night-time stomatal opening, as reflected in leaf conductance, in Vicia faba are affected by photosynthetic conditions the previous day. Reducing photosynthesis with low light or low CO(2) resulted in reduced night-time stomatal opening the following night, irrespective of the effects on daytime stomatal conductance. Likewise, increasing photosynthesis with enriched CO(2) levels resulted in increased night-time stomatal opening the following night. Reduced night-time stomatal opening was not the result of an inability to regulate stomatal aperture as leaves with reduced night-time stomatal opening were capable of greater night-time opening when exposed to low CO(2). After acclimating plants to long or short days, it was found that night-time leaf conductance was greater in plants acclimated to short days, and associated with greater leaf starch and nitrate accumulation, both of which may affect night-time guard cell osmotic potential. Direct measurement of guard cell contents during endogenous night-time stomatal opening will help identify the mechanism of the effect of daytime photosynthesis on subsequent night-time stomatal regulation. PMID:19076531

  1. Detection of oil slicks at night with airborne infrared imagers. Final report, October 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, G.M.; Hover, G.L.

    1994-12-01

    The detection of oil slicks on the ocean is a Coast Guard priority. Daytime detection in clear weather is routine; but nighttime detection requires sophisticated imaging sensors. Infrared imagers have demonstrated some capability to detect oil slicks at night in the marine environment. Infrared imagers sense the thermal radiation, and its variations, in a scene rather than the reflected radiation. Gimbal-mounted thermal imagers operating in the 8-12 micron region are currently flown on Coast Guard aircraft. This study compared the performance of these imagers with hand-held imagers operating in the 3-5 micron region. The comparison was primarily theoretical with semi-quantitative support from an uncalibrated data base of infrared images taken wit various sensors. It was found theoretically, and supported by image data, that the 8-12 micron instruments produced images with better water-oil contrast at night. This differential behavior was theoretically predicted to hold over a wide range of environmental conditions. The differential behavior was traced to the fact that the optical properties of water and oil are more different in the 8-12 than in the 3-5 micron bands. The utility of night-vision imagers or low-light level TVs was also assessed. Calculations indicated that typical water-oil contrasts would not be seen with current sensors. Image data appearing to contradict this conclusion was found to be defective in the sense that the conditions of the experiments were not representative of operational conditions. It is recommended that: the use of 8-12 micron imagers be continued for oil slick searches at night and the potential of new night-time imaging devices be assessed.

  2. Stereo vision and strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Read, J C A

    2015-01-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  3. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  4. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  5. Urban-like night illumination reduces melatonin release in European blackbirds (Turdus merula): implications of city life for biological time-keeping of songbirds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Artificial light-at-night is known to affect a broad array of behaviours and physiological processes. In urbanized bird species, light-at-night advances important biological rhythms such as daily cycles of activity/rest and timing of reproduction, but our knowledge of the underlying physiological mechanisms is limited. Given its role as chronobiological signal, melatonin is a strong candidate for mediating the effects of light-at-night. Results We exposed urban and rural European blackbirds (Turdus merula) to two light treatments equal in photoperiod but with different light intensities at night. The control group was exposed to 0.0001 lux (almost darkness), while the experimental group was exposed to 0.3 lux at night, simulating conditions recorded previously on free-living urban blackbirds. We obtained diel profiles of plasma melatonin for all birds in summer (July) and winter (January), while simultaneously recording locomotor activity. Daily patterns of melatonin concentrations were clearly affected by light-at-night in both seasons. In winter, melatonin concentrations of light-at-night birds were lower in the early and late night than in those of birds kept in darkness. In summer, melatonin concentrations of the light-at-night birds were lower through all night compared to birds kept in darkness. Locomotor activity in light-at-night birds was overall higher than in control individuals, both during the day and at night, and it increased sharply before dawn. In winter, the amount of activity before dawn in the light-at-night group correlated with changes in melatonin from midnight to late night: the greater the decrease in melatonin, the greater the amount of pre-dawn activity. Urban and rural birds responded similarly to light-at-night with respect to melatonin, but differed in their behaviour, with rural birds showing more locomotor activity than urban counterparts. Conclusions This study points to reduced melatonin release at night as a potential

  6. Day and night shift schedules are associated with lower sleep quality in Evening-types.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age ± SD: 28.9 ± 3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00 h-07:00 h; day work schedule: 07:00 h-15:00 h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n = 13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n = 26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No

  7. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  8. Moonbase night power by laser illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Moonbase solar-power concepts must somehow address the energy storage problem posed by the 354-hour lunar night. Attention is presently given to the feasibility of laser-array illumination of a lunar base, using technology that is projected to be available in the near term. Beam-spreading due to atmospheric distortions could be reduced through the use of adaptive optics to compensate for atmospheric turbulence.

  9. The Social Implications of Light at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: It has been shown that Light at Night (LAN) has serious implications for both the environment and human health. What is considered here are the social implications that arise from these problems, and what needs to be done to redress these issues.Introduction: Light at Night is a serious environmental problem whose environmental and medical implications have been seriously underestimated. If no action is taken the problem will become progressively worse and may reach a point where nothing can be done about it. The issues arising from it need to be identified andappropriate action taken to mitigate these issues as far as possible. Hopefully this can be done amicably by self regulation within communities, but if this fails then stringent anti-light pollution legislation will have to be enacted. Some countries and local authorities have already begun to make faltering steps in this direction1, but so far the measures taken have been minimal and largely ineffective. Light at Night (and the light pollution resulting from it) therefore remains a problem and continues to get worse despite the measures already taken to reduce it. Domes of scattered light continue to hang above our cities, killing off our wildlife and endangering public health. Attitudes need to change and urgent measures need to be taken in order to reduce or eliminate its impact.

  10. The night-eating syndrome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gallant, A R; Lundgren, J; Drapeau, V

    2012-06-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity is a global concern. Eating behaviour and circadian rhythm are proving to be important factors in the aetiology of obesity. The night-eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by increased late-night eating, insomnia, a depressed mood and distress. It is evident that prevalence is higher among weight-related populations than the general community. The exact relationship between this syndrome and obesity remains unclear. The reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature likely include varying diagnostic criteria and a wide range of study population characteristics. NES does not always lead to weight gain in thus certain individuals may be susceptible to night-eating-related weight gain. Weight loss through surgical and behavioural treatments has shown success in diminishing symptoms. The increasing literature associating obesity with circadian imbalances strengthens the link between the NES and obesity. Circadian genes may play a role in this syndrome. This review will examine different aspects of obesity in the context of the NES. PMID:22222118

  11. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use the sharing ... JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when ...

  12. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot flashes are when your body suddenly feels ... In some cases, hot flashes can make you sweat. Night sweats are hot flashes with sweating at ...

  13. Night Shift Work May Be Tough on A Woman's Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158508.html Night Shift Work May Be Tough on a Woman's Heart But ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who work rotating night shifts may face a slightly increased ...

  14. Night Shift Work May Be Tough on A Woman's Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who work rotating night shifts may face a slightly increased risk ... of heart disease associated with longer duration of rotating night shift work, which appears to wane after ...

  15. Artificial Vision: Vision of a Newcomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikado, Takashi; Sawai, Hajime; Tano, Yasuo

    The Japanese Consortium for an Artificial Retina has developed a new stimulating method named Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS). Using STS, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were effectively elicited in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats and in rabbits and cats with normal vision, using relatively small stimulus currents, such that the spatial resolution appeared to be adequate for a visual prosthesis. The histological analysis showed no damage to the rabbit retina when electrical currents sufficient to elicit distinct EEPs were applied. It was also shown that transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) to the retina prevented the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). STS, which is less invasive than other retinal prostheses, could be one choice to achieve artificial vision, and the optimal parameters of electrical stimulation may also be effective for the neuroprotection of residual RGCs.

  16. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  17. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  18. Blindness and vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause: With cataracts , vision may be cloudy or fuzzy, and bright light may cause glare With diabetes, ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  19. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap ... Shega JW. Vision loss. In: Wachtel TJ, ed. Geriatric Clinical Advisor: Instant diagnosis and treatment . Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  1. Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  2. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  3. Agile automated vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandrich, Juergen; Schmitt, Lorenz A.

    1994-11-01

    The microelectronic industry is a protagonist in driving automated vision to new paradigms. Today semiconductor manufacturers use vision systems quite frequently in their fabs in the front-end process. In fact, the process depends on reliable image processing systems. In the back-end process, where ICs are assembled and packaged, today vision systems are only partly used. But in the next years automated vision will become compulsory for the back-end process as well. Vision will be fully integrated into every IC package production machine to increase yields and reduce costs. Modem high-speed material processing requires dedicated and efficient concepts in image processing. But the integration of various equipment in a production plant leads to unifying handling of data flow and interfaces. Only agile vision systems can act with these contradictions: fast, reliable, adaptable, scalable and comprehensive. A powerful hardware platform is a unneglectable requirement for the use of advanced and reliable, but unfortunately computing intensive image processing algorithms. The massively parallel SIMD hardware product LANTERN/VME supplies a powerful platform for existing and new functionality. LANTERN/VME is used with a new optical sensor for IC package lead inspection. This is done in 3D, including horizontal and coplanarity inspection. The appropriate software is designed for lead inspection, alignment and control tasks in IC package production and handling equipment, like Trim&Form, Tape&Reel and Pick&Place machines.

  4. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential. 550.122 Section 550.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay...

  5. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential. 550.121 Section 550.121 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.121 Authorization of night...

  6. 5 CFR 550.122 - Computation of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of night pay differential. 550.122 Section 550.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.122 Computation of night pay...

  7. 5 CFR 550.121 - Authorization of night pay differential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of night pay differential. 550.121 Section 550.121 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Night Pay § 550.121 Authorization of night...

  8. Blueberry effects on dark vision and recovery after photobleaching: placebo-controlled crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; McDonald, Jane E; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Tremblay, Francois

    2014-11-19

    Clinical evidence for anthocyanin benefits in night vision is controversial. This paper presents two human trials investigating blueberry anthocyanin effects on dark adaptation, functional night vision, and vision recovery after retinal photobleaching. One trial, S2 (n = 72), employed a 3 week intervention and a 3 week washout, two anthocyanin doses (271 and 7.11 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3g eq)), and placebo. The other trial, L1 (n = 59), employed a 12 week intervention and an 8 week washout and tested one dose (346 mg C3g eq) and placebo. In both S2 and L1 neither dark adaptation nor night vision was improved by anthocyanin intake. However, in both trials anthocyanin consumption hastened the recovery of visual acuity after photobleaching. In S2 both anthocyanin doses were effective (P = 0.014), and in L1 recovery was improved at 8 weeks (P = 0.027) and 12 weeks (P = 0.030). Although photobleaching recovery was hastened by anthocyanins, it is not known whether this improvement would have an impact on everyday vision. PMID:25335781

  9. An approach to select the appropriate image fusion algorithm for night vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Gabriele; Scherer-Negenborn, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    For many years image fusion has been an important subject in the image processing community. The purpose of image fusion is taking over the relevant information from two or several images to construct one result image. In the past many fusion algorithms were developed and published. Some attempts were made to assess the results from several fusion algorithms automatically with the objective of gaining the best suited output for human observers. But it was shown, that such objective machine-assessment does not always correlate with the observer's subjective perception. In this paper a novel approach is presented, which selects the appropriate fusion algorithm to receive the best image enhancement results for human observers. Assessment of the fusion algorithms' results was done based on the local contrasts. Fusion algorithms are used on a representative data set covering different use cases and image contents. These fusion results of selected data are judged subjectively by some human observers. Then the assessment algorithm with the best fit to the visual perception is used to select the best fusion algorithm for comparable scenarios.

  10. Retinal-image quality and night-vision performance after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Castro, José J; Pozo, Antonio M; Rubiño, Manuel; Anera, Rosario G; Jiménez Del Barco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L) and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. PMID:24949202

  11. Modern trends in industrial technology of production of optical polymeric components for night vision devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goev, A. I.; Knyazeva, N. A.; Potelov, V. V.; Senik, B. N.

    2005-06-01

    The present paper represents in detail the complex approach to creating industrial technology of production of polymeric optical components: information has been given on optical polymeric materials, automatic machines for injection moulding, the possibilities of the Moldflow system (the AB "Universal" company) used for mathematical simulation of the technological process of injection moulding and making the moulds.

  12. Luminescent electrophoretic particles via miniemulsion polymerization for night-vision electrophoretic displays.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianwei; Wen, Ting; Qiang, Li; Ren, Jun; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-05-01

    A novel glowing electrophoretic display (EPD) is achieved by luminescent electrophoretic particles (EPs), which is potentially to improve the situation in which the existing EPDs disable in darkness. To combine both modes of reflective and emissive displays, a trilayer luminescence EP is designed and synthesized via an improved miniemulsion polymerization. The luminescence EP is composed of a pigment core, a polystyrene interlayer, and a fluorescent coating. The particle sizes are from 140 to 170 nm, and the size distribution is narrow. Their ζ potential value is -12.4 mV, which is enough to migrate in the electrophoretic fluid by the driving of an electric field. The display performance of the particles in an EPD cell has been characterized under the bias of 20 V. Both the reflectance (491 nm) and fluorescence (521 nm) intensities of the EPD cell remained in a constant range after 30 switches. PMID:23547950

  13. German infrared and night vision technology: from the beginning until 1945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krake, M.; Rothe, H.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the invention of the photocell four German organizations forced the development of electrooptics in Germany: Allgemeine Electrizitaetsgesellschaft in Berlin, Zeiss in Jena, Elektroakustik in Kiel and the German Reichspost in Berlin. The outcome of this effort were: image converters with alkali and semiconductor photocathodes, infrared homing devices for anti aircraft missiles and heat bearing devices. These devices were used for instance in the German tank no. 5 Panther, the anti aircraft missiles Enzian and Schmetterling and for the coastal defense of Denmark. It is interesting to know that the infrared homing device of the sidewinder rocket is based on that of the Enzian.

  14. Day/night ANVIS/HUD-24 (day HUD) flight test and pilot evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yona, Zvi; Weiser, Ben; Hamburger, Oded

    2004-09-01

    The Day/Night ANVIS/HUD-24 gives pilots the ultimate head-out flight solution: 24-hour operational capability from a single integrated system. The basic integrated system combines the standard Night Vision Goggle (NVG) image with vital aircraft flight and navigation information, currently operational on over 4500 helicopters worldwide. Introducing the new Day HUD add-on module the same flight information is displayed for day use. The Day Head Up Display (HUD) is an add-on, complimentary to the basic night ANVIS/HUD system (AN/AVS-7). A lightweight optical module enhancing the day flight operation is designed to allow utility and reconnaissance helicopter day-mission operation by providing complete daytime head-out flight information. This add-on unit enhances flight safety, maximizes tactical survivability, and increases situational awareness during critical landing and takeoff phases. The Day HUD offers a unique 25° field-of-view, monocular, see-through flight information display. It mounts directly to the standard NVG mounting, incorporating a state of the art AMLCD flat panel display, high brightness solid-state backlight and compact optics resulting in a high contrast, high visibility display. The Day HUD test and evaluation program included extensive man-machine interface tests and numerous flight test aircraft in more than six separate countries. This paper will also address flight training, customer acceptance and expand on these findings and observations.

  15. The GLOBE at Night Campaign: Promoting Dark Skies Awareness Beyond IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most productive programs in the IYA2009 Dark Skies Awareness Cornerstone Project has been GLOBE at Night. The GLOBE at Night program has endeavored to promote social awareness of the dark sky by getting the general public to measure light pollution and submit results on-line. During IYA2009 alone, over 15,700 measurements from 70 countries were contributed during the 2-week campaign period. That amount is twice the number of measurements on average from previous years. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for Dark Skies Awareness have been distributed at these training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and Dark Skies Ranger Activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. There were particularly spirited and creative GLOBE at Night campaigns around the world in 2009. One such "poster child” was carried out by 6500 students in northern Indiana. The students produced 3,391 GLOBE at Night measurements. To visualize the magnitudes of dark sky lost to light pollution, these students removed over 12,000 of the 35,000 stacked LEGO blocks that represented an ideal night sky across the school district. The presentation will provide an update with lessons learned, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For further information, visit www.globe.gov/globeatnight.

  16. Globe At Night 2007: Light Pollution Awareness and the Citizen-Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-05-01

    The GLOBE at Night 2007 program has been built upon the success of the inaugural campaign in March 2006 when 4600 observations were submitted by citizen-scientists from 96 countries. Participation this year is up by 50 percent. The international star-hunting event known as GLOBE at Night returned March 8-21, 2007 in two flavors: the classic GLOBE at Night activity incorporating unaided-eye observations toward Orion, and a new effort to obtain precise measurements of urban dark skies toward zenith using digital sky-brightness meters. Both flavors of the program were designed to heighten the awareness about the impact of artificial lighting on local environments, and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world population. To make possible the digital GLOBE at Night program, the NSF funded 135 low-cost, digital sky-quality meters (manufactured by Unihedron). Along with related materials developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the meters were distributed to citizen-scientists in 21 U.S. states plus Washington DC, and in 5 other countries, including Chile, where NOAO has a major observatory. The citizen-scientists were selected from teachers, their students, astronomers at observatories, International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) members and staff from 19 science centers. For each meter, citizen-scientists were asked to make 30 measurements from different locations in their region. The data is being pooled for regional analysis. The success of GLOBE at Night 2007 is a major step toward the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, when one goal is to make the digital data collection into a worldwide activity. In this presentation, we will outline the set-up for the digital part of the program, the outcome and the plans for the future. GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between NOAO, the GLOBE Program, CADIAS, Windows to the Universe, ESRI and IDA.

  17. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  18. Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

  19. Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H

    2012-01-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659

  20. Experiment D015: Night image intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shopple, T. J.; Eck, G. F.; Prince, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    A performance test of a night image intensification system for use as a visual aid by the crewmen in Gemini is reported. The equipment package consisted of (1) image intensification camera; (2) camera control unit; (3) viewing monitor; (4) recording monitor and photographic recorder; and (5) monitor electronics and equipment control unit. Representative photographs are predominantly of lights and clouds. Photographs of three different sections of coastline reveal a contrast between the images of land and ocean. These images range in quality from good to poor.

  1. Insect vision as model for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.

    1992-11-01

    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  2. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    PubMed

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments. PMID:12611210

  3. Ethics in Darwin's melancholy vision.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryson

    2011-03-01

    Darwinian natural selection draws on Malthus' harsh vision of human society to explain how organisms come to be adapted to their environments. Natural selection produces the appearance of teleology, but requires only efficient causal processes: undirected, heritable variation combined with effects of the variations on survival and reproduction. This paper draws a sharp distinction between the resulting form of backwards-directed teleology and the future-directed teleology we ascribe to intentional human activity. Rather than dismiss teleology as mere illusion, the paper concludes with an account of how future-directed teleology came to be a justifiable part of how we understand ourselves. PMID:21300312

  4. NASA Night Sky Network: Building Community and Providing Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chippindale, S. P.; Berendsen, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nine months after the release of the first Night Sky Network Outreach Toolkit amateur astronomers report using the materials at over 700 events with a total of over 60,000 people in attendance. In this poster we outline the development of these materials designed specifically for amateur astronomers and the developing sense of community among those using the materials. Development of materials is done in a partnership with the Astronomical Society of the Pacific educators working closely with a NASA e/po team. Amateur astronomers are involved at every step of the process. Coordination with NASA e/po team members (initially the NASA-JPL Navigator e/po) is essential throughout the process not only to ensure accuracy but to add creative input. Traning for the materials was developed with the Navigator team and is now done via a DVD that is included in each Outreach ToolKit. The community of practice is built and supported by: * use of the same materials * exchange of stories and resources on bulletin board available only to registered members * telecons with NASA scientists * newsletters Typical response from participant, ``Thank you so much for offering their presentation to the amateur community. Telecons like this and the NSN are a great way to get information out to amateurs which in turn pass the same information onto the public. Please keep the information flowing it's great!" Raleigh Astronomy Club of North Carolina Special thanks to the NASA-JPL Navigator EPO for providing the initial vision and funding for the development and ongoing support of this program and to the CfA-NASA Structure and Evolution of the Universe Education Forum and the NASA Origins Education Forum for continuing support of the NSN and the creation of subsequent Outreach ToolKits.

  5. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  6. Coronatine Facilitates Pseudomonas syringae Infection of Arabidopsis Leaves at Night

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana; Chitrakar, Reejana; Price, Lenore; Breitbach, Zachary S.; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-01-01

    In many land plants, the stomatal pore opens during the day and closes during the night. Thus, periods of darkness could be effective in decreasing pathogen penetration into leaves through stomata, the primary sites for infection by many pathogens. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 produces coronatine (COR) and opens stomata, raising an intriguing question as to whether this is a virulence strategy to facilitate bacterial infection at night. In fact, we found that (a) biological concentration of COR is effective in opening dark-closed stomata of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, (b) the COR defective mutant Pst DC3118 is less effective in infecting Arabidopsis in the dark than under light and this difference in infection is reduced with the wild type bacterium Pst DC3000, and (c) cma, a COR biosynthesis gene, is induced only when the bacterium is in contact with the leaf surface independent of the light conditions. These findings suggest that Pst DC3000 activates virulence factors at the pre-invasive phase of its life cycle to infect plants even when environmental conditions (such as darkness) favor stomatal immunity. This functional attribute of COR may provide epidemiological advantages for COR-producing bacteria on the leaf surface. PMID:27446113

  7. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients.

  8. Overview of sports vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  9. Periodontium bestows vision!!

    PubMed

    Gulati, Minkle; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Pandey, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    The role of periodontium in supporting the tooth structures is well-known. However, less is known about its contribution to the field of ophthalmology. Corneal diseases are among major causes of blindness affecting millions of people worldwide, for which synthetic keratoprosthesis was considered the last resort to restore vision. Yet, these synthetic keratoprosthesis suffered from serious limitations, especially the foreign body reactions invoked by them resulting in extrusion of the whole prosthesis from the eye. To overcome these shortcomings, an autologous osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis utilizing intraoral entities was introduced that could positively restore vision even in cases of severely damaged eyes. The successful functioning of this prosthesis, however, predominantly depended on the presence of a healthy periodontium for grafting. Therefore, the following short communication aims to acknowledge this lesser-known role of the periodontium and other oral structures in bestowing vision to the blind patients. PMID:27563213

  10. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  11. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  12. Low Vision Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore, Md., to incorporate NASA software originally developed by NASA to process satellite images into the Low Vision Enhancement System (LVES). The LVES, referred to as 'ELVIS' by its users, is a portable image processing system that could make it possible to improve a person's vision by enhancing and altering images to compensate for impaired eyesight. The system consists of two orientation cameras, a zoom camera, and a video projection system. The headset and hand-held control weigh about two pounds each. Pictured is Jacob Webb, the first Mississippian to use the LVES.

  13. Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

  14. Sr/Ca in Coral Aragonite: Is Night Carbonate a Good Indicator of Sea Surface Temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, N.; Finch, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Sr/Ca in coral skeletons has potential as an indicator of past seawater conditions but exhibits geochemical heterogeneity on a small spatial scale (<100 μm) that does not reflect variations in sea surface temperature (SST) or chemistry. Skeletal Sr/Ca is affected by variations in skeletal calcification rate which may be dependent on the photosynthetic activity of the zooxanthellae in coral tissue. The skeleton deposited at night may be unaffected by these variations and may be a more reliable indicator of SST (Cohen et al. 2001). We used secondary ion mass spectrometry with a 10 μm diameter analysis spot to construct records of Sr/Ca in a Porites lobata specimen from Lanakai, Oahu, Hawaii. Analyses were performed on sections cut perpendicular to the growth surface of the coral skeleton, spanning annual bands. Parallel tracks were analysed following fasciculi (composed of acicular crystals deposited during the day) and centres of calcification (composed of fusiform crystals deposited at night). The Sr/Ca of the day and night material follow similar seasonal trends but are offset with night carbonate typically enriched by 0.3-0.4 mmol mol-1. Both profiles are characterised by large Sr fluctuations of 0.4-0.5 mmol mol-1, which are deposited approximately days apart and are superimposed on the general Sr seasonal trend. These fluctuations do not reflect variations in SST but may relate to daily variations in coral calcification or linear extension rate both of which can vary markedly during the day and night. We conclude that night carbonate is affected by kinetic processes and that there are similar challenges in reconstructing SST records from night carbonate as from day carbonate. Cohen AL et al., Kinetic control of skeletal Sr/Ca in a symbiotic coral: implications for the palaeotemperature proxy, Paleoceanography, 16, 20-26, 2001.

  15. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-04-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  16. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  17. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M.; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night. PMID:18705647

  18. Machine vision - Automated visual inspection and robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, David

    The subject of machine vision is treated with emphasis on fundamental tools for image acquisition, processing, and analysis. Topics discussed include an introduction to computer vision, illumination and sensors, image acquisition and representation, fundamentals of digital image processing, the segmentation problem, and image analysis. The book also covers techniques for shape description, robot programming and robot vision, and an introduction to image understanding.

  19. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight capable of…

  20. Arsia Mons by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Arsia Mons.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -19.6, Longitude 241.9 East (118.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the