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Sample records for active noise suppression

  1. Optimal control techniques for active noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Keeling, S. L.; Silcox, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Active suppression of noise in a bounded enclosure is considered within the framework of optimal control theory. A sinusoidal pressure field due to exterior offending noise sources is assumed to be known in a neighborhood of interior sensors. The pressure field due to interior controlling sources is assumed to be governed by a nonhomogeneous wave equation within the enclosure and by a special boundary condition designed to accommodate frequency-dependent reflection properties of the enclosure boundary. The form of the controlling sources is determined by considering the steady-state behavior of the system, and it is established that the control strategy proposed is stable and asymptotically optimal.

  2. Hybrid Active/Passive Jet Engine Noise Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parente, C. A.; Arcas, N.; Walker, B. E.; Hersh, A. S.; Rice, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel adaptive segmented liner concept has been developed that employs active control elements to modify the in-duct sound field to enhance the tone-suppressing performance of passive liner elements. This could potentially allow engine designs that inherently produce more tone noise but less broadband noise, or could allow passive liner designs to more optimally address high frequency broadband noise. A proof-of-concept validation program was undertaken, consisting of the development of an adaptive segmented liner that would maximize attenuation of two radial modes in a circular or annular duct. The liner consisted of a leading active segment with dual annuli of axially spaced active Helmholtz resonators, followed by an optimized passive liner and then an array of sensing microphones. Three successively complex versions of the adaptive liner were constructed and their performances tested relative to the performance of optimized uniform passive and segmented passive liners. The salient results of the tests were: The adaptive segmented liner performed well in a high flow speed model fan inlet environment, was successfully scaled to a high sound frequency and successfully attenuated three radial modes using sensor and active resonator arrays that were designed for a two mode, lower frequency environment.

  3. Jet Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Majjigi, R. K.; Lee, R.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this chapter are to review and summarize the jet noise suppression technology, to provide a physical and theoretical model to explain the measured jet noise suppression characteristics of different concepts, and to provide a set of guidelines for evolving jet noise suppression designs. The underlying principle for all jet noise suppression devices is to enhance rapid mixing (i.e., diffusion) of the jet plume by geometric and aerothermodynamic means. In the case of supersonic jets, the shock-cell broadband noise reduction is effectively accomplished by the elimination or mitigation of the shock-cell structure. So far, the diffusion concepts have predominantly concentrated on jet momentum and energy (kinetic and thermal) diffusion, in that order, and have yielded better noise reduction than the simple conical nozzles. A critical technology issue that needs resolution is the effect of flight on the noise suppression potential of mechanical suppressor nozzles. A more thorough investigation of this mechanism is necessary for the successful development and design of an acceptable noise suppression device for future high-speed civil transports.

  4. Pairing broadband noise with cortical stimulation induces extensive suppression of ascending sensory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Hogan, Patrick S.; Wesen, Kyle A.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The corticofugal system can alter coding along the ascending sensory pathway. Within the auditory system, electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex (AC) paired with a pure tone can cause egocentric shifts in the tuning of auditory neurons, making them more sensitive to the pure tone frequency. Since tinnitus has been linked with hyperactivity across auditory neurons, we sought to develop a new neuromodulation approach that could suppress a wide range of neurons rather than enhance specific frequency-tuned neurons. Approach. We performed experiments in the guinea pig to assess the effects of cortical stimulation paired with broadband noise (PN-Stim) on ascending auditory activity within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), a widely studied region for AC stimulation paradigms. Main results. All eight stimulated AC subregions induced extensive suppression of activity across the CNIC that was not possible with noise stimulation alone. This suppression built up over time and remained after the PN-Stim paradigm. Significance. We propose that the corticofugal system is designed to decrease the brain’s input gain to irrelevant stimuli and PN-Stim is able to artificially amplify this effect to suppress neural firing across the auditory system. The PN-Stim concept may have potential for treating tinnitus and other neurological disorders.

  5. Pairing broadband noise with cortical stimulation induces extensive suppression of ascending sensory activity

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Hogan, Patrick S.; Wesen, Kyle A.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The corticofugal system can alter coding along the ascending sensory pathway. Within the auditory system, electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex (AC) paired with a pure tone can cause egocentric shifts in the tuning of auditory neurons, making them more sensitive to the pure tone frequency. Since tinnitus has been linked with hyperactivity across auditory neurons, we sought to develop a new neuromodulation approach that could suppress a wide range of neurons rather than enhance specific frequency-tuned neurons. Approach We performed experiments in the guinea pig to assess the effects of cortical stimulation paired with broadband noise (PN-Stim) on ascending auditory activity within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), a widely studied region for AC stimulation paradigms. Main results All eight stimulated AC regions induced extensive suppression of activity across the CNIC that was not possible with noise stimulation alone. This suppression built up over time and remained after the PN-Stim paradigm. Significance We propose that the corticofugal system is designed to decrease the brain’s input gain to irrelevant stimuli and PN-Stim is able to artificially amplify this effect to suppress neural firing across the auditory system. The PN-Stim concept may have potential for treating tinnitus and other neurological disorders. PMID:25686163

  6. Model- based filtering for artifact and noise suppression with state estimation for electrodermal activity measurements in real time.

    PubMed

    Tronstad, Christian; Staal, Odd M; Saelid, Steinar; Martinsen, Orjan G

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of electrodermal activity (EDA) has recently made a transition from the laboratory into daily life with the emergence of wearable devices. Movement and nongelled electrodes make these devices more susceptible to noise and artifacts. In addition, real-time interpretation of the measurement is needed for user feedback. The Kalman filter approach may conveniently deal with both these issues. This paper presents a biophysical model for EDA implemented in an extended Kalman filter. Employing the filter on data from Physionet along with simulated noise and artifacts demonstrates noise and artifact suppression while implicitly providing estimates of model states and parameters such as the sudomotor nerve activation. PMID:26736861

  7. Ultralow noise and supermode suppression in an actively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser.

    PubMed

    Depriest, C M; Yilmaz, T; Delfyett, P J; Etemad, S; Braun, A; Abeles, J

    2002-05-01

    We report what is to our knowledge the lowest phase and amplitude noise characteristics achieved to date in a 10-GHz pulse train produced by the active harmonic mode locking of an external-cavity semiconductor diode laser. Supermode noise has also been suppressed below -140 dBc/Hz by use of a high-finesse fiber Fabry-Perot etalon as an intracavity filter. Novel noise sideband measurements that extend to the Nyquist offset frequency suggest a significant advantage in using harmonic (rather than fundamental) mode locking to produce ultralow-noise pulse trains, owing to the relationship between the noise roll-off frequency and the fundamental cavity frequency. PMID:18007910

  8. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Xue, Yongjun

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans.

  9. Noise suppression methods for robust speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, S. F.; Kajiya, J.; Youngberg, J.; Petersen, T. L.; Ravindra, H.; Done, W.; Cox, B. V.; Cohen, E.

    1981-04-01

    Robust speech processing in practical operating environments requires effective environmental and processor noise suppression. This report describes the technical findings and accomplishments during the reporting period for the research program funded to develop real-time, compressed speech analysis-synthesis algorithms whose performance is invariant under signal contamination. Fulfillment of this requirement is necessary to insure reliable secure compressed speech transmission within realistic military command and control environments. Overall contributions resulting from this research program include the understanding of how environmental noise degrades narrow band, coded speech, development of appropriate real-time noise suppression algorithms, and development of speech parameter identification methods that consider signal contamination as a fundamental element in the estimation process. This report describes the research and results in the areas of noise suppression using the dual input adaptive noise cancellation articulation rate change techniques, spectral subtraction and a description of an experiment which demonstrated that the spectral substraction noise suppression algorithm can improve the intelligibility of 2400 bps, LPC-10 coded, helicopter speech by 10.6 points. In addition summaries are included of prior studies in Constant-Q signal analysis and synthesis, perceptual modelling, speech activity detection, and pole-zero modelling of noisy signals. Three recent studies in speech modelling using the critical band analysis-synthesis transform and using splines are then presented. Finally a list of major publications generated under this contract is given.

  10. Noise suppressing capillary separation system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

    1996-07-30

    A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

  11. Micropower non-contact EEG electrode with active common-mode noise suppression and input capacitance cancellation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yu M; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2009-01-01

    A non-contact EEG electrode with input capacitance neutralization and common-mode noise suppression circuits is presented. The coin sized sensor capacitively couples to the scalp without direct contact to the skin. To minimize the effect of signal attenuation and channel gain mismatch, the input capacitance of each sensor is actively neutralized using positive feedback and bootstrapping. Common-mode suppression is achieved through a single conductive sheet to establish a common mode reference. Each sensor electrode provides a differential gain of 60 dB. Signals are transmitted in a digital serial daisy-chain directly from a local 16-bit ADC, minimizing the number of wires required to establish a high density EEG sensor network. The micropower electrode consumes only 600 microW from a single 3.3 V supply. PMID:19964104

  12. Program in acoustics. [aeroacoustics, aircraft noise, and noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Relevant research projects conducted by faculty and graduate students in the general area of aeroacoustics to further the understanding of noise generation by aircraft and to aid in the development of practical methods for noise suppression are listed. Special activities summarized relate to the nonlinear acoustic wave theory and its application to several cases including that of the acoustic source located at the throat of a near-sonic duct, a computer program developed to compute the nonlinear wave theory, and a parabolic approximation for propagation of sounding in moving stratified media.

  13. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Davidson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform. We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform.

  14. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  15. Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Wang, Ruixin; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Li, Jianqiang; Ji, Yuefeng; Lin, Jintong

    2013-05-01

    The supermode noise in an actively mode-locked fiber laser is suppressed for the first time by a so-called pulse-intensity-feed-forward technique. In this novel scheme, the optical pulse is firstly converted into an electronic signal, and then fed forward to a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), where the optical pulse is modulated by the reversed intensity profile of itself. In a 12.5 m long actively mode-locked fiber ring laser experiment, the resulting power limiting shows a stable 10 GHz optical pulse train with a supermode-suppression ratio larger than 81 dB. The phase noise and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter are below -141 dBc Hz-1 at 10 MHz and 22.1 fs, respectively. Compared with the conventional fiber-nonlinearity-based power limiting schemes, our proposal is compact and stable.

  16. Jet noise suppression by porous plug nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A. B.; Kibens, V.; Wlezien, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Jet noise suppression data presented earlier by Maestrello for porous plug nozzles were supplemented by the testing of a family of nozzles having an equivalent throat diameter of 11.77 cm. Two circular reference nozzles and eight plug nozzles having radius ratios of either 0.53 or 0.80 were tested at total pressure ratios of 1.60 to 4.00. Data were taken both with and without a forward motion or coannular flow jet, and some tests were made with a heated jet. Jet thrust was measured. The data were analyzed to show the effects of suppressor geometry on nozzle propulsive efficiency and jet noise. Aerodynamic testing of the nozzles was carried out in order to study the physical features that lead to the noise suppression. The aerodynamic flow phenomena were examined by the use of high speed shadowgraph cinematography, still shadowgraphs, extensive static pressure probe measurements, and two component laser Doppler velocimeter studies. The different measurement techniques correlated well with each other and demonstrated that the porous plug changes the shock cell structure of a standard nozzle into a series of smaller, periodic cell structures without strong shock waves. These structures become smaller in dimension and have reduced pressure variations as either the plug diameter or the porosity is increased, changes that also reduce the jet noise and decrease thrust efficiency.

  17. Suppression of shot noise and spontaneous radiation in electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-08-23

    Shot noise in the electron beam distribution is the main source of noise in high-gain FEL amplifiers, which may affect applications ranging from single- and multi-stage HGHG FELs to an FEL amplifier for coherent electron cooling. This noise also imposes a fundamental limit of about 10{sup 6} on FEL gain, after which SASE FELs saturate. There are several advantages in strongly suppressing this shot noise in the electron beam, and the corresponding spontaneous radiation. For more than a half-century, a traditional passive method has been used successfully in practical low-energy microwave electronic devices to suppress shot noise. Recently, it was proposed for this purpose in FELs. However, being passive, the method has some significant limitations and is hardly suitable for the highly inhomogeneous beams of modern high-gain FELs. I present a novel active method of suppressing, by many orders-of-magnitude, the shot noise in relativistic electron beams. I give a theoretical description of the process, and detail its fundamental limitation.

  18. Ejector Noise Suppression with Auxiliary Jet Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Charles H.; Andersen, Otto P., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental program to reduce aircraft jet turbulence noise investigated the interaction of small auxiliary jets with a larger main jet. Significant reductions in the far field jet noise were obtained over a range of auxiliary jet pressures and flow rates when used in conjunction with an acoustically lined ejector. While the concept is similar to that of conventional ejector suppressors that use mechanical mixing devices, the present approach should improve thrust and lead to lower weight and less complex noise suppression systems since no hardware needs to be located in the main jet flow. A variety of auxiliary jet and ejector configurations and operating conditions were studied. The best conditions tested produced peak to peak noise reductions ranging from 11 to 16 dB, depending on measurement angle, for auxiliary jet mass flows that were 6.6% of the main jet flow with ejectors that were 8 times the main jet diameter in length. Much larger reductions in noise were found at the original peak frequencies of the unsuppressed jet over a range of far field measurement angles.

  19. Method for suppressing noise in measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, Paul J. (Inventor); Madsen, Louis A. (Inventor); Leskowitz, Garett M. (Inventor); Weitekamp, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Techniques of combining separate but correlated measurements to form a second-order or higher order correlation function to suppress the effects of noise in the initial condition of a system capable of retaining memory of an initial state of the system with a characteristic relaxation time. At least two separate measurements are obtained from the system. The temporal separation between the two separate measurements is preferably comparable to or less than the characteristic relaxation time and is adjusted to allow for a correlation between two measurements.

  20. Suppressing buzz-saw noise in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1980-01-01

    Buzz-saw noise, most annoying noise component generated by turbofan engines, can be suppresses by installing porous surface on duct wall directly above engine fan-blade tip. Porous surface and its housing would reduce shock-wave reflection from wall and thus suppress noise.

  1. Active noise silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    Many natural gas compressor stations which were previously located away from residential areas are now being encroached upon by surrounding building developments. An increased awareness of community noise issues has proved to be the impetus for investigating and developing more effective noise control methods and treatments for natural gas compressor facilities. This project investigates the feasibility of applying Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) to the exhaust of a large, internal combustion reciprocating type engine.

  2. Apparatus and method for jet noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1983-08-01

    A method and apparatus for jet noise suppression through control of the static pressure of the jet and control of the rate of entrainment of ambient fluid into the jet downstream of the exhaust nozzle is disclosed. The momentum flux over an extended region of the jet is regulated, affecting Reynolds stresses in the jet and the spreading angle of the jet. Static pressure is controlled through a long hollow, porous nozzle plug centerbody which may be selectively vented to ambient conditions, connected to a vacuum source, or supplied with fluids of various densities for injection into the stream. Sound in the jet may be channeled along the nozzle plug centerbody by injecting coolant such as a cryogenic fluid throughout the center-body into the jet.

  3. Active Noise Control of Radiated Noise from Jets Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Schiller, Noah H.; Turner, Travis L.

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of jet noise using a closed-loop active noise control system with highbandwidth active chevrons was investigated. The high frequency energy introduced by piezoelectrically-driven chevrons was demonstrated to achieve a broadband reduction of jet noise, presumably due to the suppression of large-scale turbulence. For a nozzle with one active chevron, benefits of up to 0.8 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL) were observed compared to a static chevron nozzle near the maximum noise emission angle, and benefits of up to 1.9 dB OASPL were observed compared to a baseline nozzle with no chevrons. The closed-loop actuation system was able to effectively reduce noise at select frequencies by 1-3 dB. However, integrated OASPL did not indicate further reduction beyond the open-loop benefits, most likely due to the preliminary controller design, which was focused on narrowband performance.

  4. Method for suppressing noise in measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, Paul L. (Inventor); Madsen, Louis A. (Inventor); Leskowitz, Garett M. (Inventor); Weitekamp, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for suppressing noise in measurements by correlating functions based on at least two different measurements of a system at two different times. In one embodiment, a measurement operation is performed on at least a portion of a system that has a memory. A property of the system is measured during a first measurement period to produce a first response indicative of a first state of the system. Then the property of the system is measured during a second measurement period to produce a second response indicative of a second state of the system. The second measurement is performed after an evolution duration subsequent to the first measurement period when the system still retains a degree of memory of an aspect of the first state. Next, a first function of the first response is combined with a second function of the second response to form a second-order correlation function. Information of the system is then extracted from the second-order correlation function.

  5. Suppression of Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in OEOs.

    PubMed

    Okusaga, Olukayode; Cahill, James P; Docherty, Andrew; Menyuk, Curtis R; Zhou, Weimin; Carter, Gary M

    2013-09-23

    Optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) are hybrid RF-photonic devices that promise to be environmentally robust high-frequency RF sources with very low phase noise. Previously, we showed that Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in optical fibers coupled with amplitude-to-phase noise conversion in photodetectors and amplifiers leads to fiber-length-dependent noise in OEOs. In this work, we report on two methods for the suppression of this fiber-length-dependent noise: altering the amplitude-dependent phase delay of the OEO loops and suppressing the Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in optical fibers. We report a 20 dB reduction in the flicker phase noise of a 6 km OEO via these suppression techniques. PMID:24104117

  6. Interaction between noise suppression and inhomogeneity correction in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillo, Albert; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Axel, Leon; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    While cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in most developed countries, SPAMM-MRI can reduce morbidity by facilitating patient diagnosis. An image analysis method with a high degree of automation is essential for clinical adoption of SPAMM-MRI. The degree of this automation is dependent on the amount of thermal noise and surface coil-induced intensity inhomogeneity that can be removed from the images. An ideal noise suppression algorithm removes thermal noise yet retains or enhances the strength of the edges of salient structures. In this paper, we quantitatively compare and rank several noise suppression algorithms in images from both normal and diseased subjects using measures of the residual noise and edge strength and the statistical significance levels and confidence intervals of these measures. We also investigate the interrelationship between inhomogeneity correction and noise suppression algorithms and compare the effect of the ordering of these algorithms. The variance of thermal noise does not tend to change with position, however, inhomogeneity correction increases noise variance in deep thoracic regions. We quantify the degree to which an inhomogeneity estimate can improve noise suppression and how well noise suppression can facilitate the identification of homogeneous tissue regions and thereby, assist in inhomogeneity correction.

  7. Adaptive Noise Suppression Using Digital Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; Nelson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A signal to noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction algorithm is developed to eliminate noise from noise corrupted speech signals. The algorithm determines the signal to noise ratio and adjusts the spectral subtraction proportion appropriately. After spectra subtraction low amplitude signals are squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both eh noise corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoice frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Applications include the emergency egress vehicle and the crawler transporter.

  8. Communication system with adaptive noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David (Inventor); Devault, James A. (Inventor); Birr, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A signal-to-noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction process eliminates noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. The process first pre-emphasizes the frequency components of the input sound signal which contain the consonant information in human speech. Next, a signal-to-noise ratio is determined and a spectral subtraction proportion adjusted appropriately. After spectral subtraction, low amplitude signals can be squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoiced frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Spectral subtraction may be performed on a composite noise-corrupted signal, or upon individual sub-bands of the noise-corrupted signal. Pre-averaging of the input signal's magnitude spectrum over multiple time frames may be performed to reduce musical noise.

  9. Analysis and suppression of passive noise in surface microseismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush

    Surface microseismic surveys are gaining popularity in monitoring the hydraulic fracturing process. The effectiveness of these surveys, however, is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired data. Cultural and industrial noise generated during hydraulic fracturing operations usually dominate the data, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of using these data in identifying and locating microseismic events. Hence, noise suppression is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. In this thesis, I focus on two important aspects in using surface-recorded microseismic seismic data: first, I take advantage of the unwanted surface noise to understand the characteristics of these noise and extract information about the propagation medium from the noise; second, I propose effective techniques to suppress the surface noise while preserving the waveforms that contain information about the source of microseisms. Automated event identification on passive seismic data using only a few receivers is challenging especially when the record lengths span over long durations of time. I introduce an automatic event identification algorithm that is designed specifically for detecting events in passive data acquired with a small number of receivers. I demonstrate that the conventional STA/LTA (Short-term Average/Long-term Average) algorithm is not sufficiently effective in event detection in the common case of low signal-to-noise ratio. With a cross-correlation based method as an extension of the STA/LTA algorithm, even low signal-to-noise events (that were not detectable with conventional STA/LTA) were revealed. Surface microseismic data contains surface-waves (generated primarily from hydraulic fracturing activities) and body-waves in the form of microseismic events. It is challenging to analyze the surface-waves on the recorded data directly because of the randomness of their source and their unknown source signatures. I use seismic interferometry to extract

  10. Noise suppression by flexible fan silencers

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, J.; Kelly, T.R.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results on noise testing of a fan only, as well as the results of a steel silencer and of flexible silencers that were connected directly to a fan. On-site facilities and free-field method set by the British Standards Institution were used to measure and then compare the fan only and different practical silencer configuration setups. In order to determine the fan-silencer combination that would give the maximum noise attenuation, total noise intensity, noise contributed to by the fan motor only, as well as aerodynamical noise created through air interacting with the fan parts were considered to obtain decibel readings for the octave bands. Subsequently, the optimal configuration found was the setup with flexible silencers on the fan inlet and the fan outlet. If only one silencer is used, it should be installed on the fan inlet. The aerodynamic noise affects the low frequencies. The flow noise is then overtaken at 1 kHz by the mechanical noise.

  11. Recent results about fan noise: Its generation, radiation and suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Fan noise including its generation, radiation characteristics, and suppression by acoustic treatment is studied. In fan noise generation, results from engine and fan experiments, using inflow control measures to suppress noise sources related to inflow distortion and turbulence, are described. The suppression of sources related to inflow allows the experiments to focus on the fan or engine internal sources. Some of the experiments incorporated pressure sensors on the fan blades to sample the flow disturbances encountered by the blades. From these data some inferences can be drawn about the origins of the disturbances. Also, hot wire measurements of a fan rotor wake field are presented and related to the fan's noise signature. The radiation and the suppression of fan noise are dependent on the acoustic modes generated by the fan. Fan noise suppression and radiation is described by relating these phenomena to the mode cutoff ratio parameter. In addition to its utility in acoustic treatment design and performance prediction, cutoff ratio was useful in developing a simple description of the radiation pattern for broadband fan noise. Some of the findings using the cutoff ratio parameter are presented.

  12. Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization.

    PubMed

    Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects typically contain a limited number of different materials, we propose an Image-domain Decomposition method through Entropy Minimization (IDEM) for noise suppression in DECT. Pixels of decomposed images are first linearly transformed into 2D clusters of data points, which are highly asymmetric due to strong signal correlation. An optimal axis is identified in the 2D space via numerical search such that the projection of data clusters onto the axis has minimum entropy. Noise suppression is performed on each image pixel by estimating the center-of-mass value of each data cluster along the direction perpendicular to the projection axis. The IDEM method is distinct from other noise suppression techniques in that it does not suppress pixel noise by reducing spatial variation between neighboring pixels. As supported by studies on Catphan©600 and anthropomorphic head phantoms, this feature endows our algorithm with a unique capability of reducing noise standard deviation on DECT decomposed images by approximately one order of magnitude while preserving spatial resolution and image noise power spectra (NPS). Compared with a filtering method and recently developed iterative method at the same level of noise suppression, the IDEM algorithm obtains high-resolution images with less artifacts. It also maintains accuracy of electron density measurements with less than 2% bias error. The IDEM method effectively suppresses noise of DECT for quantitative use, with appealing features on preservation of image spatial resolution and NPS. PMID:25955585

  13. Suppression of cable induced noise in an interferometric sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagaard, Ole Henrik; Rønnekleiv, Erlend; Forbord, Stig; Thingbø, Dag

    2009-10-01

    Vibrations in the lead cables is known to cause noise in interferometric sensor systems, through modulation of the polarization state of the transmitted light, and through Doppler stretching of the interrogating signals. We demonstrate effective methods for suppression of both these noise sources. The polarization modulation sensitivity is suppressed by 36 dB by using a polarization resolved interrogation technique. The sensitivity to Doppler shift is suppressed by 22 dB by using a reference interferometer that is interrogated through the same lead fiber.

  14. Coherent optical noise suppression device. [using spatial filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes a scheme for a noise suppression system to be used with an afocal coherent optical data processor. The noise averaging scheme is based on the simple principle of moving input and output film planes together during exposure; the noise pattern remains stationary while the desired (filtered) image moves through it. The noise suppression system consists of a drive motor, right-angle gear box, reversing gear assemblage, right-angle gear drive, and micrometer adjusting translation tables. The device was tested by using a Sayce target containing fundamental spatial frequencies from 5 lines/mm to 100 lines/mm as the input signal. The output was photographed on Pan-X 35-mm film with and without the noise suppression system in operation. Microdensitometer scans of the exposed output film show that without noise averaging, resolution is good to about 80 lines/mm, while with noise averaging, it is good to about 35 lines/mm. A brief analysis of errors in the mechanical parts of the system reponsible for the upper limit of resolution is presented.

  15. Subradiant spontaneous undulator emission through collective suppression of shot noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, D.; Hemsing, E.; Gover, A.; Marinelli, A.; Nause, A.

    2015-05-01

    The phenomenon of Dicke's subradiance, in which the collective properties of a system suppress radiation, has received broad interest in atomic physics. Recent theoretical papers in the field of relativistic electron beams have proposed schemes to achieve subradiance through suppression of shot noise current fluctuations. The resulting "quiet" beam generates less spontaneous radiation than emitted even by a shot noise beam when oscillating in an undulator. Quiet beams could have diverse accelerator applications, including lowering power requirements for seeded free-electron lasers and improving efficiency of hadron cooling. In this paper we present experimental observation of a strong reduction in undulator radiation, demonstrating the feasibility of noise suppression as a practical tool in accelerator physics.

  16. Collective microdynamics and noise suppression in dispersive electron beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, Avraham; Dyunin, Egor; Duchovni, Tamir; Nause, Ariel

    2011-12-15

    A general formulation is presented for deep collective interaction micro-dynamics in dispersive e-beam transport. In the regime of transversely coherent interaction, the formulation is applicable to both coherent and random temporal modulation of the electron beam. We demonstrate its use for determining the conditions for suppressing beam current noise below the classical shot-noise level by means of transport through a dispersive section with a small momentum compaction parameter.

  17. Bosonic Amplification of Noise-Induced Suppression of Phase Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Khodorkovsky, Y.; Vardi, A.; Kurizki, G.

    2008-06-06

    We study the effect of noise-induced dephasing on collisional phase diffusion in the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. Dephasing of the quasimomentum modes may slow down phase diffusion in the quantum Zeno limit. Remarkably, the degree of suppression is enhanced by a bosonic factor of order N/logN as the particle number N increases.

  18. Active Suppression Of Vibrations On Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    1995-01-01

    Method of active suppression of nonlinear and nonstationary vibrations developed to reduce sonic fatigue and interior noise in high-speed aircraft. Structure of aircraft exhibits periodic, chaotic, and random vibrations when forced by high-intensity sound from jet engines, shock waves, turbulence, and separated flows. Method of suppressing vibrations involves feedback control: Strain gauges or other sensors mounted in paths of propagation of vibrations on structure sense vibrations; outputs of sensors processed into control signal applied to actuator mounted on structure, inducing compensatory forces.

  19. Noisy Speech Recognition Based on Integration/Selection of Multiple Noise Suppression Methods Using Noise GMMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaoka, Norihide; Hamaguchi, Souta; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    To achieve high recognition performance for a wide variety of noise and for a wide range of signal-to-noise ratio, this paper presents methods for integration of four noise reduction algorithms: spectral subtraction with smoothing of time direction, temporal domain SVD-based speech enhancement, GMM-based speech estimation and KLT-based comb-filtering. In this paper, we proposed two types of combination methods of noise suppression algorithms: selection of front-end processor and combination of results from multiple recognition processes. Recognition results on the CENSREC-1 task showed the effectiveness of our proposed methods.kn-abstract=

  20. Effects of noise suppression on intelligibility: dependency on signal-to-noise ratios.

    PubMed

    Hilkhuysen, Gaston; Gaubitch, Nikolay; Brookes, Mike; Huckvale, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The effects on speech intelligibility of three different noise reduction algorithms (spectral subtraction, minimal mean squared error spectral estimation, and subspace analysis) were evaluated in two types of noise (car and babble) over a 12 dB range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results from these listening experiments showed that most algorithms deteriorated intelligibility scores. Modeling of the results with a logit-shaped psychometric function showed that the degradation in intelligibility scores was largely congruent with a constant shift in SNR, although some additional degradation was observed at two SNRs, suggesting a limited interaction between the effects of noise suppression and SNR. PMID:22280614

  1. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  2. Suppression of jet noise peak by velocity profile reshaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, S.; Nishiwaki, H.; Takeda, K.

    1981-07-01

    Proposed here is an efficient noise-abating system having the potential for application to a broad spectrum of turbofan engines. An exhaust system with the core nozzle reshaped into an elliptic exit section from the conventional circular nozzle is recommended. The comparison of the scale-model tests revealed that a 5 dB decrease in peak noise levels was realized with a slight increase of the sound pressure at large emission angles. A laser Doppler velocimeter was used to quantify the high-temperature flow turbulence. With the elliptic core nozzle, the jet flow was more diffused axially and spread radially along the major axis. The noise reduction was attributed to the enhancement of the sound refraction and to the lower sound generation, due to the turbulence suppression as well as the lowered mean density gradients at the noise source.

  3. An effective noise-suppression technique for surface microseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Davidson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The presence of strong surface-wave noise in surface microseismic data may decrease the utility of these data. We implement a technique, based on the distinct characteristics that microseismic signal and noise show in the τ‐p domain, to suppress surface-wave noise in microseismic data. Because most microseismic source mechanisms are deviatoric, preprocessing is necessary to correct for the nonuniform radiation pattern prior to transforming the data to the τ‐p domain. We employ a scanning approach, similar to semblance analysis, to test all possible double-couple orientations to determine an estimated orientation that best accounts for the polarity pattern of any microseismic events. We then correct the polarity of the data traces according to this pattern, prior to conducting signal-noise separation in the τ‐p domain. We apply our noise-suppression technique to two surface passive-seismic data sets from different acquisition surveys. The first data set includes a synthetic microseismic event added to field passive noise recorded by an areal receiver array distributed over a Barnett Formation reservoir undergoing hydraulic fracturing. The second data set is field microseismic data recorded by receivers arranged in a star-shaped array, over a Bakken Shale reservoir during a hydraulic-fracturing process. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and preserves the waveforms at the individual traces. We illustrate that the enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio also results in improved imaging of the microseismic hypocenter.

  4. Self-noise suppression schemes in blind image steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam; Akansu, Ali N.

    1999-11-01

    Blind or oblivious data hiding, can be considered as a signaling method where the origin of the signal constellation is not known. The origin however, can be estimated, by means of self-noise suppression techniques. In this paper, we propose such a technique, and present both theoretical and numerical evaluations of its performance in an additive noise scenario. The problem of optimal choice of the parameters of the proposed technique is also explored, and solutions are presented. Though the cover object is assumed to be an image for purposes of illustration, the proposed method is equally applicable for other types of multimedia data, like video, speech or music.

  5. Suppression and enhancement of transcriptional noise by DNA looping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Jose M. G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2014-06-01

    DNA looping has been observed to enhance and suppress transcriptional noise but it is uncertain which of these two opposite effects is to be expected for given conditions. Here, we derive analytical expressions for the main quantifiers of transcriptional noise in terms of the molecular parameters and elucidate the role of DNA looping. Our results rationalize paradoxical experimental observations and provide the first quantitative explanation of landmark individual-cell measurements at the single molecule level on the classical lac operon genetic system [Choi, L. Cai, K. Frieda, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 442 (2008), 10.1126/science.1161427].

  6. Contourlet based seismic reflection data non-local noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Jinghuai

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-local, transform domain noise suppression framework to improve the quality of seismic reflection data. The original non-local means (NLM) algorithm measures similarities in the data domain and we generalize it in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain. NSCT gives a multiscale, multiresolution and anisotropy representation of the noisy input. The redundancy information in NSCT subbands can be utilized to enhance the structures in the original seismic data. Like the wavelet transform, NSCT coefficients in each subband follow the generalized Gaussian distribution and the parameters can be estimated using appropriate techniques. These parameters are used to construct our proposed NSCT domain filtering algorithm. Applications for synthetic and real seismic data of the proposed algorithm demonstrate its effectiveness on seismic data random noise suppression.

  7. Thermal noise for SBS suppression in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussot, Arnaud; Le Parquier, Marc; Szriftgiser, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a new and simple solution to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber optical parametric amplifiers. Cumbersome PRBS or sinusoidal generators used to broaden the pump spectrum are replaced by a filtered microwave noise source. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold can be increased up to large values still keeping an excellent quality of amplification of nonreturn to zero signals. The simplicity and the performances of this setup open the way for a wide variety of applications for FOPAs.

  8. Optical noise suppression device and method. [laser light exposing film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device and method is disclosed for suppression of optical noise in an optical spatial filtering system using highly coherent light. In the disclosed embodiment, input photographic film to be processed in the system, and output photographic film to be exposed, are each mounted on lateral translation devices. During application of the coherent light for exposure of the output film, the two translation devices are moved in synchronism by a motor-driven gear and linkage assembly. The ratio of the resulting output film translation to the input film translation is equal to the magnification of the optical data processing system. The noise pattern associated with the lenses and other elements in the optical processing system remains stationary while the image-producing light moves laterally through the pattern with the output film, thus averaging out the noise effect at the output film.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Median and Average Filters in Impulse Noise Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Luyao; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Wenlong; Zhang, Libo; Yang, Benqiang; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Median type filters coupled with the Laplacian distribution assumption have shown a high efficiency in suppressing impulse noise. We however demonstrate in this paper that the Gaussian distribution assumption is more preferable than Laplacian distribution assumption in suppressing impulse noise, especially for high noise densities. This conclusion is supported by numerical experiments with different noise densities and filter models.

  10. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow.

  11. Transient amplification limits noise suppression in biochemical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, John; Lindemann, Anika; McCoy, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell physiology is orchestrated, on a molecular level, through complex networks of biochemical reactions. The propagation of random fluctuations through these networks can significantly impact cell behavior, raising challenging questions about how network design shapes the cell's ability to suppress or exploit these fluctuations. Here, drawing on insights from statistical physics, fluid dynamics, and systems biology, we explore how transient amplification phenomena arising from network connectivity naturally limit a biochemical system's ability to suppress small fluctuations around steady-state behaviors. We find that even a simple system consisting of two variables linked by a single interaction is capable of amplifying small fluctuations orders of magnitude beyond the levels predicted by linear stability theory. We also find that adding additional interactions can promote further amplification, even when these interactions implement classic design strategies known to suppress fluctuations. These results establish that transient amplification is an essential factor determining baseline noise levels in stable intracellular networks. Significantly, our analysis is not bound to specific systems or interaction mechanisms: we find that noise amplification is an emergent phenomenon found near steady states in any network containing sufficiently strong interactions, regardless of its form or function.

  12. Transient amplification limits noise suppression in biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Dixon, John; Lindemann, Anika; McCoy, Jonathan H

    2016-01-01

    Cell physiology is orchestrated, on a molecular level, through complex networks of biochemical reactions. The propagation of random fluctuations through these networks can significantly impact cell behavior, raising challenging questions about how network design shapes the cell's ability to suppress or exploit these fluctuations. Here, drawing on insights from statistical physics, fluid dynamics, and systems biology, we explore how transient amplification phenomena arising from network connectivity naturally limit a biochemical system's ability to suppress small fluctuations around steady-state behaviors. We find that even a simple system consisting of two variables linked by a single interaction is capable of amplifying small fluctuations orders of magnitude beyond the levels predicted by linear stability theory. We also find that adding additional interactions can promote further amplification, even when these interactions implement classic design strategies known to suppress fluctuations. These results establish that transient amplification is an essential factor determining baseline noise levels in stable intracellular networks. Significantly, our analysis is not bound to specific systems or interaction mechanisms: we find that noise amplification is an emergent phenomenon found near steady states in any network containing sufficiently strong interactions, regardless of its form or function. PMID:26871109

  13. Computational Investigations of Noise Suppression in Subsonic Round Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, C. David

    1997-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG1-1802, originally submitted in June 1996 as a two-year proposal, was awarded one-year's funding by NASA LaRC for the period 5 Oct., 1996, through 4 Oct., 1997. Because of the inavailability (from IT at NASA ARC) of sufficient supercomputer time in fiscal 1998 to complete the computational goals of the second year of the original proposal (estimated to be at least 400 Cray C-90 CPU hours), those goals have been appropriately amended, and a new proposal has been submitted to LaRC as a follow-on to NAG1-1802. The current report documents the activities and accomplishments on NAG1-1802 during the one-year period from 5 Oct., 1996, through 4 Oct., 1997. NASA Grant NAG1-1802, and its predecessor, NAG1-1772, have been directed toward adapting the numerical tool of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to aeroacoustic applications, with particular focus on noise suppression in subsonic round jets. In LES, the filtered Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse computational grid. Residual stresses, generated by scales of motion too small to be resolved on the coarse grid, are modeled. Although most LES incorporate spatial filtering, time-domain filtering affords certain conceptual and computational advantages, particularly for aeroacoustic applications. Consequently, this work has focused on the development of SubGrid-Scale (SGS) models that incorporate time- domain filters. The author is unaware of any previous attempt at purely time-filtered LES; however, Aldama and Dakhoul and Bedford have considered approaches that combine both spatial and temporal filtering. In our view, filtering in both space and time is redundant, because removal of high frequencies effects the removal of small spatial scales and vice versa.

  14. Feedback suppression of rotating external kink instabilities in the presence of noise

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Jeremy M.; De Bono, Bryan; James, Royce W.; Levesque, Jeffrey P.; Mauel, Michael E.; Maurer, David A.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Shiraki, Daisuke

    2008-08-15

    The authors report on the first experimental demonstration of active feedback suppression of rotating external kink modes near the ideal wall limit in a tokamak using Kalman filtering to discriminate the n=1 kink mode from background noise. The Kalman filter contains an internal model that captures the dynamics of a rotating, growing n=1 mode. Suppression of the external kink mode is demonstrated over a broad range of phase angles between the sensed mode and applied control field, and performance is robust at noise levels that render proportional gain feedback ineffective. Suppression of the kink mode is accomplished without excitation of higher frequencies as was observed in previous experiments using lead-lag loop compensation [A. J. Klein et al., Phys Plasmas 12, 040703 (2005)].

  15. Active Interior Noise Control Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Veeramani, S.; Sampath, A.; Balachandran, B.; Wereley, N.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations into the control of noise in the interior of a three-dimensional enclosure with a flexible boundary are presented. The rigid boundaries are constructed from acrylic material, and in the different cases considered the flexible boundary is constructed from either aluminum or composite material. Noise generated by an external speaker is transmitted into the enclosure through the flexible boundary and active control is realized by using Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators bonded to the flexible boundary. Condenser microphones are used for noise measurements inside and outside the enclosure. Minimization schemes for global and local noise control in the presence of a harmonic disturbance are developed and discussed. In the experiments, analog feedforward control is implemented by using the harmonic disturbance as a reference signal.

  16. SPECKLE NOISE SUBTRACTION AND SUPPRESSION WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS CORONAGRAPHIC IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Deqing; Dou Jiangpei; Zhang Xi; Zhu Yongtian

    2012-07-10

    Future ground-based direct imaging of exoplanets depends critically on high-contrast coronagraph and wave-front manipulation. A coronagraph is designed to remove most of the unaberrated starlight. Because of the wave-front error, which is inherit from the atmospheric turbulence from ground observations, a coronagraph cannot deliver its theoretical performance, and speckle noise will limit the high-contrast imaging performance. Recently, extreme adaptive optics, which can deliver an extremely high Strehl ratio, is being developed for such a challenging mission. In this publication, we show that barely taking a long-exposure image does not provide much gain for coronagraphic imaging with adaptive optics. We further discuss a speckle subtraction and suppression technique that fully takes advantage of the high contrast provided by the coronagraph, as well as the wave front corrected by the adaptive optics. This technique works well for coronagraphic imaging with conventional adaptive optics with a moderate Strehl ratio, as well as for extreme adaptive optics with a high Strehl ratio. We show how to substrate and suppress speckle noise efficiently up to the third order, which is critical for future ground-based high-contrast imaging. Numerical simulations are conducted to fully demonstrate this technique.

  17. Broad-bandwidth near-shot-noise-limited intensity noise suppression of a single-frequency fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qilai; Xu, Shanhui; Zhou, Kaijun; Yang, Changsheng; Li, Can; Feng, Zhouming; Peng, Mingying; Deng, Huaqiu; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-04-01

    A significant broad-bandwidth near-shot-noise-limited intensity noise suppression of a single-frequency fiber laser is demonstrated based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with optoelectronic feedback. By exploiting the gain saturation effect of the SOA and the intensity feedback loop, a maximum noise suppression of over 50 dB around the relaxation oscillation frequencies and a suppression bandwidth of up to 50 MHz are obtained. The relative intensity noise of -150  dB/Hz in the frequency range from 0.8 kHz to 50 MHz is achieved, which approaches the shot-noise limit. The obtained optical signal-to-noise ratio is more than 70 dB. This near-shot-noise-limited laser source shows important implications for the advanced fields of high-precision frequency stabilization, quantum key distribution, and gravitational wave detection. PMID:27192229

  18. Experimental verifications of noise suppression in retinal recognition by using compression-based joint transform correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Joewono; Kaewphaluk, Komin

    2014-03-01

    Noise suppression in retinal recognition by using a compression-based joint transform correlator (CBJTC) is experimentally studied. The experimental results show that the noise suppression can be done by compressing targets into a joint-photographic expert group (JPEG) format with appropriate image compression quality. In the case of the weak noise suppression, the improved recognition performance is as high as that of the classical JTC.

  19. Adaptive feedback active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Sen M.; Vijayan, Dipa

    Feedforward active noise control (ANC) systems use a reference sensor that senses a reference input to the controller. This signal is assumed to be unaffected by the secondary source and is a good measure of the undesired noise to be cancelled by the system. The reference sensor may be acoustic (e.g., microphone) or non-acoustic (e.g., tachometer, optical transducer). An obvious problem when using acoustic sensors is that the reference signal may be corrupted by the canceling signal generated by the secondary source. This problem is known as acoustic feedback. One way of avoiding this is by using a feedback active noise control (FANC) system which dispenses with the reference sensor. The FANC technique originally proposed by Olson and May employs a high gain negative feedback amplifier. This system suffered from the drawback that the error microphone had to be placed very close to the loudspeaker. The operation of the system was restricted to low frequency range and suffered from instability due to the possibility of positive feedback. Feedback systems employing adaptive filtering techniques for active noise control were developed. This paper presents the FANC system modeled as an adaptive prediction scheme.

  20. Local suppression of turbulent noise by passively inducing relaminarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkman, Richard; Metzger, Meredith

    2010-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow were performed to study potential means of locally suppressing wall pressure noise by passively driving the flow towards relaminarization. The noise reduction is achieved by altering the surface geometry along a wall of the channel. Two separate geometries were investigated, namely a wedge-shaped protrusion and an inverted wedge-shaped depression. In both configurations, the wedge remains stationary and spans the width of the channel. The flow tends toward relaminarization due to local convective acceleration along the upslope of the wedge (in the case of the protrusion) and due to the gradual unstalled expansion along the downslope of the wedge (in the case of the depression). Simulations were performed at a Reynolds number based on friction velocity of 180. The no-slip condition along the surface of the protrusion/depression was enforced using an immersed boundary method. Profiles of turbulence statistics and wall- pressure intensity, as well as the wall-pressure spectra along the front face of the two different wedges are compared in relation to those of the undisturbed approach boundary layer.

  1. A mathematical model for simulating noise suppression of lined ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model containing the essential features embodied in the noise suppression of lined ejectors is presented. Although some simplification of the physics is necessary to render the model mathematically tractable, the current model is the most versatile and technologically advanced at the current time. A system of linearized equations and the boundary conditions governing the sound field are derived starting from the equations of fluid dynamics. A nonreflecting boundary condition is developed. In view of the complex nature of the equations, a parametric study requires the use of numerical techniques and modern computers. A finite element algorithm that solves the differential equations coupled with the boundary condition is then introduced. The numerical method results in a matrix equation with several hundred thousand degrees of freedom that is solved efficiently on a supercomputer. The model is validated by comparing results either with exact solutions or with approximate solutions from other works. In each case, excellent correlations are obtained. The usefulness of the model as an optimization tool and the importance of variable impedance liners as a mechanism for achieving broadband suppression within a lined ejector are demonstrated.

  2. Retinophilin is a light-regulated phosphoprotein required to suppress photoreceptor dark noise in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Kirk L.; Takemori, Nobuaki; Komori, Naoka; Chu, Brian; Hardie, Roger C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; O’Tousa, Joseph. E.

    2010-01-01

    Photoreceptor cells achieve high sensitivity, reliably detecting single photons, while limiting the spontaneous activation events responsible for dark noise. We used proteomic, genetic, and electrophysiological approaches to characterize Retinophilin (RTP/CG10233) in Drosophila photoreceptors, and establish its involvement in dark noise suppression. RTP possesses MORN (Membrane Occupation and Recognition Nexus) motifs, a structure shared with mammalian junctophilins and other membrane-associated proteins found within excitable cells. We show the MORN repeats, and both the N- and C-terminal domains, are required for RTP localization in the microvillar light gathering organelle, the rhabdomere. RTP exists in multiple phosphorylated isoforms under dark conditions and is dephosphorylated by light exposure. An RTP deletion mutant exhibits a high rate of spontaneous membrane depolarization events in dark conditions but retains the normal kinetics of the light response. Photoreceptors lacking NINAC myosin III, a motor protein/kinase, also display a similar dark noise phenotype as the RTP deletion. We show that NINAC mutants are depleted for RTP. These results suggest the increase in dark noise in NINAC mutants is due to lack of RTP, and further, defines a novel role for NINAC in the rhabdomere. We propose that RTP is a light-regulated phosphoprotein that organizes rhabdomeric components to suppress random activation of the phototransduction cascade and thus increases the signaling fidelity of dark-adapted photoreceptors. PMID:20107052

  3. Active Control Of Structure-Borne Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, S. J.

    1994-11-01

    The successful practical application of active noise control requires an understanding of both its acoustic limitations and the limitations of the electrical control strategy used. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound in enclosures. First, a review is presented of the fundamental physical limitations of using loudspeakers to achieve either global or local control. Both approaches are seen to have a high frequency limit, due to either the acoustic modal overlap, or the spatial correlation function of the pressure field. These physical performance limits could, in principle, be achieved with either a feedback or a feedforward control strategy. These strategies are reviewed and the use of adaptive digital filters is discussed for both approaches. The application of adaptive feedforward control in the control of engine and road noise in cars is described. Finally, an indirect approach to the active control of sound is discussed, in which the vibration is suppressed in the structural paths connecting the source of vibration to the enclosure. Two specific examples of this strategy are described, using an active automotive engine mount and the incorporation of actuators into helicopter struts to control gear-meshing tones. In both cases good passive design can minimize the complexity of the active controller.

  4. Broadband near-to-shot-noise suppression of arbitrary cw-laser excess intensity noise in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    Michael, Ernest A; Pallanca, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Broadband near-to-shot-noise suppression of the intensity noise from a continuous-wave (cw) fiber laser at 1550 nm is demonstrated at GHz-frequencies using feed-forward phase-matched destructive noise interference impressed onto the optical signal with a fiber electro-optic power modulator. The scheme is independent of the laser frequency and therefore is suitable for tunable lasers. It can be used with some modifications after an optical fiber-amplifier boosting a cw laser signal. A noise residual of down to 2 dB above the shot-noise was measured, which is about 2 dB below the prediction with a rigorous noise model. While the total laser noise can be removed, inclusive shot noise, because the latter is still 10 dB above the thermal noise, the power splitter introduces some partition noise above the shot level. In that case, a sub-shot-noise suppression scheme should be possible by replacing the photon anti-correlation of the power splitter by the co-correlation obtained from a paired photon or twin beam source. PMID:25831326

  5. Quadrature mixture LO suppression via DSW DAC noise dither

    DOEpatents

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Dudley, Peter A.

    2007-08-21

    A Quadrature Error Corrected Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QECDWS) employs frequency dependent phase error corrections to, in effect, pre-distort the phase characteristic of the chirp to compensate for the frequency dependent phase nonlinearity of the RF and microwave subsystem. In addition, the QECDWS can employ frequency dependent correction vectors to the quadrature amplitude and phase of the synthesized output. The quadrature corrections cancel the radars' quadrature upconverter (mixer) errors to null the unwanted spectral image. A result is the direct generation of an RF waveform, which has a theoretical chirp bandwidth equal to the QECDWS clock frequency (1 to 1.2 GHz) with the high Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) necessary for high dynamic range radar systems such as SAR. To correct for the problematic upconverter local oscillator (LO) leakage, precision DC offsets can be applied over the chirped pulse using a pseudo-random noise dither. The present dither technique can effectively produce a quadrature DC bias which has the precision required to adequately suppress the LO leakage. A calibration technique can be employed to calculate both the quadrature correction vectors and the LO-nulling DC offsets using the radar built-in test capability.

  6. Two-stage method to suppress speckle noise in digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Junmin; Zhou, Jinhe; Lang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    The two-stage method is proposed to suppress speckle noise in the digital hologram. Three kinds of optical denoising ways are analyzed and compared at first. The optimal one is used to reduce speckle preliminarily. At the same time, the statistical property of the speckle is changed by the optical way. Then the optimized NLM algorithm is adopted to further suppress speckle noise. The experimental system is set up, and the performance indices are calculated. The results are compared with other algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented method can effectively suppress speckle noise in the digital hologram and the processed image is very vivid.

  7. MO-A-BRD-02: Noise Suppression for Dual-Energy CT Through Entropy Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Petrongolo, M; Niu, T; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In dual energy CT (DECT), noise amplification during signal decomposition significantly limits the utility of basis material images. Since clinically relevant objects contain a limited number of materials, we propose to suppress noise in decomposed images through entropy minimization within a 2D transformation space. Distinct from other noise suppression techniques, the entropy minimization method does not estimate and suppress noise based on spatial variations of signals and thus maximally preserves image spatial resolution. Methods: From decomposed images, we first generate a 2D plot of scattered data points, using basis material densities as coordinates. Data points representing the same material generate a cluster with a highly asymmetric shape. We orient an axis by minimizing the entropy in a 1D histogram of these points projected onto the axis. To suppress noise, we replace the pixel values of decomposed images with center-of-mass values in the direction perpendicular to the optimized axis. The proposed method's performance is assessed using a Catphan 600 phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Electron density calculations are used to quantify its accuracy. Our results are compared to those without noise suppression, with a filtering method, and with a recently developed iterative method. Results: On both phantoms, the proposed method reduces noise standard deviations of the decomposed images by at least on order of magnitude. In the Catphan study, this method retains the spatial resolution of the CT images and increases the accuracy of electron density calculations. In the head phantom study, the proposed method outperforms the others in retaining fine, intricate structures. Conclusion: This work shows that the proposed method of noise suppression through entropy minimization for DECT suppresses noise without loss of spatial resolution while increasing electron density calculation accuracy. Future investigations will analyze possible bias and

  8. The acoustic and perceptual effects of two noise-suppression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zakis, Justin A; Wise, Christi

    2007-01-01

    Internal noise generated by hearing-aid circuits can be audible and objectionable to aid users, and may lead to the rejection of hearing aids. Two expansion algorithms were developed to suppress internal noise below a threshold level. The multiple-channel algorithm's expansion thresholds followed the 55-dB SPL long-term average speech spectrum, while the single-channel algorithm suppressed sounds below 45 dBA. With the recommended settings in static conditions, the single-channel algorithm provided lower noise levels, which were perceived as quieter by most normal-hearing participants. However, in dynamic conditions "pumping" noises were more noticeable with the single-channel algorithm. For impaired-hearing listeners fitted with the ADRO amplification strategy, both algorithms maintained speech understanding for words in sentences presented at 55 dB SPL in quiet (99.3% correct). Mean sentence reception thresholds in quiet were 39.4, 40.7, and 41.8 dB SPL without noise suppression, and with the single- and multiple-channel algorithms, respectively. The increase in the sentence reception threshold was statistically significant for the multiple-channel algorithm, but not the single-channel algorithm. Thus, both algorithms suppressed noise without affecting the intelligibility of speech presented at 55 dB SPL, with the single-channel algorithm providing marginally greater noise suppression in static conditions, and the multiple-channel algorithm avoiding pumping noises. PMID:17297798

  9. Noise of He-Cd laser and its suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Y.G.; Jiang, J.L.; Lu, J.H.; Chiu, M.S.

    1983-08-15

    Linear relations have been observed between the reciprocal of the noise ratio and the reciprocal of the output power of the He-Cd laser as well as between the noise ratio and the net gain within the laser cavity. By a feedback method with an acoustooptic modulator in the laser cavity at the Brewster angle for low optical loss, a stable laser with high power output and low noise has been obtained. The noise ratio and the output power are 0.8% and 33 m W, respectively, at 4416 A.

  10. Suppression of Low-Frequency Electronic Noise in Polymer Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lezzi, Francesca; Ferrari, Giorgio; Pennetta, Cecilia; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-11-11

    The authors report on the reduction of low-frequency noise in semiconductor polymer nanowires with respect to thin-films made of the same organic material. Flicker noise is experimentally investigated in polymer nanowires in the range of 10-10(5) Hz by means of field-effect transistor architectures. The noise in the devices is well described by the Hooge empirical model and exhibits an average Hooge constant, which describes the current power spectral density of fluctuations, suppressed by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to thin-film devices. To explain the Hooge constant reduction, a resistor network model is developed, in which the organic semiconducting nanostructures or films are depicted through a two-dimensional network of resistors with a square-lattice structure, accounting for the different anisotropy and degree of structural disorder of the active nanowires and films. Results from modeling agree well with experimental findings. These results support enhanced structural order through size-confinement in organic nanostructures as effective route to improve the noise performance in polymer electronic devices. PMID:26479330

  11. Ground-roll noise extraction and suppression using high-resolution linear Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yue; Wang, Limin; Cheng, Feng; Luo, Yinhe; Shen, Chao; Mi, Binbin

    2016-05-01

    Ground-roll is a main type of strong noises in petroleum seismic exploration. Suppression of this kind of noise is essential to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data. In the time-offset (t-x) domain, the ground-roll noise and the effective waves (e.g., direct waves, reflections) overlap with each other in terms of time and frequency, which make it difficult to suppress ground roll noise in exploration seismic data. However, significant different features shown in the frequency-velocity (f-v) domain make it possible to separate ground roll noise and effective waves effectively. We propose a novel method to separate them using high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). Amplitude and phase information is preserved during the proposed quasi-reversible transformation. The reversibility and linearity of LRT provide a foundation for ground-roll noise suppression in the f-v domain. We extract the energy of ground-roll noise in the f-v domain, and transform the extracted part back to the t-x domain to obtain the ground-roll noise shot gather. Finally, the extracted ground-roll noise is subtracted from the original data arithmetically. Theoretical tests and a real world example have been implemented to illustrate that the ground-roll noise suppression can be achieved with negligible distortion of the effective signals. When compared with the adaptive ground-roll attenuation method and the K-L transform method, the real world example shows the superiority of our method in suppressing the ground-roll noise and preserving the amplitude and phase information of effective waves.

  12. Active noise control to reduce the blade tone noise of centrifugal fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, G. H.; Neise, W.; Chen, W.

    1988-07-01

    An active noise control method for suppressing the blade tones of centrifugal fans is presented which uses two secondary sound sources mounted into the cutoff region of the fan casing. Experiments were conducted for centrifugal fans with impeller diameters between 280 and 710 mm using two different designs for the secondary sources. The results indicate that the sound field inside the casing is dominated by the rotor locked pressure field, and that the blade tone noise measured in the far-field is generated by the unsteady pressures at the cutoff, which in turn are produced by the flow leaving the impeller.

  13. RF noise suppression using the photodielectric effect in semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.

    1969-01-01

    Technique using photodielectric effect of semiconductor in high-Q superconductive cavity gives initial improvement of 2-4 db in signal-to-noise enhancement of conventional RF communication systems. Wide band signal plus noise can be transmitted through a narrow-band cavity due to parametric perturbation of the cavity frequency or phase.

  14. Noise sources in wind turbines. Source identification research: Noise suppression design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschie, L. W. A.; Debruijn, A.; Vantol, F. H.

    1985-06-01

    Aerodynamic and mechanical noise measurements on medium-sized wind turbines were carried out; literature on aerodynamic noise sources at wings was reviewed. The total emission level as a function of the average wind velocity was determined. Aerodynamic wing noise was measured seperately from the nacelle noise using a microphone. A trigger unit consisting of an optical sensor and telelens was developed to measure synchronically the noise signal of the wing in horizontal position. In the nacelle, noise and vibration measurements were done at the entering axis, the gear casing, and the generator. Main sources are the gear casing, the generator, and obstacles on the wings. Noise reducing design recommendations are given.

  15. Offset Manchester coding for Rayleigh noise suppression in carrier-distributed WDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Yu, Xiangyu; Lu, Weichao; Qu, Fengzhong; Deng, Ning

    2015-07-01

    We propose a novel offset Manchester coding in upstream to simultaneously realize Rayleigh noise suppression and differential detection in a carrier-distributed wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network. Error-free transmission of 2.5-Gb/s upstream signals over 50-km standard single mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated, with a 7-dB enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise.

  16. Active{sup 3} noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-06-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Adaptive noise estimation and suppression for improving microseismic event detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Mostafa; Langston, Charles A.

    2016-09-01

    Microseismic data recorded by surface arrays are often strongly contaminated by unwanted noise. This background noise makes the detection of small magnitude events difficult. A noise level estimation and noise reduction algorithm is presented for microseismic data analysis based upon minimally controlled recursive averaging and neighborhood shrinkage estimators. The method might not be compared with more sophisticated and computationally expensive denoising algorithm in terms of preserving detailed features of seismic signal. However, it is fast and data-driven and can be applied in real-time processing of continuous data for event detection purposes. Results from application of this algorithm to synthetic and real seismic data show that it holds a great promise for improving microseismic event detection.

  18. Adaptive noise suppression for a dual-microphone hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Jan; Berghe, Jeff Vanden; Maj, Jean-Baptiste

    2002-10-01

    An adaptive beamformer for behind-the-ear dual-microphone hearing aids has been optimized for speech intelligibility enhancement in the presence of disturbing sounds or noise. The noise reduction approach is based on the scheme presented by Vanden Berghe and Wouters (1998). A real-time implementation of the signal processing is realized in Audallion, a wearable, small digital signal processing (DSP) platform. After physical evaluation, speech-in-noise intelligibility tests have been carried out on three normally-hearing and two hearing-impaired subjects. A significant speech reception threshold improvement of 11.3 dB was obtained in a moderately reverberant environment for one jammer sound source (steady speech-weighted noise or multi-talker babble) in a direction of 90 degrees relative to the direction of the speech. PMID:12403608

  19. Farm noise emissions during common agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Depczynski, J; Franklin, R C; Challinor, K; Williams, W; Fragar, L J

    2005-08-01

    Noise injury in agriculture is a significant yet often unrecognized problem. Many farmers, farm workers, and family members are exposed to noise levels above recommended levels and have greater hearing loss than their non-farming contemporaries. The aim of this study was to gather up-to-date information on farm noise levels and to enhance the quality of information available to assist farmers in reducing noise exposure and meeting Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) regulations regarding noise management. Farm visits were conducted on 48 agricultural establishments that produce a range of commodities. Noise levels were measured at the ears of operators and bystanders involved in typical activities on farms. The average and peak noise levels were measured for 56 types of machinery or sites of farming activity, totaling 298 separate items and activities. Common noise hazards identified included firearms, tractors without cabs, workshop tools, small motors (e.g., chainsaws, augers, pumps), manual handling of pigs, shearing sheds, older cabbed tractors, and heavy machinery such as harvesters, bulldozers, and cotton module presses. We found that use of firearms without hearing protection presents a pressing hearing health priority. However, farming activities involving machinery used for prolonged periods also present significant risks to farmers' hearing health. Noise management strategies on the farm are essential in order to prevent noise injury among farmers. PMID:16184791

  20. A moving hum filter to suppress rotor noise in high-resolution airborne magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Doll, W.E.; Miller, R.D.; Gamey, T.J.; Emond, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A unique filtering approach is developed to eliminate helicopter rotor noise. It is designed to suppress harmonic noise from a rotor that varies slightly in amplitude, phase, and frequency and that contaminates aero-magnetic data. The filter provides a powerful harmonic noise-suppression tool for data acquired with modern large-dynamic-range recording systems. This three-step approach - polynomial fitting, bandpass filtering, and rotor-noise synthesis - significantly reduces rotor noise without altering the spectra of signals of interest. Two steps before hum filtering - polynomial fitting and bandpass filtering - are critical to accurately model the weak rotor noise. During rotor-noise synthesis, amplitude, phase, and frequency are determined. Data are processed segment by segment so that there is no limit on the length of data. The segment length changes dynamically along a line based on modeling results. Modeling the rotor noise is stable and efficient. Real-world data examples demonstrate that this method can suppress rotor noise by more than 95% when implemented in an aeromagnetic data-processing flow. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  1. The suppression of charged-particle-induced noise in infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.; Briotta, D. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A d.c.-coupled transimpedance amplifier/pulse suppression circuit designed to remove charged-particle-induced noise from infrared detectors is described. Noise spikes produced by single particle events are large and have short rise times, and can degrade the performance of an infrared detector in moderate radiation environments. The use of the suppression circuit improves the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 1.6:1, which corresponds to a reduction in required observing time by a factor of about 2.6.

  2. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data by τ-p transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth; Davidson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Surface passive seismic methods are receiving increased attention for monitoring changes in reservoirs during the production of unconventional oil and gas. However, in passive seismic data the strong cultural and ambient noise (mainly surface-waves) decreases the effectiveness of these techniques. Hence, suppression of surface-waves is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. We apply a noise suppression technique, based on the τ — p transform, to a surface passive seismic dataset recorded over a Barnett Shale reservoir undergoing a hydraulic fracturing process. This technique not only improves the signal-to-noise ratios of added synthetic microseismic events, but it also preserves the event waveforms.

  3. Improved Radiometric Based Method for Suppressing Impulse Noise from Corrupted Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changcheng; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Dayue

    A novel filter is introduced in this paper to improve the ability of radiometric based method on suppressing impulse noise. Firstly, a new method is introduced to design the impulsive weight by measuring how impulsive a pixel is. Then, the impulsive weight is combined with the radiometric weight to obtain the evaluated values on each pixel in the whole corrupted image. The impulsive weight is mainly designed to suppress the impulse noise, while the radiometric weight is mainly designed to protect the noise-free pixel. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform much better than other filters in terms of the quantitative and qualitative aspects.

  4. High noise suppression using magnetically isotropic (CoFe-AlN)/(AlN) multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijima, Hanae; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetically isotropic (CoFe-AlN)n/(AlN)n+1 multilayer films, in which the number of CoFe-AlN magnetic layers n ranged from 1 to 27, were prepared by radio frequency sputtering to achieve noise suppression at gigahertz frequencies. The soft CoFe-AlN magnetic layers consisted of nanometer-sized CoFe ferromagnetic grains embedded in an insulating AlN amorphous matrix, while the insulating AlN layers comprised AlN columnar crystals. All films showed a similar frequency dependence of permeability and ferromagnetic resonance of 1.7 GHz. Noise suppression was evaluated using a microstrip line as a noise source by determining the in-line conductive loss and the near-field intensity picked up by magnetic field detective probes. High noise suppression effects were observed in every direction in the film plane. Maximum noise suppression values amounted to 60% for the in-line conductive loss and -20 dB for the magnetic near-field intensity at around 1.7 GHz in the 27-layer film. These high-frequency noise suppression levels may be attributed to eddy current losses and ferromagnetic resonance.

  5. Suppressing Irrelevant Information: Knowledge Activation or Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Danielle S.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined the role of knowledge activation in the suppression of contextually irrelevant meanings for ambiguous homographs. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants with greater baseball knowledge, regardless of reading skill, more quickly suppressed the irrelevant meaning of ambiguous words in baseball-related, but not…

  6. Measurement Sensitivity Improvement of All-Optical Atomic Spin Magnetometer by Suppressing Noises

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiyuan; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum manipulation technology and photoelectric detection technology have jointly facilitated the rapid development of ultra-sensitive atomic spin magnetometers. To improve the output signal and sensitivity of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic spin magnetometer, the noises influencing on the output signal and the sensitivity were analyzed, and the corresponding noise suppression methods were presented. The magnetic field noises, including the residual magnetic field noise and the light shift noise, were reduced to approximately zero by employing the magnetic field compensation method and by adjusting the frequency of the pump beam, respectively. With respect to the operation temperature, the simulation results showed that the temperature of the potassium atomic spin magnetometer realizing the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime was 180 °C. Moreover, the fluctuation noises of the frequency and the power were suppressed by using the frequency and the power stable systems. The experimental power stability results showed that the light intensity stability was enhanced 10%. Contrast experiments on the sensitivity were carried out to demonstrate the validity of the suppression methods. Finally, a sensitivity of 13 fT/Hz1/2 was successfully achieved by suppressing noises and optimizing parameters. PMID:27322272

  7. Measurement Sensitivity Improvement of All-Optical Atomic Spin Magnetometer by Suppressing Noises.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiyuan; Zhang, Hong; Zou, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum manipulation technology and photoelectric detection technology have jointly facilitated the rapid development of ultra-sensitive atomic spin magnetometers. To improve the output signal and sensitivity of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic spin magnetometer, the noises influencing on the output signal and the sensitivity were analyzed, and the corresponding noise suppression methods were presented. The magnetic field noises, including the residual magnetic field noise and the light shift noise, were reduced to approximately zero by employing the magnetic field compensation method and by adjusting the frequency of the pump beam, respectively. With respect to the operation temperature, the simulation results showed that the temperature of the potassium atomic spin magnetometer realizing the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime was 180 °C. Moreover, the fluctuation noises of the frequency and the power were suppressed by using the frequency and the power stable systems. The experimental power stability results showed that the light intensity stability was enhanced 10%. Contrast experiments on the sensitivity were carried out to demonstrate the validity of the suppression methods. Finally, a sensitivity of 13 fT/Hz(1/2) was successfully achieved by suppressing noises and optimizing parameters. PMID:27322272

  8. Noise Suppression Using Symmetric Exchange Gates in Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip K.; Nissen, Peter D.; Barnes, Edwin; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Manfra, Michael J.; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a substantial improvement in the spin-exchange gate using symmetric control instead of conventional detuning in GaAs spin qubits, up to a factor of six increase in the quality factor of the gate. For symmetric operation, nanosecond voltage pulses are applied to the barrier that controls the interdot potential between quantum dots, modulating the exchange interaction while maintaining symmetry between the dots. Excellent agreement is found with a model that separately includes electrical and nuclear noise sources for both detuning and symmetric gating schemes. Unlike exchange control via detuning, the decoherence of symmetric exchange rotations is dominated by rotation-axis fluctuations due to nuclear field noise rather than direct exchange noise.

  9. Suppression of 1/f Flux Noise in Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Freeland, John; Yu, Clare; Wu, Ruqian; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Hui; Shi, Chuntai; Pappas, David; McDermott, Robert

    Low frequency 1/f magnetic flux noise is a dominant contributor to dephasing in superconducting quantum circuits. It is believed that the noise is due to a high density of unpaired magnetic defect states at the surface of the superconducting thin films. We have performed X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments that point to adsorbed molecular oxygen as the dominant source of magnetism in these films. By improving the vacuum environment of our superconducting devices, we have achieved a significant reduction in surface magnetic susceptibility and 1/f flux noise power spectral density. These results open the door to realization of superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times. State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

  10. Noise Suppression Using Symmetric Exchange Gates in Spin Qubits.

    PubMed

    Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip K; Nissen, Peter D; Barnes, Edwin; Fallahi, Saeed; Gardner, Geoffrey C; Manfra, Michael J; Marcus, Charles M; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    2016-03-18

    We demonstrate a substantial improvement in the spin-exchange gate using symmetric control instead of conventional detuning in GaAs spin qubits, up to a factor of six increase in the quality factor of the gate. For symmetric operation, nanosecond voltage pulses are applied to the barrier that controls the interdot potential between quantum dots, modulating the exchange interaction while maintaining symmetry between the dots. Excellent agreement is found with a model that separately includes electrical and nuclear noise sources for both detuning and symmetric gating schemes. Unlike exchange control via detuning, the decoherence of symmetric exchange rotations is dominated by rotation-axis fluctuations due to nuclear field noise rather than direct exchange noise. PMID:27035316

  11. Effects of aircraft noise on human activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoult, M. D.; Gilfillan, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aircrft noise on human activities was investigated by developing a battery of tasks (1) representative of a range of human activities and (2) sensitive to the disruptive effects of noise. The noise used were recordings of jet aircraft and helicopter sounds at three lvels of loudness--60, 70, and 80 dB(A). Experiment 1 investigated 12 different cognitive tasks, along with two intelligibility tasks included to validate that the noises were being effective. Interference with intelligibility was essentially the same as found in the research literature, but only inconsistent effects were found on either accuracy or latency of performance on the cognitive tasks. When the tasks were grouped into four categories (Intelligibility, Matching, Verbal, and Arithmetic), reliable differences in rated annoyingness of the noises were related to the task category and to the type of noise (jet or helicopter).

  12. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  13. Microwave oscillator with reduced phase noise by negative feedback incorporating microwave signals with suppressed carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.

  14. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  15. Updating working memory in aircraft noise and speech noise causes different fMRI activations.

    PubMed

    Saetrevik, Bjørn; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    The present study used fMRI/BOLD neuroimaging to investigate how visual-verbal working memory is updated when exposed to three different background-noise conditions: speech noise, aircraft noise and silence. The number-updating task that was used can distinguish between "substitution processes," which involve adding new items to the working memory representation and suppressing old items, and "exclusion processes," which involve rejecting new items and maintaining an intact memory set. The current findings supported the findings of a previous study by showing that substitution activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex and the parietal lobes, whereas exclusion activated the anterior medial frontal cortex. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex was activated more by substitution processes when exposed to background speech than when exposed to aircraft noise. These results indicate that (a) the prefrontal cortex plays a special role when task-irrelevant materials should be denied access to working memory and (b) that, when compensating for different types of noise, either different cognitive mechanisms are involved or those cognitive mechanisms that are involved are involved to different degrees. PMID:25352319

  16. Updating working memory in aircraft noise and speech noise causes different fMRI activations

    PubMed Central

    Sætrevik, Bjørn; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The present study used fMRI/BOLD neuroimaging to investigate how visual-verbal working memory is updated when exposed to three different background-noise conditions: speech noise, aircraft noise and silence. The number-updating task that was used can distinguish between “substitution processes,” which involve adding new items to the working memory representation and suppressing old items, and “exclusion processes,” which involve rejecting new items and maintaining an intact memory set. The current findings supported the findings of a previous study by showing that substitution activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex and the parietal lobes, whereas exclusion activated the anterior medial frontal cortex. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex was activated more by substitution processes when exposed to background speech than when exposed to aircraft noise. These results indicate that (a) the prefrontal cortex plays a special role when task-irrelevant materials should be denied access to working memory and (b) that, when compensating for different types of noise, either different cognitive mechanisms are involved or those cognitive mechanisms that are involved are involved to different degrees. PMID:25352319

  17. Quiet engine program: Turbine noise suppression. -Volume 1: General treatment evaluation and measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, A.; Hehmann, H.; Radecki, K.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic treatment was developed for jet engine turbine noise suppression. Acoustic impedance and duct transmission loss measurements were made for various suppression systems. An environmental compatibility study on several material types having suppression characteristics is presented. Two sets of engine hardware were designed and are described along with engine test results which include probe, farfield, near field, and acoustic directional array data. Comparisons of the expected and the measured suppression levels are given as well as a discussion of test results and design techniques.

  18. Aeroacoustic performance of an externally blown flap configuration with several flap noise suppression devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Small scale model acoustic experiments were conducted to measure the noise produced in the flyover and sideline planes by an engine under the wing externally blown flap configuration in its approach attitude. Broadband low frequency noise reductions as large as 9 dB were produced by reducing the separation distance between the nozzle exhaust plane and the flaps. Experiments were also conducted to determine the noise suppression effectiveness in comparison with a reference configuration of three passive types of devices that were located on the jet impingement surfaces of the reference configuration. These devices produced noise reductions that varied up to 10 dB at reduced separation distances. In addition, a qualitative estimate of the noise suppression characteristics of the separate devices was made. Finally static aerodynamic performance data were obtained to evaluate the penalties incurred by these suppression devices. The test results suggest that further parametric studies are required in order to understand more fully the noise mechanisms that are affected by the suppression devices used.

  19. Aeroacoustic performance of an externally blown flap configuration with several flap noise suppression devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Small scale model acoustic experiments were conducted to measure the noise produced in the flyover and sideline planes by an engine under the wing externally blown flap configuration in its approach attitude. Broadband low frequency noise reductions as large as 9 dB were produced by reducing the separation distance between the nozzle exhaust plane and the flaps. Experiments were also conducted to determine the noise suppression effectiveness in comparison with a reference configuration of three passive types of devices that were located on the jet impingement surfaces of the reference configuration. These devices produced noise reductions that varied up to 10 dB at reduced separation distances. In addition, a qualitative estimate of the noise suppression characteristics of the separate devices was made. Finally static aerodynamic performance data were obtained to evaluate the penalties incurred by these suppression devices. The test results suggest that further parametric studies are required in order to understand more fully the noise mechanisms that are affected by the suppression devices used.

  20. Prediction, Measurement, and Suppression of High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M.; Bhat, T. R. S.; Jansen, Bernard J.

    1999-01-01

    The photograph in figure 1 displays a water cooled round convergent-divergent supersonic nozzle operating slightly overexpanded near 2460 F. The nozzle is designed to produce shock free flow near this temperature at Mach 2. The exit diameter of this nozzle is 3.5 inches. This nozzle is used in the present study to establish properties of the sound field associated with high temperature supersonic jets operating fully pressure balanced (i.e. shock free) and to evaluate capability of the compressible Rayleigh model to account for principle physical features of the observed sound emission. The experiment is conducted statically (i.e. M(sub f) = 0.) in the NASA/LaRC Jet Noise Laboratory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic measurements are obtained in this study along with numerical plume simulation and theoretical prediction of jet noise. Detailed results from this study are reported previously by Seiner, Ponton, Jansen, and Lagen.

  1. New calibration noise suppression techniques for the GLORIA limb imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenmoser, T.; Blank, J.; Kleinert, A.; Latzko, T.; Ungermann, J.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Höpfner, M.; Kaufmann, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sha, M. K.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Tan, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) presents new opportunities for the retrieval of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The radiometric calibration of the measured signal is achieved using in-flight measurements of reference blackbody and upward-pointing "deep space" scenes. In this paper, we present techniques developed specifically to calibrate GLORIA data exploiting the instrument's imaging capability. The algorithms discussed here make use of the spatial correlation of parameters across GLORIA's detector pixels in order to mitigate the noise levels and artefacts in the calibration measurements. This is achieved by combining a priori and empirical knowledge about the instrument background radiation with noise-mitigating compression methods, specifically low-pass filtering and principal component analysis. In addition, a new software package for the processing of GLORIA data is introduced which allows us to generate calibrated spectra from raw measurements in a semi-automated data processing chain.

  2. New calibration noise suppression techniques for the GLORIA limb imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenmoser, T.; Blank, J.; Kleinert, A.; Latzko, T.; Ungermann, J.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Höpfner, M.; Kaufmann, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sha, M. K.; Sumińska-Ebersoldt, O.; Tan, V.

    2015-08-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) presents new opportunities for the retrieval of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The radiometric calibration of the measured signal is achieved using in-flight measurements of reference blackbody and upward-pointing "deep space" scenes. In this paper, we present techniques developed specifically to calibrate GLORIA data exploiting the instrument's imaging capability. The algorithms discussed here make use of the spatial correlation of parameters across GLORIA's detector pixels in order to mitigate the noise levels and artefacts in the calibration measurements. This is achieved by combining a priori and empirical knowledge about the instrument background radiation with noise-mitigating compression methods, specifically low-pass filtering and principal component analysis (PCA). In addition, a new software package for the processing of GLORIA data is introduced which allows us to generate calibrated spectra from raw measurements in a semi-automated data processing chain.

  3. Design of a Low Speed Fan Stage for Noise Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, W. N.; Elliot, D. B.; Nickols, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the design of a low tip speed, moderate pressure rise fan stage for demonstration of noise reduction concepts. The fan rotor is a fixed-pitch configuration delivering a design pressure ratio of 1.378 at a specific flow of 43.1 lbm/sec/sq ft. Four exit stator configurations were provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of circumferential and axial sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction tone noise. The fan stage design was combined with an axisymmetric inlet, conical convergent nozzle, and nacelle to form a powered fan-nacelle subscale model. This model has a 22-inch cylindrical flow path and employs a rotor with a 0.30 hub-to-tip radius ratio. The design is fully compatible with an existing NASA force balance and rig drive system. The stage aerodynamic and structural design is described in detail. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools were used to define optimum airfoil sections for both the rotor and stators. A fan noise predictive system developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA was used to determine the acoustic characteristics of the various stator configurations. Parameters varied included rotor-to-stator spacing and vane leading edge sweep. The structural analysis of the rotor and stator are described herein. An integral blade and disk configuration was selected for the rotor. Analysis confirmed adequate low cycle fatigue life, vibratory endurance strength, and aeroelastic suitability. A unique load carrying stator arrangement was selected to minimize generation of tonal noise due to sources other than rotor-stator interaction. Analysis of all static structural components demonstrated adequate strength, fatigue life, and vibratory characteristics.

  4. Suppression of frequency locking noise in resonator fiber optic gyro by differential detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lishuang; Zhi, Yinzhou; Lei, Ming; Wang, Junjie

    2014-10-01

    The performance of the resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) is influenced by frequency locking noise. This paper proposes a differential detection method (DDM) to suppress the frequency locking noise. First, the frequency locking noise induced by the frequency locking error is described theoretically; the description indicates that it acts as the common-mode noise in the RFOG. In the traditional signal-path detection method (SDM), there is a trade-off between suppressing the frequency locking noise and improving the gyro sensitivity. Thus, a model of the DDM is set up and analyzed. The frequency locking noise can be suppressed using the DDM by adjusting the gains of two lock-in amplifiers. Finally, the experimental setup is established, and the SDM and DDM are compared. When the tested equivalent frequency locking noise is 10.6°/h, the bias stability of the RFOG is improved from 12.9°/h to 1.1°/h by the DDM.

  5. Beam combining and SBS suppression in white noise and pseudo-random modulated amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian; Flores, Angel; Holten, Roger; Ehrenreich, Thomas; Dajani, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    White noise phase modulation (WNS) and pseudo-random binary sequence phase modulation (PRBS) are effective techniques for mitigation of nonlinear effects such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS); thereby paving the way for higher power narrow linewidth fiber amplifiers. However, detailed studies comparing both coherent beam combination and the SBS suppression of these phase modulation schemes have not been reported. In this study an active fiber cutback experiment is performed comparing the enhancement factor of a PRBS and WNS broadened seed as a function of linewidth and fiber length. Furthermore, two WNS and PRBS modulated fiber lasers are coherently combined to measure and compare the fringe visibility and coherence length as a function of optical path length difference. Notably, the discrete frequency comb of PRBS modulation provides a beam combining re-coherence effect where the lasers periodically come back into phase. Significantly, this may reduce path length matching complexity in coherently combined fiber laser systems.

  6. A hybrid method for strong low-frequency noise suppression in prestack seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chunhua; Lu, Wenkai

    2014-09-01

    Low-frequency components are important portion of seismic data in exploration geophysics, and have great effects on seismic imaging of deep subsurface and full waveform inversion. Unfortunately, seismic data usually suffers from various kinds of noises and has low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in low-frequency band, although this situation has been improved by developments of acquisition technology. In this paper, we propose a low-frequency cascade filter (LFCF) in Fourier domain for strong low-frequency noise suppression in prestack gathers. LFCF includes a 1D adaptive median filter in f-x domain and a 2D notch filter in f-k domain, which is able to process high-amplitude swell noise, random noise, and seismic interference noise. We employ traces rearrangement and spike-detection mechanisms in adaptive f-x median filter, which can handle strong noise specifically, such as wide-spreading swell noise and tug noise. And a notch filter in f-k domain is designed to separate reflection signal and random noise by different apparent velocities. Through these means, our method can effectively attenuate low-frequency random and coherent noise while simultaneously protect the signal. Experiments on synthetic example and field data are conducted, and the results demonstrate that our method is practical and effective and can preserve signal down to 2 Hz.

  7. Adjoint-based optimization for understanding and suppressing jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    2011-08-01

    Advanced simulation tools, particularly large-eddy simulation techniques, are becoming capable of making quality predictions of jet noise for realistic nozzle geometries and at engineering relevant flow conditions. Increasing computer resources will be a key factor in improving these predictions still further. Quality prediction, however, is only a necessary condition for the use of such simulations in design optimization. Predictions do not themselves lead to quieter designs. They must be interpreted or harnessed in some way that leads to design improvements. As yet, such simulations have not yielded any simplifying principals that offer general design guidance. The turbulence mechanisms leading to jet noise remain poorly described in their complexity. In this light, we have implemented and demonstrated an aeroacoustic adjoint-based optimization technique that automatically calculates gradients that point the direction in which to adjust controls in order to improve designs. This is done with only a single flow solutions and a solution of an adjoint system, which is solved at computational cost comparable to that for the flow. Optimization requires iterations, but having the gradient information provided via the adjoint accelerates convergence in a manner that is insensitive to the number of parameters to be optimized. This paper, which follows from a presentation at the 2010 IUTAM Symposium on Computational Aero-Acoustics for Aircraft Noise Prediction, reviews recent and ongoing efforts by the author and co-workers. It provides a new formulation of the basic approach and demonstrates the approach on a series of model flows, culminating with a preliminary result for a turbulent jet.

  8. System and Method for Suppression of Unwanted Noise in Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q. (Inventor); Clem, Michelle M. (Inventor); Fagan, Amy F. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for the suppression of unwanted noise from a jet discharging into a duct are disclosed herein. The unwanted noise may be in the form of excited duct modes or howl due to super resonance. A damper member is used to reduce acoustic velocity perturbations at the velocity anti-node, associated with the half-wave resonance of the duct, weakening the resonance condition and reducing the amplitudes of the spectral peaks.

  9. Observation of Shot Noise Suppression at Optical Wavelengths in a Relativistic Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-19

    Control of collective properties of relativistic particles is increasingly important in modern accelerators. In particular, shot noise affects accelerator performance by driving instabilities or by competing with coherent processes. We present experimental observations of shot noise suppression in a relativistic beam at the Linac Coherent Light Source. By adjusting the dispersive strength of a chicane, we observe a decrease in the optical transition radiation emitted from a downstream foil. We show agreement between the experimental results, theoretical models, and 3D particle simulations.

  10. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 4; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.; Kontos, G. C.

    1996-01-01

    An extension of a prior study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct, at least to the extent that they no longer protrude above the surrounding broadband noise levels. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels am arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios of 1.3, 1.45, 1.6, and 1.75. This report is an extension of an effort reported previously. The major conclusions drawn from the prior study, which was restricted to fan pressure ratios of 1.45 and 1.75, are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC. For a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness from passive treatment. In the present study, the other two fan pressure ratios are included in a more detailed examination of the benefits of the ANC suppression levels. The key results of this extended study are the following observations: (1) The maximum overall benefit obtained from suppression of BPF alone was 2.5 EPNdB at high fan speeds. The suppression benefit increases with increase in fan pressure ratio (FPR), (2) The maximum overall benefit obtained from suppression of the first three harmonics was 3 EPNdB at high speeds. Suppression benefit increases with increase in FPR, (3) At low FPR, only about 1.0 EPNdB maximum reduction was obtained. Suppression is primarily from reduction of BPF at high FPR values and from the combination of tones at low FPR, (4) The benefit from ANC is about the same as the benefit from passive treatment at fan pressure

  11. Impulsive Noise Suppression from Images by Using Anfis Interpolant and Lillietest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beşdok, Erkan

    2004-12-01

    A new impulsive noise (IN) elimination filter, entitled adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-based IN removal filter ( Anfis- F), which shows high performance at the restoration of images distorted by IN, is proposed in this paper. The Anfis- F comprises three main steps: finding the pixels that are suspected to be corrupted, the Delaunay triangulation, and finally, making estimation for intensity values of corrupted pixels within each of the Delaunay triangles. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed filter achieves better performance than other filters mentioned in this paper in the cases of being effective in noise suppression and detail preservation, especially when the noise density is very high.

  12. The cancellation of repetitive noise and vibration by active nethods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghtesadi, Kh.; Chaplin, G. B. B.

    The active attenuation of diesel engine noise is discussed as well as the active control of vibration. The system used is found to work best with repetitive sources of noise. Applications of active noise attentuation include noise inside helicopters and propellor aircraft, auxilliary generators and large compressors, and noise on emergency vehicles such as fire engines and snow cats.

  13. Noise suppression for energy-resolved CT using similarity-based non-local filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Joe; Wang, Tonghe; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2016-03-01

    In energy-resolved CT, images are reconstructed independently at different energy levels, resulting in images with different qualities but the same structures. We propose a similarity-based non-local filtration method to extract structural information from these images for noise suppression. For each pixel, we calculate its similarity to other pixels based on CT number. The calculation is repeated on each image at different energy levels and similarity values are averaged to generate a similarity matrix. Noise suppression is achieved by multiplying the image vector by the similarity matrix. Multiple scans on a tabletop CT system are used to simulate 6-channel energy-resolved CT, with energies ranging from 75 to 125 kVp. Phantom studies show that the proposed method improves average contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of seven materials on the 75 kVp image by a factor of 22. Compared with averaging CT images for noise suppression, our method achieves a higher CNR and reduces the CT number error of iodine solutions from 16.5% to 3.5% and the overall image root of mean-square error (RMSE) from 3.58% to 0.93%. On the phantom with line-pair structures, our algorithm reduces noise standard deviation (STD) by a factor of 23 while maintaining 7 lp/cm spatial resolution. Additionally, anthropomorphic head phantom studies show noise STD reduction by a factor or 26 with no loss of spatial resolution. The noise suppression achieved by the similarity-based method is clinically attractive, especially for CNRs of iodine in contrast-enhanced CT.

  14. Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-12-07

    To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction.

  15. Development and Demonstration of Active Noise Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R.; Hu, Z.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Walker, B.; Hersh, A.; Luo, H.; Spencer, M.; Hallman, D.; Mitchell, C.; Sutliff, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report details design methods for and feasibility of an Active Noise Control (ANC) system using flush-wall-mounted sensors and actuators to reduce turbofan engine rotor-stator interaction noise. ANC concepts capable of suppressing discrete-tone spinning modes containing several cut-on radial mode were identified, developed analytically, and evaluated. Separate ANC systems that suppressed at least three radial modes in a cylindrical inlet duct and three radial modes in an exhaust annulus were developed. These designs resulted in inlet duct and exhaust duct tests that were performed at NASA on the 4-ft ANC Fan in the NASA Glenn AAPL facility. Effective suppression of 2-BPF spinning mode m = 2 tone noise was achieved over a range of fan speeds 1800 to 2450 rpm, where up to 4 radials were present. In the inlet duct, up to 12 dB reduction was obtained for 3 radial modes, and up to 4 dB was obtained with 4 radial modes. In the exhaust duct, up to 15 dB PWL reduction was obtained with either two or three radial modes present. Thus, the ability to suppress multiple radial modes for tones in both the inlet and exhaust ducts has been successfully demonstrated. Implications of ANC system design requirements on installation and system integration issues for ANC systems capable of suppressing higher order radial mode content when applied to a 767 using twin CF6 engines were evaluated analytically. The analytical results indicated an ANC system must be part of an integrated design to be effective.

  16. Suppressing technical noise in weak measurements by entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Brun, Todd A.

    2015-07-01

    Postselected weak measurement has aroused broad interest for its distinctive ability to amplify small physical quantities. However, the low postselection efficiency to obtain a large weak value has been a big obstacle to its application in practice since it may waste resources, and reduce the measurement precision. An improved protocol was proposed in Pang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.030401 to make the postselected weak measurement dramatically more efficient by using entanglement. Such a protocol can increase the Fisher information of the measurement to approximately saturate the well-known Heisenberg limit. In this paper, we review the entanglement-assisted protocol of postselected weak measurement in detail, and study its robustness against technical noises. We focus on readout errors. Readout errors can greatly degrade the performance of postselected weak measurement, especially when the readout error probability is comparable to the postselection probability. We show that entanglement can significantly reduce the two main detrimental effects of readout errors: inaccuracy in the measurement result and the loss of Fisher information. We extend the protocol by introducing a majority vote scheme to postselection to further compensate for readout errors. With a proper threshold, almost no Fisher information will be lost. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of entanglement in protecting postselected weak measurement against readout errors.

  17. Digital filter suppresses effects of nonstatistical noise bursts on multichannel scaler digital averaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. S.; Salter, F. O.

    1968-01-01

    Digital filter suppresses the effects of nonstatistical noise bursts on data averaged over multichannel scaler. Interposed between the sampled channels and the digital averaging system, it uses binary logic circuitry to compare the number of counts per channel with the average number of counts per channel.

  18. Suppression of noise in FitzHugh-Nagumo model driven by a strong periodic signal [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, Evgeniya V.; Polovinkin, Andrey V.; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    2005-08-01

    The response time of a neuron in the presence of a strong periodic driving in the stochastic FitzHugh Nagumo model is investigated. We analyze two cases: (i) the variable that corresponds to membrane potential is subjected to fluctuations, and (ii) the recovery variable associated with the refractory properties of a neuron is noisy. The influence of noise sources on the delay of the response of a neuron is analyzed. In both cases we observe a resonant activation-like phenomenon and suppression of noise: the negative effect of fluctuations on the process of spike generation is minimal near the resonance region. The phenomenon of noise enhanced stability is also observed in both cases. The role of the initial phase of the periodic driving is examined.

  19. Active Shielding and Control of Environmental Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsynkov, S. V.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research project supported by NASA under grant # NAG-1-01064, we have studied the mathematical aspects of the problem of active control of sound, i.e., time-harmonic acoustic disturbances. The foundations of the methodology are described in our paper [1]. Unlike. many other existing techniques, the approach of [1] provides for the exact volumetric cancellation of the unwanted noise on a given predetermined region airspace, while leaving unaltered those components of the total acoustic field that are deemed as friendly. The key finding of the work is that for eliminating the unwanted component of the acoustic field in a given area, one needs to know relatively little; in particular, neither the locations nor structure nor strength of the exterior noise sources need to be known. Likewise, there is no need to know the volumetric properties of the supporting medium across which the acoustic signals propagate, except, maybe, in a narrow area of space near the perimeter of the protected region. The controls are built based solely on the measurements performed on the perimeter of the domain to be shielded; moreover, the controls themselves (i.e., additional sources) are concentrated also only on or near this perimeter. Perhaps as important, the measured quantities can refer to the total acoustic field rather than to its unwanted component only, and the methodology can automatically distinguish between the two. In [1], we have constructed the general solution for controls. The apparatus used for deriving this general solution is closely connected to the concepts of generalized potentials and boundary projections of Calderon's type. For a given total wave field, the application of a Calderon's projection allows one to definitively tell between its incoming and outgoing components with respect to a particular domain of interest, which may have arbitrary shape. Then, the controls are designed so that they suppress the incoming component for the domain

  20. Interocular suppression patterns in binocularly abnormal observers using luminance- and contrast-modulated noise stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chima, Akash S; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2016-08-01

    In binocular viewing, images presented to the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex to prevent confusion or diplopia. The present study measures depth and extent of interocular suppression across the central circular 24° visual field in observers with strabismus and microstrabismus. Visual stimuli were concentric rings of alternating polarity, each divided into sectors. Rings were defined by luminance (L), luminance-modulated noise (LM), or contrast-modulated noise (CM). They were viewed binocularly except for the tested ring, which was viewed dichoptically, so that the modulation of one sector presented to the weaker or amblyopic eye was adjusted to perceptually match the surrounding ring presented to the preferred eye. A two alternative forced-choice paradigm combined with a staircase procedure allowed for measurement of the point of subjective equality, or perceptual match. Depth of suppression was calculated as the difference between physical modulations presented to the two eyes at this point. Strabismic participants showed suppression deeper centrally than peripherally, and in one hemifield of the visual field more than the other. Suppression was deeper for L than LM, and CM than LM stimuli. Microstrabismic suppression was weaker than that of strabismics, central for L and LM stimuli, with suppression of CM stimuli being broader, deeper and more in one hemifield. Suppression depth was positively correlated with interocular visual acuity difference and stereoacuity reduction. Clinically, LM stimuli could be used for assessment of deeper amblyopes to assess suppression patterns, while more sensitive detection of mild suppression would be possible using CM stimuli. PMID:27580040

  1. Noise from a Jet Discharging Into a Duct and Its Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.; Clem, M. M.; Fagan, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses unwanted high intensity noise sometimes encountered in engine test facilities. A simplified model-scale experiment is conducted for a circular jet discharging into a cylindrical duct. For the given configuration the unwanted noise is found to be primarily due to the duct resonance modes excited by the jet. When the "preferred mode". frequency of the jet matches a duct resonant frequency there can be a locked-in "super resonance". accompanied by a high intensity tone. However, even in the absence of a locked-in resonance, high levels of unwanted noise may occur due to the duct modes excited simply by broadband disturbances of the jet. Various methods for suppression of the noise are explored. Tabs placed on the ends of the duct are found ineffective; so are longitudinal fins placed inside the duct. A rod inserted perpendicular to the flow at different axial locations is also found ineffective; however, when there is a super resonance it is effective in suppressing the tone. By far the best suppression is achieved by a wire-mesh screen placed at the downstream end of the duct; placing it on the upstream end also works, however, there is some penalty at high frequencies due to impingement noise. The screen not only eliminates any super resonance but also the duct mode spectral peaks in the absence of such resonance. Apparently it works by dampening the velocity fluctuations at the pressure node and thereby weakening the resonance condition, for the simplified configuration under consideration.

  2. Surface treatment method for 1/f noise suppression in reactively sputtered nickel oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Park, Seung-Man; Lee, Hee Chul

    2012-07-01

    A surface treatment method combined with O2 plasma treatment and Ar+ bombardment is proposed for 1/f noise suppression in a reactively sputtered NiO film as a micro-bolometer sensing material. The 1/f noise power spectral density on a sample prepared by the proposed surface treatment method prior to the contact formation is suppressed to a level roughly 18 times lower than that on an untreated sample. The improved noise characteristic can be ascribed to the cooperative effects of the two steps in the proposed surface treatment method. In its effects, the oxygen plasma treatment is supposed to increase the Ni3+ component on the surface of the NiO film, which in turn increases the hole concentration on the surface. Additional Ar+ bombardment is expected to remove contaminants on the surface of the NiO film, leading to a low contact resistance.

  3. Note: A simple method to suppress the artificial noise for velocity map imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhengbo E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn; Li, Chunsheng; Qu, Zehua; Tang, Zichao E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn

    2015-04-15

    A simple method has been proposed to suppress artificial noise from the counts with respect to the central line (or point) for the reconstructed 3D images with cylindrical symmetry in the velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. A raw 2D projection around the z-axis (usually referred to as central line) for photodetachment, photoionization, or photodissociation experiments is pre-processed via angular tailored method to avoid the signal counts distributed near the central line (or point). Two types of photoelectron velocity-map imaging (O{sup −} and Au{sup −} ⋅ NH{sub 3}) are demonstrated to give rise to the 3D images with significantly reduced central line noise after pre-processing operation. The major advantages of the pre-operation are the ability of suppression of central-line noise to resolve weak structures or vibrational excitation in atoms or molecules near photon threshold.

  4. A Robust Approach For Acoustic Noise Suppression In Speech Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, Radek; Kelnar, Michal; Vanus, Jan; Bilik, Petr; Zidek, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The authors of this article deals with the implementation of a combination of techniques of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence in the application area of non-linear noise and interference suppression. This structure used is called an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This system finds practical use mainly in audio telephone (mobile) communication in a noisy environment (transport, production halls, sports matches, etc). Experimental methods based on the two-input adaptive noise cancellation concept was clearly outlined. Within the experiments carried out, the authors created, based on the ANFIS structure, a comprehensive system for adaptive suppression of unwanted background interference that occurs in audio communication and degrades the audio signal. The system designed has been tested on real voice signals. This article presents the investigation and comparison amongst three distinct approaches to noise cancellation in speech; they are LMS (least mean squares) and RLS (recursive least squares) adaptive filtering and ANFIS. A careful review of literatures indicated the importance of non-linear adaptive algorithms over linear ones in noise cancellation. It was concluded that the ANFIS approach had the overall best performance as it efficiently cancelled noise even in highly noise-degraded speech. Results were drawn from the successful experimentation, subjective-based tests were used to analyse their comparative performance while objective tests were used to validate them. Implementation of algorithms was experimentally carried out in Matlab to justify the claims and determine their relative performances.

  5. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 1; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Robert E.; Janardan, B. A.; Kontos, G. C.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels are arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios from 1.3 to 1.75. The major conclusions that can be drawn are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC, and for a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness than passive treatment. Additionally, ANC appears to be more effective at sideline and cutback conditions than at approach. Overall EPNL suppressions due to tone removal range from about 1 to 3 dB at takeoff engine speeds and from 1 to 5 db at approach speeds. Studies of economic impact of the installation of an ANC system for the four engine cases indicate increases of DOC ranging from 1 to 2 percent, favoring the lower fan pressure ratio engines. Further study is needed to confirm the results by examining additional engine data, particularly at low fan pressure ratios, and studying the details of the current results to obtain a more complete understanding. Further studies should also include determining the effects of combining passive and active treatment.

  6. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  7. Adaptive noise suppression technique for dense 3D point cloud reconstructions from monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    Mobile vision-based autonomous vehicles use video frames from multiple angles to construct a 3D model of their environment. In this paper, we present a post-processing adaptive noise suppression technique to enhance the quality of the computed 3D model. Our near real-time reconstruction algorithm uses each pair of frames to compute the disparities of tracked feature points to translate the distance a feature has traveled within the frame in pixels into real world depth values. As a result these tracked feature points are plotted to form a dense and colorful point cloud. Due to the inevitable small vibrations in the camera and the mismatches within the feature tracking algorithm, the point cloud model contains a significant amount of misplaced points appearing as noise. The proposed noise suppression technique utilizes the spatial information of each point to unify points of similar texture and color into objects while simultaneously removing noise dissociated with any nearby objects. The noise filter combines all the points of similar depth into 2D layers throughout the point cloud model. By applying erosion and dilation techniques we are able to eliminate the unwanted floating points while retaining points of larger objects. To reverse the compression process, we transform the 2D layer back into the 3D model allowing points to return to their original position without the attached noise components. We evaluate the resulting noiseless point cloud by utilizing an unmanned ground vehicle to perform obstacle avoidance tasks. The contribution of the noise suppression technique is measured by evaluating the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction.

  8. Immune Suppression and Immune Activation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D.; Evans, Dwight L.

    2010-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as a disorder of both immune suppression and immune activation. Markers of impaired cellular immunity (decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity) and inflammation (elevated IL-6, TNFα, CRP) have been associated with depression. These immunological markers have been associated with other medical illnesses, suggesting that immune dysregulation may be a central feature common to both depression and to its frequent medical comorbidities. Yet the significant associations of findings of both immune suppression and immune activation with depression raise questions concerning the relationship between these two classes of immunological observations. Depressed populations are heterogeneous groups, and there may be differences in the immune profiles of populations that are more narrowly defined in terms of symptom profile and/or demographic features. There have been few reports concurrently investigating markers of immune suppression and immune activation in the same depressed individuals. An emerging preclinical literature suggests that chronic inflammation may directly contribute to the pathophysiology of immune suppression in the context of illnesses such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. This literature provides us with specific immunoregulatory mechanisms mediating these relationships that could also explain differences in immune disturbances between subsets of depressed individuals We propose a research agenda emphasizing the assessment of these immunoregulatory mechanisms in large samples of depressed subjects as a means to define the relationships among immune findings (suppression and/or activation) within the same depressed individuals and to characterize subsets of depressed subjects based on shared immune profiles. Such a program of research, building on and integrating our knowledge of the psychoneuroimmunology of depression, could lead to innovation in the assessment and treatment of depression and its medical comorbidities

  9. Reset noise suppression in two-dimensional CMOS photodiode pixels through column-based feedback-reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, B.; Cunningham, T. J.; Hancock, B.; Yang, G.; Seshadri, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2002-01-01

    We present new CMOS photodiode imager pixel with ultra-low read noise through on-chip suppression of reset noise via column-based feedback circuitry. The noise reduction is achieved without introducing any image lag, and with insignificant reduction in quantum efficiency and full well.

  10. A new noise suppression algorithm for optical fiber temperature surveillance of heavy oil thermal recovery well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahuai; Han, Jisheng; Pan, Yong; Zhang, Min; Zou, Qilin; Xie, Shangran

    2011-11-01

    Pure silica core optical fiber is commonly used as the sensing fiber in Raman-backscatter distributed temperature sensors (DTS) in heavy oil thermal well. However the sensing signal collected from this type of fiber statistically belongs to nonstationary random process which cannot be effectively de-noised by simply applying conventional methods. To solve this problem, we develop a novel noise suppression algorithm by combining wavelet multi-scale analysis and moving grey model GM(1,1). The algorithm first applies wavelet de-noising in spatial domain of temperature profile to remove the high frequency noise, then uses moving GM(1,1) method to remove both high frequency and low frequency nonstationary noise in time domain. Autoregressive (AR) model and least square regression are used to optimize the forecasting parameters of GM(1,1). Finally the results of both domains are reconstructed to obtain the de-noised profile. Long-term field test was proposed on the Karamay oil field F11051 steam stimulation well, Xinjiang Province, China. Field test result shows that signal to noise ratio (SNR) is improved by 11dB using the algorithm.

  11. Blockade of interleukin-6 signaling suppressed cochlear inflammatory response and improved hearing impairment in noise-damaged mice cochlea.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kenichiro; Fujioka, Masato; Kanzaki, Sho; Okano, Hirotaka James; Shibata, Shinsuke; Yamashita, Daisuke; Masuda, Masatsugu; Mihara, Masahiko; Ohsugi, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-04-01

    Hearing impairment can be the cause of serious socio-economic disadvantages. Recent studies have shown inflammatory responses in the inner ear co-occur with various damaging conditions including noise-induced hearing loss. We reported pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) was induced in the cochlea 6h after noise exposure, but the pathophysiological implications of this are still obscure. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of IL-6 inhibition using the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1). Noise-exposed mice were treated with MR16-1 and evaluated. Improved hearing at 4kHz as measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) was noted in noise-exposed mice treated with MR16-1. Histological analysis revealed the decrease in spiral ganglion neurons was ameliorated in the MR16-1-treated group, while no significant change was observed in the organ of Corti. Immunohistochemistry for Iba1 and CD45 demonstrated a remarkable reduction of activated cochlear macrophages in spiral ganglions compared to the control group when treated with MR16-1. Thus, MR16-1 had protective effects both functionally and pathologically for the noise-damaged cochlea primarily due to suppression of neuronal loss and presumably through alleviation of inflammatory responses. Anti-inflammatory cytokine therapy including IL-6 blockade would be a feasible novel therapeutic strategy for acute sensory neural hearing loss. PMID:20026135

  12. Active flutter suppression using dipole filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinathkumar, S.; Waszak, Martin R.

    1992-01-01

    By using traditional control concepts of gain root locus, the active suppression of a flutter mode of a flexible wing is examined. It is shown that the attraction of the unstable mode towards a critical system zero determines the degree to which the flutter mode can be stabilized. For control situations where the critical zero is adversely placed in the complex plane, a novel compensation scheme called a 'Dipole' filter is proposed. This filter ensures that the flutter mode is stabilized with acceptable control energy. The control strategy is illustrated by designing flutter suppression laws for an active flexible wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model, where minimal control effort solutions are mandated by control rate saturation problems caused by wind-tunnel turbulence.

  13. Cold-flow acoustic evaluation of a small scale, divergent, lobed nozzle for supersonic jet noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, R. G.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A supersonic jet noise suppressor was tested with cold flow for acoustic and thrust characteristics at nozzle- to atmospheric-pressure ratios of 1.5 to 4.0. Jet noise suppression and spectral characteristics of the divergent, lobed, suppressor (DLS) nozzle with and without an ejector are presented. Suppression was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.5 to 4.0. The largest, maximum-lobe, sound pressure level suppression with a hard-wall ejector was 14.6 decibels at a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.5. The thrust loss was 2 percent. In general, low-frequency jet noise was suppressed, leaving higher frequencies essentially unchanged. Without the ejector the nozzle showed a thrust loss of 11 percent together with slightly poorer noise suppression.

  14. Anisotropic stark effect and electric-field noise suppression for phosphorus donor qubits in silicon.

    PubMed

    Sigillito, A J; Tyryshkin, A M; Lyon, S A

    2015-05-29

    We report the use of novel, capacitively terminated coplanar waveguide resonators to measure the quadratic Stark shift of phosphorus donor qubits in Si. We confirm that valley repopulation leads to an anisotropic spin-orbit Stark shift depending on electric and magnetic field orientations relative to the Si crystal. By measuring the linear Stark effect, we estimate the effective electric field due to strain in our samples. We show that in the presence of this strain, electric-field sources of decoherence can be non-negligible. Using our measured values for the Stark shift, we predict magnetic fields for which the spin-orbit Stark effect cancels the hyperfine Stark effect, suppressing decoherence from electric-field noise. We discuss the limitations of these noise-suppression points due to random distributions of strain and propose a method for overcoming them. PMID:26066457

  15. Frequency Noise Suppression of a Single Mode Laser with an Unbalanced Fiber Interferometer for Subnanometer Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by an unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module, ORIONTM (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.), working at 1540.57 nm with a 1.5-kHz linewidth. We built up the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a 2.09 km-long arm based on the standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-28) spool to suppress the frequency noise by the servo-loop control by 20 dB to 40 dB within the Fourier frequency range, remaining the tuning range of the laser frequency. PMID:25587980

  16. Study of Aerodynamic Design Procedure of a Large-Scale Aircraft Noise Suppression Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masafumi; Nagai, Kiyoyuki; Aso, Shigeru

    The aerodynamic design procedure of a large-scale aircraft noise suppression facility has been developed. Flow quality required for the engine inlet flow has been determined through basic experiment. Aerodynamic design of the facility has been performed by using wind tunnel experiment and CFD. Important relationship between the length of the facility and the inlet flow quality has been found. The operational envelope of the designed facility has been estimated. Then, the aerodynamic characteristics of an actual large-scale aircraft noise suppression facility, constructed based on the new design procedure, have been measured. Obtained flow field showed good agreement with CFD results, and the effectiveness of the design procedure based on CFD and wind tunnel experiment has been confirmed. The engine operations were satisfactory under various wind conditions. Furthermore, the data under commercial operations thereafter have been collected and analyzed. As the result, the aerodynamic design procedure has been validated.

  17. Frequency noise suppression of a single mode laser with an unbalanced fiber interferometer for subnanometer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by an unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module, ORIONTM (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.), working at 1540.57 nm with a 1.5-kHz linewidth. We built up the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a 2.09 km-long arm based on the standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-28) spool to suppress the frequency noise by the servo-loop control by 20 dB to 40 dB within the Fourier frequency range, remaining the tuning range of the laser frequency. PMID:25587980

  18. Active control of helicopter transmission noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, R. H.; Burke, M. J.; Tye, G. W.

    An account is given of an effort to reduce helicopter transmission noise by 10 dB, using active methods, as part of the NASA-Lewis/U.S. Army Propulsion Directorate Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission technology integration and demonstration program. The transmission used as a test stand is that of the CH-47C forward rotor. Attention is presently given to the active control system's actuators, sensors, and control algorithms.

  19. Active control of helicopter transmission noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. H.; Burke, M. J.; Tye, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of an effort to reduce helicopter transmission noise by 10 dB, using active methods, as part of the NASA-Lewis/U.S. Army Propulsion Directorate Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission technology integration and demonstration program. The transmission used as a test stand is that of the CH-47C forward rotor. Attention is presently given to the active control system's actuators, sensors, and control algorithms.

  20. Relationship between signal fidelity, hearing loss and working memory for digital noise suppression

    PubMed Central

    Arehart, Kathryn; Souza, Pamela; Kates, James; Lunner, Thomas; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study considered speech modified by additive babble combined with noise-suppression processing. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of the signal modifications, individual peripheral hearing loss, and individual cognitive capacity on speech intelligibility and speech quality. Design The participant group consisted of 31 individuals with moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging in age from 51 to 89 years (mean= 69.6 years). Speech intelligibility and speech quality were measured using low-context sentences presented in babble at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-suppression strategy with systematic manipulations of two parameters (error rate and attenuation values). The cumulative effects of signal modification produced by babble and signal processing were quantified using an envelope-distortion metric. Working memory capacity was assessed with a reading span test. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of signal processing parameters on perceptual scores. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the role of degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity in individual listener response to the processed noisy speech. The model also considered improvements in envelope fidelity caused by the binary mask and the degradations to envelope caused by error and noise. Results The participants showed significant benefits in terms of intelligibility scores and quality ratings for noisy speech processed by the ideal binary mask noise-suppression strategy. This benefit was observed across a range of signal-to-noise ratios and persisted when up to a 30% error rate was introduced into the processing. Average intelligibility scores and average quality ratings were well-predicted by an objective metric of envelope fidelity. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity were significant factors in explaining individual listener’s intelligibility scores

  1. Suppression of background noise in a transonic wind-tunnel test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Howard, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some exploratory tests were recently performed in the transonic test section of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 14-in. wind tunnel to suppress the background noise. In these tests, the perforated walls of the test section were covered with fine wire screens. The screens eliminated the edge tones generated by the holes in the perforated walls and significantly reduced the tunnel background noise. The tunnel noise levels were reduced to such a degree by this simple modification at Mach numbers 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.46 that the fluctuating pressure levels of a turbulent boundary layer could be measured on a 5-deg half-angle cone.

  2. SNR Loss: A new objective measure for predicting speech intelligibility of noise-suppressed speech

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianfen; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the existing intelligibility measures do not account for the distortions present in processed speech, such as those introduced by speech-enhancement algorithms. In the present study, we propose three new objective measures that can be used for prediction of intelligibility of processed (e.g., via an enhancement algorithm) speech in noisy conditions. All three measures use a critical-band spectral representation of the clean and noise-suppressed signals and are based on the measurement of the SNR loss incurred in each critical band after the corrupted signal goes through a speech enhancement algorithm. The proposed measures are flexible in that they can provide different weights to the two types of spectral distortions introduced by enhancement algorithms, namely spectral attenuation and spectral amplification distortions. The proposed measures were evaluated with intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech (consonants and sentences) corrupted by four different maskers (car, babble, train and street interferences). Highest correlation (r=−0.85) with sentence recognition scores was obtained using a variant of the SNR loss measure that only included vowel/consonant transitions and weak consonant information. High correlation was maintained for all noise types, with a maximum correlation (r=−0.88) achieved in street noise conditions. PMID:21503274

  3. Is Infant Immunity Actively Suppressed or Immature?

    PubMed Central

    Gervassi, Ana L; Horton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Almost 7 million children under the age 5 die each year, and most of these deaths are attributable to vaccine-preventable infections. Young infants respond poorly to infections and vaccines. In particular, dendritic cells secrete less IL-12 and IL-18, CD8pos T cells and NK cells have defective cytolysis and cytokine production, and CD4pos T cell responses tend to bias towards a Th2 phenotype and promotion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The basis for these differences is not well understood and may be in part explained by epigenetic differences, as well as immaturity of the infant’s immune system. Here we present a third possibility, which involves active suppression by immune regulatory cells and place in context the immune suppressive pathways of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), CD5pos B cells, and Tregs. The immune pathways that these immune regulatory cells inhibit are similar to those that are defective in the infant. Therefore, the immune deficiencies seen in infants could be explained, in part, by active suppressive cells, indicating potential new avenues for intervention. PMID:25429207

  4. Understanding the sensitivity of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: pathlength enhancement versus noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, B.; Jones, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    ultimately down to the suppression of any measurement noise that is associated with it. The noise component that is most effectively suppressed is the type whose magnitude scales linearly with light intensity I, as is typical of noise caused by environmental instabilities, followed by the shot noise which scales as square root of I. No suppression is achievable for noise sources that are independent of I, a notable example being the thermal noise of a detector or of detection electronics. The usefulness of this "noise suppression" argument is that it links the sensitivity gain offered by a cavity with the property of measurement noise present in the system, and clearly suggests that the achievable sensitivity is dependent on how efficient the various noise components are "suppressed" by the cavity.

  5. Design, test, and evaluation of three active flutter suppression controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    Three control law design techniques for flutter suppression are presented. Each technique uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first method uses traditional tools (such as pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) for producing a controller that has minimal complexity and which is sufficiently robust to handle plant uncertainty. The second procedure uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals and dynamic compensation to synthesize the model rate of the critical mode for feedback to the distributed control surfaces. The third technique starts with a minimum-energy linear quadratic Gaussian controller, iteratively modifies intensity matrices corresponding to input and output noise, and applies controller order reduction to achieve a low-order, robust controller. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Only the traditional pole/zero loci design was sufficiently robust to errors in the nominal plant to successfully suppress flutter during the test. The traditional pole/zero loci design provided simultaneous suppression of symmetric and antisymmetric flutter with a 24-percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure. Posttest analyses are shown which illustrate the problems encountered with the other laws.

  6. Noise suppression in reconstruction of low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jing; Robar, James; Guan Huaiqun

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To improve the image contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio for low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) using a statistical projection noise suppression algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion. Methods: Projection images of a contrast phantom, a CatPhan{sup Registered-Sign} 600 phantom and a head phantom were acquired by a Varian 2100EX LINAC with a low-Z (Al) target and low energy x-ray beam (2.5 MeV) at a low-dose level and at a high-dose level. The projections were then processed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The weighted least square (WLS) term models the noise of measured projection and the penalty term enforces the smoothing constraints of the projection image. The variance of projection data was chosen as the weight for the PWLS objective function and it determined the contribution of each measurement. An anisotropic quadratic form penalty that incorporates the gradient information of projection image was used to preserve edges during noise reduction. Low-Z target MV CBCT images were reconstructed by the FDK algorithm after each projection was processed by the PWLS smoothing. Results: Noise in low-Z target MV CBCT images were greatly suppressed after the PWLS projection smoothing, without noticeable sacrifice of the spatial resolution. Depending on the choice of smoothing parameter, the CNR of selected regions of interest in the PWLS processed low-dose low-Z target MV CBCT image can be higher than the corresponding high-dose image.Conclusion: The CNR of low-Z target MV CBCT images was substantially improved by using PWLS projection smoothing. The PWLS projection smoothing algorithm allows the reconstruction of high contrast low-Z target MV CBCT image with a total dose of as low as 2.3 cGy.

  7. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties. PMID:26274171

  8. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  9. Noise suppression using preconditioned least-squares prestack time migration: application to the Mississippian limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shiguang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qing; Cabrales-Vargas, Alejandro; Marfurt, Kurt J.

    2016-08-01

    Conventional Kirchhoff migration often suffers from artifacts such as aliasing and acquisition footprint, which come from sub-optimal seismic acquisition. The footprint can mask faults and fractures, while aliased noise can focus into false coherent events which affect interpretation and contaminate amplitude variation with offset, amplitude variation with azimuth and elastic inversion. Preconditioned least-squares migration minimizes these artifacts. We implement least-squares migration by minimizing the difference between the original data and the modeled demigrated data using an iterative conjugate gradient scheme. Unpreconditioned least-squares migration better estimates the subsurface amplitude, but does not suppress aliasing. In this work, we precondition the results by applying a 3D prestack structure-oriented LUM (lower–upper–middle) filter to each common offset and common azimuth gather at each iteration. The preconditioning algorithm not only suppresses aliasing of both signal and noise, but also improves the convergence rate. We apply the new preconditioned least-squares migration to the Marmousi model and demonstrate how it can improve the seismic image compared with conventional migration, and then apply it to one survey acquired over a new resource play in the Mid-Continent, USA. The acquisition footprint from the targets is attenuated and the signal to noise ratio is enhanced. To demonstrate the impact on interpretation, we generate a suite of seismic attributes to image the Mississippian limestone, and show that the karst-enhanced fractures in the Mississippian limestone can be better illuminated.

  10. Dynamic vortex interactions with flexible fibers and edges for prediction of owl noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korykora, Sarah; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    The compliant trailing-edge fringe of owls and the soft downy material on their upper wing surfaces are thought to enable their silent flight by weakening the interaction of boundary layer turbulence with these flexible structures. Previous analysis of turbulence noise generation by wave-bearing elastic edges have shown that the far-field acoustic power scaling can be weakened by up to the square of the Mach number relative to a rigid edge. However, it is unclear whether or not the wave-bearing feature or simply the flexible nature of the edge scatterer produces this noise suppression. To assess this distinction, a dynamic vortex interaction model is developed whereby the motion of a line vortex round a rigid but elastically-restrained wall-mounted fiber or trailing edge is determined numerically. Special attention is paid to the dynamic interaction between the flexible structure and vortex, which is accomplished via a conformal mapping relationship determined in closed form. Results from this analysis seek to develop a vortex sound model to discern the effect of flexible versus wave-bearing scatterers on turbulence noise suppression and help explain the mechanisms of silent owl flight.

  11. TH-A-18C-07: Noise Suppression in Material Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X; Petrongolo, M; Wang, T; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A general problem of dual-energy CT (DECT) is that the decomposition is sensitive to noise in the two sets of dual-energy projection data, resulting in severely degraded qualities of decomposed images. We have previously proposed an iterative denoising method for DECT. Using a linear decomposition function, the method does not gain the full benefits of DECT on beam-hardening correction. In this work, we expand the framework of our iterative method to include non-linear decomposition models for noise suppression in DECT. Methods: We first obtain decomposed projections, which are free of beam-hardening artifacts, using a lookup table pre-measured on a calibration phantom. First-pass material images with high noise are reconstructed from the decomposed projections using standard filter-backprojection reconstruction. Noise on the decomposed images is then suppressed by an iterative method, which is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, we include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. Analytical formulae are derived to compute the variance-covariance matrix from the measured decomposition lookup table. Results: We have evaluated the proposed method via phantom studies. Using non-linear decomposition, our method effectively suppresses the streaking artifacts of beam-hardening and obtains more uniform images than our previous approach based on a linear model. The proposed method reduces the average noise standard deviation of two basis materials by one order of magnitude without sacrificing the spatial resolution. Conclusion: We propose a general framework of iterative denoising for material decomposition of DECT. Preliminary phantom studies have shown the proposed method improves the image uniformity and reduces noise level without resolution loss. In the future

  12. Eigenspace techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Liebst, Bradley S.; Farm, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of eigenspace techniques for the design of an active flutter suppression system for a hypothetical research drone is discussed. One leading edge and two trailing edge aerodynamic control surfaces and four sensors (accelerometers) are available for each wing. Full state control laws are designed by selecting feedback gains which place closed loop eigenvalues and shape closed loop eigenvectors so as to stabilize wing flutter and reduce gust loads at the wing root while yielding accepatable robustness and satisfying constrains on rms control surface activity. These controllers are realized by state estimators designed using an eigenvalue placement/eigenvector shaping technique which results in recovery of the full state loop transfer characteristics. The resulting feedback compensators are shown to perform almost as well as the full state designs. They also exhibit acceptable performance in situations in which the failure of an actuator is simulated.

  13. Enhanced multiwavelength generation in Brillouin fiber laser with pump noise suppression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alimi, A. W.; Cholan, N. A.; Yaacob, M. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    A new multiwavelength Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) that provides a large number of Stokes lines with improved optical signal-to-noise ratio has been proposed and demonstrated. The BFL cavity is only formed by a nonlinear fiber loop mirror (NOLM) with 500 m long highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The BFL with improved performance is based on the suppression of the Brillouin pump noise floor utilizing a narrow tunable bandpass filter. The generation of Stokes lines covering up to a 33.67 nm wavelength range is achieved by setting the Brillouin pump signal within the HNLF’s zero dispersion wavelength and with power of 250 mW. This is owing to the combination of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing effect in the NOLM structure.

  14. Adaptive control and noise suppression by a variable-gain gradient algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S. J.; Mehta, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    An adaptive control system based on normalized LMS filters is investigated. The finite impulse response of the nonparametric controller is adaptively estimated using a given reference model. Specifically, the following issues are addressed: The stability of the closed loop system is analyzed and heuristically established. Next, the adaptation process is studied for piecewise constant plant parameters. It is shown that by introducing a variable-gain in the gradient algorithm, a substantial reduction in the LMS adaptation rate can be achieved. Finally, process noise at the plant output generally causes a biased estimate of the controller. By introducing a noise suppression scheme, this bias can be substantially reduced and the response of the adapted system becomes very close to that of the reference model. Extensive computer simulations validate these and demonstrate assertions that the system can rapidly adapt to random jumps in plant parameters.

  15. Suppression of Rayleigh scattering noise in sodium laser guide stars by hyperfine depolarization of fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Moldovan, Ioana; Fesquet, Vincent; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-27

    We propose what we believe is a novel method for enabling the complete suppression of noise due to Rayleigh scattering in sodium laser guide star systems by means of selective discrimination between Rayleigh and fluorescence signals based on polarization properties. We show that, contrary to the nearly 100% polarized Rayleigh scattering, fluorescence from the D(2) sodium line is strongly depolarized under excitation by a modeless laser. This offers the possibility of completely cancelling the effects of the Rayleigh scattering background while preserving the fluorescence signal to about 40% of its maximal value, leading to an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by several orders of magnitude. Both theoretical and experimental data confirm this new proposal. PMID:19529568

  16. Application of the Radon–FCL approach to seismic random noise suppression and signal preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanlei; Li, Yue; Liu, Yanping; Tian, Yanan; Wu, Ning

    2016-08-01

    The fractal conservation law (FCL) is a linear partial differential equation that is modified by an anti-diffusive term of lower order. The analysis indicated that this algorithm could eliminate high frequencies and preserve or amplify low/medium-frequencies. Thus, this method is quite suitable for the simultaneous noise suppression and enhancement or preservation of seismic signals. However, the conventional FCL filters seismic data only along the time direction, thereby ignoring the spatial coherence between neighbouring traces, which leads to the loss of directional information. Therefore, we consider the development of the conventional FCL into the time-space domain and propose a Radon–FCL approach. We applied a Radon transform to implement the FCL method in this article; performing FCL filtering in the Radon domain achieves a higher level of noise attenuation. Using this method, seismic reflection events can be recovered with the sacrifice of fewer frequency components while effectively attenuating more random noise than conventional FCL filtering. Experiments using both synthetic and common shot point data demonstrate the advantages of the Radon–FCL approach versus the conventional FCL method with regard to both random noise attenuation and seismic signal preservation.

  17. Noise Suppression on the Tunable Laser for Precise Cavity Length Displacement Measurement.

    PubMed

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Hrabina, Jan; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    The absolute distance between the mirrors of a Fabry-Perot cavity with a spacer from an ultra low expansion material was measured by an ultra wide tunable laser diode. The DFB laser diode working at 1542 nm with 1.5 MHz linewidth and 2 nm tuning range has been suppressed with an unbalanced heterodyne fiber interferometer. The frequency noise of laser has been suppressed by 40 dB across the Fourier frequency range 30-300 Hz and by 20 dB up to 4 kHz and the linewidth of the laser below 300 kHz. The relative resolution of the measurement was 10 - 9 that corresponds to 0.3 nm (sub-nm) for 0.178 m long cavity with ability of displacement measurement of 0.5 mm. PMID:27608024

  18. Design and test of three active flutter suppression controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Adams, William M.; Srinathkumar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    1991-01-01

    Three flutter suppression control law design techniques are presented. Each uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals together with dynamic compensation to synthesize the modal rate of the critical mode for feedback to distributed control surfaces. The second uses traditional tools (pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) to develop a good understanding of the flutter mechanism and produce a controller with minimal complexity and good robustness to plant uncertainty. The third starts with a minimum energy Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller, applies controller order reduction, and then modifies weight and noise covariance matrices to improve multi-variable robustness. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model. Test results presented here include plant characteristics, maximum attained closed-loop dynamic pressure, and Root Mean Square control surface activity. A key result is that simultaneous symmetric and antisymmetric flutter suppression was achieved by the second control law, with a 24 percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure.

  19. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N; Zalyapin, N V

    2014-12-31

    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  20. Notum deacylates Wnts to suppress signalling activity

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Steve; Chang, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Bineva, Ganka; O’Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Signalling by Wnts is finely balanced to ensure normal development and tissue homeostasis while avoiding diseases such as cancer. This is achieved in part by Notum, a highly conserved secreted feedback antagonist. Notum has been thought to act as a phospholipase, shedding glypicans and associated Wnts from the cell surface. However, this view fails to explain specificity since glypicans bind many extracellular ligands. Here we provide genetic evidence in Drosophila that Notum requires glypicans to suppress Wnt signalling, but does not cleave their glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. Structural analyses reveal glycosaminoglycan binding sites on Notum, which likely help Notum colocalise with Wnts. They also identify, at the active site of human and Drosophila Notum, a large hydrophobic pocket that accommodates palmitoleate. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses of human proteins show that Notum is a carboxylesterase that removes an essential palmitoleate moiety from Wnts and thus constitutes the first known extracellular protein deacylase. PMID:25731175

  1. Active Control of Wind Tunnel Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Patrick (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The need for an adaptive active control system was realized, since a wind tunnel is subjected to variations in air velocity, temperature, air turbulence, and some other factors such as nonlinearity. Among many adaptive algorithms, the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm, which is the simplest one, has been used in an Active Noise Control (ANC) system by some researchers. However, Eriksson's results, Eriksson (1985), showed instability in the ANC system with an ER filter for random noise input. The Restricted Least Squares (RLS) algorithm, although computationally more complex than the LMS algorithm, has better convergence and stability properties. The ANC system in the present work was simulated by using an FIR filter with an RLS algorithm for different inputs and for a number of plant models. Simulation results for the ANC system with acoustic feedback showed better robustness when used with the RLS algorithm than with the LMS algorithm for all types of inputs. Overall attenuation in the frequency domain was better in the case of the RLS adaptive algorithm. Simulation results with a more realistic plant model and an RLS adaptive algorithm showed a slower convergence rate than the case with an acoustic plant as a delay plant. However, the attenuation properties were satisfactory for the simulated system with the modified plant. The effect of filter length on the rate of convergence and attenuation was studied. It was found that the rate of convergence decreases with increase in filter length, whereas the attenuation increases with increase in filter length. The final design of the ANC system was simulated and found to have a reasonable convergence rate and good attenuation properties for an input containing discrete frequencies and random noise.

  2. Active Suppression of Instabilities in Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2004-01-01

    A method of feedback control has been proposed as a means of suppressing thermo-acoustic instabilities in a liquid- fueled combustor of a type used in an aircraft engine. The basic principle of the method is one of (1) sensing combustor pressure oscillations associated with instabilities and (2) modulating the rate of flow of fuel to the combustor with a control phase that is chosen adaptively so that the pressure oscillations caused by the modulation oppose the sensed pressure oscillations. The need for this method arises because of the planned introduction of advanced, lean-burning aircraft gas turbine engines, which promise to operate with higher efficiencies and to emit smaller quantities of nitrogen oxides, relative to those of present aircraft engines. Unfortunately, the advanced engines are more susceptible to thermoacoustic instabilities. These instabilities are hard to control because they include large dead-time phase shifts, wide-band noise characterized by amplitudes that are large relative to those of the instabilities, exponential growth of the instabilities, random net phase walks, and amplitude fluctuations. In this method (see figure), the output of a combustion-pressure sensor would be wide-band-pass filtered and then further processed to generate a control signal that would be applied to a fast-actuation valve to modulate the flow of fuel. Initially, the controller would rapidly take large phase steps in order to home in, within a fraction of a second, to a favorable phase region within which the instability would be reduced. Then the controller would restrict itself to operate within this phase region and would further restrict itself to operate within a region of stability, as long as the power in the instability signal was decreasing. In the phase-shifting scheme of this method, the phase of the control vector would be made to continuously bounce back and forth from one boundary of an effective stability region to the other. Computationally

  3. Feedback controllers for broadband active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Benoit; Legrain, Isabelle

    1994-09-01

    The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the efficiency of an LQG-based controller for the active control of the acoustic field radiated by a rectangular panel. This topic has been of interest for numerous researchers in the past 10 or 15 years, but very little attention has been paid to broadband disturbances occurring in a relatively high frequency range. These are unfortunately common features of noise perturbations in realistic structures such as airplanes or helicopters. The few articles that deal with this problem provide very scarce experimental results and are related to frequency bands where the structure dynamics is rather poor. From the outset, the problem at hand involves numerous difficulties, such as the modeling of the active structure itself and the possible large size of the controller. In the following, the experimental setup is described, then the controller design procedure is developed and finally some experimental results are shown that prove the efficiency of the method.

  4. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  5. Recent advances in active control of aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Gopal; Fuller, Christopher

    2002-11-01

    Active noise control techniques can provide significant reductions in aircraft interior noise levels without the structural modifications or weight penalties usually associated with passive techniques, particularly for low frequency noise. Our main objective in this presentation is to give a review of active control methods and their applications to aircraft cabin noise reduction with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges facing the noise control engineer in the practical application of these techniques. The active noise control method using secondary acoustic sources, e.g., loudspeakers, as control sources for tonal noise reduction is first discussed with results from an active noise control flight test demonstration. An innovative approach of applying control forces directly to the fuselage structure using piezoelectric actuators, known as active structural acoustic control (ASAC), to control cabin noise is then presented. Experimental results from laboratory ASAC tests conducted on a full-scale fuselage and from flight tests on a helicopter will be discussed. Finally, a hybrid active/passive noise control approach for achieving significant broadband noise reduction will be discussed. Experimental results of control of broadband noise transmission through an aircraft structure will be presented.

  6. On-line Monitoring and Active Control for Transformer Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiabi; Zhao, Tong; Tian, Chun; Wang, Xia; He, Zhenhua; Duan, Lunfeng

    This paper introduces the system for on-line monitoring and active noise control towards the transformer noise based on LabVIEW and the hardware equipment including the hardware and software. For the hardware part, it is mainly focused on the composition and the role of hardware devices, as well as the mounting location in the active noise control experiment. And the software part introduces the software flow chats, the measurement and analysis module for the sound pressure level including A, B, C weighting methods, the 1/n octave spectrum and the power spectrum, active noise control module and noise data access module.

  7. A hybrid active/passive exhaust noise control system for locomotives.

    PubMed

    Remington, Paul J; Knight, J Scott; Hanna, Doug; Rowley, Craig

    2005-01-01

    A prototype hybrid system consisting of active and passive components for controlling far-field locomotive exhaust noise has been designed, assembled, and tested on a locomotive. The system consisted of a resistive passive silencer for controlling high-frequency broadband noise and a feedforward multiple-input, multiple-output active control system for suppressing low-frequency tonal noise. The active system used ten roof-mounted bandpass speaker enclosures with 2-12-in. speakers per enclosure as actuators, eight roof-mounted electret microphones as residual sensors, and an optical tachometer that sensed locomotive engine speed as a reference sensor. The system was installed on a passenger locomotive and tested in an operating rail yard. Details of the system are described and the near-field and far-field noise reductions are compared against the design goal. PMID:15704399

  8. Active noise control: A tutorial for HVAC designers

    SciTech Connect

    Gelin, L.J.

    1997-08-01

    This article will identify the capabilities and limitations of ANC in its application to HVAC noise control. ANC can be used in ducted HVAC systems to cancel ductborne, low-frequency fan noise by injecting sound waves of equal amplitude and opposite phase into an air duct, as close as possible to the source of the unwanted noise. Destructive interference of the fan noise and injected noise results in sound cancellation. The noise problems that it solves are typically described as rumble, roar or throb, all of which are difficult to address using traditional noise control methods. This article will also contrast the use of active against passive noise control techniques. The main differences between the two noise control measures are acoustic performance, energy consumption, and design flexibility. The article will first present the fundamentals and basic physics of ANC. The application to real HVAC systems will follow.

  9. Suppression of a Brownian noise in a hole-type sensor due to induced-charge electro-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-03-01

    Noise reduction is essential for a single molecular sensor. Thus, we propose a novel noise reduction mechanism using a hydrodynamic force due to induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) in a hole-type sensor and numerically examine the performance. By the boundary element method that considers both a Brownian motion and an ICEO flow of a polarizable particle, we find that the Brownian noise in a current signal is suppressed significantly in a converging channel because of the ICEO flow around the particle in the presence of an electric field. Further, we propose a simple model that explains a numerically obtained threshold voltage of the suppression of the Brownian noise due to ICEO. We believe that our findings contribute greatly to developments of a single molecular sensor.

  10. Impedance-based control and piezoelectric shell actuators for suppressing interior noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandran, Vijay

    The damaging effects of high level acoustic noise are visible in many aspects of engineering as well as in our everyday life. The active control of interior noise in fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, automobiles and HVAC equipment have received considerable attention in the recent past. Various techniques have been investigated, of which Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) and Active Structural-Acoustic Control (ASAC) are quite popular. Some researchers have investigated the possibility of using acoustic impedance as the controlled variable at the secondary sources in active interior noise control systems. However, there are no detailed studies of impedance conditions in actively controlled three- dimensional systems, and many control approaches are based on results from one-dimensional studies. The first part of this thesis investigates the steady-state impedance conditions in an actively controlled three- dimensional rectangular enclosure, with a tonal disturbance field. This is followed by an investigation into the adaptive-passive impedance control of tonal duct noise using mass-spring type of absorptive elements. The studies provide a better understanding of active and passive impedance control strategies and serve as a foundation for building impedance-based controllers. The second part of the thesis investigates new actuation schemes for ANC in aircraft. The severe weight and space limitations encountered in the design of commercial aircraft have created a need for low-profiled and lightweight acoustic sources that can be used as control elements. To this end, a detailed analytical and experimental investigation into the possible use of the commercially available RAINBOW and THUNDER actuators as controllable acoustic sources is performed. The RAINBOW actuator is modeled analytically as a piezoceramic spherical shallow shell and the effects of curvature, support stiffness, loading mass and other parameters on the natural frequencies, linear stroke and volume

  11. Noise suppression in coherent population-trapping atomic clock by differential magneto-optic rotation detection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bozhong; Tian, Yuan; Lin, Huifang; Chen, Jiehua; Gu, Sihong

    2015-08-15

    We propose and investigate a scheme for differential detection of the magneto-optic rotation (MOR) effect, where a linearly polarized bichromatic laser field is coherent population-trapping (CPT)-resonant with alkali atoms, and discuss the application of this effect to CPT-based atomic clocks. The results of our study indicate that laser noise in a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser-based CPT atomic clock can be effectively suppressed by the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme promises to realize a packaged MOR-CPT atomic clock that has significantly better frequency stability coupled with similar power consumption, volume, and cost when compared with currently available packaged CPT atomic clocks. PMID:26274639

  12. Exact calculation of shot noise suppression in resonant diodes under coherent tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Reggiani, L.

    2012-07-01

    Shot noise suppression in resonant diodes with transport controlled by coherent tunneling is investigated using the tunneling transparency D(ɛ) obtained from an exact numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of an applied voltage. The cases of two potential barriers in GaAs/AlAs heterostructures are considered. Results show that the use of an exact dependence of D(ɛ) confirms the existence of a voltage range of values where the Fano factor γ is significantly less than 0.5, in agreement with previous findings obtained within a Lorentzian approximation and with experiments available in the literature for different heterostructures. At increasing values of the barrier width the Fano factor recovers the 0.5 value common to a transport controlled by the sequential tunneling regime.

  13. Linearly interpolated sub-symbol optical phase noise suppression in CO-OFDM system.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuezhi; Hong, Xiaojian; He, Sailing

    2015-02-23

    An optical phase noise suppression algorithm, LI-SCPEC, based on phase linear interpolation and sub-symbol processing is proposed for CO-OFDM system. By increasing the temporal resolution of carrier phase tracking through dividing one symbol into several sub-blocks, i.e., sub-symbols, inter-carrier-interference (ICI) mitigation is achieved in the proposed algorithm. Linear interpolation is employed to obtain a reliable temporal reference for sub-symbol phase estimation. The new algorithm, with only a few number of sub-symbols (N(B) = 4), can provide a considerably larger laser linewidth tolerance than several other ICI mitigation algorithms as demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations. Numerical analysis verifies that the best performance is achieved with an optimal and moderate number of sub-symbols. Complexity analysis shows that the required number of complex-valued multiplications is independent of the number of sub-symbols used in the proposed algorithm. PMID:25836506

  14. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stiffness variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by a plurality of force transmitting mechanisms which contact the noise radiating element. Each one of the force transmitting mechanisms includes an expandable element and a spring in contact with the noise radiating element so that excitation of the element varies the spring force applied to the noise radiating element. The elements are actuated by a controller which receives input of a signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the elements and causes the spring force applied to the noise radiating element to be varied. The force transmitting mechanisms can be arranged to either produce bending or linear stiffness variations in the noise radiating element.

  15. Suppression of Antigen-Specific Lymphocyte Activation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David; Pride, Michael W.; Brown, Eric L.; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in astronauts during and after spaceflight, and in isolated immune cells in true and simulated microgravity. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T cells is severely suppressed in true and simulated microgravity. These recent findings with various polyclonal activators suggests a suppression of oligoclonal lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors that simulate aspects of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR), as a model for a primary immune response; a tetanus toxoid (TT) response and a B. burgdorferi (Bb) response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  16. Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

  17. Optimized suppression of coherent noise from seismic data using the Karhunen-Loève transform.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Raúl; Vasconcelos, Giovani L

    2006-07-01

    Signals obtained in land seismic surveys are usually contaminated with coherent noise, among which the ground roll (Rayleigh surface waves) is of major concern for it can severely degrade the quality of the information obtained from the seismic record. This paper presents an optimized filter based on the Karhunen-Loève transform for processing seismic images contaminated with ground roll. In this method, the contaminated region of the seismic record, to be processed by the filter, is selected in such way as to correspond to the maximum of a properly defined coherence index. The main advantages of the method are that the ground roll is suppressed with negligible distortion of the remnant reflection signals and that the filtering procedure can be automated. The image processing technique described in this study should also be relevant for other applications where coherent structures embedded in a complex spatiotemporal pattern need to be identified in a more refined way. In particular, it is argued that the method is appropriate for processing optical coherence tomography images whose quality is often degraded by coherent noise (speckle). PMID:16907183

  18. Probability-based non-local means filter for speckle noise suppression in optical coherence tomography images.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hancheng; Gao, Jianlin; Li, Aiting

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a probability-based non-local means filter is proposed for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Originally developed for additive white Gaussian noise, the non-local means filter is not suitable for multiplicative speckle noise suppression. This Letter presents a two-stage non-local means algorithm using the uncorrupted probability of each pixel to effectively reduce speckle noise in OCT. Experiments on real OCT images demonstrate that the proposed filter is competitive with other state-of-the-art speckle removal techniques and able to accurately preserve edges and structural details with small computational cost. PMID:26974099

  19. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stress variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by an expandable ring embedded in the noise radiating element. Excitation of the ring causes expansion or contraction of the ring, thereby varying the stress in the noise radiating element. The ring is actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the ring, causing the ring to expand or contract. Instead of a single ring embedded in the noise radiating panel, a first expandable ring can be bonded to one side of the noise radiating element, and a second expandable ring can be bonded to the other side.

  20. Suppressing Rayleigh backscatter and code noise from all-fiber digital interferometers.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Silvie; Shaddock, Daniel A; McRae, Terry G; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H; Gray, Malcolm B

    2016-01-01

    We configure an all-fiber digital interferometer to eliminate both code noise and Rayleigh backscatter noise from bidirectional measurements. We utilize a sawtooth phase ramp to upconvert code noise beyond our signal bandwidth, demonstrating an in-band noise reduction of approximately two orders of magnitude. In addition, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of relative code delays within a digital-interferometer system to eliminate Rayleigh-backscatter noise, resulting in a noise reduction of a factor of 50. Finally, we identify double Rayleigh-backscatter noise as our limiting noise source and suggest two methods to minimize this noise source. PMID:26696164

  1. A low-noise instrumentation amplifier with DC suppression for recording ENG signals.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Sivylla E; Eftekhar, Amir; Kulasekeram, Nishanth; Toumazou, Christofer

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an AC-coupled instrumentation amplifier for electroneurogram (ENG) activity recording. For this design, we evaluate gain and noise requirements based on interference sources (electrodes, power line, EMG). The circuit has been implemented in a commercially-available 0.35μm CMOS technology with total power consumption 460μW. The amplifier achieves CMRR 107 dB and integrated input referred noise 940 nV. The gain is 63 dB and the bandwidth is 0.5 Hz- 13 kHz. The chosen topology enables to minimise on-chip capacitance (only 27 pF), with a total chip area of 0.4mm2. PMID:26736847

  2. Role of colored noise in active dynamical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex

    2015-03-01

    The noise driving many dynamical systems is temporally correlated, or colored. Biological motor proteins, for example, generate processive stresses in biopolymer networks, and it would be incorrect to model this forcing as uncorrelated white noise. To gain insight into the role of the noise spectrum, we study a phi⌃4 theory in the presence of active colored noise with renormalization group techniques. Using a frequency shell integration scheme, we perform an epsilon expansion around d =8 for power law noise of the form 1/f⌃2 and find frequency and wavevector dependent corrections to the transport coefficients. The power law noise assumption is, of course, an approximation: all physical processes possess a small frequency cutoff. We study the effect of this cutoff and find a change in scaling behavior as the system transitions from a power law divergent regime to one dominated by white noise.

  3. Correlated Rotational Noise in Active Brownian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Caleb; Baskaran, Aparna

    We consider a system of self-propelled particles in a viscous medium for which the angle parametrizing the direction of particle propulsion is subject to correlated noise. The physics involved in the correlated noise is explored by deriving a modified Smoluchowski equation that governs the evolution of the probability distribution for particle positions and orientations. More precisely, given noise correlations that decay exponentially in time with decay constant ν, we give the modified Smoluchowski equation as a perturbative expansion in ν. While the physical origins of correlated noise may be diverse, we give one interpretation of the resulting dynamics in terms of inertial effects that are absent from the usual overdamped description of self-propelled particles in a viscous medium.

  4. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  5. Numerical evaluation of the performance of active noise control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo, C. G.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized numerical technique for evaluating the optimal performance of active noise controllers. In this technique, the indirect BEM numerical procedures are used to derive the active noise controllers for optimal control of enclosed harmonic sound fields where the strength of the noise sources or the description of the enclosure boundary may not be known. The performance prediction for a single-input single-output system is presented, together with the analysis of the stability and observability of an active noise-control system employing detectors. The numerical procedures presented can be used for the design of both the physical configuration and the electronic components of the optimal active noise controller.

  6. Suppression of Subthalamic Nucleus Activity by Micromagnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Woo; Fried, Shelley I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation delivered via 0.5-mm diameter coils was recently shown to activate retinal neurons; the small coil size raises the possibility that micromagnetic stimulation (μMS) could underlie a new generation of implanted neural prosthetics. Such an approach has several inherent advantages over conventional electric stimulation, including the potential for selective activation of neuronal targets as well as less susceptibility to inflamma-tory responses. The viability of μMS for some applications, e.g., deep brain stimulation (DBS), may require suppression (rather than creation) of neuronal activity, however, and therefore we explore here whether (μMS) could, in fact, suppress activity. While single pulses elicited weak and inconsistent spiking in neurons of the mouse subthalamic nucleus (in vitro), repetitive stimulation effectively suppressed activity in ~70% of targeted neurons. This is the same percentage suppressed by conventional electric stimulation; with both modalities, suppression occurred only after an initial increase in spiking. The latency to the onset of suppression was inversely correlated to the energy of the stimulus waveform: larger amplitudes and lower frequencies had the fastest onset of suppression. These findings continue to support the viability of μMS as a next-generation implantable neural prosthetic. PMID:25163063

  7. Active flutter suppression - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency in the mathematical model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a roll maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  8. Unsteady numerical simulation of a round jet with impinging microjets for noise suppression

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Phoi-Tack; Najafi-Yazdi, Alireza; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM)-Large Eddy Simulation methodology for the prediction of sound radiation from a round jet-microjet combination. The distinct advantage of LBM over traditional computational fluid dynamics methods is its ease of handling problems with complex geometries. Numerical simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.5, ReD = 1 × 105 circular jet (Dj = 0.0508 m) with and without the presence of 18 microjets (Dmj = 1 mm) were performed. The presence of microjets resulted in a decrease in the axial turbulence intensity and turbulent kinetic energy. The associated decrease in radiated sound pressure level was around 1 dB. The far-field sound was computed using the porous Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings surface integral acoustic method. The trend obtained is in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. The results of this study support the accuracy of LBM based numerical simulations for predictions of the effects of noise suppression devices on the radiated sound power. PMID:23967931

  9. Unsteady numerical simulation of a round jet with impinging microjets for noise suppression.

    PubMed

    Lew, Phoi-Tack; Najafi-Yazdi, Alireza; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of a lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM)-Large Eddy Simulation methodology for the prediction of sound radiation from a round jet-microjet combination. The distinct advantage of LBM over traditional computational fluid dynamics methods is its ease of handling problems with complex geometries. Numerical simulations of an isothermal Mach 0.5, Re(D) = 1 × 10(5) circular jet (D(j) = 0.0508 m) with and without the presence of 18 microjets (D(mj) = 1 mm) were performed. The presence of microjets resulted in a decrease in the axial turbulence intensity and turbulent kinetic energy. The associated decrease in radiated sound pressure level was around 1 dB. The far-field sound was computed using the porous Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings surface integral acoustic method. The trend obtained is in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. The results of this study support the accuracy of LBM based numerical simulations for predictions of the effects of noise suppression devices on the radiated sound power. PMID:23967931

  10. Robust control design techniques for active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozbay, Hitay; Bachmann, Glen R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an active flutter suppression problem is studied for a thin airfoil in unsteady aerodynamics. The mathematical model of this system is infinite dimensional because of Theodorsen's function which is irrational. Several second order approximations of Theodorsen's function are compared. A finite dimensional model is obtained from such an approximation. We use H infinity control techniques to find a robustly stabilizing controller for active flutter suppression.

  11. Environmental noise alters gastric myoelectrical activity: Effect of age

    PubMed Central

    Castle, James S; Xing, Jin-Hong; Warner, Mark R; Korsten, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of age and acoustic stress on gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) and autonomic nervous system function. METHODS: Twenty-one male subjects (age range 22-71 years, mean 44 years) were recruited and exposed, in random order, to three auditory stimuli (Hospital noise, conversation babble and traffic noise) after a 20-min baseline. All periods lasted 20 min and were interspersed with a 10 min of recovery. GMA was obtained using a Synectics Microdigitrapper. Autonomic nerve function was assessed by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate using an automatic recording device. RESULTS: Dominant power tended to decrease with increase of age (P < 0.05). The overall percentage of three cycle per minute (CPM) activity decreased during exposure to hospital noise (12.0%, P < 0.05), traffic noise (13.9%, P < 0.05), and conversation babble (7.1%). The subjects in the younger group (< 50 years) showed a consistent reduction in the percentage of 3 CPM activity during hospital noise (22.9%, P < 0.05), traffic noise (19.0%, P < 0.05), and conversation babble (15.5%). These observations were accompanied by a significant increase in bradygastria: hospital noise (P < 0.05) and traffic noise (P < 0.05). In contrast, the subjects over 50 years of age did not exhibit a significant decrease in 3 CPM activity. Regardless of age, noise did not alter blood pressure or heart rate. CONCLUSION: GMA changes with age. Loud noise can alter GMA, especially in younger individuals. Our data indicate that even short-term exposure to noise may alter the contractility of the stomach. PMID:17230609

  12. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Suppression of Phagolysosome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AW; Dixit, S; Yu, J

    2015-01-01

    The eye is an immune privileged tissue with multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression to protect the light gathering tissues from the damage of inflammation. One of theses mechanisms involves retinal pigment epithelial cell suppression of phagosome activation in macrophages. The objective of this work is to determine if the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 is capable of suppressing the activation of the phagolysosome in macrophages in a manner similar to primary RPE. The conditioned media of RPE eyecups, sub-confluent, just confluent cultures, or established confluent cultures of human ARPE-19 cells were generated. These condition media were used to treat macrophages phagocytizing pHrodo bioparticles. After 24 hours incubation the macrophages were imaged by fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescence was measured. The fluorescent intensity is proportional to the amount of bioparticles phagocytized and are in an activated phagolysosome. The conditioned media of in situ mouse RPE eyecups significantly suppressed the activation of phagolysosome. The conditioned media from cultures of human ARPE-19 cells, grown to sub-confluence (50%) or grown to confluence had no effect on phagolysosome activation. In contrast, the conditioned media from established confluent cultures significantly suppressed phagolysosome activation. The neuropeptides alpha-MSH and NPY were depleted from the conditioned media of established confluent ARPE-19 cell cultures. This depleted conditioned media had diminished suppression of phagolysosome activation while promoting macrophage cell death. In addition, the condition media from cultures of ARPE-19 monolayers wounded with a bisecting scrape was diminished in suppressing phagolysosome activation. This technical report suggests that like primary RPE monolayers, established confluent cultures of ARPE-19 cells produce soluble factors that suppress the activation of macrophages, and can be used to study the molecular mechanisms of retinal immunobiology. In

  13. Cold Suppresses Agonist-induced Activation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Chung, M.-K.; Wang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction. PMID:21666106

  14. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  15. Suppression of putative tinnitus-related activity by extra-cochlear electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Noreña, A J; Mulders, W H A M; Robertson, D

    2015-01-01

    Studies on animals have shown that noise-induced hearing loss is followed by an increase of spontaneous firing at several stages of the central auditory system. This central hyperactivity has been suggested to underpin the perception of tinnitus. It was shown that decreasing cochlear activity can abolish the noise-induced central hyperactivity. This latter result further suggests that an approach consisting of reducing cochlear activity may provide a therapeutic avenue for tinnitus. In this context, extra-cochlear electric stimulation (ECES) may be a good candidate to modulate cochlear activity and suppress tinnitus. Indeed, it has been shown that a positive current applied at the round window reduces cochlear nerve activity and can suppress tinnitus reliably in tinnitus subjects. The present study investigates whether ECES with a positive current can abolish the noise-induced central hyperactivity, i.e., the putative tinnitus-related activity. Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked neural activity before, during and after ECES was assessed from single-unit recordings in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs. We found that ECES with positive current significantly decreases the spontaneous firing rate of neurons with high characteristic frequencies, whereas negative current produces the opposite effect. The effects of the ECES are absent or even reversed for neurons with low characteristic frequencies. Importantly, ECES with positive current had only a marginal effect on thresholds and tone-induced activity of collicular neurons, suggesting that the main action of positive current is to modulate the spontaneous firing. Overall, cochlear electrical stimulation may be a viable approach for suppressing some forms of (peripheral-dependent) tinnitus. PMID:25298390

  16. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  17. [Communication and noise. Speech intelligibility of airplane pilots with and without active noise compensation].

    PubMed

    Matschke, R G

    1994-08-01

    Noise exposure measurements were performed with pilots of the German Federal Navy during flight situations. The ambient noise levels during regular flight were maintained at levels above a 90 dB A-weighted level. This noise intensity requires wearing ear protection to avoid sound-induced hearing loss. To be able to understand radio communication (ATC) in spite of a noisy environment, headphone volume must be raised above the noise of the engines. The use of ear plugs in addition to the headsets and flight helmets is only of limited value because personal ear protection affects the intelligibility of ATC. Whereas speech intelligibility of pilots with normal hearing is affected to only a smaller degree, pilots with pre-existing high-frequency hearing losses show substantial impairments of speech intelligibility that vary in proportion to the hearing deficit present. Communication abilities can be reduced drastically, which in turn can affect air traffic security. The development of active noise compensation devices (ANC) that make use of the "anti-noise" principle may be a solution to this dilemma. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ANC-system and its influence on speech intelligibility, speech audiometry was performed with a German standardized test during simulated flight conditions with helicopter pilots. Results demonstrate the helpful effect on speech understanding especially for pilots with noise-induced hearing losses. This may help to avoid pre-retirement professional disability. PMID:7960953

  18. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  19. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  20. Flutter suppression by active control and its benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Townsend, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A general discussion of the airplane applications of active flutter suppression systems is presented with focus on supersonic cruise aircraft configurations. Topics addressed include a brief historical review; benefits, risks, and concerns; methods of application; and applicable configurations. Results are presented where the direct operating costs and performance benefits of an arrow wing supersonic cruise vehicle equipped with an active flutter suppression system are compared with corresponding costs and performance of the same baseline airplane where the flutter deficiency was corrected by passive methods (increases in structural stiffness). The design, synthesis, and conceptual mechanization of the active flutter suppression system are discussed. The results show that a substantial weight savings can be accomplished by using the active system. For the same payload and range, airplane direct operating costs are reduced by using the active system. The results also indicate that the weight savings translates into increased range or payload.

  1. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  2. Noise influence on spike activation in a Hindmarsh–Rose small-world neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, Sun; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2016-07-01

    We studied the role of noise in neural networks, especially focusing on its relation to the propagation of spike activity in a small sized system. We set up a source of information using a single neuron that is constantly spiking. This element called initiator x o feeds spikes to the rest of the network that is initially quiescent and subsequently reacts with vigorous spiking after a transitional period of time. We found that noise quickly suppresses the initiator’s influence and favors spontaneous spike activity and, using a decibel representation of noise intensity, we established a linear relationship between noise amplitude and the interval from the initiator’s first spike and the rest of the network activation. We studied the same process with networks of different sizes (number of neurons) and found that the initiator x o has a measurable influence on small networks, but as the network grows in size, spontaneous spiking emerges disrupting its effects on networks of more than about N = 100 neurons. This suggests that the mechanism of internal noise generation allows information transmission within a small neural neighborhood, but decays for bigger network domains. We also analyzed the Fourier spectrum of the whole network membrane potential and verified that noise provokes the reduction of main θ and α peaks before transitioning into chaotic spiking. However, network size does not reproduce a similar phenomena; instead we recorded a reduction in peaks’ amplitude, a better sharpness and definition of Fourier peaks, but not the evident degeneration to chaos observed with increasing external noise. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of propagation of spontaneous spiking in neural networks and gives a quantitative assessment of how noise can be used to control and modulate this phenomenon in Hindmarsh‑Rose (H‑R) neural networks.

  3. RIN-suppressed ultralow noise interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes (IFOGs) for improving inertial stabilization of space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, Farhad; Moores, John D.

    2013-03-01

    Pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) systems in spaceborne optical communications terminals can exploit inertial sensors and actuators to counter platform vibrations and maintain steady beam pointing. Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes (IFOGs) can provide sensitive angle rate measurements down to very low (sub-milliHertz) mechanical frequencies, potentially reducing the required beacon power and facilitating acquisition for a spaceborne optical communications terminals. Incoherent broadband light sources are used in IFOGs to alleviate detrimental effects of optical nonlinearities, backscattering, and polarization non-reciprocity. But incoherent broadband sources have excess noise or relative intensity noise (RIN), caused by the beating of different spectral components on the photodetector. Unless RIN noise is suppressed, IFOG performance cannot be improved once the light on the photodetector exceeds one photon per coherence time (~microWatts). We propose a simple method to dramatically suppress the RIN of an incoherent light source and thereby reduce the angle random walk (ARW) of an IFOG using such a source. We demonstrate 20 dB RIN suppression of a broadband EDFA source, which we predict could improve the angle random walk (ARW) of an IFOG using this source by 12 dB.

  4. Suppressing Short-term Polarization Noise and Related Spectral Decoherence in All-normal Dispersion Fiber Supercontinuum Generation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Youbo; Lyngsø, Jens; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The supercontinuum generated exclusively in the normal dispersion regime of a nonlinear fiber is widely believed to possess low optical noise and high spectral coherence. The recent development of flattened all-normal dispersion fibers has been motivated by this belief to construct a general-purpose broadband coherent optical source. Somewhat surprisingly, we identify a large short-term polarization noise in this type of supercontinuum generation that has been masked by the total-intensity measurement in the past, but can be easily detected by filtering the supercontinuum with a linear polarizer. Fortunately, this hidden intrinsic noise and the accompanied spectral decoherence can be effectively suppressed by using a polarization-maintaining all-normal dispersion fiber. A polarization-maintaining coherent supercontinuum laser is thus built with a broad bandwidth (780–1300 nm) and high spectral power (~1 mW/nm). PMID:26166939

  5. Noise suppression of point spread functions and its influence on deconvolution of three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy image sets.

    PubMed

    Lai, X; Lin, Zhiping; Ward, E S; Ober, R J

    2005-01-01

    The point spread function (PSF) is of central importance in the image restoration of three-dimensional image sets acquired by an epifluorescent microscope. Even though it is well known that an experimental PSF is typically more accurate than a theoretical one, the noise content of the experimental PSF is often an obstacle to its use in deconvolution algorithms. In this paper we apply a recently introduced noise suppression method to achieve an effective noise reduction in experimental PSFs. We show with both simulated and experimental three-dimensional image sets that a PSF that is smoothed with this method leads to a significant improvement in the performance of deconvolution algorithms, such as the regularized least-squares algorithm and the accelerated Richardson-Lucy algorithm. PMID:15655067

  6. Diversity and Activity of Lysobacter Species from Disease Suppressive Soils

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Postma, Joeke; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; De Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. Here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 Lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the Lysobacter strains from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil belonged to the four species Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, Lysobacter enzymogenes, and Lysobacter gummosus. Most strains showed strong in vitro activity against R. solani and several other pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Xanthomonas campestris. When the Lysobacter strains were introduced into soil, however, no significant and consistent suppression of R. solani damping-off disease of sugar beet and cauliflower was observed. Subsequent bioassays further revealed that none of the Lysobacter strains was able to promote growth of sugar beet, cauliflower, onion, and Arabidopsis thaliana, either directly or via volatile compounds. The lack of in vivo activity is most likely attributed to poor colonization of the rhizosphere by the introduced Lysobacter strains. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Lysobacter species have strong antagonistic activities against a range of pathogens, making them an important source for putative new enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. However, their potential role in R. solani disease suppressive soil could not be confirmed. In-depth omics'–based analyses will be needed to shed more light on the potential contribution of Lysobacter species to the collective activities of microbial consortia in disease suppressive soils. PMID:26635735

  7. Diversity and Activity of Lysobacter Species from Disease Suppressive Soils.

    PubMed

    Gómez Expósito, Ruth; Postma, Joeke; Raaijmakers, Jos M; De Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The genus Lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. Here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 Lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, the Lysobacter strains from the Rhizoctonia-suppressive soil belonged to the four species Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, Lysobacter enzymogenes, and Lysobacter gummosus. Most strains showed strong in vitro activity against R. solani and several other pathogens, including Pythium ultimum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Xanthomonas campestris. When the Lysobacter strains were introduced into soil, however, no significant and consistent suppression of R. solani damping-off disease of sugar beet and cauliflower was observed. Subsequent bioassays further revealed that none of the Lysobacter strains was able to promote growth of sugar beet, cauliflower, onion, and Arabidopsis thaliana, either directly or via volatile compounds. The lack of in vivo activity is most likely attributed to poor colonization of the rhizosphere by the introduced Lysobacter strains. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Lysobacter species have strong antagonistic activities against a range of pathogens, making them an important source for putative new enzymes and antimicrobial compounds. However, their potential role in R. solani disease suppressive soil could not be confirmed. In-depth omics'-based analyses will be needed to shed more light on the potential contribution of Lysobacter species to the collective activities of microbial consortia in disease suppressive soils. PMID:26635735

  8. Development of a Voice Activity Controlled Noise Canceller

    PubMed Central

    Abid Noor, Ali O.; Samad, Salina Abdul; Hussain, Aini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a variable threshold voice activity detector (VAD) is developed to control the operation of a two-sensor adaptive noise canceller (ANC). The VAD prohibits the reference input of the ANC from containing some strength of actual speech signal during adaptation periods. The novelty of this approach resides in using the residual output from the noise canceller to control the decisions made by the VAD. Thresholds of full-band energy and zero-crossing features are adjusted according to the residual output of the adaptive filter. Performance evaluation of the proposed approach is quoted in terms of signal to noise ratio improvements as well mean square error (MSE) convergence of the ANC. The new approach showed an improved noise cancellation performance when tested under several types of environmental noise. Furthermore, the computational power of the adaptive process is reduced since the output of the adaptive filter is efficiently calculated only during non-speech periods. PMID:22778667

  9. Active and passive vibration suppression for space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The relative benefits of passive and active vibration suppression for large space structures (LSS) are discussed. The intent is to sketch the true ranges of applicability of these approaches using previously published technical results. It was found that the distinction between active and passive vibration suppression approaches is not as sharp as might be thought at first. The relative simplicity, reliability, and cost effectiveness touted for passive measures are vitiated by 'hidden costs' bound up with detailed engineering implementation issues and inherent performance limitations. At the same time, reliability and robustness issues are often cited against active control. It is argued that a continuum of vibration suppression measures offering mutually supporting capabilities is needed. The challenge is to properly orchestrate a spectrum of methods to reap the synergistic benefits of combined advanced materials, passive damping, and active control.

  10. Nicotinamide Cofactors Suppress Active-Site Labeling of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Stiti, Naim; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Strubl, Laura; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bartels, Dorothea; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-06-17

    Active site labeling by (re)activity-based probes is a powerful chemical proteomic tool to globally map active sites in native proteomes without using substrates. Active site labeling is usually taken as a readout for the active state of the enzyme because labeling reflects the availability and reactivity of active sites, which are hallmarks for enzyme activities. Here, we show that this relationship holds tightly, but we also reveal an important exception to this rule. Labeling of Arabidopsis ALDH3H1 with a chloroacetamide probe occurs at the catalytic Cys, and labeling is suppressed upon nitrosylation and oxidation, and upon treatment with other Cys modifiers. These experiments display a consistent and strong correlation between active site labeling and enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, however, labeling is suppressed by the cofactor NAD(+), and this property is shared with other members of the ALDH superfamily and also detected for unrelated GAPDH enzymes with an unrelated hydantoin-based probe in crude extracts of plant cell cultures. Suppression requires cofactor binding to its binding pocket. Labeling is also suppressed by ALDH modulators that bind at the substrate entrance tunnel, confirming that labeling occurs through the substrate-binding cavity. Our data indicate that cofactor binding adjusts the catalytic Cys into a conformation that reduces the reactivity toward chloroacetamide probes. PMID:26990764

  11. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  12. Voice communications in the cockpit noise environment: The role of active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Peter David

    The topic of voice communications in the cockpit noise environment of modern fast-jet aircraft and helicopters is addressed, and in particular, research undertaken in support of the development of a system for reducing the noise level at the operators' ear is described by acoustic cancellation within the ear defender, known as active noise reduction (ANR). The internal noise spectra of today's high performance fast-jet aircraft and military helicopters is described, and the complex interaction of acoustic noise transmission, speech, and microphone noise pick-up, which produces the total acoustic environment at the aircrews' ears, is discussed. Means of mathematically modelling the audio channel, quantifying the components identified above, and identifying areas of shortfall in performance are derived, leading to a procedure for the development of attenuation requirements, described as the communications audit. A model of the electroacoustic characteristics of the ANR ear defender assembly is presented and the sound field distribution within the ear defender/ear cavity, and its effect upon cancellation performance, is discussed. The extensive laboratory and flight testing of the ANR system that was undertaken is reviewed, paying particular attention to the measurement and analysis techniques employed in such testing. Finally, the performance characteristics of ANR are discussed and compared with the requirements previously established. Design limitations placed upon the system by the constraints of its area of application are described, and the scope for future improvements is considered.

  13. Noise

    MedlinePlus

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  14. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  15. Suppression of tonal noise in a centrifugal fan using guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramasivam, Kishokanna; Rajoo, Srithar; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the work aiming for tonal noise reduction in a centrifugal fan. In previous studies, it is well documented that tonal noise is the dominant noise source generated in centrifugal fans. Tonal noise is generated due to the aerodynamic interaction between the rotating impeller and stationary diffuser vanes. The generation of tonal noise is related to the pressure fluctuation at the leading edge of the stationary vane. The tonal noise is periodic in time which occurs at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics. Much of previous studies, have shown that the stationary vane causes the tonal noise and generation of non-rotational turbulent noise. However, omitting stationary vanes will lead to the increase of non-rotational turbulent noise resulted from the high velocity of the flow leaving the impeller. Hence in order to reduce the tonal noise and the non-rotational noise, guide vanes were designed as part of this study to replace the diffuser vanes, which were originally used in the chosen centrifugal fan. The leading edge of the guide vane is tapered. This modification reduces the strength of pressure fluctuation resulting from the interaction between the impeller outflow and stationary vane. The sound pressure level at blade passing frequency (BPF) is reduced by 6.8 dB, the 2nd BPF is reduced by 4.1 dB and the 3rd BPF reduced by about 17.5 dB. The overall reduction was 0.9 dB. The centrifugal fan with tapered guide vanes radiates lower tonal noise compared to the existing diffuser vanes. These reductions are achieved without compromising the performance of the centrifugal fan. The behavior of the fluid flow was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools and the acoustics characteristics were determined through experiments in an anechoic chamber.

  16. Next Generation Active Buffet Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Ryall, Thomas G.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.; White, Edward V.; Zimcik, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon that is common to high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. These loads result in significant random stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. This paper describes an international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States involving the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads. The research program is being co-ordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and is being conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). This truly unique collaborative program has been developed to enable each participating country to contribute resources toward a program that coalesces a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation. This collaborative program is directed toward a full-scale test of an F/A-18 empennage, which is an extension of an earlier initial test. The current program aims at applying advanced directional piezoactuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers and advanced control strategies on a full-scale structure to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active BLA control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration.

  17. Sound quality of low-frequency and car engine noises after active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Ferrer, M.; de Diego, M.; Piñero, G.; Garcia-Bonito, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    The ability of active noise control (ANC) systems to achieve a more pleasant sound has been evaluated by means of sound quality analysis of a real multi-channel active noise controller. Recordings of real car engine noises had been carried out using a Head acoustics TM binaural head simulator seated in a typical car seat, and these signals together with synthesized noise have been actively controlled in an enclosed room. The sound quality study has focused on the estimation of noise quality changes through the evaluation of the sense of comfort. Two methods have been developed: firstly, a predictive method based on psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, roughness, tonality and sharpness); and secondly, a subjective method using a jury test. Both results have been related to the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after active control. It can be concluded from both analyses that ANC positively affects acoustic comfort. The engine noise mathematical comfort predictor is based on loudness and roughness (two psychoacoustic parameters directly influenced by ANC), and has satisfactorily predicted the improvements in the pleasantness of the sounds. As far as the subjective evaluation method is concerned, the jury test has showed that acoustic comfort is, in most cases, directly related to the sense of quietness. However, ANC has also been assessed negatively by the jury in the cases that it was unable to reduce the loudness, perhaps because of the low amplitudes of the original sounds. Finally, from what has been shown, it can be said that the subjective improvements strongly depends on the attenuation level achieved by the ANC system operation, as well as the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after control.

  18. Diagnostics and Active Control of Aircraft Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    This project deals with developing advanced methods for investigating and controlling interior noise in aircraft. The work concentrates on developing and applying the techniques of Near Field Acoustic Holography (NAH) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the aircraft interior noise dynamic problem. This involves investigating the current state of the art, developing new techniques and then applying them to the particular problem being studied. The knowledge gained under the first part of the project was then used to develop and apply new, advanced noise control techniques for reducing interior noise. A new fully active control approach based on the PCA was developed and implemented on a test cylinder. Finally an active-passive approach based on tunable vibration absorbers was to be developed and analytically applied to a range of test structures from simple plates to aircraft fuselages.

  19. Rayleigh backscattering noise suppression based on real-time heterodyne receiver for loop-back WDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hanlin; Xiao, Shilin; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2014-09-22

    In this paper, we propose a Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation scheme based on the use of real-time heterodyne receiver for loop-back wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). Heterodyne detection has been utilized to increase the upstream receiver sensitivity, while an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is used to simultaneously turn heterodyning bipolar signal into single polar signal and mitigate accumulated carrier RB noise. With the help of the nonlinear negative-slope transfer function of EAM, low frequency interference noise is suppressed successfully. RB noise mitigation performance is studied over 45-km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission, and the optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-noise-ratio (OSRNR) is reduced to 15.6 dB, when bias voltage of EAM is at -4 V. Through utilizing this real-time heterodyne receiver in single fiber loop-back structure, upstream error free transmission is realized with receiver sensitivity of -25 dBm. PMID:25321736

  20. Active vibration and noise control of vibro-acoustic system by using PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaojun; Huang, Ren; Qiu, Zhiping

    2015-07-01

    Active control simulation of the acoustic and vibration response of a vibro-acoustic cavity of an airplane based on a PID controller is presented. A full numerical vibro-acoustic model is developed by using an Eulerian model, which is a coupled model based on the finite element formulation. The reduced order model, which is used to design the closed-loop control system, is obtained by the combination of modal expansion and variable substitution. Some physical experiments are made to validate and update the full-order and the reduced-order numerical models. Optimization of the actuator placement is employed in order to get an effective closed-loop control system. For the controller design, an iterative method is used to determine the optimal parameters of the PID controller. The process is illustrated by the design of an active noise and vibration control system for a cavity structure. The numerical and experimental results show that a PID-based active control system can effectively suppress the noise inside the cavity using a sound pressure signal as the controller input. It is also possible to control the noise by suppressing the vibration of the structure using the structural displacement signal as the controller input. For an airplane cavity structure, considering the issue of space-saving, the latter is more suitable.

  1. Collisional activation with random noise in ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1992-07-01

    Random noise applied to the end caps of a quadrupole ion trap is shown to be an effective means for the collisional activation of trapped ions independent of mass/charge ratio and number of ions. This technique is compared and contrasted with conventional single-frequency collisional activation for the molecular ion of N,N-dimethylaniline, protonated cocaine, the molecular anion of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and doubly protonated neuromedin U-8. Collisional activation with noise tends to produce more extensive fragmentation than the conventional approach due to the fact that product ions are also kinetically excited in the noise experiment. The efficiency of the noise experiment in producing detectable product ions relative to the conventional approach ranges from being equivalent to being a factor of 3 less efficient. Furthermore, discrimination against low mass/charge product ions is apparent in the data from multiply charged biomolecules. Nevertheless, collisional activation with random noise provides a very simple means for overcoming problems associated with the dependence of single-frequency collisional activation on mass/charge ratio and the number of ions in the ion trap. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Adaptive Noise Suppression of Pediatric Lung Auscultations With Real Applications to Noisy Clinical Settings in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; McCollum, Eric D.; Park, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Goal Chest auscultation constitutes a portable low-cost tool widely used for respiratory disease detection. Though it offers a powerful means of pulmonary examination, it remains riddled with a number of issues that limit its diagnostic capability. Particularly, patient agitation (especially in children), background chatter, and other environmental noises often contaminate the auscultation, hence affecting the clarity of the lung sound itself. This paper proposes an automated multiband denoising scheme for improving the quality of auscultation signals against heavy background contaminations. Methods The algorithm works on a simple two-microphone setup, dynamically adapts to the background noise and suppresses contaminations while successfully preserving the lung sound content. The proposed scheme is refined to offset maximal noise suppression against maintaining the integrity of the lung signal, particularly its unknown adventitious components that provide the most informative diagnostic value during lung pathology. Results The algorithm is applied to digital recordings obtained in the field in a busy clinic in West Africa and evaluated using objective signal fidelity measures and perceptual listening tests performed by a panel of licensed physicians. A strong preference of the enhanced sounds is revealed. Significance The strengths and benefits of the proposed method lie in the simple automated setup and its adaptive nature, both fundamental conditions for everyday clinical applicability. It can be simply extended to a real-time implementation, and integrated with lung sound acquisition protocols. PMID:25879837

  3. Suppression of 1/f noise in near-ballistic h-BN-graphene-h-BN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarov, Maxim A.; Liu, Guanxiong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Rumyantsev, Sergey L.; Shur, Michael

    2015-07-13

    We have investigated low-frequency 1/f noise in the boron nitride–graphene–boron nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates (f is a frequency). The device channel was implemented with a single layer graphene encased between two layers of hexagonal boron nitride. The transistors had the charge carrier mobility in the range from ∼30 000 to ∼36 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature. It was established that the noise spectral density normalized to the channel area in such devices can be suppressed to ∼5 × 10{sup −9 }μm{sup 2 }Hz{sup −1}, which is a factor of ×5 – ×10 lower than that in non-encapsulated graphene devices on Si/SiO{sub 2}. The physical mechanism of noise suppression was attributed to screening of the charge carriers in the channel from traps in SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric and surface defects. The obtained results are important for the electronic and optoelectronic applications of graphene.

  4. Low-complexity optical phase noise suppression in CO-OFDM system using recursive principal components elimination.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaojian; Hong, Xuezhi; He, Sailing

    2015-09-01

    A low-complexity optical phase noise suppression approach based on recursive principal components elimination, R-PCE, is proposed and theoretically derived for CO-OFDM systems. Through frequency domain principal components estimation and elimination, signal distortion caused by optical phase noise is mitigated by R-PCE. Since matrix inversion and domain transformation are completely avoided, compared with the case of the orthogonal basis expansion algorithm (L = 3) that offers a similar laser linewidth tolerance, the computational complexities of multiple principal components estimation are drastically reduced in the R-PCE by factors of about 7 and 5 for q = 3 and 4, respectively. The feasibility of optical phase noise suppression with the R-PCE and its decision-aided version (DA-R-PCE) in the QPSK/16QAM CO-OFDM system are demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations, which verify that R-PCE with only a few number of principal components q ( = 3) provides a significantly larger laser linewidth tolerance than conventional algorithms, including the common phase error compensation algorithm and linear interpolation algorithm. Numerical results show that the optimal performance of R-PCE and DA-R-PCE can be achieved with a moderate q, which is beneficial for low-complexity hardware implementation. PMID:26368499

  5. Noise Suppression and Enhanced Focusability in Plasma Raman Amplifier with Multi-frequency Pump

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Balakin; G.M. Fraiman; N.J. Fisch; V.M. Malkin

    2003-06-16

    Laser pulse compression/amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated by using multi-frequency pump laser beams. The efficiency of amplification is increased by suppressing the Raman instability of thermal fluctuations and seed precursors. Also the focusability of the amplified radiation is enhanced due to the suppression of large-scale longitudinal speckles in the pump wave structure.

  6. Suppression of amplitude-to-phase noise conversion in balanced optical-microwave phase detectors.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Maurice; Margolis, Helen S; Brown, C Tom A; Gill, Patrick; Marra, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate an amplitude-to-phase (AM-PM) conversion coefficient for a balanced optical-microwave phase detector (BOM-PD) of 0.001 rad, corresponding to AM-PM induced phase noise 60 dB below the single-sideband relative intensity noise of the laser. This enables us to generate 8 GHz microwave signals from a commercial Er-fibre comb with a single-sideband residual phase noise of -131 dBc Hz(-1) at 1 Hz offset frequency and -148 dBc Hz(-1) at 1 kHz offset frequency. PMID:24216929

  7. Exoemissive noise activity of different metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichevin, V.; Käämbre, H.; Sammelselg, V.; Kelle, H.; Asari, E.; Saks, O.

    1996-11-01

    A method is proposed for testing the exoemission activity of different metals, used as materials in high sensitivity electrometry (attoammetry). The presented test results allow us to select materials with weaker exoelectron spurious currents.

  8. Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image Sparsity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Vesanen, Panu T.; Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Dabek, Juhani; Parkkonen, Lauri T.; Simola, Juha; Ahonen, Antti I.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI (B0 = 10–100 µT) typically suffers from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While SNR can be improved by pre-polarization and signal detection using highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, we propose to use the inter-dependency of the k-space data from highly parallel detection with up to tens of sensors readily available in the ULF MRI in order to suppress the noise. Furthermore, the prior information that an image can be sparsely represented can be integrated with this data consistency constraint to further improve the SNR. Simulations and experimental data using 47 SQUID sensors demonstrate the effectiveness of this data consistency constraint and sparsity prior in ULF-MRI reconstruction. PMID:23626710

  9. Suppression of Fiber Modal Noise Induced Radial Velocity Errors for Bright Emission-line Calibration Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Venditti, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Modal noise in optical fibers imposes limits on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and velocity precision achievable with the next generation of astronomical spectrographs. This is an increasingly pressing problem for precision radial velocity spectrographs in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical that require both high stability of the observed line profiles and high S/N. Many of these spectrographs plan to use highly coherent emission-line calibration sources like laser frequency combs and Fabry-Perot etalons to achieve precision sufficient to detect terrestrial-mass planets. These high-precision calibration sources often use single-mode fibers or highly coherent sources. Coupling light from single-mode fibers to multi-mode fibers leads to only a very low number of modes being excited, thereby exacerbating the modal noise measured by the spectrograph. We present a commercial off-the-shelf solution that significantly mitigates modal noise at all optical and NIR wavelengths, and which can be applied to spectrograph calibration systems. Our solution uses an integrating sphere in conjunction with a diffuser that is moved rapidly using electrostrictive polymers, and is generally superior to most tested forms of mechanical fiber agitation. We demonstrate a high level of modal noise reduction with a narrow bandwidth 1550 nm laser. Our relatively inexpensive solution immediately enables spectrographs to take advantage of the innate precision of bright state-of-the art calibration sources by removing a major source of systematic noise.

  10. Suppression of fiber modal noise induced radial velocity errors for bright emission-line calibration sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Venditti, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Modal noise in optical fibers imposes limits on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and velocity precision achievable with the next generation of astronomical spectrographs. This is an increasingly pressing problem for precision radial velocity spectrographs in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical that require both high stability of the observed line profiles and high S/N. Many of these spectrographs plan to use highly coherent emission-line calibration sources like laser frequency combs and Fabry-Perot etalons to achieve precision sufficient to detect terrestrial-mass planets. These high-precision calibration sources often use single-mode fibers or highly coherent sources. Coupling light from single-mode fibers to multi-mode fibers leads to only a very low number of modes being excited, thereby exacerbating the modal noise measured by the spectrograph. We present a commercial off-the-shelf solution that significantly mitigates modal noise at all optical and NIR wavelengths, and which can be applied to spectrograph calibration systems. Our solution uses an integrating sphere in conjunction with a diffuser that is moved rapidly using electrostrictive polymers, and is generally superior to most tested forms of mechanical fiber agitation. We demonstrate a high level of modal noise reduction with a narrow bandwidth 1550 nm laser. Our relatively inexpensive solution immediately enables spectrographs to take advantage of the innate precision of bright state-of-the art calibration sources by removing a major source of systematic noise.

  11. Effects of Adaptation Rate and Noise Suppression on the Intelligibility of Compressed-Envelope Based Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Temporal envelope is the primary acoustic cue used in most cochlear implant (CI) speech processors to elicit speech perception for patients fitted with CI devices. Envelope compression narrows down envelope dynamic range and accordingly degrades speech understanding abilities of CI users, especially under challenging listening conditions (e.g., in noise). A new adaptive envelope compression (AEC) strategy was proposed recently, which in contrast to the traditional static envelope compression, is effective at enhancing the modulation depth of envelope waveform by making best use of its dynamic range and thus improving the intelligibility of envelope-based speech. The present study further explored the effect of adaptation rate in envelope compression on the intelligibility of compressed-envelope based speech. Moreover, since noise reduction is another essential unit in modern CI systems, the compatibility of AEC and noise reduction was also investigated. In this study, listening experiments were carried out by presenting vocoded sentences to normal hearing listeners for recognition. Experimental results demonstrated that the adaptation rate in envelope compression had a notable effect on the speech intelligibility performance of the AEC strategy. By specifying a suitable adaptation rate, speech intelligibility could be enhanced significantly in noise compared to when using static envelope compression. Moreover, results confirmed that the AEC strategy was suitable for combining with noise reduction to improve the intelligibility of envelope-based speech in noise. PMID:26196508

  12. Molecular hydrogen suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingni; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Misawa, Nobuaki; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Akio; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is effective for many diseases. However, molecular bases of H2 have not been fully elucidated. Cumulative evidence indicates that H2 acts as a gaseous signal modulator. We found that H2 suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting phosphorylation and degradation οf β-catenin. Either complete inhibition of GSK3 or mutations at CK1- and GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin abolished the suppressive effect of H2. H2 did not increase GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, indicating that H2 has no direct effect on GSK3 itself. Knock-down of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin1, which form the β-catenin degradation complex, minimized the suppressive effect of H2 on β-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the effect of H2 requires CK1/GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin, as well as the β-catenin degradation complex comprised of CK1, GSK3, APC, and Axin1. We additionally found that H2 reduces the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Oral intake of H2 water tended to ameliorate cartilage degradation in a surgery-induced rat osteoarthritis model through attenuating β-catenin accumulation. We first demonstrate that H2 suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which accounts for the protective roles of H2 in a fraction of diseases. PMID:27558955

  13. Molecular hydrogen suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yingni; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Misawa, Nobuaki; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Akio; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is effective for many diseases. However, molecular bases of H2 have not been fully elucidated. Cumulative evidence indicates that H2 acts as a gaseous signal modulator. We found that H2 suppresses activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting phosphorylation and degradation οf β-catenin. Either complete inhibition of GSK3 or mutations at CK1- and GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin abolished the suppressive effect of H2. H2 did not increase GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, indicating that H2 has no direct effect on GSK3 itself. Knock-down of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin1, which form the β-catenin degradation complex, minimized the suppressive effect of H2 on β-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the effect of H2 requires CK1/GSK3-phosphorylation sites of β-catenin, as well as the β-catenin degradation complex comprised of CK1, GSK3, APC, and Axin1. We additionally found that H2 reduces the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Oral intake of H2 water tended to ameliorate cartilage degradation in a surgery-induced rat osteoarthritis model through attenuating β-catenin accumulation. We first demonstrate that H2 suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which accounts for the protective roles of H2 in a fraction of diseases. PMID:27558955

  14. Suppression of NF-κB Activation By Gentian Violet Promotes Osteoblastogenesis and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M.; Vikulina, T.; Arbiser, J.L.; Weitzmann, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal mass is regulated by the coordinated action of bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Accelerated rates of bone resorption relative to bone formation lead to net bone loss and the development of osteoporosis, a devastating disease that predisposes the skeleton to fractures. Bone fractures are associated with significant morbidity and in the case of hip fractures, high mortality. Gentian violet (GV), a cationic triphenylmethane dye, has long been used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent and is presently under investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic agent. However, effects on bone cells have not been previously reported and the mechanisms of action of GV, are poorly understood. In this study we show that GV suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts, but paradoxically stimulates the differentiation of MC3T3 cells into mineralizing osteoblasts. These actions stem from the capacity of GV to suppress activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal transduction pathway that is required for osteoclastogenesis, but inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation and activity. Our data reveal that GV is an inhibitor of NF-κB activation and may hold promise for modulation of bone turnover to promote a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, favorable to gain of bone mass. PMID:25056540

  15. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    PubMed Central

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  16. First Test of Fan Active Noise Control (ANC) Completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of ultrahigh-bypass engines, the space available for passive acoustic treatment is becoming more limited, whereas noise regulations are becoming more stringent. Active noise control (ANC) holds promise as a solution to this problem. It uses secondary (added) noise sources to reduce or eliminate the offending noise radiation. The first active noise control test on the low-speed fan test bed was a General Electric Company system designed to control either the exhaust or inlet fan tone. This system consists of a "ring source," an induct array of error microphones, and a control computer. Fan tone noise propagates in a duct in the form of spinning waves. These waves are detected by the microphone array, and the computer identifies their spinning structure. The computer then controls the "ring source" to generate waves that have the same spinning structure and amplitude, but 180 out of phase with the fan noise. This computer generated tone cancels the fan tone before it radiates from the duct and is heard in the far field. The "ring source" used in these tests is a cylindrical array of 16 flat-plate acoustic radiators that are driven by thin piezoceramic sheets bonded to their back surfaces. The resulting source can produce spinning waves up to mode 7 at levels high enough to cancel the fan tone. The control software is flexible enough to work on spinning mode orders from -6 to 6. In this test, the fan was configured to produce a tone of order 6. The complete modal (spinning and radial) structure of the tones was measured with two builtin sets of rotating microphone rakes. These rakes provide a measurement of the system performance independent from the control system error microphones. In addition, the far-field noise was measured with a semicircular array of 28 microphones. This test represents the first in a series of tests that demonstrate different active noise control concepts, each on a progressively more complicated modal structure. The tests are

  17. Hybrid two-dimensional navigator correction: a new technique to suppress respiratory-induced physiological noise in multi-shot echo-planar functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Robert L.; Klassen, L. Martyn; Williams, Joy M.; Menon, Ravi S.

    2008-01-01

    A troublesome source of physiological noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is due to the spatio-temporal modulation of the magnetic field in the brain caused by normal subject respiration. fMRI data acquired using echo-planar imaging is very sensitive to these respiratory-induced frequency offsets, which cause significant geometric distortions in images. Because these effects increase with main magnetic field, they can nullify the gains in statistical power expected by the use of higher magnetic fields. As a study of existing navigator correction techniques for echo-planar fMRI has shown that further improvements can be made in the suppression of respiratory-induced physiological noise, a new hybrid two-dimensional (2D) navigator is proposed. Using a priori knowledge of the slow spatial variations of these induced frequency offsets, 2D field maps are constructed for each shot using spatial frequencies between ±0.5 cm−1 in k-space. For multi-shot fMRI experiments, we estimate that the improvement of hybrid 2D navigator correction over the best performance of one-dimensional navigator echo correction translates into a 15% increase in the volume of activation, 6% and 10% increases in the maximum and average t-statistics, respectively, for regions with high t-statistics, and 71% and 56% increases in the maximum and average t-statistics, respectively, in regions with low t-statistics due to contamination by residual physiological noise. PMID:18024159

  18. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  19. Investigation of noise suppression by sonic inlets for turbofan engines. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klujber, F.; Bosch, J. C.; Demetrick, R. W.; Robb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program for sonic inlet technology development are presented. This program includes configuration and mechanical design selection of concepts, aerodynamic design description of the models, and results of test evaluation. Several sonic inlet concepts were tested and compared for aerodynamic and acoustic performance. Results of these comparative evaluations are presented. Near-field measurements were taken inside several of the inlet models. Results of these tests are discussed with respect to the effect of Mach number gradients on noise attenuation and rotor shock wave attenuation, and boundary layer effects on noise propagation. The test facilities and experimental techniques employed are described briefly.

  20. Jet Noise Modeling for Suppressed and Unsuppressed Aircraft in Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the development of further extensions and improvements to the jet noise model developed by Modern Technologies Corporation (MTC) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The noise component extraction and correlation approach, first used successfully by MTC in developing a noise prediction model for two-dimensional mixer ejector (2DME) nozzles under the High Speed Research (HSR) Program, has been applied to dual-stream nozzles, then extended and improved in earlier tasks under this contract. Under Task 6, the coannular jet noise model was formulated and calibrated with limited scale model data, mainly at high bypass ratio, including a limited-range prediction of the effects of mixing-enhancement nozzle-exit chevrons on jet noise. Under Task 9 this model was extended to a wider range of conditions, particularly those appropriate for a Supersonic Business Jet, with an improvement in simulated flight effects modeling and generalization of the suppressor model. In the present task further comparisons are made over a still wider range of conditions from more test facilities. The model is also further generalized to cover single-stream nozzles of otherwise similar configuration. So the evolution of this prediction/analysis/correlation approach has been in a sense backward, from the complex to the simple; but from this approach a very robust capability is emerging. Also from these studies, some observations emerge relative to theoretical considerations. The purpose of this task is to develop an analytical, semi-empirical jet noise prediction method applicable to takeoff, sideline and approach noise of subsonic and supersonic cruise aircraft over a wide size range. The product of this task is an even more consistent and robust model for the Footprint/Radius (FOOTPR) code than even the Task 9 model. The model is validated for a wider range of cases and statistically quantified for the various reference facilities. The possible

  1. Active suppression of vortex-driven combustion instability using controlled liquid-fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Bin

    Combustion instabilities remain one of the most challenging problems encountered in developing propulsion and power systems. Large amplitude pressure oscillations, driven by unsteady heat release, can produce numerous detrimental effects. Most previous active control studies utilized gaseous fuels to suppress combustion instabilities. However, using liquid fuel to suppress combustion instabilities is more realistic for propulsion applications. Active instability suppression in vortex-driven combustors using a direct liquid fuel injection strategy was theoretically established and experimentally demonstrated in this dissertation work. Droplet size measurements revealed that with pulsed fuel injection management, fuel droplet size could be modulated periodically. Consequently, desired heat release fluctuation could be created. If this oscillatory heat release is coupled with the natural pressure oscillation in an out of phase manner, combustion instabilities can be suppressed. To identify proper locations of supplying additional liquid fuel for the purpose of achieving control, the natural heat release pattern in a vortex-driven combustor was characterized in this study. It was found that at high Damkohler number oscillatory heat release pattern closely followed the evolving vortex front. However, when Damkohler number became close to unity, heat release fluctuation wave no longer coincided with the coherent structures. A heat release deficit area was found near the dump plane when combustor was operated in lean premixed conditions. Active combustion instability suppression experiments were performed in a dump combustor using a controlled liquid fuel injection strategy. High-speed Schlieren results illustrated that vortex shedding plays an important role in maintaining self-sustained combustion instabilities. Complete combustion instability control requires total suppression of these large-scale coherent structures. The sound pressure level at the excited dominant

  2. Apigenin blocks IKKα activation and suppresses prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Kanwal, Rajnee; Shankar, Eswar; Datt, Manish; Chance, Mark R; Fu, Pingfu; MacLennan, Gregory T; Gupta, Sanjay

    2015-10-13

    IKKα has been implicated as a key regulator of oncogenesis and driver of the metastatic process; therefore is regarded as a promising therapeutic target in anticancer drug development. In spite of the progress made in the development of IKK inhibitors, no potent IKKα inhibitor(s) have been identified. Our multistep approach of molecular modeling and direct binding has led to the identification of plant flavone apigenin as a specific IKKα inhibitor. Here we report apigenin, in micro molar range, inhibits IKKα kinase activity, demonstrates anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities in functional cell based assays and exhibits anticancer efficacy in experimental tumor model. We found that apigenin directly binds with IKKα, attenuates IKKα kinase activity and suppresses NF-ĸB/p65 activation in human prostate cancer PC-3 and 22Rv1 cells much more effectively than IKK inhibitor, PS1145. We also showed that apigenin caused cell cycle arrest similar to knockdown of IKKα in prostate cancer cells. Studies in xenograft mouse model indicate that apigenin feeding suppresses tumor growth, lowers proliferation and enhances apoptosis. These effects correlated with inhibition of p-IKKα, NF-ĸB/p65, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and increase in cleaved caspase 3 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation, invasiveness and decrease in tumor growth by apigenin are mediated by its ability to suppress IKKα and downstream targets affecting NF-ĸB signaling pathways. PMID:26435478

  3. Digital Signal Processing System for Active Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonson, William W.; Tucker, Jerry

    2002-12-01

    Over the years there has been a need to improve the comfort of passengers in flight. One avenue for increasing comfort is to reduce cabin noise that is attributed to the engine and the vibration of fuselage panels that radiate sound. High frequency noise can be abated using sound absorbing material. Though, for low frequency noise the sound absorption material would have to very thick, thereby reducing the cabin size. To reduce these low frequency disturbances, active noise control systems (ANC) is being developed that utilizes feedback for cancellation of the disturbance. The active noise control system must be small in size, be a low power device, and operate in real-time. It must also be numerically stable i.e. insensitive to temperature and pressure variations. The ANC system will be a module that consists of digital signal processor (DSP), analog-digital and digital-analog converters, power converters, an actuator and sensors. The DSP will implement the feedback control algorithm that controls the actuators. This module will be attached to panels on the inside of the fuselage for actively eliminating resonant modes of the structure caused by turbulent flow across the fuselage Skin. A hardware prototype of the ANC system must be able to eliminate broadband noise consisting of a bandwidth between 100 Hz and 1500 Hz, which requires a sample rate of 5000 Hz. The analog/digital converters output accuracy is 16 bits with a 2's-compliment format and a very short acquisition time. This will also yield the appropriate dynamic range. Similar specifications are required of the digital/analog converter. The processor section of the system integrates a digital signal processor (TI TMS320C33) with analog/digital (Burr-Brown ADS8320) and digital/analog signal (DAC853 1) converters. The converters with associated power conditioning circuitry and test points reside on a daughter board that sits on top of a Spectrum Digital evaluation module. This will have the ability to test

  4. Suppression of Spin Noise in Diamond for improved Sensing and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauch, Erik; Lee, Junghyun; Singh, Swati; Pham, My Linh; Arai, Keigo; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Increasing the coherence time of nitrogen vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond is of great interest for quantum information, sensing and metrology applications. However, achieving long coherence times remains a challenge in dense samples, where the NV's T2 is limited by electronic spin-spin interaction of the nitrogen donors in the lattice. In these samples, nuclear spin impurities associated with the 13C isotopes can suppress the dominant nitrogen electronic spin bath by reducing the flip-flop rates and enhancing the NV's coherence time. We investigate this spin bath suppression effect both experimentally and theoretically and provide a pathway to engineering high density NV samples with sufficiently long coherence times.

  5. Suppression Measured from Chinchilla Auditory-Nerve-Fiber Responses Following Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Adaptive-Tracking and Systems-Identification Approaches.

    PubMed

    Sayles, Mark; Walls, Michael K; Heinz, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    The compressive nonlinearity of cochlear signal transduction, reflecting outer-hair-cell function, manifests as suppressive spectral interactions; e.g., two-tone suppression. Moreover, for broadband sounds, there are multiple interactions between frequency components. These frequency-dependent nonlinearities are important for neural coding of complex sounds, such as speech. Acoustic-trauma-induced outer-hair-cell damage is associated with loss of nonlinearity, which auditory prostheses attempt to restore with, e.g., "multi-channel dynamic compression" algorithms.Neurophysiological data on suppression in hearing-impaired (HI) mammals are limited. We present data on firing-rate suppression measured in auditory-nerve-fiber responses in a chinchilla model of noise-induced hearing loss, and in normal-hearing (NH) controls at equal sensation level. Hearing-impaired (HI) animals had elevated single-fiber excitatory thresholds (by ~ 20-40 dB), broadened frequency tuning, and reduced-magnitude distortion-product otoacoustic emissions; consistent with mixed inner- and outer-hair-cell pathology. We characterized suppression using two approaches: adaptive tracking of two-tone-suppression threshold (62 NH, and 35 HI fibers), and Wiener-kernel analyses of responses to broadband noise (91 NH, and 148 HI fibers). Suppression-threshold tuning curves showed sensitive low-side suppression for NH and HI animals. High-side suppression thresholds were elevated in HI animals, to the same extent as excitatory thresholds. We factored second-order Wiener-kernels into excitatory and suppressive sub-kernels to quantify the relative strength of suppression. We found a small decrease in suppression in HI fibers, which correlated with broadened tuning. These data will help guide novel amplification strategies, particularly for complex listening situations (e.g., speech in noise), in which current hearing aids struggle to restore intelligibility. PMID:27080669

  6. Active control of road booming noise in automotive interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Shi-Hwan; Kim, Hyoun-Suk; Park, Youngjin

    2002-01-01

    An active feedforward control system has been developed to reduce the road booming noise that has strong nonlinear characteristics. Four acceleration transducers were attached to the suspension system to detect reference vibration and two loudspeakers were used to attenuate the noise near the headrests of two front seats. A leaky constraint multiple filtered-X LMS algorithm with an IIR-based filter that has fast convergence speed and frequency selective controllability was proposed to increase the control efficiency in computing power and memory usage. During the test drive on the rough asphalt and turtle-back road at a constant speed of 60 km/h, we were able to achieve a reduction of around 6 dB of A-weighted sound pressure level in the road booming noise range with the proposed algorithm, which could not be obtained with the conventional multiple filtered-X LMS algorithm.

  7. Active control of road booming noise in automotive interiors.

    PubMed

    Oh, Shi-Hwan; Kim, Hyoun-suk; Park, Youngjin

    2002-01-01

    An active feedforward control system has been developed to reduce the road booming noise that has strong nonlinear characteristics. Four acceleration transducers were attached to the suspension system to detect reference vibration and two loudspeakers were used to attenuate the noise near the headrests of two front seats. A leaky constraint multiple filtered-X LMS algorithm with an IIR-based filter that has fast convergence speed and frequency selective controllability was proposed to increase the control efficiency in computing power and memory usage. During the test drive on the rough asphalt and turtle-back road at a constant speed of 60 km/h, we were able to achieve a reduction of around 6 dB of A-weighted sound pressure level in the road booming noise range with the proposed algorithm, which could not be obtained with the conventional multiple filtered-X LMS algorithm. PMID:11831793

  8. Active Suppression of the Transonic Flutter Using Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degaki, Takanori; Suzuki, Shinji

    This paper describes two-dimensional active flutter suppression to cope with the transonic dip using the sliding mode control. The airfoil model has plunge and pitch degrees of freedom with leading and trailing edge control surfaces. The aerodynamic forces acting on the airfoil, lift and pitching moment, are calculated by solving Euler's equations using computational fluid dynamics. At a specific altitude, flutter occurs between Mach number of 0.7 and 0.88, which corresponds to the transonic dip. The sliding mode control makes the airfoil to be stable all through the Mach number including the transonic dip. The sliding mode controller gives wider flutter margin than a linear quadratic regulator. These characteristics indicate that the sliding mode control is useful for active flutter suppression in the transonic flight.

  9. Cellular Signaling Networks Function as Generalized Wiener-Kolmogorov Filters to Suppress Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2014-10-01

    Cellular signaling involves the transmission of environmental information through cascades of stochastic biochemical reactions, inevitably introducing noise that compromises signal fidelity. Each stage of the cascade often takes the form of a kinase-phosphatase push-pull network, a basic unit of signaling pathways whose malfunction is linked with a host of cancers. We show that this ubiquitous enzymatic network motif effectively behaves as a Wiener-Kolmogorov optimal noise filter. Using concepts from umbral calculus, we generalize the linear Wiener-Kolmogorov theory, originally introduced in the context of communication and control engineering, to take nonlinear signal transduction and discrete molecule populations into account. This allows us to derive rigorous constraints for efficient noise reduction in this biochemical system. Our mathematical formalism yields bounds on filter performance in cases important to cellular function—such as ultrasensitive response to stimuli. We highlight features of the system relevant for optimizing filter efficiency, encoded in a single, measurable, dimensionless parameter. Our theory, which describes noise control in a large class of signal transduction networks, is also useful both for the design of synthetic biochemical signaling pathways and the manipulation of pathways through experimental probes such as oscillatory input.

  10. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression Acoustic and Aerodynamic Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Boyd, Kathleen (Technical Monitor); Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft/s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASK's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude. Sound in the nozzle reference frame was analyzed to understand the source characteristics. Several new concepts, mechanisms and methods are reported for such lobed mixers, such as, "boomerang" scallops, "tongue" mixer, detection of "excess" internal noise sources, and extrapolation of flyover noise data from one flight speed to different flight speeds. Noise reduction of as much as 3 EPNdB was found with a deeply scalloped mixer compared to annular nozzle at net thrust levels of 9500 lb for a 29 in. diameter nozzle after optimizing the nozzle length.

  11. A Biomimetic Propulsor for Active Noise Control. Part 2: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaswamy Krol, A., Jr.; Bandyopadhyay, P. R.

    2000-11-01

    The alteration of radiated noise in underwater propulsors using biomimetic active control is considered. Wake momentum filling is carried out by introducing artificial muscles at the trailing edge of a stator blade of an upstream stator propulsor, and articulating them like a fish tail (see companion abstract Part 1). Using a systems framework, we derive a methodology for the articulation of the muscles with active control. The unsteady force produced on the rotor because of velocity perturbations due to actuator displacements, wake deficits caused by stator boundary layers, and blade rotation is modeled. Linear and adaptive nonlinear control strategies are described for articulating the tail using unsteady force measurements. This active control procedure can be viewed as the realization of “virtual” blades with different sweep and noise characteristics and can affect the noise spectrum due to direct radiation significantly. The work provides an understanding of the effect of nonuniform wakes on radiated noise and can lead to a general approach by which wakes can be altered.

  12. Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min-Chi; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-06-30

    By up-shifting the relaxation oscillation peak and suppressing its relative intensity noise in a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) under intense injection-locking, the directly modulated transmission of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data-stream is demonstrated. The total bit rate of up to 20 Gbit/s within 5-GHz bandwidth is achieved by using the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling technique. With increasing the injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm, the effective reduction on threshold current of the WRC-FPLD significantly shifts its relaxation oscillation frequency from 5 to 7.5 GHz. This concurrently induces an up-shift of the peak relative intensity noise (RIN) of the WRC-FPLD, and effectively suppresses the background RIN level to -104 dBc/Hz within the OFDM band between 3 and 6 GHz. The enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from 16 to 20 dB leads to a significant reduction of bit-error-rate (BER) of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-OFDM data from 1.3 × 10(-3) to 5 × 10(-5), which slightly degrades to 1.1 × 10(-4) after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. However, the enlarged injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm inevitably declines the modulation throughput and increases its negative throughput slope from -0.8 to -1.9 dBm/GHz. After pre-leveling the peak amplitude of the OFDM subcarriers to compensate the throughput degradation of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the BER under 25-km SMF transmission can be further improved to 3 × 10(-5) under a receiving power of -3 dBm. PMID:24977832

  13. Suppressing the noise in SST retrieved from satellite infrared measurements by smoothing the differential terms in regression equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Multichannel regression algorithms are widely used in retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST) from infrared brightness temperatures (BTs) observed from satellites. The SST equations typically include terms dependent on the difference between BTs observed in spectral bands with different atmospheric absorption. Such terms do account for variations in the variable atmospheric attenuation, but may introduce additional noise in the retrieved SST due to amplification of the radiometric noise. Some processing systems (e.g., the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF) incorporate noise suppression algorithms, based on spatial smoothing of the differential terms in the SST equations. A similar algorithm is being tested for the potential use in the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO). The ACSPO smoothing algorithm aims to preserve natural variations in SST field, while minimizing distortions in the original SST imagery, at a minimal processing time. This presentation describes the ACSPO smoothing algorithm and results of its evaluation with the SST imagery, and with the in situ matchups for NOAA and Metop AVHRRs, Terra and Aqua MODISs, and SNPP/JPSS VIIRS.

  14. Implementation Considerations, Not Topological Differences, Are the Main Determinants of Noise Suppression Properties in Feedback and Incoherent Feedforward Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Buzi, Gentian; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Biological systems use a variety of mechanisms to deal with the uncertain nature of their external and internal environments. Two of the most common motifs employed for this purpose are the incoherent feedforward (IFF) and feedback (FB) topologies. Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that these circuits play very different roles in providing robustness to uncertainty in the cellular environment. Here, we use a control theoretic approach to analyze two common FB and IFF architectures that make use of an intermediary species to achieve regulation. We show the equivalence of both circuits topologies in suppressing static cell-to-cell variations. While both circuits can suppress variations due to input noise, they are ineffective in suppressing inherent chemical reaction stochasticity. Indeed, these circuits realize comparable improvements limited to a modest 25% variance reduction in best case scenarios. Such limitations are attributed to the use of intermediary species in regulation, and as such, they persist even for circuit architectures that combine both IFF and FB features. Intriguingly, while the FB circuits are better suited in dealing with dynamic input variability, the most significant difference between the two topologies lies not in the structural features of the circuits, but in their practical implementation considerations. PMID:27257684

  15. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40 x 80 foot Wind Tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a Conventional Takeoff/Landing (CTOL) hybrid inlet, a Short Takeoff/Landing (STOL) hybrid inlet, and a treated deflector inlet. Also measured were the static to flight effects on the fan noise of canting the baseline inlet 4 deg downward to simulate typical wing mounted turbofan engines. The CTOL hybrid inlet suppressed the high tip speed fan noise as much as 18 PNdB on a 61 m (200 ft) sideline scaled to a CF6 size engine while the STOL hybrid inlet suppressed the low tip speed fan noise as much as 13 PNdB on a 61 m (200 ft) sideline scaled to a OCSEE size engine. The deflector inlet suppressed the high tip speed fan noise as much as 13 PNdB at 61 m (200 ft) overhead scaled to a CF6 size engine. No significant changes in fan noise suppression for the CTOL and STOL hybrid inlets occurred for forward velocity changes above 21 m/s (68 ft/s) or for angle of attack changes up to 15 deg. However, changes in both forward velocity and angle of attack changed the deflector inlet noise unpredictably due to the asymmetry of the inlet flow field into the fan.

  16. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 3; Active Fan Noise Cancellation in the NASA Lewis Active Noise Control Fan Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Hu, Ziqiang; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) System designed by General Electric and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LERC) 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF). The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of using wall mounted secondary acoustic sources and sensors within the duct of a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine for global active noise cancellation of fan tones. The GE ANC system is based on a modal control approach. A known acoustic mode propagating in the fan duct is canceled using an array of flush-mounted compact sound sources. The canceling modal signal is generated by a modal controller. Inputs to the controller are signals from a shaft encoder and from a microphone array which senses the residual acoustic mode in the duct. The key results are that the (6,0) was completely eliminated at the 920 Hz design frequency and substantially reduced elsewhere. The total tone power was reduced 6.8 dB (out of a possible 9.8 dB). Farfield reductions of 15 dB (SPL) were obtained. The (4,0) and (4,1) modes were reduced simultaneously yielding a 15 dB PWL decrease. The results indicate that global attenuation of PWL at the target frequency was obtained in the aft quadrant using an ANC actuator and sensor system totally contained within the duct. The quality of the results depended on precise mode generation. High spillover into spurious modes generated by the ANC actuator array caused less than optimum levels of PWL reduction. The variation in spillover is believed to be due to calibration procedure, but must be confirmed in subsequent tests.

  17. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  18. Model and observations of Schottky-noise suppression in a cold heavy-ion beam.

    PubMed

    Danared, H; Källberg, A; Rensfelt, K-G; Simonsson, A

    2002-04-29

    Some years ago it was found at GSI in Darmstadt that the momentum spread of electron-cooled beams of highly charged ions dropped abruptly to very low values when the particle number decreased to 10 000 or less. This has been interpreted as an ordering of the ions, such that they line up after one another in the ring. We report observations of similar transitions at CRYRING, including an accompanying drop in Schottky-noise power. We also introduce a model of the ordered beam from which the Schottky-noise power can be calculated numerically. The good agreement between the model calculation and the experimental data is seen as evidence for a spatial ordering of the ions. PMID:12005764

  19. Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

  20. A concept for jet noise suppression for an afterburning turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambellan, R. E.; Turek, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design of an afterburner system for turbojet engines which may reduce the jet exhaust noise by approximately 10 decibels is presented in this report. The proposed system consists of an array of swirl-can combustors and jet dividing nozzle tubes. The nozzle tubes translate axially upstream of the swirl cans when not in use. Results of preliminary design calculations and photographs of a kinematic model as applied to a hypothetical turbojet engine are presented.

  1. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of accoustic signals transmitted through a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.; Scott, Douglas D.

    1993-01-01

    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output.

  2. Noise suppression using optimum filtering of OCs generated by a multiport encoder/decoder.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takahiro; Wada, Naoya; Cincotti, Gabriella; Wang, Xu; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2012-04-23

    We propose a novel receiver configuration using an extreme narrow band-optical band pass filter (ENB-OBPF) to reduce the multiple access interference (MAI) and beat noises in an optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) transmission. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement of the code detectability, that allows us to increase the number of users in a passive optical network (PON) from 4 to 8 without any forward error correction (FEC). PMID:22535121

  3. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of acoustic signals transmitted through a drill string

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.; Scott, D.D.

    1993-12-28

    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output. 20 figures.

  4. Results from cascade thrust reverser noise and suppression experiments. [sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, O. A.; Stone, J. R.; Friedman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results from experimental work on model scale cascade reversers with cold airflow are presented. Sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics for cascade reversers are reported. Effect of cascade exit area ratio, vane profile shape, and emission arc are discussed. Model equivalent diameters varied from 3 to 5 inches, pressure ratios range from 1.15 to 3.0. Depending on the reverser type, acoustic power was proportional to the 4 1/2 to 6th power of ideal jet velocity. Reverser noise peaked at higher frequency and was more omnidirectional than nozzle-alone jet noise. Appreciable reduction in sideline noise was obtained from plane shields. Airfoil-vaned cascades were the most aerodynamically efficient and least noisy reversers. Scaling of cascade reverser data to example aircraft engines showed all cascades above the 95 PNdB sideline goal from STOL aircraft. However, the airfoil-vaned reverser has a good potential for meeting this goal for high-bypass (low pressure ratio) exhausts.

  5. Control surface spanwise placement in active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Burken, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed that determines the placement of an active control surface for maximum effectiveness in suppressing flutter. No specific control law is required by this method which is based on the aerodynamic energy concept. It is argued that the spanwise placement of the active controls should coincide with the locations where maximum energy per unit span is fed into the system. The method enables one to determine the distribution, over the different surfaces of the aircraft, of the energy input into the system as a result of the unstable fluttering mode. The method is illustrated using three numerical examples.

  6. Suppression of blast pressure and noise from implosive-type connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Contestabile, E.; Thomas, C.

    1995-12-31

    Implosive-type electrical/mechanical connectors such as XECONEX have been used extensively for joining electrical transmission lines. This implosive action of explosives has also been applied to other forms of high energy metal working with excellent results. However, as with many other products, the inherent blast energy of these units has caused some environmental concerns especially when used in proximity to inhabited areas. This paper identifies the problem associated with the use of this type of connector in inhabited areas and details the efforts directed toward its solution. A test program was designed in which various materials and configurations were evaluated as potential candidates for reducing the blast pressure. The explosive charges were in two configurations; linear charges assembled with detonating cord and steel pipes wrapped with detonating cord. Various materials of varying densities and sizes were then used as a wrap around the explosive charge. The effectiveness of these wraps as blast suppressing mediums was established by monitoring the blast pressure and sound levels. Although, a complete solution was not found within the performance requirements, materials such as vermiculite and cardboard were found to be particularly useful in suppressing blast overpressures. Plotted against scaled distance on a TNT output curve, the data indicates the effectiveness of these materials. Also practical are the plots showing the mitigation of blast pressure as the suppressant material thickness is varied.

  7. Suppression of the low frequency intensity noise of a single-frequency Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber laser at 1083 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.; Li, C.; Xu, S.; Yang, C.; Mo, S.; Chen, D.; Peng, M.; Yang, Z.

    2014-06-01

    The suppression of the low frequency intensity noise of a 1083 nm single-frequency Yb3+-doped phosphate fiber laser is reported. The noise suppression scheme is to use a liquid crystal device as a variable attenuator to modulate the laser power to close to the desired level. The achieved long term (12 h) laser instability is less than 0.2%, while the relative intensity noise (RIN) has been decreased to lower than -140 dB Hz-1 at frequencies from 250 Hz to 1 kHz. Moreover, the laser linewidth value remains the same as before suppression, while the degree of polarization (DOP) declined slightly.

  8. The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  9. The timing of noise-sensitive activities in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-07-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  10. Effects of activity interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.; Powell, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of aircraft flyover noise on annoyance were compared for face to face conversation, reverie, and television viewing. Eighteen 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented on each of 2 days to subjects in a simulated living room. Twelve pairs of females and 12 pairs of males were tested, once before and once after work. Flyovers varied in peak noise level from 53 to 83 dB, A weighted. On each day, subjects engaged in 18 sessions, six of conversation, six of television viewing, and six of reverie. The subjects completed subjective ratings of annoyance and acceptability following every session. Annoyance and unacceptability rating scores were significantly higher for the activity of television viewing compared to conversation or reverie. There was no difference between judgments during the latter two activities. No differences were found in the judgments when compared on the basis of "fatigue" (before/after work) or sex of the subject.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of turbofan cycle parameters and acoustical suppression on the noise and direct operating cost of a commercial Mach 0.85 transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of turbofan cycle parameters and the use of acoustic noise suppression material to quiet 200 passenger, Mach 0.85 trijets having design ranges of 2778, 4630, and 9260 kilometers (1500, 2500, and 5000 n. mi). Aircraft gross weight and direct operating cost, which varied with amount of suppression and cycle selection, are presented as functions of both EPNdB traded and 90 EPNdB contour footprint area. Noise levels 10.9 EPNdB below FAR 36 requirements result in a 5 percent increase in DOC for an aircraft designed for a range of 9260 kilometers (5000 n. mi.). An aircraft designed for a 2778 kilometer (1500 n. mi.) range would have an EPNdB level 14 below FAR 36 for this same economic penalty. In this range of noise level, fan-machinery noise is the principal source.

  12. Active Control of Fan-Generated Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to control the noise radiated from the inlet of a ducted fan using a time domain active adaptive system. The control ,sound source consists of loudspeakers arranged in a ring around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same, when the dominant wave in the duct is a plane wave. The presence of higher order modes in the duct reduces the noise reduction efficiency, particularly near the mode cut-on where the standing wave component is strong, but the control system converges stably. The control system is stable and converges when the first circumferential mode is generated in the duct. The control system is found to reduce the fan noise in the far field on an arc around the fan inlet by as much as 20 dB with none of the sound amplification associated with mode spillover.

  13. Application of the local similarity filter for the suppression of multiplicative noise in medical ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusnik, Damian; Smolka, Bogdan; Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we address the problem of the reduction of multiplicative noise in digital images. This kind of image distortion, also known as speckle noise, severely decreases the quality of medical ultrasound images and therefore their effective enhancement and restoration is of vital importance for proper visual inspection and quantitative measurements. The structure of the proposed Pixel-Patch Similarity Filter (PPSF) is a weighted average of pixels in a processing block and the weights are determined calculating the sum of squared differences between the mean of a patch and the intensities of pixels of the local window at the block center. The structure of the proposed design is similar to the bilateral and non-local means filters, however we neglect the topographic distance between pixels, which decreases substantially its computational complexity. The new technique was evaluated on standard gray scale test images contaminated with multiplicative noise modelled using Gaussian and uniform distribution. Its efficiency was also assessed utilizing a set of simulated ultrasonographic images distorted by means of the Field II simulation software and real ultrasound images of a finger joint. The comparison with the state-of-the-art techniques revealed very high efficiency of the proposed filtering framework, especially for strongly degraded images. Visually, the homogeneous areas are smoother, while image edges and small details are better preserved. The experiments have shown that satisfactory results were obtained with patches consisting of only 9 samples belonging to a relatively small processing block of 7x7 pixels, which ensures low computational complexity of the proposed denoising scheme and allows its application in real-time image processing scenarios.

  14. Triacylglycerol kinetics in endotoxic rats with suppressed lipoprotein lipase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, G.J.; Corll, C.B.; Martinez, R.R.

    1987-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia observed in animals after bacterial endotoxin administration and some forms of sepsis can result from increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) output or decreased TG clearance by extrahepatic tissues. To differentiate between these two possibilities, TG and free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics were determined in control and endotoxin-injected rats 18 h after treatment. Plasma TG and FFA kinetics were assessed by a constant intravenous infusion with (9,10-/sup 3/H)palmitate-labeled very low-density lipoprotein and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate bound to albumin, respectively. In addition, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue as well as in postheparin plasma of functionally hepatectomized, adrenalectomized, and gonadectomized rats. Plasma FFA acid concentrations were slightly increased in endotoxin-treated rats but their turnover did not differ from control. Endotoxin-treated rats had a threefold increase in plasma TG concentrations and decreased heart, skeletal muscle, and post-heparin plasma LPL activity. Plasma TG turnover was decreased, indicating that hypertriglyceridemia was not due to an increased TG output by the liver. Instead, the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TG concentration was consequence of the 80% reduction in TG metabolic clearance rate. Thus, suppression of LPL activity in endotoxic animals impairs TG clearance resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, endotoxin administration reduced the delivery of TG-FFA to extrahepatic tissues because hepatic synthesis and secretion of TG from plasma FFA was decreased and LPL activity was suppressed.

  15. Targeting Gli Transcription Activation by Small Molecule Suppresses Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Clément, Geneviève; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Zhao; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Li, Hui; Mikami, Iwao; Hirata, Tomomi; Yagui-Beltran, Adam; Lui, Natalie; Do, Hanh T.; Cheng, Tiffany; Tseng, Hsin-Hui; Choi, Helen; Fang, Li-Tai; Kim, Il-Jin; Yue, Dongsheng; Wang, Changli; Zheng, Qingfeng; Fujii, Naoaki; Mann, Michael; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Targeted inhibition of Hedgehog signaling at the cell membrane has been associated with anti-cancer activity in preclinical and early clinical studies. Hedgehog signaling involves activation of Gli transcription factors that can also be induced by alternative pathways. In this study we identified an interaction between Gli proteins and a transcription co-activator TAF9, and validated its functional relevance in regulating Gli transactivation. We also describe a novel, synthetic small molecule, FN1-8, that efficiently interferes with Gli/TAF9 interaction and down-regulate Gli/TAF9 dependent transcriptional activity. More importantly, FN1-8 suppresses cancer cell proliferation in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that blocking Gli transactivation, a key control point of multiple oncogenic pathways, may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:23686308

  16. Lobed Mixer Design for Noise Suppression: Plume, Aerodynamic and Acoustic Data. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Baker, V. David; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database for the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of several model-scale lobe mixers of bypass ratio 5 to 6 has been created for mixed jet speeds up to 1080 ft per s at typical take-off (TO) conditions of small-to-medium turbofan engines. The flight effect was simulated for Mach numbers up to 0.3. The static thrust performance and plume data were also obtained at typical TO and cruise conditions. The tests were done at NASA Lewis anechoic dome and ASE's FluiDyne Laboratories. The effect of several lobe mixer and nozzle parameters, such as, lobe scalloping, lobe count, lobe penetration and nozzle length was examined in terms of flyover noise at constant altitude and also noise in the reference frame of the nozzle. This volume is divided into three parts: in the first two parts, we collate the plume survey data in graphical form (line, contour and surface plots) and analyze it; in part 3, we tabulate the aerodynamic data for the acoustics tests and the acoustic data in one-third octave band levels.

  17. Active vibration and noise alleviation in rotorcraft using microflaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padthe, Ashwani Kumar

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of active Gurney flaps, or microflaps, for on blade control of noise and vibration in rotorcraft. The initial portion of the work considered the two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of three different oscillating microflap configurations using a compressible computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver. Among these the configuration most suitable for rotorcraft applications was chosen. An unsteady reduced order aerodynamic model (ROM) was developed for the microflap using the Rational Function Approximation approach and CFD based oscillatory aerodynamic load data. The resulting ROM is a state-space, time-domain model that accounts for unsteadiness, compressibility and time-varying freestream effects. The ROM was validated against direct CFD calculations for a wide range of flow conditions showing excellent agreement. Subsequently, the ROM was then incorporated into a comprehensive rotorcraft simulation code featuring a free-wake model, an acoustic prediction tool, and fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. The higher harmonic control (HHC) algorithm was used to simulate closed-loop active control with a 1.5% chord microflap on a hingeless rotor configuration resembling the MBB BO-105. Three span-wise configurations, single, dual, and a five-microflap configuration were considered. Results indicate that the microflap can achieve reductions ranging from 3-6 dB in the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Vibration reduction ranging from 70-90% was also demonstrated at both low-speed and high-speed flight conditions. It was also found that reduction in BVI noise results in an increase in vibrations and vice versa, a trend also noted in previous active control studies employing HHC and conventional partial span trailing-edge flaps. Next, simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of 2-3 dB in the advancing and retreating side noise combined with a 55% reduction in the

  18. Extending the articulation index to account for non-linear distortions introduced by noise-suppression algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, Philipos C.; Ma, Jianfen

    2011-01-01

    The conventional articulation index (AI) measure cannot be applied in situations where non-linear operations are involved and additive noise is present. This is because the definitions of the target and masker signals become vague following non-linear processing, as both the target and masker signals are affected. The aim of the present work is to modify the basic form of the AI measure to account for non-linear processing. This was done using a new definition of the output or effective SNR obtained following non-linear processing. The proposed output SNR definition for a specific band was designed to handle cases where the non-linear processing affects predominantly the target signal rather than the masker signal. The proposed measure also takes into consideration the fact that the input SNR in a specific band cannot be improved following any form of non-linear processing. Overall, the proposed measure quantifies the proportion of input band SNR preserved or transmitted in each band after non-linear processing. High correlation (r = 0.9) was obtained with the proposed measure when evaluated with intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech corrupted in four different real-world maskers. PMID:21877811

  19. SCAR arrow-wing active flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, C. K.; Visor, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    The potential performance and direct operating cost benefits of an active flutter suppression system (FSS) for the NASA arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were determined. A FSS designed to increase the flutter speed of the baseline airplane 20 percent. A comparison was made of the performance and direct operating cost between the FSS equipped aircraft and a previously defined configuration with structural modifications to provide the same flutter speed. Control system synthesis and evaluation indicated that a FSS could provide the increase in flutter speed without degrading airplane reliability, safety, handling qualities, or ride quality, and without increasing repeated loads or hydraulic and electrical power capacity requirements.

  20. Comparative study between two different active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    An activated leading-edge (LE)-tailing-edge (TE) control system is applied to a drone aircraft with the objective of enabling the drone to fly subsonically at dynamic pressures which are 44% above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The control synthesis approach is based on the aerodynamic energy concept and it incorporates recent developments in this area. A comparison is made between the performance of the activated LE-TE control system and the performance of a TE control system, analyzed in a previous work. The results obtained indicate that although all the control systems achieve the flutter suppression objectives, the TE control system appears to be somewhat superior to the LE-TE control system, in this specific application. This superiority is manifested through reduced values of control surface activity over a wide range of flight conditions.

  1. Hologram encoding strategies for non-Bayesian noise suppression in digital holography reconstructions and optical display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Memmolo, P.; Finizio, A.; Paturzo, M.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    Here we first propose a fast, one-shot, non-Bayesian method which performs a numerical synthesis of a moving aperture in order to reduce the noise in Digital Holography without prior information on its statistics. Starting from one single hologram capture, multiple uncorrelated reconstructions are provided by random sparse resampling masks, which can be incoherently averaged. Thus, the problem of the setup complexity introduced by multiple recordings gets solved. Besides, at the scope of performing DH display using a SLM, it is highly required to operate directly on the hologram, in order to obtain its denoised version without losing the coherence between amplitude and phase information. We then move a step forward, showing a novel encoding formula allowing us to directly synthesize denoised holograms to be optically displayed by SLMs.

  2. Broadband noise suppression and feature identification of ECG waveforms using mathematical morphology and embedding theorem.

    PubMed

    Ji, T Y; Wu, Q H

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents an adaptive morphological filter developed using multiscale mathematical morphology (MM) to reject broadband noise from ECG signals without affecting the feature waveforms. As a pre-processing procedure, the adaptive morphological filter cleans an ECG signal to prepare it for further analysis. The noiseless ECG signal is embedded within a two-dimensional phase space to form a binary image and the identification of the feature waveforms is carried out based on the information presented by the image. The classification of the feature waveforms is implemented by an adaptive clustering technique according to the geometric information represented by the image in the phase space. Simulation studies on ECG records from the MIT-BIH and BIDMC databases have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods. PMID:24094825

  3. Electrically Isolating Thermally Coupled Device for Noise Suppression of Circuits in Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantooth, A.; McNutt, T.; Mojarradi, M.; Li, H.; Blalock, B.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed mode rad hard avionics Systems on a Chip (SoC) designed for deep space applications such as Europa orbiters and Europa Landers will require data isolation circuits to block noise. This paper presents the simulation performance for a novel rad hard SOI CMOS compatible thermal transducer used for on-chip data isolation in SoC. The research presented involves the use of commercially available computer aided design tools to model the transient electrothermal behavior of the transducer. Both one- and two-dimensional analyses of a prototype thermal transducer were performed. Results indicate that thermal-based data isolator technology can pass a data bit in under a microsecond and, as a measurement of feasibility, I(exp 2)C bus specifications can be met.

  4. Active Control of Fan Noise by Vane Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Alan R. D.

    1999-01-01

    An active noise control system for ducted fan noise was built that uses actuators located in stator vanes. The actuators were piezoelectric benders manufactured using the THUNDER technology and were custom designed for the application. The active noise control system was installed in the NASA ANCF rig. Four actuator array with a total of 168 actuators in 28 stator vanes were used. Simultaneous reductions of acoustic power in both the inlet and exhaust duct were demonstrated for a fan disturbance that contained two radial mode orders in both inlet and exhaust. Total power levels in the target modes were reduced by up to 9 dB in the inlet and total tone levels by over 6 dB while exhaust power levels were reduced by up to 3 dB. Far field sound pressure level reductions of up to 17 dB were observed. A simpler control system, matched to the location of the disturbance with two radial actuator arrays, was demonstrated to control total acoustic power in four disturbance modes simultaneously in inlet and exhaust. The vane actuator met the requirements given for the ANCF, although in practice the performance of the system was limited by the constraints of the power amplifiers and the presence of control spillover. The vane actuators were robust. None of the 168 vane actuators failed during the tests.

  5. A Lightweight Loudspeaker for Aircraft Communications and Active Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnaka, Glenn E.; Kleinle, Mark; Tsangaris, Parry; Oslac, Michael J.; Moskow, Harry J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of new, lightweight loudspeakers for use on commercial aircraft has been developed. The loudspeakers use NdFeB magnets and aluminum alloy frames to reduce the weight. The NdFeB magnet is virtually encapsulated by steel in the new speaker designs. Active noise reduction using internal loudspeakers was demonstrated to be effective in 1983. A weight, space, and cost efficient method for creating the active sound attenuating fields is to use the existing cabin loudspeakers for both communication and sound attenuation. This will require some additional loudspeaker design considerations.

  6. Nonexocytotic serotonin release tonically suppresses serotonergic neuron activity

    PubMed Central

    Montalbano, Alberto; Baccini, Gilda; Tatini, Francesca; Palmini, Rolando Berlinguer; Corradetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The firing activity of serotonergic neurons in raphe nuclei is regulated by negative feedback exerted by extracellular serotonin (5-HT)o acting through somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. The steady-state [5-HT]o, sensed by 5-HT1A autoreceptors, is determined by the balance between the rates of 5-HT release and reuptake. Although it is well established that reuptake of 5-HTo is mediated by 5-HT transporters (SERT), the release mechanism has remained unclear. It is also unclear how selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants increase the [5-HT]o in raphe nuclei and suppress serotonergic neuron activity, thereby potentially diminishing their own therapeutic effect. Using an electrophysiological approach in a slice preparation, we show that, in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), continuous nonexocytotic 5-HT release is responsible for suppression of phenylephrine-facilitated serotonergic neuron firing under basal conditions as well as for autoinhibition induced by SSRI application. By using 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated G protein–gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels of patched serotonergic neurons as 5-HTo sensors, we show substantial nonexocytotic 5-HT release under conditions of abolished firing activity, Ca2+ influx, vesicular monoamine transporter 2–mediated vesicular accumulation of 5-HT, and SERT-mediated 5-HT transport. Our results reveal a cytosolic origin of 5-HTo in the DRN and suggest that 5-HTo may be supplied by simple diffusion across the plasma membrane, primarily from the dense network of neurites of serotonergic neurons surrounding the cell bodies. These findings indicate that the serotonergic system does not function as a sum of independently acting neurons but as a highly interdependent neuronal network, characterized by a shared neurotransmitter pool and the regulation of firing activity by an interneuronal, yet activity-independent, nonexocytotic mechanism. PMID:25712017

  7. Impacts of chronic anthropogenic noise from energy-sector activity on abundance of songbirds in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Erin M; Habib, Lucas; Boutin, Stan

    2008-10-01

    The effects of human activities in forests are often examined in the context of habitat conversion. Changes in habitat structure and composition are also associated with increases in the activity of people with vehicles and equipment, which results in increases in anthropogenic noise. Anthropogenic noise may reduce habitat quality for many species, particularly those that rely on acoustic signals for communication. We compared the density and occupancy rate of forest passerines close to versus far from noise-generating compressor stations and noiseless well pads in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using distance-based sampling, we found that areas near noiseless energy facilities had a total passerine density 1.5 times higher than areas near noise-producing energy sites. The White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata), and Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) were less dense in noisy areas. We used repeat sampling to estimate occupancy rate for 23 additional species. Seven had lower conditional or unconditional occupancy rates near noise-generating facilities. One-third of the species examined showed patterns that supported the hypothesis that abundance is influenced by anthropogenic noise. An additional 4 species responded negatively to edge effects. To mitigate existing noise impacts on birds would require approximately $175 million. The merits of such an effort relative to other reclamation actions are discussed. Nevertheless, given the $100 billion energy-sector investment planned for the boreal forest in the next 10 years, including noise suppression technology at the outset of construction, makes noise mitigation a cost-effective best-management practice that might help conserve high-quality habitat for boreal birds. PMID:18616740

  8. Forward velocity effects on fan noise and the suppression characteristics of advanced inlets as measured in the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel: Acoustic data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. T.

    1981-01-01

    Forward velocity effects on the forward radiated fan noise and on the suppression characteristics of three advanced inlets relative to a baseline cylindrical inlet were measured in a wind tunnel. A modified JT15D turbofan engine in a quiet nacelle was the source of fan noise; the advanced inlets were a CTOL hybrid inlet, an STOL hybrid inlet, and a treated deflector inlet. Also measured were the static to flight effects on the baseline inlet noise and the effects on the fan noise of canting the baseline inlet 4 deg downward to simulate typical wing mounted turbofan engines. The 1/3 octave band noise data from these tests are given along with selected plots of 1/3 octave band spectra and directivity and full scale PNL directivities. The test facilities and data reduction techniques used are also described.

  9. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution. PMID:23011851

  10. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Alagramam, Kumar N.; Stepanyan, Ruben; Jamesdaniel, Samson; Chen, Daniel H.-C.; Davis, Rickie R.

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL) broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4–8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control) or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b, Cacna1g, and Pla2g6, related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway. PMID:25387536

  11. Noise suppression in curved glass shells using macro-fiber-composite actuators studied by the means of digital holography and acoustic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrý, P.; Psota, P.; Steiger, K.; Václavík, J.; Doleček, R.; Lédl, V.; Šulc, M.

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents methods and experimental results of the semi-active control of noise transmission in a curved glass shell with attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators. The semi-active noise control is achieved via active elasticity control of piezoelectric actuators by connecting them to an active electric shunt circuit that has a negative effective capacitance. Using this approach, it is possible to suppress the vibration of the glass shell in the normal direction with respect to its surface and to increase the acoustic transmission loss of the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure. The effect of the MFC actuators connected to the negative capacitance shunt circuit on the surface distribution of the normal vibration amplitude is studied using frequency-shifted digital holography (FSDH). The principle of the used FSDH method is described in the paper. The frequency dependence of the acoustic transmission loss through the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure is estimated using measurements of the specific acoustic impedance of the curved glass shell. The specific acoustic impedance is measured using two microphones and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The results from the LDV measurements are compared with the FSDH data. The results of the experiments show that using this approach, the acoustic transmission loss in a glass shell can be increased by 36 dB in the frequency range around 247 Hz and by 25 dB in the frequency range around 258 Hz. The experiments indicate that FSDH measurements provide an efficient tool that can be used for fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic transmission loss in large planar structures.

  12. miRNAs confer phenotypic robustness to gene networks by suppressing biological noise

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Velia; Garzilli, Immacolata; Fracassi, Chiara; Criscuolo, Stefania; Ventre, Simona; di Bernardo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs able to modulate target-gene expression. It has been postulated that miRNAs confer robustness to biological processes, but a clear experimental evidence is still missing. Using a synthetic biology approach, we demonstrate that microRNAs provide phenotypic robustness to transcriptional regulatory networks by buffering fluctuations in protein levels. Here we construct a network motif in mammalian cells exhibiting a “toggle - switch” phenotype in which two alternative protein expression levels define its ON and OFF states. The motif consists of an inducible transcription factor that self-regulates its own transcription and that of a miRNA against the transcription factor itself. We confirm, using mathematical modeling and experimental approaches, that the microRNA confers robustness to the toggle-switch by enabling the cell to maintain and transmit its state. When absent, a dramatic increase in protein noise level occurs, causing the cell to randomly switch between the two states. PMID:24077216

  13. Analytical and experimental studies of an optimum multisegment phased liner noise suppression concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawdy, D. T.; Beckemeyer, R. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from detailed analytical studies made to define methods for obtaining improved multisegment lining performance by taking advantage of relative placement of each lining segment. Properly phased liner segments reflect and spatially redistribute the incident acoustic energy and thus provide additional attenuation. A mathematical model was developed for rectangular ducts with uniform mean flow. Segmented acoustic fields were represented by duct eigenfunction expansions, and mode-matching was used to ensure continuity of the total field. Parametric studies were performed to identify attenuation mechanisms and define preliminary liner configurations. An optimization procedure was used to determine optimum liner impedance values for a given total lining length, Mach number, and incident modal distribution. Optimal segmented liners are presented and it is shown that, provided the sound source is well-defined and flow environment is known, conventional infinite duct optimum attenuation rates can be improved. To confirm these results, an experimental program was conducted in a laboratory test facility. The measured data are presented in the form of analytical-experimental correlations. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment verifies and substantiates the analytical prediction techniques. The results indicate that phased liners may be of immediate benefit in the development of improved aircraft exhaust duct noise suppressors.

  14. Active and passive noise control using electroactive polymer actuators (EAPAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Kartik; Zhu, Bei; Chang, Woosuk; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    1999-06-01

    Electro-active polymer actuators (EAPA) have been a topic of research interest in the recent decades due to their ability to produce large strains under the influence of relatively low electric fields as compared to commercially available actuators. This paper investigates the feasibility of EAPA for active and passive cabin noise control. The passive damping characteristics of EAPA were determined, by measuring the transmission loss of four samples of various thickness and composition in an anechoic chamber in the 200 - 2000 Hz frequency range. This was then compared to that of Plexiglas and silicone rubber sheets of comparable thickness. The transmission loss of EAPA and Plexiglas were observed to be about the same. The transmission loss of EAPA was greater than that of silicone rubber, of the same thickness. The experimental and theoretical results computed using the mass law agree well. EAPA produces a strain of 0.006 for an applied field of 1 V/m. The ability of EAPA to potentially provide active as well as passive damping in the low to intermediate frequency range, along with being light- weight, pliable and transparent, makes it attractive for noise control applications as active/passive windows or wall papers.

  15. Signal-to-noise ratio in neuro activation PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Votaw, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    It has become commonplace to compare scanner sensitivity characteristics by comparing noise equivalent count rate curves. However, because a 20-cm diameter uniform phantom is drastically difference from a human brain, these curves give misleading information when planning a neuro activation PET experiment. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations have been performed using measured data (Siemens 921 scanner) from the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom for the purpose of determining the optimal injection and scanning protocol for [{sup 15}O] labeled activation experiments. Region of interest (ROI) values along with the variance due to prompt (trues plus randoms) and random events were determined for various regions and radioactivity concentrations. Calculated attenuation correction was used throughout. Scatter correction was not used when calculating the SNR in activation studies because the number of scattered events is almost identical in each data acquisition and hence cancels. The results indicate that randoms correction should not be performed and that rather than being limited by the scanner capabilities, neuro activation experiments are limited by the amount of radioactivity that can be injected and the length of time the patient can stay in the scanner.

  16. A low-power integrated bioamplifier with active low-frequency suppression.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, B; Sawan, M; Chapman, C A

    2007-09-01

    We present in this paper a low-power bioamplifier suitable for massive integration in dense multichannel recording devices. This bioamplifier achieves reduced-size compared to previous designs by means of active low-frequency suppression. An active integrator located in the feedback path of a low-noise amplifier is employed for placing a highpass cutoff frequency within the transfer function. A very long integrating time constant is achieved using a small integrated capacitor and a MOS-bipolar equivalent resistor. This configuration rejects unwanted low-frequency contents without the need for input RC networks or large feedback capacitors. Therefore, the bioamplifier high-input impedance and small size are preserved. The bioamplifier, implemented in a 0.18-mum CMOS process, has been designed for neural recording of action potentials, and optimised through a transconductance-ef-ficiency design methodology for micropower operation. Measured performance and results obtained from in vivo recordings are presented. The integrated bioamplifier provides a midband gain of 50 dB, and achieves an input-referred noise of 5.6 muVrms. It occupies less than 0.050 mm(2) of chip area and dissipates 8.6 muW. PMID:23852412

  17. Suppression of Rayleigh backscattering noise using cascaded-SOA and microwave photonic filter for 10 Gb/s loop-back WDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hanlin; Ge, Jia; Xiao, Shilin; Fok, Mable P

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we present a novel Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation scheme based on central carrier suppression for 10 Gb/s loop-back wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). Microwave modulated multi-subcarrier optical signal is used as downstream seeding light, while cascaded semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are used in the optical network unit (ONU) for suppressing the central carrier of the multi-subcarrier upstream signal. With central carrier suppression, interference generated by carrier RB noise at low frequency region is eliminated successfully. Transmission performance over 45 km single mode fiber (SMF) is studied experimentally, and the optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-noise-ratio (OSRNR) can be reduced to 15 dB with central carrier suppression ratio (CCSR) of 21 dB. Receiver sensitivity is further improved by 6 dB with the use of microwave photonic filter (MPF) for suppressing residual upstream microwave signal and residual carrier RB at high frequency region. PMID:24921298

  18. On-line, adaptive state estimator for active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of airframe structures are expected to vary as aircraft flight conditions change. Accurate knowledge of the changing dynamic characteristics is crucial to enhancing the performance of the active noise control system using feedback control. This research investigates the development of an adaptive, on-line state estimator using a neural network concept to conduct active noise control. In this research, an algorithm has been developed that can be used to estimate displacement and velocity responses at any locations on the structure from a limited number of acceleration measurements and input force information. The algorithm employs band-pass filters to extract from the measurement signal the frequency contents corresponding to a desired mode. The filtered signal is then used to train a neural network which consists of a linear neuron with three weights. The structure of the neural network is designed as simple as possible to increase the sampling frequency as much as possible. The weights obtained through neural network training are then used to construct the transfer function of a mode in z-domain and to identify modal properties of each mode. By using the identified transfer function and interpolating the mode shape obtained at sensor locations, the displacement and velocity responses are estimated with reasonable accuracy at any locations on the structure. The accuracy of the response estimates depends on the number of modes incorporated in the estimates and the number of sensors employed to conduct mode shape interpolation. Computer simulation demonstrates that the algorithm is capable of adapting to the varying dynamic characteristics of structural properties. Experimental implementation of the algorithm on a DSP (digital signal processing) board for a plate structure is underway. The algorithm is expected to reach the sampling frequency range of about 10 kHz to 20 kHz which needs to be maintained for a typical active noise control

  19. Impulsive noise suppression in color images based on the geodesic digital paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Bogdan; Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2015-02-01

    In the paper a novel filtering design based on the concept of exploration of the pixel neighborhood by digital paths is presented. The paths start from the boundary of a filtering window and reach its center. The cost of transitions between adjacent pixels is defined in the hybrid spatial-color space. Then, an optimal path of minimum total cost, leading from pixels of the window's boundary to its center is determined. The cost of an optimal path serves as a degree of similarity of the central pixel to the samples from the local processing window. If a pixel is an outlier, then all the paths starting from the window's boundary will have high costs and the minimum one will also be high. The filter output is calculated as a weighted mean of the central pixel and an estimate constructed using the information on the minimum cost assigned to each image pixel. So, first the costs of optimal paths are used to build a smoothed image and in the second step the minimum cost of the central pixel is utilized for construction of the weights of a soft-switching scheme. The experiments performed on a set of standard color images, revealed that the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is superior to the state-of-the-art filtering techniques in terms of the objective restoration quality measures, especially for high noise contamination ratios. The proposed filter, due to its low computational complexity, can be applied for real time image denoising and also for the enhancement of video streams.

  20. Feasibility of patient dose reduction based on various noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography in an image-guided patient positioning system.

    PubMed

    Kamezawa, Hidemi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shirieda, Katsutoshi; Kameda, Noboru; Ohki, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of patient dose reduction based on six noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image-guided patient positioning (IGPP) system. A midpoint dose was employed as a patient dose index. First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT images were acquired with a reference dose and various low doses. Second, an automated rigid registration was performed for three axis translations to estimate patient setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters (averaging filter, median filter, Gaussian filter, edge-preserving smoothing filter, bilateral filter, and adaptive partial median filter (AMF)). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as Euclidean distances between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT and RD-CBCT images. Finally, the residual errors as a function of the patient dose index were estimated for LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters, and then the patient dose indices for the filtered LD-CBCT images were obtained at the same residual error as the RD-CBCT image. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic phantom and four cancer patients. The patient dose for the LD-CBCT images was reduced to 19% of that for the RD-CBCT image for the phantom by using AMF, while keeping a same residual error of 0.47 mm as the RD-CBCT image by applying the noise suppression filters to the LD-CBCT images. The average patient dose was reduced to 31.1% for prostate cancer patients, and it was reduced to 82.5% for a lung cancer patient by applying the AMF. These preliminary results suggested that the proposed approach based on noise suppression filters could decrease the patient dose in IGPP systems. PMID:27065312

  1. Feasibility of patient dose reduction based on various noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography in an image-guided patient positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamezawa, Hidemi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shirieda, Katsutoshi; Kameda, Noboru; Ohki, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of patient dose reduction based on six noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image-guided patient positioning (IGPP) system. A midpoint dose was employed as a patient dose index. First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT images were acquired with a reference dose and various low doses. Second, an automated rigid registration was performed for three axis translations to estimate patient setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters (averaging filter, median filter, Gaussian filter, edge-preserving smoothing filter, bilateral filter, and adaptive partial median filter (AMF)). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as Euclidean distances between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT and RD-CBCT images. Finally, the residual errors as a function of the patient dose index were estimated for LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters, and then the patient dose indices for the filtered LD-CBCT images were obtained at the same residual error as the RD-CBCT image. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic phantom and four cancer patients. The patient dose for the LD-CBCT images was reduced to 19% of that for the RD-CBCT image for the phantom by using AMF, while keeping a same residual error of 0.47 mm as the RD-CBCT image by applying the noise suppression filters to the LD-CBCT images. The average patient dose was reduced to 31.1% for prostate cancer patients, and it was reduced to 82.5% for a lung cancer patient by applying the AMF. These preliminary results suggested that the proposed approach based on noise suppression filters could decrease the patient dose in IGPP systems.

  2. Evaluation of noise associated with geothermal-development activities. Final report, July 31, 1979-April 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Long, M.; Stern, R.

    1982-01-01

    This report was prepared for the purpose of ascertaining the current state of noise generation, suppression, and mitigation techniques associated with geothermal development. A description of the geothermal drilling process is included as well as an overview of geothermal development activities in the United States. Noise sources at the well site, along geothermal pipelines, and at the power plants are considered. All data presented are measured values by workers in the field and by Marshall Long/Acoustics. One particular well site was monitored for a period of 55 continuous days, and includes all sources of noise from the time that the drilling rig was brought in until the time that it was moved off site. A complete log of events associated with the drilling process is correlated with the noise measurements including production testing of the completed well. Data are also presented which compare measured values of geothermal noise with federal, state, county, and local standards. A section on control of geothermal noise is also given. Volume I of this document presents summary information.

  3. Immune-suppressive activity of punicalagin via inhibition of NFAT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Ik; Kim, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Shin; Lee, Samkeun; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lim, Jong-Soon

    2008-07-11

    Since T cell activation is central to the development of autoimmune diseases, we screened a natural product library comprising 1400 samples of medicinal herbal extracts, to identify compounds that suppress T cell activity. Punicalagin (PCG) isolated from the fruit of Punica granatum was identified as a potent immune suppressant, based on its inhibitory action on the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). PCG downregulated the mRNA and soluble protein expression of interleukin-2 from anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated murine splenic CD4+ T cells and suppressed mixed leukocytes reaction (MLR) without exhibiting cytotoxicity to the cells. In vivo, the PCG treatment inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced chronic ear edema in mice and decreased CD3+ T cell infiltration of the inflamed tissue. These results suggest that PCG could be a potential candidate for the therapeutics of various immune pathologies.

  4. Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Satoshi; Langton, Paul F; Zebisch, Matthias; Howell, Steven A; Chang, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Bineva, Ganka; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Jones, E Yvonne; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-12

    Signalling by Wnt proteins is finely balanced to ensure normal development and tissue homeostasis while avoiding diseases such as cancer. This is achieved in part by Notum, a highly conserved secreted feedback antagonist. Notum has been thought to act as a phospholipase, shedding glypicans and associated Wnt proteins from the cell surface. However, this view fails to explain specificity, as glypicans bind many extracellular ligands. Here we provide genetic evidence in Drosophila that Notum requires glypicans to suppress Wnt signalling, but does not cleave their glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. Structural analyses reveal glycosaminoglycan binding sites on Notum, which probably help Notum to co-localize with Wnt proteins. They also identify, at the active site of human and Drosophila Notum, a large hydrophobic pocket that accommodates palmitoleate. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses of human proteins show that Notum is a carboxylesterase that removes an essential palmitoleate moiety from Wnt proteins and thus constitutes the first known extracellular protein deacylase. PMID:25731175

  5. Suppression of EMG activity by subthreshold paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the leg motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Roy, François D

    2009-03-01

    Cortical activity driving a voluntary muscle contraction is inhibited by very low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and is reflected in the suppression of the average rectified EMG. This approach offers a method to test the contribution of cortical neurons actively involved in a motor task, but requires a large number of stimuli (approximately 100) to suitably depress the average EMG. Here, we investigated whether two pulses of subthreshold TMS at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging between 1 and 12 ms could enhance the amount of EMG suppression in the tibialis anterior muscle compared to a single pulse. Pairs of subthreshold TMS at an ISI of 7 ms produced the maximum EMG suppression that was 42% more than the inhibition elicited using a single pulse. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the TMS-induced suppression was further increased by a second pulse, delivered 7 ms later. The reduction in the EMG at the 7 ms paired-pulse interval occurred without any short-latency excitation suggesting that the two stimuli increased the activation of cortical inhibitory neurons. Subthreshold paired-pulse TMS at ISIs of 1-3 ms was prone to EMG excitation in the period that immediately preceded the inhibition and is consistent with the recruitment of short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF). We propose that pairs of subthreshold TMS outside the range of SICF with an inter-pulse interval of 7 ms is optimal to inhibit ongoing cortical activity during human motor movement. PMID:19183971

  6. Active sound quality control of engine induced cavity noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Leopoldo P. R.; Janssens, Karl; Gajdatsy, Peter; Van der Auweraer, Herman; Varoto, Paulo S.; Sas, Paul; Desmet, Wim

    2009-02-01

    Active control solutions appear to be a feasible approach to cope with the steadily increasing requirements for noise reduction in the transportation industry. Active controllers tend to be designed with a target on the sound pressure level reduction. However, the perceived control efficiency for the occupants can be more accurately assessed if psychoacoustic metrics can be taken into account. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate, numerically and experimentally, the effect of a feedback controller on the sound quality of a vehicle mockup excited with engine noise. The proposed simulation scheme is described and experimentally validated. The engine excitation is provided by a sound quality equivalent engine simulator, running on a real-time platform that delivers harmonic excitation in function of the driving condition. The controller performance is evaluated in terms of specific loudness and roughness. It is shown that the use of a quite simple control strategy, such as a velocity feedback, can result in satisfactory loudness reduction with slightly spread roughness, improving the overall perception of the engine sound.

  7. Study of active noise control system for a commercial HVAC unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, Naga

    Acoustic noise is a common problem in everyday life. If the appliances that are present in the work and living areas generate noise then it's a serious problem. One such appliance is the Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning system (HVAC) in which blower fan and compressor units are housed together. Operation of a HVAC system creates two kinds of noise. One is the noise due to the air flow and the other is the result of the compressor. Both of them exhibit different signal properties and need different strategies to control them. There has been previous efforts in designing noise control systems that can control noise from the HVAC system. These include passive methods which use sound absorption materials to attenuate noise and active methods which cancel noise by generating anti-noise. Passive methods are effective in limiting the high frequency noise, but are inefficient in controlling low frequency noise from the compressor. Compressor noise is one of the strong low frequency components that propagate through the walls, therefore there is need for deploying active signal processing methods that consider the signal properties into consideration to cancel the noise acoustically. The quasi periodic nature of the compressor noise is exploited in noise modeling which aids in implementing an adaptive linear prediction filter in estimating the anti noise [12]. In this thesis, a multi channel architecture has been studied for a specific HVAC system in order to improve noise cancellation by creating larger quiet zone. In addition to the multi-channel architecture, a real time narrow band Active Noise Control (ANC) was employed to cancel noise under practical conditions.

  8. What kind of noise is brain noise: anomalous scaling behavior of the resting brain activity fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    The study of spontaneous fluctuations of brain activity, often referred as brain noise, is getting increasing attention in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite important efforts, much of the statistical properties of such fluctuations remain largely unknown. This work scrutinizes these fluctuations looking at specific statistical properties which are relevant to clarify its dynamical origins. Here, three statistical features which clearly differentiate brain data from naive expectations for random processes are uncovered: First, the variance of the fMRI mean signal as a function of the number of averaged voxels remains constant across a wide range of observed clusters sizes. Second, the anomalous behavior of the variance is originated by bursts of synchronized activity across regions, regardless of their widely different sizes. Finally, the correlation length (i.e., the length at which the correlation strength between two regions vanishes) as well as mutual information diverges with the cluster's size considered, such that arbitrarily large clusters exhibit the same collective dynamics than smaller ones. These three properties are known to be exclusive of complex systems exhibiting critical dynamics, where the spatio-temporal dynamics show these peculiar type of fluctuations. Thus, these findings are fully consistent with previous reports of brain critical dynamics, and are relevant for the interpretation of the role of fluctuations and variability in brain function in health and disease. PMID:22934058

  9. Active control of payload fairing noise using distributed active vibration absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Arnaud; Johnson, Marty E.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2003-04-01

    High sound pressure inside a launch vehicle fairing during lift-off can damage the payload. Interior levels of up to 140 dB between 60 and 250 Hz are mostly due to exhaust plume noise combined with the limited transmission loss of lightweight composite fairings and little acoustic damping in the fairing volume. Past work using passive and hybrid passive/reactive noise control devices has shown that their limitations are mostly due to packaging volume and weight penalty. The objective of this work is to design a lightweight, compact, and low electrical power active noise control system to reduce the fairing interior sound level. Hybrid active/passive actuators such as Smart Foam (Couche and Fuller, Proceedings of Active 1999, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, pp. 609-620) and Distributed Active Vibration Absorbers (Marcotte, Fuller, and Johnson, Proceedings of Active 2002, ISVR, Southampton, England, pp. 535-546) are optimized for fairing noise control. The latter have been used to increase the transmission loss of the fairing. Active noise control test results on a sub-scale, sandwich composite fairing are presented. The global interior acoustic response due to airborne exterior excitation is minimized using an adaptive multiple-input, multiple-output feedforward controller. [Work supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL).

  10. Analysis of frequency noise in ultra-stable optical oscillators with active control of residual amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liufeng; Shen, Hui; Bi, Jin; Wang, Chun; Lv, Shasha; Chen, Lisheng

    2014-12-01

    Two 1,064-nm Nd:YAG lasers frequency stabilized by high-finesse optical cavities are developed to investigate various noise mechanisms in ultra-stable optical oscillators. Active control of residual amplitude modulation using a separate sensing path is implemented and its effectiveness in the presence of a resonant optical cavity is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified by measuring the rejection ratios in optical heterodyne beat between a perturbed laser and a stable reference. Laser frequency noises originated from vibration, residual amplitude modulation, quantum-limited shot noise, and electronic noise are experimentally analyzed. With active control, residual amplitude modulation is suppressed to below 1 × 10-6 at 0.02-1,000 s, reaching a minimum of 2 × 10-7 at ~2 s. A frequency stability of 2 × 10-15 is obtained from 0.1 to 10 s, and the optical heterodyne beat of the two Nd:YAG lasers shows 1-Hz linewidth with a measurement time of 4.096 s. In addition, the experimentally determined linewidths agree well with the calculation according to a simplified relationship between the linewidth and the underlying flicker noise that modulates the laser frequency.

  11. Analysis of frequency noise in ultra-stable optical oscillators with active control of residual amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liufeng; Shen, Hui; Bi, Jin; Wang, Chun; Lv, Shasha; Chen, Lisheng

    2014-09-01

    Two 1,064-nm Nd:YAG lasers frequency stabilized by high-finesse optical cavities are developed to investigate various noise mechanisms in ultra-stable optical oscillators. Active control of residual amplitude modulation using a separate sensing path is implemented and its effectiveness in the presence of a resonant optical cavity is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified by measuring the rejection ratios in optical heterodyne beat between a perturbed laser and a stable reference. Laser frequency noises originated from vibration, residual amplitude modulation, quantum-limited shot noise, and electronic noise are experimentally analyzed. With active control, residual amplitude modulation is suppressed to below 1 × 10-6 at 0.02-1,000 s, reaching a minimum of 2 × 10-7 at ~2 s. A frequency stability of 2 × 10-15 is obtained from 0.1 to 10 s, and the optical heterodyne beat of the two Nd:YAG lasers shows 1-Hz linewidth with a measurement time of 4.096 s. In addition, the experimentally determined linewidths agree well with the calculation according to a simplified relationship between the linewidth and the underlying flicker noise that modulates the laser frequency.

  12. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 6; Theoretical Analysis for Coupling of Active Noise Control Actuator Ring Sources to an Annular Duct with Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the

  13. Rodent p53 suppresses the transforming activity of the activated Neu oncogene by modulating the Basal promoter activity of Neu.

    PubMed

    Matin, A; Xie, Y; Kao, M; Hung, M

    1995-05-01

    The rat neu oncogene encodes a dominant transforming oncogene. The mouse wild-type p53 suppresses the transforming activity of the neu oncogene while different p53 mutants demonstrate varying ability to repress neu-induced transformation. Suppression of neu-transforming activity is due to inhibition of transcription. Deletion analysis of the rat neu promoter shows that p53 represses the basal promoter activity of neu. Therefore, rodent p53 suppresses the transforming potential of neu by inhibiting transcription from the basal promoter of neu. PMID:21556644

  14. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  15. Monetary reward suppresses anterior insula activity during social pain.

    PubMed

    Cristofori, Irene; Harquel, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Social pain after exclusion by others activates brain regions also involved in physical pain. Here we evaluated whether monetary reward could compensate for the negative feeling of social pain in the brain. To address this question we used the unique technique of intracranial electroencephalography in subjects with drug resistant epilepsy. Specifically, we recorded theta activity from intracranial electrodes implanted in the insular cortex while subjects experienced conditions of social inclusion and exclusion associated with monetary gain and loss. Our study confirmed that theta rhythm in the insular cortex is the neural signature of social exclusion. We found that while monetary gain suppresses the effect of social pain in the anterior insula, there is no such effect in the posterior insula. These results imply that the anterior insula can use secondary reward signals to compensate for the negative feeling of social pain. Hence, here we propose that the anterior insula plays a pivotal role in integrating contingencies to update social pain feelings. Finally, the possibility to modulate the theta rhythm through the reward system might open new avenues of research for treating pathologies related to social exclusion. PMID:25964499

  16. Wogonin suppresses osteopontin expression in adipocytes by activating PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye-min; Li, Ming-xin; Tang, Zhao; Wang, Chang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a major bioactive compound of the flavonoid family, is commonly extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and is assumed to have anti-diabetes function. Indeed, a current study has shown that it can possibly treat metabolic disorders such as those found in db/db mice. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wogonin on osteopontin (OPN) expression in adipose tissue from type 1 diabetic mice and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were converted to 3T3-L1 adipocytes through treatment with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Western blot analysis and RT-PCR were performed to detect protein expression and mRNA levels, respectively. Results: Wogonin treatment suppressed the increase in serum OPN levels and reduced OPN expression in adipose tissue from STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Administration of wogonin enhanced PPARα expression and activity. Silencing of PPARα diminished the inhibitory effects of wogonin on OPN expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, the levels of c-Fos and phosphorylated c-Jun were reduced in wogonin-treated adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, wogonin treatment dramatically mitigated p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK by its specific inhibitor SB203580 increased PPARα activity and decreased OPN expression. Conclusion: Our results suggest that wogonin downregulated OPN expression in adipocytes through the inhibition of p38 MAPK and the sequential activation of the PPARα pathway. Given the adverse effects of high OPN levels on metabolism, our results provide evidence for the potential administration of wogonin as a treatment for diabetes. PMID:26073326

  17. Parallel feedback active noise control of MRI acoustic noise with signal decomposition using hybrid RLS-NLMS adaptive algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anshuman; Krishna Vemuri, Sri Hari; Panahi, Issa

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cost-effective adaptive feedback Active Noise Control (FANC) method for controlling functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise by decomposing it into dominant periodic components and residual random components. Periodicity of fMRI acoustic noise is exploited by using linear prediction (LP) filtering to achieve signal decomposition. A hybrid combination of adaptive filters-Recursive Least Squares (RLS) and Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS) are then used to effectively control each component separately. Performance of the proposed FANC system is analyzed and Noise attenuation levels (NAL) up to 32.27 dB obtained by simulation are presented which confirm the effectiveness of the proposed FANC method. PMID:25570676

  18. Formation of a sector dip in the radiation pattern of a phased-array antenna in the case of the suppression of broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusevskii, V. I.

    1991-05-01

    The linear relationship between the width of the noise spectrum and the magnitude of the sector dip in the radiation pattern of a linear equidistant antenna array is extended to the case of linear and planar phased-array antennas with arbitrary amplitude-phase distribution and arbitrary boundary of the antenna aperture. The nonlinear phase distribution law in the antenna aperture (necessary for the formation of the dip) is synthesized using the method of aperture orthogonal polynomials and is shown to be optimal according to the criterion of minimum gain losses in the noise-suppression process.

  19. Experimental evaluation of a spinning-mode acoustic-treatment design concept for aircraft inlets. [suppression of YF-102 engine fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.

    1980-01-01

    An aircraft-inlet noise suppressor method based on mode cutoff ratio was qualitatively checked by testing a series of liners on a YF-102 turbofan engine. Far-field directivity of the blade passing frequency was used extensively to evaluate the results. The trends and observations of the test data lend much qualitative support to the design method. The best of the BPF liners attained a suppression at design frequency of 19 dB per unit length-diameter ratio. The best multiple-pure-tone linear attained a remarkable suppression of 65.6 bB per unit length-diameter ratio.

  20. Correlation of Doppler noise during solar conjunctions with fluctuations in solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A. L.; Rockwell, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    Deviations betweeb observed Doppler noise and the noise model during solar conjunction were analyzed. It is tentatively concluded that these deviations are due to short-term fluctuations in solar activity as seen along the signal path, and not to solar/antenna structure effects or system noise temperature.

  1. Noise as a tool for evaluating the activation of cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements, at low frequencies, of the shot noise current from space charge limited cathodes always produced results substantially in excess of theoretical predictions. Measuring the ratio (I sub eq)/S yielded a relation (I sub eq)/S = 1.288 V sub k = 1.288 k(T sub k)/e, independent of the operating point of the diode (triode) as long as all parts of the cathode had a full space charge controlled emission. This method was so sensitive as to permit detection of cathode temperature changes by 1 K, thus it allowed a powerful screening method between well and poorly activated cathodes, superior to dip tests and other current-voltage methods.

  2. A novel function of syndecan-2, suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, which causes suppression of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Munesue, Seiichi; Yoshitomi, Yasuo; Kusano, Yuri; Koyama, Yoshie; Nishiyama, Akiko; Nakanishi, Hayao; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Ishimaru, Takeshi; Miyaura, Shuichi; Okayama, Minoru; Oguri, Kayoko

    2007-09-21

    The syndecans comprise a family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans exhibiting complex biological functions involving the interaction of heparan sulfate side chains with a variety of soluble and insoluble heparin-binding extracellular ligands. Here we demonstrate an inverse correlation between the expression level of syndecan-2 and the metastatic potential of three clones derived from Lewis lung carcinoma 3LL. This correlation was proved to be a causal relationship, because transfection of syndecan-2 into the higher metastatic clone resulted in the suppression of both spontaneous and experimental metastases to the lung. Although the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its cell surface activators, such as membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, were similar regardless of the metastatic potentials of the clones, elevated activation of MMP-2 was observed in the higher metastatic clone. Removal of heparan sulfate from the cell surface of low metastatic cells by treatment with heparitinase-I promoted MMP-2 activation, and transfection of syndecan-2 into highly metastatic cells suppressed MMP-2 activation. Furthermore, transfection of mutated syndecan-2 lacking glycosaminoglycan attachment sites into highly metastatic cells did not have any suppressive effect on MMP-2 activation, suggesting that this suppression was mediated by the heparan sulfate side chains of syndecan-2. Actually, MMP-2 was found to exhibit a strong binding ability to heparin, the dissociation constant value being 62 nM. These results indicate a novel function of syndecan-2, which acts as a suppressor for MMP-2 activation, causing suppression of metastasis in at least the metastatic system used in the present study. PMID:17623663

  3. Reduction of electronic delay in active noise control systems--a multirate signal processing approach.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Lin, Yuanpei; Lai, Jienwen

    2002-02-01

    Electronic delay has been a critical problem in active noise control (ANC) systems. This is true whether a feedforward structure or a feedback structure is adopted. In particular, excessive delays would create a causality problem in a feedforward ANC system of a finite-length duct. This paper suggests a multirate signal-processing approach for minimizing the electronic delay in the control loop. In this approach, digital controllers are required in decimation and interpolation of discrete-time signals. The computation efficiency is further enhanced by a polyphase method, where the phases of low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filters must be carefully designed to avoid unnecessary delays. Frequency domain optimization procedures based on H1, H2, and Hinfinity norms, respectively, are utilized in the FIR filter design. The proposed method was implemented by using a floating-point digital signal processor. Experimental results showed that the multirate approach remains effective for suppressing a broadband (200-600 Hz) noise in a duct with a minimum upstream measurement microphone placement of 20 cm. PMID:11863193

  4. IL-27 suppresses antimicrobial activity in human leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rosane M. B.; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Ochoa, Maria T.; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens trigger immunosuppressive pathways are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of microbial infection. One pathway that inhibits host defense responses involves the induction of type I interferons and subsequently IL-10, yet the mechanism by which type I IFN induces IL-10 remains unclear. Our studies of gene expression profiles derived from leprosy skin lesions suggested a link between IL-27 and the IFN-β induced IL-10 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-27p28 subunit is upregulated following treatment of monocytes with IFN-β and Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular bacterium that causes leprosy. The ability of IFN-β and M. leprae to induce IL-10 was diminished by IL-27 knockdown. Additionally, treatment of monocytes with recombinant IL-27 was sufficient to induce the production of IL-10. Functionally, IL-27 inhibited the ability of IFN-γ to trigger antimicrobial activity against M. leprae in infected monocytes. At the site of disease, IL-27 was more strongly expressed in skin lesions of patients with progressive lepromatous leprosy, correlating and colocalizing with IFN-β and IL-10 in macrophages. Together, these data provide evidence that in the human cutaneous immune responses to microbial infection, IL-27 contributes to the suppression of host antimicrobial responses. PMID:26030183

  5. The Suppression of Star Formation by Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight corre1ation between the mass of the black hole and the mas. of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming ga1axies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(exp 44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expe11ing the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  6. The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Page, M J; Symeonidis, M; Vieira, J D; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dunlop, J S; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sánchez Portal, M; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-05-10

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight correlation between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming galaxies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimetre wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expelling the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time. PMID:22575961

  7. IL-27 Suppresses Antimicrobial Activity in Human Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Teles, Rosane M B; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M; Sarno, Euzenir N; Rea, Thomas H; Ochoa, Maria T; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens trigger immunosuppressive pathways are critical for understanding the pathogenesis of microbial infection. One pathway that inhibits host defense responses involves the induction of type I interferons and subsequently IL-10, yet the mechanism by which type I IFN induces IL-10 remains unclear. Our studies of gene expression profiles derived from leprosy skin lesions suggested a link between IL-27 and the IFN-β induced IL-10 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the IL-27p28 subunit is upregulated following treatment of monocytes with IFN-β and Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular bacterium that causes leprosy. The ability of IFN-β and M. leprae to induce IL-10 was diminished by IL-27 knockdown. Additionally, treatment of monocytes with recombinant IL-27 was sufficient to induce the production of IL-10. Functionally, IL-27 inhibited the ability of IFN-γ to trigger antimicrobial activity against M. leprae in infected monocytes. At the site of disease, IL-27 was more strongly expressed in skin lesions of patients with progressive lepromatous leprosy, correlating and colocalizing with IFN-β and IL-10 in macrophages. Together, these data provide evidence that in the human cutaneous immune responses to microbial infection, IL-27 contributes to the suppression of host antimicrobial responses. PMID:26030183

  8. Mincle suppresses Toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Ochi, Atsuo; Batel, Jennifer; Deutsch, Michael; Barilla, Rocky; Seifert, Lena; Pachter, H Leon; Daley, Donnele; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R; Miller, George

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of Toll-like receptor responses is critical for limiting tissue injury and autoimmunity in both sepsis and sterile inflammation. We found that Mincle, a C-type lectin receptor, regulates proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Specifically, Mincle ligation diminishes Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation, whereas Mincle deletion or knockdown results in marked hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, as well as overwhelming lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, Mincle deletion does not up-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression or reduce interleukin 10 production after Toll-like receptor 4 ligation; however, Mincle deletion decreases production of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibitory intermediate suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, A20, and ABIN3 and increases expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor CD14. Blockade of CD14 mitigates the increased sensitivity of Mincle(-/-) leukocytes to Toll-like receptor 4 ligation. Collectively, we describe a major role for Mincle in suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 responses and implicate its importance in nonmycobacterial models of inflammation. PMID:26747838

  9. M Dwarf Stellar Activity as Noise in Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jan Marie; Korhonen, Heidi

    2014-06-01

    A habitable-zone (HZ) planet orbiting a 0.5 solar mass M dwarf would have a ~3 times higher likelihood of transiting, ~4 times the transit depth, and a Doppler shift 3 to 4 times stronger than the same planet orbiting in the Sun’s HZ. These factors, combined with the abundance of M dwarfs in the galaxy—up to ~70% of stars—make M dwarfs ideal targets in the search for nearby, habitable planets. However, the high levels of magnetic activity exhibited by many M dwarf stars, and the resulting noise introduced into observations, could thwart this effort. Specifically, dark spots on the stellar surface—one manifestation of stellar activity—result in radial velocity (RV) “jitter”, which can mimic or drown out planetary signatures. In this study, we have investigated the effects of activity-induced RV jitter on planetary system parameters derived from RV fitting. We modeled the RV jitter using realistic spot models, improving on previous jitter studies by including active latitude and longitude ranges, evidence of which has been seen in observations of spot distributions on low-mass stars. We add a planetary RV curve to the jitter data and then use an MCMC algorithm to fit RV variations and derive planetary system parameters. We quantify the error introduced to the derived parameters as a result of the RV jitter, focusing on planetary period, eccentricity, and semi-major axis of orbit. We find that, on average, the measured period of the planet is not significantly affected for filling factors of up to ~10%, although higher filling factors result in derived periods that deviate significantly from the input period of the model. We show that with a zero-eccentricity model, the measured eccentricities are all non-zero and increase with increasing spot filling-factor. Using the Kopparapu (2013) Habitable Zone estimates, we show that at high filling factors for an M dwarf with a planet in the habitable zone, it is possible for the derived planetary orbits to

  10. Stochastic sensitivity analysis of noise-induced suppression of firing and giant variability of spiking in a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model.

    PubMed

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Neiman, Alexander B; Ryashko, Lev

    2015-05-01

    We study the stochastic dynamics of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model in a regime of coexistent stable equilibrium and a limit cycle. In this regime, noise may suppress periodic firing by switching the neuron randomly to a quiescent state. We show that at a critical value of the injected current, the mean firing rate depends weakly on noise intensity, while the neuron exhibits giant variability of the interspike intervals and spike count. To reveal the dynamical origin of this noise-induced effect, we develop the stochastic sensitivity analysis and use the Mahalanobis metric for this four-dimensional stochastic dynamical system. We show that the critical point of giant variability corresponds to the matching of the Mahalanobis distances from attractors (stable equilibrium and limit cycle) to a three-dimensional surface separating their basins of attraction. PMID:26066242

  11. Active Control of Noise Using Actuator/Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Winder, Patrice; Kirby, George

    1996-01-01

    Current research in smart structures is directed toward the integration of many actuators and sensors into a material. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using this instrumentation for active noise control from a vibrating structures. Current technology for reducing radiated sound is limited by the instrumentation for the control system. These control systems employ relatively small numbers of sensors and actuators. Hence, these control systems must rely on a model of the structure to estimate and control the global vibrations that contribute to the far field pressure. For complex, realistic structures the development of such a model is a formidable task. The model is a limiting factor in the continuing development of structural acoustics. In this paper we propose to increase the number of actuators and sensors of a smart material to offset the complexity of the model used for control design. The sensor arrays will be used to directly sense the shape of the structure rather than using a model of the structures to indirectly sense the shape of the structure. The actuator array is used to apply distributed forces to the structure, rather than using the structure itself as a load path. A control system for the active cancellation of sound is derived from standard control system methodologies.

  12. Energy-Recycling Semi-Active Vibration Suppression Experiment of a Truss with Piezoelectric Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makihara, K.

    2002-01-01

    inherent performance in damping is enhanced. Several semi-active vibration suppression approaches have been proposed based on variable-stiffness members, variable-friction devices, or variable-viscosity dampers, and the performance of each of these systems has been studied. The semi-active approach exploits passive energy-dissipation mechanisms, and supplies the system with no additional energy. Semi-active vibration suppression thus ensures that the system is always stable. This is its advantage. However, its performance in vibration suppression is usually inferior to active vibration suppression. have proposed collection of the energy taken from a vibrating system in suppressing its vibration. Using the collected energy to more quickly suppress the vibration is an attractive possibility. Additional energy is still not supplied to the system, and the vibration energy is finally dissipated. Therefore, this is a kind of semi-active approach, and retains the quality of that the system with it is always stable. method of energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression is described and its performance is demonstrated by an experiment. A five bay truss beam with a piezoelectric transducer was used, and a simple electric circuit with switches was connected to the transducers. Then the switches were controlled by a processor so that the vibration was quickly suppressed by exploiting the collected electric energy. The results of the experiment demonstrated that the performance in vibration suppression of energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression with actual hardware is much better than that of a traditional semi-active control. The effects of some non-ideal characteristics of real hardware on the performance in vibration suppression are also investigated.

  13. Suppression of Epithelial Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 Activation by Extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Bharat; Homma, Tetsuya; Norton, James E.; Sha, Quan; Siebert, Jason; Gupta, Dave S.; Schroeder, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is often pathogenic in immune-deficient individuals and can cause life-threatening infections such as invasive aspergillosis. The pulmonary epithelial response to AF infection and the signaling pathways associated with it have not been completely studied. BEAS-2B cells or primary human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to extracts of AF and challenged with IFN-β or the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Cytokine release (B-cell activating factor of the TNF family [BAFF], IFN-γ–induced protein-10 [IP-10], etc.) was assessed. AF extract was separated into low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) fractions using ultra 4 centrifugal force filters to characterize the activity. Real-time PCR was performed with a TaqMan method, and protein estimation was performed using ELISA techniques. Western blot was performed to assess phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). IFN-β and dsRNA induced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BAFF (350- and 452-fold, respectively [n = 3]) and IP-10 (1,081- and 3,044-fold, respectively [n = 3]) in BEAS-2B cells. When cells were pretreated with AF extract for 1 hour and then stimulated with IFN-β or dsRNA for 6 hours, induction of BAFF and IP-10 mRNA was strongly suppressed relative to levels produced by IFN-β and dsRNA alone. When compared with control, soluble BAFF and IP-10 protein levels were maximally suppressed in dsRNA-stimulated wells treated with 1:320 wt/vol AF extract (P < 0.005). Upon molecular size fractionation, a LMW fraction of AF extract had no measurable suppressive effect on IP-10 mRNA expression. However, a HMW fraction of the AF extract significantly suppressed IP-10 expression in BEAS-2B cells that were stimulated with dsRNA or IFN-β. When BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with AF extract and then stimulated with IFN-β, reduced levels of pSTAT1 were observed, with maximum suppression at 4 and 6

  14. Suppression of epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation by extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Homma, Tetsuya; Norton, James E; Sha, Quan; Siebert, Jason; Gupta, Dave S; Schroeder, James W; Schleimer, Robert P

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) is often pathogenic in immune-deficient individuals and can cause life-threatening infections such as invasive aspergillosis. The pulmonary epithelial response to AF infection and the signaling pathways associated with it have not been completely studied. BEAS-2B cells or primary human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to extracts of AF and challenged with IFN-β or the Toll-like receptor 3 agonist double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Cytokine release (B-cell activating factor of the TNF family [BAFF], IFN-γ-induced protein-10 [IP-10], etc.) was assessed. AF extract was separated into low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) fractions using ultra 4 centrifugal force filters to characterize the activity. Real-time PCR was performed with a TaqMan method, and protein estimation was performed using ELISA techniques. Western blot was performed to assess phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). IFN-β and dsRNA induced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BAFF (350- and 452-fold, respectively [n = 3]) and IP-10 (1,081- and 3,044-fold, respectively [n = 3]) in BEAS-2B cells. When cells were pretreated with AF extract for 1 hour and then stimulated with IFN-β or dsRNA for 6 hours, induction of BAFF and IP-10 mRNA was strongly suppressed relative to levels produced by IFN-β and dsRNA alone. When compared with control, soluble BAFF and IP-10 protein levels were maximally suppressed in dsRNA-stimulated wells treated with 1:320 wt/vol AF extract (P < 0.005). Upon molecular size fractionation, a LMW fraction of AF extract had no measurable suppressive effect on IP-10 mRNA expression. However, a HMW fraction of the AF extract significantly suppressed IP-10 expression in BEAS-2B cells that were stimulated with dsRNA or IFN-β. When BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with AF extract and then stimulated with IFN-β, reduced levels of pSTAT1 were observed, with maximum suppression at 4 and 6

  15. Comparison of speech intelligibility in cockpit noise using SPH-4 flight helmet with and without active noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jeffrey W.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is a new technology which can reduce the level of aircraft cockpit noise that reaches the pilot's ear while simultaneously improving the signal to noise ratio for voice communications and other information bearing sound signals in the cockpit. A miniature, ear-cup mounted ANR system was tested to determine whether speech intelligibility is better for helicopter pilots using ANR compared to a control condition of ANR turned off. Two signal to noise ratios (S/N), representative of actual cockpit conditions, were used for the ratio of the speech to cockpit noise sound pressure levels. Speech intelligibility was significantly better with ANR compared to no ANR for both S/N conditions. Variability of speech intelligibility among pilots was also significantly less with ANR. When the stock helmet was used with ANR turned off, the average PB Word speech intelligibility score was below the Normally Acceptable level. In comparison, it was above that level with ANR on in both S/N levels.

  16. [Suppression of sexual activity and reproduction in male small ruminants].

    PubMed

    Mihsler, Lisa; Wagner, Henrik; Wehrend, Axel

    2016-06-16

    Handling and husbandry of male small ruminants after sexual maturity often become difficult. Castration is currently the most reliable solution to this problem. Medicinal procedures for temporary inhibition of the gonad function could provide an alternative. Following a short overview of surgical castration, the current knowledge on the application of vaccines against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH agonist in rams and billy goats is presented in a literature overview. In rams, GnRH vaccination has been used successfully for temporary suppression of the reproduction function, regardless of an animal's age at the time of therapy initiation. Fewer investigations are available for the billy goat. A complete suppression of spermatogenesis was not achieved in all cases. Currently, treatment with GnRH agonists does not represent a relible method for the suppression of gonad function. PMID:27189125

  17. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine in order to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and high pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provides blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. In order to minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three channel controller by up to 16 dB over a 60 deg angle about the engine axis. A single channel controller could produce reduction over a 30 deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Simultaneous control of two tones is done with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 dBA and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  18. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1994-01-01

    A three-channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and the high-pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provide blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. To minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three-channel controller by up to 16 dB over a +/- 30-deg angle about the engine axis. A single-channel controller could produce reduction over a +/- 15-deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Outside of the areas contolled, the levels of the tone actually increased due to the generation of radial modes by the control sources. Simultaneous control of two tones is achieved with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high-pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  19. Multi-channel Kalman filters for active noise control.

    PubMed

    van Ophem, S; Berkhoff, A P

    2013-04-01

    By formulating the feed-forward broadband active noise control problem as a state estimation problem it is possible to achieve a faster rate of convergence than the filtered reference least mean squares algorithm and possibly also a better tracking performance. A multiple input/multiple output Kalman algorithm is derived to perform this state estimation. To make the algorithm more suitable for real-time applications, the Kalman filter is written in a fast array form and the secondary path state matrices are implemented in output normal form. The resulting filter implementation is tested in simulations and in real-time experiments. It was found that for a constant primary path the filter has a fast rate of convergence and is able to track changes in the frequency spectrum. For a forgetting factor equal to unity the system is robust but the filter is unable to track rapid changes in the primary path. A forgetting factor lower than 1 gives a significantly improved tracking performance but leads to a numerical instability for the fast array form of the algorithm. PMID:23556580

  20. Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, David A.; Ray, Laura R.; Collier, Robert D.

    2002-04-01

    An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. [``Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection,'' Can. Acoust. 21, 19-20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields.

  1. Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets.

    PubMed

    Cartes, David A; Ray, Laura R; Collier, Robert D

    2002-04-01

    An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. ["Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection," Can. Acoust. 21, 19-20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields. PMID:12002860

  2. Effect of Unpleasant Loud Noise on Hippocampal Activities during Picture Encoding: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Niwa, Masami; Takahashi, Toru; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Ido, Yasushi; Tomida, Mihoko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    The functional link between the amygdala and hippocampus in humans has not been well documented. We examined the effect of unpleasant loud noise on hippocampal and amygdaloid activities during picture encoding by means of fMRI, and on the correct response in humans. The noise reduced activity in the hippocampus during picture encoding, decreased…

  3. Effects of Noise Suppression on Intelligibility: Experts' Opinions and Naive Normal-Hearing Listeners' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilkhuysen, Gaston L. M.; Gaubitch, Nikolay; Huckvale, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated how well experts can adjust the settings of a commercial noise-reduction system to optimize the intelligibility for naive normal-hearing listeners. Method: In Experiment 1, 5 experts adjusted parameters for a noise-reduction system while aiming to optimize intelligibility. The stimuli consisted of…

  4. Adaptive top-down suppression of hippocampal activity and the purging of intrusive memories from consciousness.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Roland G; Hulbert, Justin C; Huddleston, Ean; Anderson, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    When reminded of unwanted memories, people often attempt to suppress these experiences from awareness. Prior work indicates that control processes mediated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) modulate hippocampal activity during such retrieval suppression. It remains unknown whether this modulation plays a role in purging an intrusive memory from consciousness. Here, we combined fMRI and effective connectivity analyses with phenomenological reports to scrutinize a role for adaptive top-down suppression of hippocampal retrieval processes in terminating mnemonic awareness of intrusive memories. Participants either suppressed or recalled memories of pictures depicting faces or places. After each trial, they reported their success at regulating awareness of the memory. DLPFC activation was greatest when unwanted memories intruded into consciousness and needed to be purged, and this increased engagement predicted superior control of intrusive memories over time. However, hippocampal activity was decreased during the suppression of place memories only. Importantly, the inhibitory influence of the DLPFC on the hippocampus was linked to the ensuing reduction in intrusions of the suppressed memories. Individuals who exhibited negative top-down coupling during early suppression attempts experienced fewer involuntary memory intrusions later on. Over repeated suppressions, the DLPFC-hippocampus connectivity grew less negative with the degree that they no longer had to purge unwanted memories from awareness. These findings support a role of DLPFC in countermanding the unfolding recollection of an unwanted memory via the suppression of hippocampal processing, a mechanism that may contribute to adaptation in the aftermath of traumatic experiences. PMID:25100219

  5. Why the White Bear is Still There: Electrophysiological Evidence for Ironic Semantic Activation during Thought Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Much research has focused on the paradoxical effects of thought suppression, leading to the viewpoint that increases in unwanted thoughts are due to an ironic monitoring process which increases the activation of the very thoughts one is trying to rid from consciousness. However, it remains unclear from behavioral findings whether suppressed thoughts become more accessible during the act of suppression. In the current study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants suppressed or expressed thoughts of a focus word during a simple lexical decision task. Modulations in the N400 component reported here demonstrate the paradoxical effects occurring at the semantic level during suppression, as well as some evidence for the rebound effect after suppression periods. Interestingly, semantic activation was greater for focus words during suppression than expression, despite differences in the N1 window suggesting that expression elicited greater perceptual processing than suppression. Results provide electrophysiological evidence for the Ironic Process model and support recent claims of asymmetric network activation during thought suppression. PMID:20044982

  6. Noise-enhanced stability and double stochastic resonance of active Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chunhua; Zhang, Chun; Zeng, Jiakui; Liu, Ruifen; Wang, Hua

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study the transient and resonant properties of active Brownian particles (ABPs) in the Rayleigh-Helmholtz (RH) and Schweitzer-Ebeling-Tilch (SET) models, which is driven by the simultaneous action of multiplicative and additive noise and periodic forcing. It is shown that the cross-correlation between two noises (λ) can break the symmetry of the potential to generate motion of the ABPs. In case of no correlation between two noises, the mean first passage time (MFPT) is a monotonic decrease depending on the multiplicative noise, however in case of correlation between two noises, the MFPT exhibits a maximum, depending on the multiplicative noise for both models, this maximum for MFPT identifies the noise-enhanced stability (NES) effect of the ABPs. By comparing with case of no correlation (λ =0.0 ), we find two maxima in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) depending on the cross-correlation intensity, i.e. the double stochastic resonance is shown in both models. For the RH model, the SNR exhibits two maxima depending on the multiplicative noise for small cross-correlation intensity, while in the SET model, it exhibits only a maximum depending on the multiplicative noise. Whether λ =0.0 or not, the MFPT is a monotonic decrease, and the SNR exhibits a maximum, depending on the additive noise in both models.

  7. Effects of aircraft noise on human activities. Final report, 1 January 1980-31 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoult, M.D.; Gilfillan, L.G.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of aircrft noise on human activities was investigated by developing a battery of tasks (1) representative of a range of human activities and (2) sensitive to the disruptive effects of noise. The noise used were recordings of jet aircraft and helicopter sounds at three lvels of loudness--60, 70, and 80 dB(A). Experiment 1 investigated 12 different cognitive tasks, along with two intelligibility tasks included to validate that the noises were being effective. Interference with intelligibility was essentially the same as found in the research literature, but only inconsistent effects were found on either accuracy or latency of performance on the cognitive tasks. When the tasks were grouped into four categories (Intelligibility, Matching, Verbal, and Arithmetic), reliable differences in rated annoyingness of the noises were related to the task category and to the type of noise (jet or helicopter).

  8. Role of activation in alveolar macrophage-mediated suppression of the plaque-forming cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Mbawuike, I N; Herscowitz, H B

    1988-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are highly suppressive of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of spleen cells obtained from mice primed with sheep erythrocytes. Comparison of macrophage populations obtained from disparate anatomical sites revealed that although in both cases there was a cell-concentration-dependent suppression of the PFC response, resident AM or AM activated as a result of intravenous injection of Mycobacterium bovis BCG were equally suppressive at the doses examined. Although there was a similar dose-dependent suppression with peritoneal macrophages, BCG-activated cells were more suppressive of the PFC response than were resident cells. In contrast, splenic macrophages at comparable concentrations were not at all suppressive. Resident AM exhibited significantly lower levels of 5'-nucleotidase activity than did resident peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-mediated suppression of the in vitro PFC response could not be attributed to the release of toxic oxygen metabolites (H2O2, O2- ,and .OH) or prostaglandins, since the addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, 2-mercaptoethanol, or indomethacin did not completely reverse suppression. These results suggest that the lung microenvironment may maintain AM in an activated state which contributes to their potential immunoregulatory functions. PMID:2830191

  9. Active vibration suppression of self-excited structures using an adaptive LMS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danda Roy, Indranil

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the feasibility of an adaptive feedforward controller for active flutter suppression in representative linear wing models. The ability of the controller to suppress limit-cycle oscillations in wing models having root springs with freeplay nonlinearities has also been studied. For the purposes of numerical simulation, mathematical models of a rigid and a flexible wing structure have been developed. The rigid wing model is represented by a simple three-degree-of-freedom airfoil while the flexible wing is modelled by a multi-degree-of-freedom finite element representation with beam elements for bending and rod elements for torsion. Control action is provided by one or more flaps attached to the trailing edge and extending along the entire wing span for the rigid model and a fraction of the wing span for the flexible model. Both two-dimensional quasi-steady aerodynamics and time-domain unsteady aerodynamics have been used to generate the airforces in the wing models. An adaptive feedforward controller has been designed based on the filtered-X Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm. The control configuration for the rigid wing model is single-input single-output (SISO) while both SISO and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) configurations have been applied on the flexible wing model. The controller includes an on-line adaptive system identification scheme which provides the LMS controller with a reasonably accurate model of the plant. This enables the adaptive controller to track time-varying parameters in the plant and provide effective control. The wing models in closed-loop exhibit highly damped responses at airspeeds where the open-loop responses are destructive. Simulations with the rigid and the flexible wing models in a time-varying airstream show a 63% and 53% increase, respectively, over their corresponding open-loop flutter airspeeds. The ability of the LMS controller to suppress wing store flutter in the two models has

  10. Reduction of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise by active rotor control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean; Brooks, Thomas F.

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations.

  11. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Appetite suppression and weight reduction by a centrally active aminosterol.

    PubMed

    Ahima, Rexford S; Patel, Hiralben R; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Qi, Yong; Hileman, Stanley M; Zasloff, Michael A

    2002-07-01

    The rise in obesity and its complications has generated enormous interest in the regulation of feeding and body weight. We show that a spermine metabolite of cholesterol (MSI-1436) decreases body weight, specifically fat, by suppressing feeding and preventing the reduction in energy expenditure, hormonal changes, and patterns of neuropeptide expression normally associated with weight loss. MSI-1436 enters the brain after peripheral injection and is more potent when injected into the cerebral ventricle (intracerebroventricular [ICV]). Systemic or ICV MSI-1436 administration induced similar patterns of Fos immunoreactivity in the brain, especially the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). This brain region integrates neural signals from hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei and regulates feeding behavior, autonomic function, and neuroendocrine function. Microinjection of MSI-1436 into the PVN potently suppressed feeding and reduced body weight for several days. Unlike caloric restriction, MSI-1436 decreased mRNA levels of agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that MSI-1436 acts in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, likely through suppression of orexigenic hypothalamic pathways. PMID:12086938

  13. Low noise signal-to-noise ratio enhancing readout circuit for current-mediated active pixel sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, Tony; Karim, Karim S.; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2006-05-15

    Diagnostic digital fluoroscopic applications continuously expose patients to low doses of x-ray radiation, posing a challenge to both the digital imaging pixel and readout electronics when amplifying small signal x-ray inputs. Traditional switch-based amorphous silicon imaging solutions, for instance, have produced poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at low exposure levels owing to noise sources from the pixel readout circuitry. Current-mediated amorphous silicon pixels are an improvement over conventional pixel amplifiers with an enhanced SNR across the same low-exposure range, but whose output also becomes nonlinear with increasing dosage. A low-noise SNR enhancing readout circuit has been developed that enhances the charge gain of the current-mediated active pixel sensor (C-APS). The solution takes advantage of the current-mediated approach, primarily integrating the signal input at the desired frequency necessary for large-area imaging, while adding minimal noise to the signal readout. Experimental data indicates that the readout circuit can detect pixel outputs over a large bandwidth suitable for real-time digital diagnostic x-ray fluoroscopy. Results from hardware testing indicate that the minimum achievable C-APS output current that can be discerned at the digital fluoroscopic output from the enhanced SNR readout circuit is 0.341 nA. The results serve to highlight the applicability of amorphous silicon current-mediated pixel amplifiers for large-area flat panel x-ray imagers.

  14. Method and System for Active Noise Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, Mark D. (Inventor); Nguyen, Khanh Q. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and systems for reducing noise generated by rotating blades of a tiltrotor aircraft. A rotor-blade pitch angle associated with the tiltrotor aircraft can be controlled utilizing a swashplate connected to rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. One or more Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) signals can be transmitted and input to a swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate. A particular blade pitch oscillation (e.g., four cycles per revolution) is there-after produced in a rotating frame of reference associated with the rotating blades in response to input of an HHC signal to the swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate to thereby reduce noise associated with the rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. The HHC signal can be transmitted and input to the swashplate control actuator to reduce noise of the tiltrotor aircraft in response to a user input utilizing an open-loop configuration.

  15. Vitamin K2 stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Weitzmann, M Neale

    2011-01-01

    Several bone protective factors are reported to exhibit stimulatory activities on bone formation coupled with inhibitory effects on bone resorption; one such factor is vitamin K2. Vitamin K species [K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone)] have long been associated with bone protective activities and are receiving intense interest as nutritional supplements for the prevention or amelioration of bone disease in humans. However, the mechanisms of vitamin K action on the skeleton are poorly defined. Activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal transduction pathway is essential for osteoclast formation and resorption. By contrast, NF-κB signaling potently antagonizes osteoblast differentiation and function, prompting us to speculate that NF-κB antagonists may represent a novel class of dual anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic agents. We now show that vitamin K2 action on osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity is accomplished by down-regulating basal and cytokine-induced NF-κB activation, by increasing IκB mRNA, in a γ-carboxylation-independent manner. Furthermore, vitamin K2 prevented repression by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) of SMAD signaling induced by either transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Vitamin K2 further antagonized receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-κB activation in osteoclast precursors. Our data provide a novel mechanism to explain the dual pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic activities of vitamin K2, and may further support the concept that pharmacological modulation of NF-κB signal transduction may constitute an effective mechanism for ameliorating pathological bone loss and for promoting bone health. PMID:21072493

  16. Frequency- and intensity-noise suppression in Yb3+-doped single-frequency fiber laser by a passive optical-feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu

    2016-06-13

    The frequency and intensity noise of an Yb3+-doped single-frequency distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser are effectively reduced by a simple, passive optical-feedback loop (POFL), which consists of only two optical couplers. The feedback loop, which has resonance with the high reflective grating of the DBR laser and relative long optical path compared to the DBR cavity, results in narrower linewidth and lower relative intensity noise (RIN) in the feedback signal. The RIN of relaxation oscillation is reduced by 20dB from -99.9dB/Hz @ 993 kHz to -119.4dB/Hz @ 192 kHz, and the frequency noise was suppressed at frequencies higher than 1 kHz, with a maximum reduction of about 30 dB from 10 kHz to 100 kHz, which results in a spectral linewidth compression from 3.96 kHz to 540 Hz. Even after one fiber amplification stage, the noise did not increase significantly, and a spectral linewidth well below 1 kHz were also achieved at output power of 10W. PMID:27410318

  17. Suppression of 1/f Noise in Accumulation Mode FD-SOI MOSFETs on Si(100) and (110) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, W.; Gaubert, P.; Teramoto, A.; Tye, C.; Sugawa, S.; Ohmi, T.

    2009-04-23

    In this paper, a new approach to reduce the 1/f noise levels in the MOSFETs on varied silicon orientations, such as Si(100) and (110) surfaces, has been carried out. We focus on the Accumulation-mode (AM) FD-SOI device structure and demonstrate that the 1/f noise levels in this AM FD-SOI MOSFETs are obviously reduced on both the Si(100) and (110) surfaces.

  18. Drill-rig noise suppression using the Karhunen-Loéve transform for seismic-while-drilling experiment at Brukunga, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baichun; Bóna, Andrej; Zhou, Binzhong; King, Andrew; Dupuis, Christian; Kepic, Anton

    2016-02-01

    Diamond-impregnated drill bits are known to be low energy vibration seismic sources. With the strong interference from the drill rig, it is difficult to obtain the drill-bit wavefield with a surface receiver array. To overcome the challenge of surface wave interference generated from the rig for seismic-while-drilling (SWD), we need to separate the rig- and bit-generated signals. To this end, we apply two wavefield separation methods, the Karhunen-Loéve (KL) transform and the f - k filter, and compare their performance. The applicability of these methods is based on the drill rig and drill bit having different spatial positions. While the drill-bit spatial position changes during the process of drilling, the drill rig remains stationary. This results in the source wavefields from the drill rig and the drill-bit having different characteristics, and allows us to separate and extract the drill-bit signal. We use a synthetic model to compare the KL transform and f - k filter. Both techniques are robust when the noise wavefield has consistent amplitude moveout. However, for changing amplitudes, such as the rig noise, which has an unrepeatable wavefield due to power amplitude variation, we show that the KL transform performs better in such situations. We also show the results of signal analysis of the SWD experiment data acquired from Brukunga, South Australia. We demonstrate the feasibility of the KL transform in separating the coherent noises from the stationary drill rig in a hard rock drilling environment, particularly emphasising the suppression of the surface and direct waves from the rig. The results show that drill-rig noise can be effectively suppressed in the correlation domain.

  19. Suppression or Induction of Apoptosis by Opposing Pathways Downstream from Calcium-Activated Calcineurin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo

    1999-10-01

    Ca2+-mobilizing compounds such as the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin can suppress or induce apoptosis in the same cells. The use of different calcineurin inhibitors has shown that both suppression and induction of apoptosis by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds were mediated by calcineurin activation. Ca2+-mobilizing compounds activated p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Induction of apoptosis by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds was suppressed by an inhibitor of p38 MAPK but not by an inhibitor of p44/42 MAPK. These MAPK inhibitors did not suppress apoptosis induction by wild-type p53 or by withdrawal of IL-6 from IL-6-dependent cells that are mediated by calcineurin-independent pathways. These MAPK inhibitors also did not affect the ability of Ca2+-mobilizing compounds to suppress apoptosis. The results indicate that (i) Ca2+-mobilizing compounds activate different and opposing pathways that diverge downstream from calcineurin activation that can either suppress or induce apoptosis in the same cells; (ii) p38 MAPK but not p44/42 MAPK is involved in induction of apoptosis but not in its suppression by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds; and (iii) neither p38 nor p44/42 MAPKs mediate induction of apoptosis by some calcineurin-independent pathways.

  20. Design and experimental validation of a flutter suppression controller for the active flexible wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of an active flutter suppression controller for the Active Flexible Wing wind tunnel model is presented. The design is accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and extensive simulation based analysis. The design approach uses a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple controller structure to meet stringent design specifications. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite modeling errors in predicted flutter dynamic pressure and flutter frequency. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with another controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  1. Flutter suppression for the Active Flexible Wing - Control system design and experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, M. R.; Srinathkumar, S.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and experimental validation of a control law for an active flutter suppression system for the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model is presented. The design was accomplished with traditional root locus and Nyquist methods using interactive computer graphics tools and with extensive use of simulation-based analysis. The design approach relied on a fundamental understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate understanding of the flutter mechanism to formulate a simple control law structure. Experimentally, the flutter suppression controller succeeded in simultaneous suppression of two flutter modes, significantly increasing the flutter dynamic pressure despite errors in the design model. The flutter suppression controller was also successfully operated in combination with a rolling maneuver controller to perform flutter suppression during rapid rolling maneuvers.

  2. The spatial structure of underwater noise due to shipping activities in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Underwater noise is now classed as pollution alongside chemical pollution and marine litter (MSFD, 2012). Underwater noise from man-made sources arises from a number of sources including shipping activities. There are numerous examples of sound-induced effects recorded for various marine mammals, either in controlled situations, or opportunistically (MSFD-GES, 2012). Broad or narrow band continuous sounds, as well as pulses, have been documented to cause effects ranging from slight behaviour change, to activity disruption, avoidance or abandonment of preferred habitat (see Clark et al., 2009). Underwater ambient noise generated by shipping activities has increased significantly over the past decades (e.g. Mcdonald et al., 2006). Noise from shipping is a major contributor to the ambient noise levels in ocean, particularly at low (

  3. Suppression of Chemically Induced and Spontaneous Mouse Oocyte Activation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase1

    PubMed Central

    Ya, Ru; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oocyte activation is an important process triggered by fertilization that initiates embryonic development. However, parthenogenetic activation can occur either spontaneously or with chemical treatments. The LT/Sv mouse strain is genetically predisposed to spontaneous activation. LT oocytes have a cell cycle defect and are ovulated at the metaphase I stage instead of metaphase II. A thorough understanding of the female meiosis defects in this strain remains elusive. We have reported that AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA) has an important role in stimulating meiotic resumption and promoting completion of meiosis I while suppressing premature parthenogenetic activation. Here we show that early activation of PRKA during the oocyte maturation period blocked chemically induced activation in B6SJL oocytes and spontaneous activation in LT/SvEiJ oocytes. This inhibitory effect was associated with high levels of MAPK1/3 activity. Furthermore, stimulation of PRKA partially rescued the meiotic defects of LT/Sv mouse oocytes in concert with correction of abnormal spindle pole localization of PRKA and loss of prolonged spindle assembly checkpoint activity. Altogether, these results confirm a role for PRKA in helping sustain the MII arrest in mature oocytes and suggest that dysfunctional PRKA contributes to meiotic defects in LT/SvEiJ oocytes. PMID:23390161

  4. [Protection for noise-induced hearing loss using active hearing protection systems].

    PubMed

    Matschke, R G; Lehnert, H; Veit, I; Andresen, U

    1991-11-01

    Though noise induced hearing loss is no longer the most frequent occupational disease in the Federal Republic of Germany, the environmental pollution by the product "noise" in our technical and industrialized world has not been reduced. On the contrary, the situation is worsened by the rising influence of leisure noise. To avoid occupational hearing loss, the "Noise Injury Prevention Code" issued by the insurers would demand wearing personal ear protection, e.g. ear plugs, if ambient noise levels are above 85 dB(A). But there are working places in which such equipment would have precisely the adverse effect, because one of the reasons for possible damage to hearing is radio communication. In military aircraft cockpits for example noise exposure measurements showed ambient noise levels above 90 dB(A) during regular flight service nearly all the time. To be able to understand radio traffic in spite of the noisy environment, the headphone volume must be raised above the noise of the engines. The use of ear plugs can only be of limited value. Whereas pilots with normal hearing show only little impairment of speech intelligibility, those with noise-induced hearing losses show substantial impairment that varies in proportion to their hearing loss. Communication abilities may be drastically reduced which may compromise the reliability of radio traffic. To avoid compromising air security one has to demand a noise protection system which allows to reduce ambient noise levels without disturbing speech intelligibility in the inevitable radio communication. Nowadays active noise cancelling (ANC) systems by electronic compensation in different ways provide effective protection against noise induced hearing loss.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1755896

  5. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  6. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-06-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  7. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  8. Suppression of voluntary motor activity revealed using transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in man.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, N J; Romaiguère, P; Maskill, D W; Ellaway, P H

    1994-01-01

    1. Suppression of voluntary muscle activity of hand and arm muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex has been investigated in man. 2. Suppression could be elicited by low levels of TMS without any prior excitatory response. The latency of the suppression was 3-8 ms longer than the excitation observed at a higher stimulus intensity. The duration of the suppression ranged from 8 to 26 ms. 3. A circular stimulating coil was used to determine threshold intensity for excitation and suppression of contraction of thenar muscles in response to TMS at different locations over the motor cortex. The locations for lowest threshold excitation coincided with those for lowest threshold suppression. Suppression was elicited at a lower threshold than excitation at all locations. 4. A figure-of-eight stimulating coil was positioned over the left motor cortex at the lowest threshold point for excitation of the right thenar muscles. The orientation for the lowest threshold excitatory and inhibitory responses was the same for all subjects. That orientation induced a stimulating current travelling in an antero-medial direction. Suppression was invariably elicited at lower thresholds than excitation. 5. When antagonistic muscles (second and third dorsal interosseus) were co-contracted, TMS evoked coincident suppression of voluntary EMG in the two muscles without prior excitation of either muscle. This suggests that the suppression is not mediated via corticospinal activation of spinal interneurones. 6. Test responses to electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord were evoked in both relaxed and activated thenar muscles. In the relaxed muscle, prior TMS at an intensity that would suppress voluntary activity failed to influence the test responses, suggesting absence of inhibition at a spinal level. However, in the activated muscle, prior TMS could reduce the test response. This may be explained by disfacilitation of motoneurones due to

  9. INVITED PAPER: Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-02-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA_ov3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation.

  10. Involvement of NADPH oxidases in suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 promoter-dependent transcriptional activities by sesamol

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Satomi; Ishigamori, Rikako; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Onuma, Wakana; Terasaki, Masaru; Yano, Tomohiro; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. Moreover, one of the components of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), dominantly expressed in the colon, is implicated in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. We have reported that sesamol, one of the lignans in sesame seeds, suppressed COX-2 gene transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells, and also suppressed intestinal polyp formation in Apc-mutant mice. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the inhibition of COX-2 transcriptional activity by sesamol. We found that several NADPH oxidase inhibitors, such as apocynin, showed suppressive effects on COX-2 transcriptional activity. Moreover, sesamol significantly suppressed NOX1 mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrated that knockdown of NOX1 successfully suppressed COX-2 transcriptional activity. These results suggest that inhibition of NADPH oxidase, especially NOX1, may be involved in the mechanism of the suppression of COX-2 transcriptional activity by sesamol. PMID:25759517

  11. The Effect of Human Activities and Their Associated Noise on Ungulate Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Casey L.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Barber, Jesse R.; Fristrup, Kurt M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife is a relatively new area of study with broad ranging management implications. Noise has been identified as a disturbance that has the potential to induce behavioral responses in animals similar to those associated with predation risk. This study investigated potential impacts of a variety of human activities and their associated noise on the behavior of elk (Cervus elaphus) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) along a transportation corridor in Grand Teton National Park. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted roadside scan surveys and focal observations of ungulate behavior while concurrently recording human activity and anthropogenic noise. Although we expected ungulates to be more responsive with greater human activity and noise, as predicted by the risk disturbance hypothesis, they were actually less responsive (less likely to perform vigilant, flight, traveling and defensive behaviors) with increasing levels of vehicle traffic, the human activity most closely associated with noise. Noise levels themselves had relatively little effect on ungulate behavior, although there was a weak negative relationship between noise and responsiveness in our scan samples. In contrast, ungulates did increase their responsiveness with other forms of anthropogenic disturbance; they reacted to the presence of pedestrians (in our scan samples) and to passing motorcycles (in our focal observations). Conclusions These findings suggest that ungulates did not consistently associate noise and human activity with an increase in predation risk or that they could not afford to maintain responsiveness to the most frequent human stimuli. Although reduced responsiveness to certain disturbances may allow for greater investment in fitness-enhancing activities, it may also decrease detections of predators and other environmental cues and increase conflict with humans. PMID:22808175

  12. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging. PMID:24345178

  13. Suppression of newborn natural killer cell activity by prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Milch, P.O.; Salvatore, W.; Luft, B.; Baker, D.A.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of prostaglandin E2 on natural killer cell activity of cord blood was examined. Natural killer cell activity, determined by chromium 51 release, was significantly reduced after prostaglandin E2 (1 microgram/ml) treatment. Prostaglandin E2 has been found to enhance the cellular spread of herpesvirus. Thus prostaglandins may enhance viral infections indirectly by suppressing natural killer cell activity.

  14. Active control of the volume acquisition noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging: Method and psychoacoustical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, John; Akeroyd, Michael A.; Summerfield, A. Quentin; Palmer, Alan R.

    2001-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive tool for observing correlates of neural activity in the brain while a subject listens to sound. However, intense acoustic noise is generated in the process of capturing MR images. This noise stimulates the auditory nervous system, limiting the dynamic range available for displaying stimulus-driven activity. The noise is potentially damaging to hearing and is distracting for the subject. In an active noise control (ANC) system, a reference sample of a noise is processed to form a sound which adds destructively with the noise at the listener's ear. We describe an implementation of ANC in the electromagnetically hostile and physically compact MRI scanning environment. First, a prototype system was evaluated psychoacoustically in the laboratory, using the electrical drive to a noise-generating loudspeaker as the reference. This system produced 10-20 dB of subjective noise-reduction between 250 Hz and 1 kHz, and smaller amounts at higher frequencies. The system was modified to operate in a real MR scanner where the reference was obtained by recording the acoustic scanner noise. Objective reduction by 30-40 dB of the most intense component in scanner noises was realized between 500 Hz and 3500 Hz, and subjective reduction of 12 dB and 5 dB in tests at frequencies of 600 Hz and at 1.9 kHz, respectively. Although the benefit of ANC is limited by transmission paths to the cochlea other than air-conduction routes from the auditory meatus, ANC achieves worthwhile attenuation even in the frequency range of maximum bone conduction (1.5-2 kHz). ANC should, therefore, be generally useful during auditory fMRI.

  15. Active local control of propeller-aircraft run-up noise.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Murray; Guo, Jingnan; Germain, Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Engine run-ups are part of the regular maintenance schedule at Vancouver International Airport. The noise generated by the run-ups propagates into neighboring communities, disturbing the residents. Active noise control is a potentially cost-effective alternative to passive methods, such as enclosures. Propeller aircraft generate low-frequency tonal noise that is highly compatible with active control. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of controlling run-up noise from propeller aircraft using local active control. Computer simulations for different configurations of multi-channel active-noise-control systems, aimed at reducing run-up noise in adjacent residential areas using a local-control strategy, were performed. These were based on an optimal configuration of a single-channel control system studied previously. The variations of the attenuation and amplification zones with the number of control channels, and with source/control-system geometry, were studied. Here, the aircraft was modeled using one or two sources, with monopole or multipole radiation patterns. Both free-field and half-space conditions were considered: for the configurations studied, results were similar in the two cases. In both cases, large triangular quiet zones, with local attenuations of 10 dB or more, were obtained when nine or more control channels were used. Increases of noise were predicted outside of these areas, but these were minimized as more control channels were employed. By combining predicted attenuations with measured noise spectra, noise levels after implementation of an active control system were estimated. PMID:14714802

  16. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  17. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  18. [The study of active noise control method for noisy surgery tools].

    PubMed

    Liao, Bin; Liao, Yanjian; Luo, Hongyan

    2011-12-01

    Noise problem is encountered in many types of surgery, especially in orthopaedic surgery, where the cutting tool and its actuation part such as motor always generates big noise. This work is dedicated to developing a novel and promising solution based on the active noise control (ANC) technology to solve the noise problem in an orthopaedic theatre. The development process began with building an engineering evaluation model (EEM) to analyze the specifics of sound interactions and sound field involved in the noise problem. This model can describe the acoustic problem in a straightforward way, help to design a good control system and furthermore to assess the result and to optimize the control structure. Then the "auto position tracking near head space ANC" strategy was proposed from the model study. Furthermore, the real sound field measurement experiment proved the possibility of proposed design. PMID:22295699

  19. Robust Multivariable Flutter Suppression for the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1997-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) project is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Benchmark Models Program for studying transonic aeroelastic phenomena. In January of 1996 the BACT wind-tunnel model was used to successfully demonstrate the application of robust multivariable control design methods (H and -synthesis) to flutter suppression. This paper addresses the design and experimental evaluation of robust multivariable flutter suppression control laws with particular attention paid to the degree to which stability and performance robustness was achieved.

  20. Inertia Wheel on Low-Noise Active Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabelli, S.; Genta, G.; Silvagni, M.; Tonoli, A.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are particularly suited for space applications for a number of reasons: - they are ideally suited for vacuum applications; - the lack of lubrication and wear enhances the reliability and guaranties a long maintenance-free operation - the low drag torque decreases power consumption and reduces the torque exerted on the stator of the machine. - the possibility of insulating actively the spacecraft from the excitation due to unbalance of the rotating system In the case of reaction wheels, a well designed magnetic suspension allows high speed operation with a very low power consumption and vibration level. Conversely, microgravity (and possibly vacuum) operation is an advantage for magnetic bearings. The absence of static forces allows to operate with low current levels, thus reducing electrical noise and allowing to reach even lower vibration levels than in Earth applications of magnetic bearings. Active magnetic bearings (AMB) allow to adapt the working characteristics of the system to the operating needs: it is possible to use the actuators to lock the system during launch (absence of grabbers) and to stiffen the suspension when the spacecraft is accelerated (impulsive phases), while working in conditions optimised for microgravity when this is needed. Magnetic suspension systems designed for microgravity environment cannot be correctly tested on the ground. Testing in ground conditions results in the need of grossly overdesigning the levitation device; furthermore, in some cases ground testing is completely impossible, if not by introducing devices which compensate for the Earth gravitational field. If the compensation for the gravitational force is supplied by the same actuators used for microgravity operation, the actuators and the power amplifiers must be overdesigned and in some cases the suspension can be altogether impossible. They work in conditions which are much different from nominal ones and, above all, it is impossible to reach the

  1. Botulinum Toxin Suppression of CNS Network Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pancrazio, Joseph J.; Gopal, Kamakshi; Keefer, Edward W.; Gross, Guenter W.

    2014-01-01

    The botulinum toxins are potent agents which disrupt synaptic transmission. While the standard method for BoNT detection and quantification is based on the mouse lethality assay, we have examined whether alterations in cultured neuronal network activity can be used to detect the functional effects of BoNT. Murine spinal cord and frontal cortex networks cultured on substrate integrated microelectrode arrays allowed monitoring of spontaneous spike and burst activity with exposure to BoNT serotype A (BoNT-A). Exposure to BoNT-A inhibited spike activity in cultured neuronal networks where, after a delay due to toxin internalization, the rate of activity loss depended on toxin concentration. Over a 30 hr exposure to BoNT-A, the minimum concentration detected was 2 ng/mL, a level consistent with mouse lethality studies. A small proportion of spinal cord networks, but not frontal cortex networks, showed a transient increase in spike and burst activity with exposure to BoNT-A, an effect likely due to preferential inhibition of inhibitory synapses expressed in this tissue. Lastly, prior exposure to human-derived antisera containing neutralizing antibodies prevented BoNT-A induced inhibition of network spike activity. These observations suggest that the extracellular recording from cultured neuronal networks can be used to detect and quantify functional BoNT effects. PMID:24688538

  2. Botulinum toxin suppression of CNS network activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Joseph J; Gopal, Kamakshi; Keefer, Edward W; Gross, Guenter W

    2014-01-01

    The botulinum toxins are potent agents which disrupt synaptic transmission. While the standard method for BoNT detection and quantification is based on the mouse lethality assay, we have examined whether alterations in cultured neuronal network activity can be used to detect the functional effects of BoNT. Murine spinal cord and frontal cortex networks cultured on substrate integrated microelectrode arrays allowed monitoring of spontaneous spike and burst activity with exposure to BoNT serotype A (BoNT-A). Exposure to BoNT-A inhibited spike activity in cultured neuronal networks where, after a delay due to toxin internalization, the rate of activity loss depended on toxin concentration. Over a 30 hr exposure to BoNT-A, the minimum concentration detected was 2 ng/mL, a level consistent with mouse lethality studies. A small proportion of spinal cord networks, but not frontal cortex networks, showed a transient increase in spike and burst activity with exposure to BoNT-A, an effect likely due to preferential inhibition of inhibitory synapses expressed in this tissue. Lastly, prior exposure to human-derived antisera containing neutralizing antibodies prevented BoNT-A induced inhibition of network spike activity. These observations suggest that the extracellular recording from cultured neuronal networks can be used to detect and quantify functional BoNT effects. PMID:24688538

  3. Suppression of irrelevant activation in the horizontal and vertical Simon task differs quantitatively not qualitatively.

    PubMed

    Töbel, Lisa; Hübner, Ronald; Stürmer, Birgit

    2014-10-01

    The Simon effect is usually explained by the assumption that the irrelevant stimulus location automatically activates the corresponding response. In the case of incongruent stimulus-response assignments automatically activated responses therefore have to be suppressed to ensure correct responses. This account, however, has been called into question for other than horizontally arranged visual Simon tasks. We investigated whether there is a qualitative or quantitative difference in suppression of irrelevant activation between horizontally and vertically arranged Simon tasks, using delta-function analyses. Sequential analyses revealed suppression after incongruent trials in both tasks, supporting the idea of a quantitative rather than a qualitative difference between the tasks. We conclude that automatic response activation is weaker in vertical tasks resulting in lower inhibitory demands as compared to horizontal tasks. PMID:25113126

  4. Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidase activity that occurs during culture of caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Satsu, H; Watanabe, H; Fukaya, M; Tsukamoto, Y; Miyamoto, Y; Shimizu, M

    2000-03-01

    To understand how blood glucose level is lowered by oral administration of vinegar, we examined effects of acetic acid on glucose transport and disaccharidase activity in Caco-2 cells. Cells were cultured for 15 d in a medium containing 5 mmol/L of acetic acid. This chronic treatment did not affect cell growth or viability, and furthermore, apoptotic cell death was not observed. Glucose transport, evaluated with a nonmetabolizable substrate, 3-O-methyl glucose, also was not affected. However, the increase of sucrase activity observed in control cells (no acetic acid) was significantly suppressed by acetic acid (P < 0.01). Acetic acid suppressed sucrase activity in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Similar treatments (5 mmol/L and 15 d) with other organic acids such as citric, succinic, L-maric, L-lactic, L-tartaric and itaconic acids, did not suppress the increase in sucrase activity. Acetic acid treatment (5 mmol/L and 15 d) significantly decreased the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, maltase, trehalase and lactase) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, whereas the activities of other hydrolases (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase-N, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) were not affected. To understand mechanisms underlying the suppression of disaccharidase activity by acetic acid, Northern and Western analyses of the sucrase-isomaltase complex were performed. Acetic acid did not affect the de novo synthesis of this complex at either the transcriptional or translational levels. The antihyperglycemic effect of acetic acid may be partially due to the suppression of disaccharidase activity. This suppression seems to occur during the post-translational processing. PMID:10702577

  5. The Physical Mechanism for Retinal Discrete Dark Noise: Thermal Activation or Cellular Ultraweak Photon Emission?

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Vahid; Scholkmann, Felix; Bokkon, Istvan; Shahbazi, Farhad; Tuszynski, Jack

    2016-01-01

    For several decades the physical mechanism underlying discrete dark noise of photoreceptors in the eye has remained highly controversial and poorly understood. It is known that the Arrhenius equation, which is based on the Boltzmann distribution for thermal activation, can model only a part (e.g. half of the activation energy) of the retinal dark noise experimentally observed for vertebrate rod and cone pigments. Using the Hinshelwood distribution instead of the Boltzmann distribution in the Arrhenius equation has been proposed as a solution to the problem. Here, we show that the using the Hinshelwood distribution does not solve the problem completely. As the discrete components of noise are indistinguishable in shape and duration from those produced by real photon induced photo-isomerization, the retinal discrete dark noise is most likely due to ‘internal photons’ inside cells and not due to thermal activation of visual pigments. Indeed, all living cells exhibit spontaneous ultraweak photon emission (UPE), mainly in the optical wavelength range, i.e., 350–700 nm. We show here that the retinal discrete dark noise has a similar rate as UPE and therefore dark noise is most likely due to spontaneous cellular UPE and not due to thermal activation. PMID:26950936

  6. Activated T cells sustain myeloid-derived suppressor cell-mediated immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Laura; Solito, Samantha; Damuzzo, Vera; Francescato, Samuela; Pozzuoli, Assunta; Berizzi, Antonio; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Bronte, Vincenzo; Mandruzzato, Susanna

    2016-01-12

    The expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a suppressive population able to hamper the immune response against cancer, correlates with tumor progression and overall survival in several cancer types. We have previously shown that MDSCs can be induced in vitro from precursors present in the bone marrow and observed that these cells are able to actively proliferate in the presence of activated T cells, whose activation level is critical to drive the suppressive activity of MDSCs. Here we investigated at molecular level the mechanisms involved in the interplay between MDSCs and activated T cells. We found that activated T cells secrete IL-10 following interaction with MDSCs which, in turn, activates STAT3 phosphorylation on MDSCs then leading to B7-H1 expression. We also demonstrated that B7-H1+ MDSCs are responsible for immune suppression through a mechanism involving ARG-1 and IDO expression. Finally, we show that the expression of ligands B7-H1 and MHC class II both on in vitro-induced MDSCs and on MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment of cancer patients is paralleled by an increased expression of their respective receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 on T cells, two inhibitory molecules associated with T cell dysfunction. These findings highlight key molecules and interactions responsible for the extensive cross-talk between MDSCs and activated T cells that are at the basis of immune suppression. PMID:26700461

  7. Identification of human activities in a thermal system with noise varied in temporal frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jason; Jacobs, Eddie; Smith, Forrest

    2011-05-01

    The ability of observers to identify human activities in noise is expected to differ from performance with static targets in noise due to the unmasking that is provided by target motion. At a minimum, the probability of identification should increase when the temporal bandwidth of the noise is less than that of the system. Results from a human activities identification experiment are presented in this paper, along with results from a moving character experiment that is intended to provide better understanding of basic motion in noise with varied temporal bandwidth. These results along with further experiments and analysis will eventually be used to improve performance predictions derived from the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric.

  8. Secondary Path Modeling Method for Active Noise Control of Power Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Liang, Jiabi; Liang, Yuanbin; Wang, Lixin; Pei, Xiugao; Li, Peng

    The accuracy of the secondary path modeling is critical to the stability of active noise control system. On condition of knowing the input and output of the secondary path, system identification theory can be used to identify the path. Based on the experiment data, correlation analysis is adopted to eliminate the random noise and nonlinear harmonic in the output data in order to obtain the accurate frequency characteristic of the secondary path. After that, Levy's Method is applied to identify the transfer function of the path. Computer simulation results are given respectively, both showing the proposed off-line modeling method is feasible and applicable. At last, Levy's Method is used to attain an accurate secondary path model in the active control of transformer noise experiment and achieves to make the noise sound level decrease about 10dB.

  9. SU-E-J-243: Possibility of Exposure Dose Reduction of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in An Image Guided Patient Positioning System by Using Various Noise Suppression Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kamezawa, H; Arimura, H; Ohki, M; Shirieda, K; Kameda, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems.

  10. Somatosensory Anticipatory Alpha Activity Increases to Suppress Distracting Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegens, Saskia; Luther, Lisa; Jensen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Effective processing of sensory input in daily life requires attentional selection and amplification of relevant input and, just as importantly, attenuation of irrelevant information. It has been proposed that top-down modulation of oscillatory alpha band activity (8-14 Hz) serves to allocate resources to various regions, depending on task…

  11. Microseismic monitoring of a future CO2 storage site in the Arctic (Svalbard) - Suppression and utilization of seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Daniela; Albaric, Julie; Harris, Dave; Oye, Volker; Hillers, Gregor; Brenguier, Florent; Ohrnberger, Matthias; Braathen, Alvar; Olaussen, Snorre

    2014-05-01

    Since 2007, CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) research has been carried out in the Longyearbyen CO2 lab (hosted by University Centre in Svalbard, UNIS, and UNIS CO2-lab AS). Due to its remoteness, the CO2 lab injection site presents a unique opportunity to demonstrate the entire CO2 value chain based on the closed energy system including coal mines, a coal fuelled power plant and geological structures suited for CO2 sequestration. The reservoir at a depth of 670 - 970 m consists of Triassic and Jurassic sandstone formations. The primary caprock is formed by a 400 - 500 m thick layer of organic rich shale, whereas the impermeable near-surface layer of permafrost currently constitutes a secondary top-seal. Eight wells were drilled down to a maximum of about 1000 m depth in order to analyse composition and structure of the reservoir, to perform injection tests and to deploy instruments close to the reservoir. Although the reservoir sandstone exhibits a low primary permeability and porosity, injection test campaigns demonstrate a good injectivity, indicating an unconventional reservoir strongly impacted by tectonic fractures. To perform microseismic monitoring, a high-frequency geophone network surrounding the injection well has been established. During the first water injection in 2010, a microseismic event (M ~ 1) was recorded and located close to the injection well, followed by a series of 7 aftershocks identified using a matched filter method. Later injection tests did not generate any detectable microseismic events; nevertheless, pressure and flow rate showed a pattern characteristic for fracture opening, potentially indicating "aseismic" fracture propagation or slow slip. Prior to data analysis, signals resulting from local mining operations, degassing, icequakes and regional earthquakes have to be separated from seismicity induced by (water) injection. In addition, recorded signals are strongly corrupted by electronic noise. Especially for correlation and stacking

  12. Emergence of spatially heterogeneous burst suppression in a neural field model of electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Stoyanov, Zhivko V.; Liley, David T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is a well-described phenomenon that occurs during deep anesthesia, as well as in a variety of congenital and acquired brain insults. Classically it is thought of as spatially synchronous, quasi-periodic bursts of high amplitude EEG separated by low amplitude activity. However, its characterization as a “global brain state” has been challenged by recent results obtained with intracranial electrocortigraphy. Not only does it appear that burst suppression activity is highly asynchronous across cortex, but also that it may occur in isolated regions of circumscribed spatial extent. Here we outline a realistic neural field model for burst suppression by adding a slow process of synaptic resource depletion and recovery, which is able to reproduce qualitatively the empirically observed features during general anesthesia at the whole cortex level. Simulations reveal heterogeneous bursting over the model cortex and complex spatiotemporal dynamics during simulated anesthetic action, and provide forward predictions of neuroimaging signals for subsequent empirical comparisons and more detailed characterization. Because burst suppression corresponds to a dynamical end-point of brain activity, theoretically accounting for its spatiotemporal emergence will vitally contribute to efforts aimed at clarifying whether a common physiological trajectory is induced by the actions of general anesthetic agents. We have taken a first step in this direction by showing that a neural field model can qualitatively match recent experimental data that indicate spatial differentiation of burst suppression activity across cortex. PMID:25767438

  13. Suppression of parasitic noise by strong Langmuir wave damping in quasitransient regimes of backward Raman amplification of intense laser pulses in plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, Vladimir; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2009-11-01

    Currently built powerful soft x-ray sources may be able to access intensities needed for backward Raman amplification (BRA) of x-ray pulses in plasmas. However, high plasma densities, needed to provide enough coupling between the pump and seed x-ray pulsed, cause strong damping of the Langmuir wave that mediates energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. Such damping could reduce the coupling, thus making efficient BRA impossible. This work shows that efficient BRA can survive despite the Langmuir wave damping significantly exceeding the linear BRA growth rate. Moreover, the strong Langmuir wave damping can suppress deleterious instabilities of BRA seeded by the thermal noise. This shows that it may be feasible to observe x-ray BRA for the first time soon.

  14. A Computational Study of BVI Noise Reduction Using Active Twist Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a computational study examining the effects of active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise using the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. The primary goal of this activity is to reduce BVI noise during a low-speed descent flight condition using active-twist control. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The accuracy of the analysis was validated through comparisons with experimental acoustic data for the first generation Active Twist Rotor at an advance ratio of mu=0.14. The application of active-twist to the main rotor blade system consisted of harmonic actuation frequencies ranging from 2P to 5P, control phase angles from 0' to 360 , and tip-twist amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 . The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio =0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, c^=+6 , with BVI noise levels predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicated reductions of up to 11dB in BVI noise using 1.25 tip-twist amplitude with negligible effects on 4P vertical hub shear.

  15. ACTIVE VIBRATION SUPPRESSION R+D FOR THE NEXT LINEARCOLLIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Leif S.

    2002-08-20

    The nanometer scale beam sizes at the interaction point in linear colliders limit the allowable motion of the final focus magnets. We have constructed a prototype system to investigate the use of active vibration damping to control magnet motion. Inertial sensors are used to measure the position of a test mass, and a DSP based system provides feedback using electrostatic pushers. Simulation and experimental results for the control of a mechanically simple system are presented.

  16. Active Vibration Suppression R and D for the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef C

    2001-12-17

    The nanometer scale beam sizes at the interaction point in linear colliders limit the allowable motion of the final focus magnets. We have constructed a prototype system to investigate the use of active vibration damping to control magnet motion. Inertial sensors are used to measure the position of a test mass, and a DSP based system provides feedback using electrostatic pushers. Simulation and experimental results for the control of a mechanically simple system are presented.

  17. Altitude performance of a low-noise-technology fan in a turbofan engine with and without a sound suppressing nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Grey, R. E.; Abdelwahah, M.

    1976-01-01

    Test variables were inlet Reynolds number index (0.2 to 0.5), flight Mach number (0.2 to 0.8), and flow distortion (tip radial and combined circumferential - tip radial patterns). Results are limited to fan bypass and overall engine performance. There were no discernible effects of Reynolds number on fan performance. Increasing flight Mach number shifted the fan operating line such that pressure ratio decreased and airflow increased. Inlet flow distortion lowered stall margin. For a Reynolds number index of 0.2 and flight Mach number of 0.54, the sound suppressing nacelle lowered fan efficiency three points and increased specific fuel consumption about 10 percent.

  18. A miniaturized compact open-loop RFOG with demodulation signal compensation technique to suppress intensity modulation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Diqing; Mao, Jianmin; Li, Qiang; Jin, Zhonghe

    2016-01-01

    A miniaturized compact open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) prototype with main body size of about 10.4 cm×10.4 cm×5.2 cm is reported, and a demodulation signal compensation technique is proposed, aiming to suppress the drift arising from accompanying intensity modulation induced by semiconductor laser diode (LD). The scheme of how to establish this miniaturized RFOG prototype is specifically stated. The linear relationship between the first-harmonic and second-harmonic demodulated signals respectively for the two counter propagating beams in the resonator is verified by theory and experiment, and based on this relationship, the demodulation signal compensation technique by monitoring the second-harmonic demodulated signal is described in detail. With this compensation technique, the gyro output stability under 1°/s rotation rate is effectively improved from 0.12°/s to 0.03°/s, and especially, an about 0.36°/s peak-to-peak fluctuation due to tuning current reset is significantly suppressed. A long term bias stability of about 4.5°/h in 1 h for such a small-sized RFOG prototype is demonstrated, which is of the same magnitude as that of currently reported large-sized RFOG systems utilizing LD as the laser source as well.

  19. Blue light irradiation suppresses dendritic cells activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael R; Abel, Manuela; Lopez Kostka, Susanna; Rudolph, Berenice; Becker, Detlef; von Stebut, Esther

    2013-08-01

    Blue light is a UV-free irradiation suitable for treating chronic skin inflammation, for example, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and hand- and foot eczema. However, a better understanding of the mode of action is still missing. For this reason, we investigated whether dendritic cells (DC) are directly affected by blue light irradiation in vitro. Here, we report that irradiation neither induced apoptosis nor maturation of monocyte-derived and myeloid DC. However, subsequent DC maturation upon LPS/IFNγ stimulation was impaired in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by maturation markers and cytokine release. Moreover, the potential of this DC to induce cytokine secretion from allogeneic CD4 T cells was reduced. In conclusion, unlike UV irradiation, blue light irradiation at high and low doses only resulted in impaired DC maturation upon activation and a reduced subsequent stimulatory capacity in allogeneic MLRs with strongest effects at higher doses. PMID:23879817

  20. Robust Kalman filter design for active flutter suppression systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, W. L.; Mahesh, J. K.; Stone, C. R.; Dunn, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Additional insight is provided into the use of the Doyle-Stein (1979, 1981) technique in aeroelastic control problems by examining the application of the method to a flutter control problem. The system to be controlled consists of a full-size wind tunnel model of a wing, plus an aileron, an actuator, and an accelerometer used to sense the motion of the wing. A full-state feedback controller was designed using linear optimal control theory, and a Kalman filter was used in the feedback loop for state estimation. The filter design procedure is explained along with that to improve closed-loop properties of the system. The locus of the poles of the filter is examined as a scalar design parameter is varied. The Doyle-Stein design procedure is shown to substantially improve the stability properties of an active flutter controller designed using the linear quadratic Gaussian control theory.

  1. Full Navier-Stokes analysis of a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle for noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debonis, James R.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes (FNS) analysis was performed on a mixer/ejector nozzle designed to reduce the jet noise created at takeoff by a future supersonic transport. The PARC3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to study the flow field of the nozzle. The grid that was used in the analysis consisted of approximately 900,000 node points contained in eight grid blocks. Two nozzle configurations were studied: a constant area mixing section and a diverging mixing section. Data are presented for predictions of pressure, velocity, and total temperature distributions and for evaluations of internal performance and mixing effectiveness. The analysis provided good insight into the behavior of the flow.

  2. Source localization for active control of turbofan rotor-stator broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Bruce E.

    2005-09-01

    In order to identify a reference signal source for an active noise cancellation system, cross-correlation techniques were used to localize broadband noise source regions on exit guide vanes of the NASA Glenn Research Center Advance Noise Control Fan (ANCF). Arrays of surface pressure sensors were imbedded in one guide vane and in the wall of the fan. Synchronous sampling was used with a multichannel data acquisition system to allow removal of periodic components from the signals. The signals were then cross-correlated to assess radiation directivity and the relationship between vane surface pressure and in-duct acoustic noise. The results of these measurements indicated that broadband unsteady pressures near the leading edge tip of the guide vane were well enough correlated with acoustic radiation that 2-3 dB active noise cancellation could be achieved using a simple gain-delay control algorithm and actuator array. After successful simulation in a wind tunnel environment the concept was incorporated on 15 guide vanes and tested in ANCF. Cross-correlation measurements were further used to evaluate system performance and to identify competing noises from rotating and stationary sources within the fan.

  3. Resonant activation in a colored multiplicative thermal noise driven closed system

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Somrita; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Mondal, Debasish

    2014-05-28

    In this paper, we have demonstrated that resonant activation (RA) is possible even in a thermodynamically closed system where the particle experiences a random force and a spatio-temporal frictional coefficient from the thermal bath. For this stochastic process, we have observed a hallmark of RA phenomena in terms of a turnover behavior of the barrier-crossing rate as a function of noise correlation time at a fixed noise variance. Variance can be fixed either by changing temperature or damping strength as a function of noise correlation time. Our another observation is that the barrier crossing rate passes through a maximum with increase in coupling strength of the multiplicative noise. If the damping strength is appreciably large, then the maximum may disappear. Finally, we compare simulation results with the analytical calculation. It shows that there is a good agreement between analytical and numerical results.

  4. 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde inhibits tumor angiogenesis by suppressing Tie2 activation.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sakimoto, Susumu; Jia, Weizhen; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2011-11-11

    Blood vessels are mainly composed of intraluminal endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells adhering to the ECs on their basal side. Immature blood vessels lacking mural cells are leaky; thus, the process of mural cell adhesion to ECs is indispensable for stability of the vessels during physiological angiogenesis. However, in the tumor microenvironment, although some blood vessels are well-matured, the majority is immature. Because mural cell adhesion to ECs also has a marked anti-apoptotic effect, angiogenesis inhibitors that destroy immature blood vessels may not affect mature vessels showing more resistance to apoptosis. Activation of Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in ECs mediates pro-angiogenic effects via the induction of EC migration but also facilitates vessel maturation via the promotion of cell adhesion between mural cells and ECs. Therefore, inhibition of Tie2 has the advantage of completely inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we isolated a novel small molecule Tie2 kinase inhibitor, identified as 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA). We found that 2-MCA inhibits both sprouting angiogenesis and maturation of blood vessels, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth. Our results suggest a potent clinical benefit of disrupting these two using Tie2 inhibitors. PMID:22033407

  5. Suppressing Emotions Impairs Subsequent Stroop Performance and Reduces Prefrontal Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Luechinger, Roger; Boesiger, Peter; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Abundant behavioral evidence suggests that the ability to self-control is limited, and that any exertion of self-control will increase the likelihood of subsequent self-control failures. Here we investigated the neural correlates underlying the aftereffects of self-control on future control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An initial act of self-control (suppressing emotions) impaired subsequent performance in a second task requiring control (Stroop task). On the neural level, increased activity during emotion suppression was followed by a relative decrease in activity during the Stroop task in a cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area engaged in the effortful implementation of control. There was no reliable evidence for reduced activity in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is involved in conflict detection processes and has previously also been implicated in self-control. Follow-up analyses showed that the detected cluster in the right lateral PFC and an area in the MFC were involved in both the emotion suppression task and the Stroop task, but only the cluster in the right lateral PFC showed reduced activation after emotion suppression during the Stroop task. Reduced activity in lateral prefrontal areas relevant for the implementation of control may be a critical consequence of prior self-control exertion if the respective areas are involved in both self-control tasks. PMID:23565239

  6. Activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway Antagonizes Metformin Suppression of Hepatic Glucose Production.

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Chang, Evan; Peng, Jinghua; An, Hongying; McMillin, Sara M; Radovick, Sally; Stratakis, Constantine A; Wondisford, Fredric E

    2016-05-13

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral anti-diabetic agent worldwide. Surprisingly, about 35% of diabetic patients either lack or have a delayed response to metformin treatment, and many patients become less responsive to metformin over time. It remains unknown how metformin resistance or insensitivity occurs. Recently, we found that therapeutic metformin concentrations suppressed glucose production in primary hepatocytes through AMPK; activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway negatively regulates AMPK activity by phosphorylating AMPKα subunit at Ser-485, which in turn reduces AMPK activity. In this study, we find that metformin failed to suppress glucose production in primary hepatocytes with constitutively activated PKA and did not improve hyperglycemia in mice with hyperglucagonemia. Expression of the AMPKα1(S485A) mutant, which is unable to be phosphorylated by PKA, increased both AMPKα activation and the suppression of glucose production in primary hepatocytes treated with metformin. Intriguingly, salicylate/aspirin prevents the phosphorylation of AMPKα at Ser-485, blocks cAMP-PKA negative regulation of AMPK, and improves metformin resistance. We propose that aspirin/salicylate may augment metformin's hepatic action to suppress glucose production. PMID:27002150

  7. The immunobiology of sexual behavior: gender differences in the suppression of sexual activity during illness.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, R; Yirmiya, R

    1999-12-01

    Following infection or injury, sick individuals experience profound psychological and behavioral changes, such as anorexia, depressed activity, and reduced self-care behavior. In the present review, we present evidence for a gender-difference in the behavioral response to sickness. Specifically, following immune activation, sexual activity is suppressed in female, but not in male rats. This gender difference is specific to sexually related responses, because other behaviors, such as locomotion, are equally affected by immune challenges in males and estrous females. The suppression of female sexual behavior, induced by either endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), or the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), are mediated by central mechanisms that are independent of alterations in ovarian hormone secretion. Furthermore, synergistic effects of the cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) are involved in modulating sexual behavior in sick females, and prostaglandins synthesis is required for the effects of IL-1 on female sexual behavior. The gender difference in the behavioral response to immune activation may be related to the findings that at the same doses and timing in which IL-1 suppressed sexual activity in female but not in male rats, females produced more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the brain, and less corticosterone than males. Finally, we are suggesting that the suppressive effect of cytokines on female reproductive behavior may serve as a mechanism to reduce conception during infection, which exposes the mother and the fetus to dangers such as spontaneous abortions, preterm labor and maternal mortality. PMID:10593202

  8. The Activating Transcription Factor 3 Protein Suppresses the Oncogenic Function of Mutant p53 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D.; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-01-01

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer. PMID:24554706

  9. Linear quadratic tracking problems in Hilbert space - Application to optimal active noise suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Silcox, R. J.; Keeling, S. L.; Wang, C.

    1989-01-01

    A unified treatment of the linear quadratic tracking (LQT) problem, in which a control system's dynamics are modeled by a linear evolution equation with a nonhomogeneous component that is linearly dependent on the control function u, is presented; the treatment proceeds from the theoretical formulation to a numerical approximation framework. Attention is given to two categories of LQT problems in an infinite time interval: the finite energy and the finite average energy. The behavior of the optimal solution for finite time-interval problems as the length of the interval tends to infinity is discussed. Also presented are the formulations and properties of LQT problems in a finite time interval.

  10. Relationship between estrogen receptor-binding and estrogenic activities of environmental estrogens and suppression by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Han, Dal-Ho; Denison, Michael S; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Yamada, Koji

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the estrogenic activity of environmental estrogens by a competition binding assay using a human recombinant estrogens receptor (hERbeta) and by a proliferation assay using MCF-7 cells and a sulforhodamine-B assay. In the binding assay, pharmaceuticals had a stronger binding activity to hERbeta than that of some phytoestrogens (coumestrol, daidzein, genistein, luteolin, chrysin, flavone, and naringenin) or industrial chemicals, but phytoestrogens such as coumestrol had a binding activity as strong as pharmaceuticals such as 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE), tamoxifen (Tam), and mestranol. In the proliferation assay, pharmaceuticals such as diethylstilbestrol, EE, Tam, and clomiphene, and industrial chemicals such as 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 4-dihydroxybiphenyl had a proliferation-stimulating activity as strong as 17beta-estradiol (ES). In addition, we found that phytoestrogens such as coumestrol, daidzein, luteolin, and quercetin exerted a proliferation stimulating activity as strong as ES. Furthermore, we examined the suppression of proliferation-stimulating activity, induced by environmental estrogen, by flavonoids, such as daidzein, genistein, quercetin, and luteolin, and found that these flavonoids suppressed the induction of the proliferation-stimulating activity of environmental estrogens. The suppressive effect of flavonoids suggests that these compounds have anti-estrogenic and anti-cancer activities. PMID:12224631

  11. Azithromycin suppresses CD4+ T-cell activation by direct modulation of mTOR activity

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, F.; Haslacher, H.; Poeppl, W.; Hoermann, G.; Kovarik, J. J.; Jutz, S.; Steinberger, P.; Burgmann, H.; Pickl, W. F.; Schmetterer, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM) or clarithromycin (CLM), are antibiotics with immunomodulatory properties. Here we have sought to evaluate their in vitro influence on the activation of CD4+ T-cells. Isolated CD4+ T-cells were stimulated with agonistic anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in the presence of 0.6 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 10 mg/L or 40 mg/L AZM or CLM. Cell proliferation, cytokine level in supernatants and cell viability was assessed. Intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated using reporter cell lines, FACS analysis, immunoblotting and in vitro kinase assays. AZM inhibited cell proliferation rate and cytokine secretion of CD4+ T-cells in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, high concentrations of CLM (40 mg/L) also suppressed these T-cell functions. Analysis of molecular signaling pathways revealed that exposure to AZM reduced the phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream target of mTOR. This effect was also observed at 40 mg/L CLM. In vitro kinase studies using recombinant mTOR showed that AZM inhibited mTOR activity. In contrast to rapamycin, this inhibition was independent of FKBP12. We show for the first time that AZM and to a lesser extent CLM act as immunosuppressive agents on CD4+ T-cells by inhibiting mTOR activity. Our results might have implications for the clinical use of macrolides. PMID:25500904

  12. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Ya-Jie; Liu, Wei-Wei; Shi, Ai-Wu; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL), one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone1) (NQO1). However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:27517893

  13. Preliminary experiments on active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; Burdisso, R. A.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    In the preliminary experiments reported here, active acoustic sources positioned around the circumference of a turbofan engine were used to control the fan noise radiated forward through the inlet. The main objective was to demonstrate the potential of active techniques to alleviate the noise pollution that will be produced by the next generation of larger engines. A reduction of up to 19 dB in the radiation directivity was demonstrated in a zone that encompasses a 30-deg angle, near the error sensor, while spillover effects were observed toward the lateral direction. The simultaneous control of two tones was also demonstrated using two identical controllers in a parallel control configuration.

  14. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  15. Multichannel active control of nonlinear noise processes using diagonal structure bilinear FXLMS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Yuan, Ding; Li, Tan; Sidan, Du

    2015-12-01

    A novel nonlinear adaptive algorithm named as diagonal structure bilinear filtered-x least mean square (DBFXLMS) for multichannel nonlinear active noise control is proposed in this paper. The performances of the proposed algorithm are shown below and the computational complexity is compared with the second-order Volterra filtered-x LMS (VFXLMS) algorithm and the filtered-s least mean square (FSLMS) algorithm, in terms of normalized mean square error (NMSE), for multichannel active control of nonlinear noise processes. Both the simulations and the computational complexity analyses demonstrate that the proposed method has an improvement as compared to the proposed algorithms.

  16. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Helicopter Noise of an Active Flap Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Janakiram, Ram D.; Barbely, Natasha L.; Solis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Results from a recent joint DARPA/Boeing/NASA/Army wind tunnel test demonstrated the ability to reduce in-plane, low frequency noise of the full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor using active flaps. Test data reported in this paper illustrated that acoustic energy in the first six blade-passing harmonics could be reduced by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition corresponding to advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, in a manner, which generated counteracting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative pressure peaks associated with in-plane, steady thickness noise. These favorable reduced-noise operating states are a strong function of the active flap actuation amplitude, frequency and phase. The associated noise reductions resulted in reduced aural detection distance by up to 18%, but incurred significant vibratory load penalties due to increased hub shear forces. Small reductions in rotor lift-to-drag ratios, of no more than 3%, were also measured

  17. Potential Subjective Effectiveness of Active Interior Noise Control in Propeller Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control technology offers the potential for weight-efficient aircraft interior noise reduction, particularly for propeller aircraft. However, there is little information on how passengers respond to this type of interior noise control. This paper presents results of two experiments that use sound quality engineering practices to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control (ANC) systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two experiments differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons based on preference in the first and numerical category scaling of noisiness in the second. Although the results of the two experiments were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference. The reductions in subjective response due to the ANC conditions were predicted with reasonable accuracy by reductions in measured loudness level. Inclusion of corrections for the sound quality characteristics of tonality and fluctuation strength in multiple regression models improved the prediction of the ANC effects.

  18. BVI induced vibration and noise alleviation by active and passive approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    This dissertation describes the development of a comprehensive aeroelastic/aeroacoustic simulation capability for the modeling of vibration and noise in rotorcraft induced by blade-vortex interaction (BVI). Subsequently this capability is applied to study vibration and noise reduction, using active and passive control approaches. The active approach employed is the actively controlled partial span trailing edge flaps (ACF), implemented in single and dual, servo and plain flap configurations. The passive approach is based on varying the sweep and anhedral on the tip of the rotor. Two different modern helicopters are chosen as the baseline for the implementation of ACF approach, one resembling a four-bladed MBB BO-105 hingeless rotor and the other similar to a five-bladed MD-900 bearingless rotor. The structural model is based on a finite element approach capable of simulating composite helicopter blades with swept tips, and representing multiple load paths at the blade root which is a characteristic of bearingless rotors. An unsteady compressible aerodynamic model based on a rational function approximation (RFA) approach is combined with a free wake analysis which has been enhanced by improving the wake analysis resolution and modeling a dual vortex structure. These enhancements are important for capturing BVI effects. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades has been developed, which is required by the acoustic analysis. A modified version of helicopter noise code WOPWOP with provisions for blade flexibility has been combined with the aeroelastic analysis to predict the BVI noise. Several variants of the higher harmonic control (HHC) algorithm have been applied for the active noise control, as well as the simultaneous vibration and noise control. Active control of BVI noise is accomplished using feedback from an onboard microphone. The simulation has been extensively validated against experimental data and

  19. Nonequilibrium dynamics of active matter with correlated noise: A dynamical renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-03-01

    Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.

  20. Bilateral use of active middle ear implants: speech discrimination results in noise.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Koci, Viktor; Schnabl, Johannes; Zorowka, Patrick; Riechelmann, Herbert; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Binaural sound reception has advantages over unilateral perception, including better localization and sound quality as well as speech and tone reception in both quiet and noisy environments. Up to now, most active middle ear implant (AMEI) users have been unilaterally implanted, but patient demand for an implant on the other side is increasing. Ten bilaterally-AMEI implanted native German-speaking adults were included in the study. The Oldenburg sentence test was used to measure speech reception thresholds in noise. The subject's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a speech reception score of 50 % was calculated for different noise conditions. SRT was measured as a function of noise condition (nc) and listening condition (lc)-for example, SRT (lc, nc), with nc from S0N0, S0N-90, or S0N90 and lc from left, right or both. For each noise condition, the squelch effect and the binaural summation effect were calculated. Patients in this study demonstrated improvement with bilateral AMEIs compared to right or left AMEI only in all three tested listening conditions. Statistical significance was found in the S0N0 condition to favor usage of bilateral AMI versus either the right or left side only. The benefits of binaural hearing are well known, also in normal-hearing individuals. In the future every bilateral implantation should be a part of the clinical routine. Bilateral implantation can help to reduce problems in background noise and restore directional hearing. PMID:26385811

  1. Hybrid feedforward-feedback active noise reduction for hearing protection and communication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Laura R; Solbeck, Jason A; Streeter, Alexander D; Collier, Robert D

    2006-10-01

    A hybrid active noise reduction (ANR) architecture is presented and validated for a circumaural earcup and a communication earplug. The hybrid system combines source-independent feedback ANR with a Lyapunov-tuned leaky LMS filter (LyLMS) improving gain stability margins over feedforward ANR alone. In flat plate testing, the earcup demonstrates an overall C-weighted total noise reduction of 40 dB and 30-32 dB, respectively, for 50-800 Hz sum-of-tones noise and for aircraft or helicopter cockpit noise, improving low frequency (<100 Hz) performance by up to 15 dB over either control component acting individually. For the earplug, a filtered-X implementation of the LyLMS accommodates its nonconstant cancellation path gain. A fast time-domain identification method provides a high-fidelity, computationally efficient, infinite impulse response cancellation path model, which is used for both the filtered-X implementation and communication feedthrough. Insertion loss measurements made with a manikin show overall C-weighted total noise reduction provided by the ANR earplug of 46-48 dB for sum-of-tones 80-2000 Hz and 40-41 dB from 63 to 3000 Hz for UH-60 helicopter noise, with negligible degradation in attenuation during speech communication. For both hearing protectors, a stability metric improves by a factor of 2 to several orders of magnitude through hybrid ANR. PMID:17069300

  2. High temperature sensor/microphone development for active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrout, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    The industrial and scientific communities have shown genuine interest in electronic systems which can operate at high temperatures, among which are sensors to monitor noise, vibration, and acoustic emissions. Acoustic sensing can be accomplished by a wide variety of commercially available devices, including: simple piezoelectric sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges, proximity sensors, and fiber optics. Of the several sensing mechanisms investigated, piezoelectrics were found to be the most prevalent, because of their simplicity of design and application and, because of their high sensitivity over broad ranges of frequencies and temperature. Numerous piezoelectric materials are used in acoustic sensors today; but maximum use temperatures are imposed by their transition temperatures (T(sub c)) and by their resistivity. Lithium niobate, in single crystal form, has the highest operating temperature of any commercially available material, 650 C; but that is not high enough for future requirements. Only two piezoelectric materials show potential for use at 1000 C; AlN thin film reported to be piezoactive at 1150 C, and perovskite layer structure (PLS) materials, which possess among the highest T(sub c) (greater than 1500 C) reported for ferroelectrics. A ceramic PLS composition was chosen. The solid solution composition, 80% strontium niobate (SN) and 20% strontium tantalate (STa), with a T(sub c) approximately 1160 C, was hot forged, a process which concurrently sinters and renders the plate-like grains into a highly oriented configuration to enhance piezo properties. Poled samples of this composition showed coupling (k33) approximately 6 and piezoelectric strain constant (d33) approximately 3. Piezoactivity was seen at 1125 C, the highest temperature measurement reported for a ferroelectric ceramic. The high temperature piezoelectric responses of this, and similar PLS materials, opens the possibility of their use in electronic devices operating at temperatures up to

  3. Improving the vibration suppression capabilities of a magneto-rheological damper using hybrid active and semi-active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah Khan, Irfan; Wagg, David; Sims, Neil D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid active and semi-active control method for vibration suppression in flexible structures. The method uses a combination of a semi-active device and an active control actuator situated elsewhere in the structure to suppress vibrations. The key novelty is to use the hybrid controller to enable the magneto-rheological damper to achieve a performance as close to a fully active device as possible. This is achieved by ensuring that the active actuator can assist the magneto-rheological damper in the regions where energy is required. In addition, the hybrid active and semi-active controller is designed to minimize the switching of the semi-active controller. The control framework used is the immersion and invariance control technique in combination with sliding mode control. A two degree-of-freedom system with lightly damped resonances is used as an example system. Both numerical and experimental results are generated for this system, and then compared as part of a validation study. The experimental system uses hardware-in-the-loop to simulate the effect of both the degrees-of-freedom. The results show that the concept is viable both numerically and experimentally, and improved vibration suppression results can be obtained for the magneto-rheological damper that approach the performance of an active device.

  4. Binge-Like Eating Attenuates Nisoxetine Feeding Suppression, Stress Activation, and Brain Norepinephrine Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Yeh, Chung-Yang; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Walters, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is often associated with binge eating. A critical component of the control of stress is the central norepinephrine system. We investigated how dietary-induced binge eating alters central norepinephrine and related behaviors. Young male Sprague Dawley rats received calorie deprivation (24 h) and /or intermittent sweetened fat (vegetable shortening with sucrose; 30 min) twice a week for 10 weeks. The groups were Restrict Binge (calorie deprivation/sweetened fat), Binge (sweetened fat), Restrict (calorie deprivation), and Naive (no calorie deprivation/no sweetened fat). Dietary-induced binge eating was demonstrated by Restrict Binge and Binge, which showed an escalation in 30-min intake over time. Feeding suppression following nisoxetine (3 mg/kg; IP), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was not evident in Restrict Binge (Restrict Binge: 107±13, Binge: 52±9, Restrict: 80±8, Naive: 59±13% of saline injection at 1 h). In subsequent experiments with Restrict Binge and Naive, Restrict Binge had reduced corticosterone (Restrict Binge: 266±25; Naive: 494±36 ng/ml) and less feeding suppression (Restrict Binge: 81±12, Naive: 50±11% of non-restraint intake at 30 min) following restraint stress (1 h). Dietary-induced binge eating in Restrict Binge was not altered by a dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion caused by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), but frontal cortex norepinephrine was positively correlated with the average 30-min intake post-lesion (0.69; p<0.01). In a separate set of animals, single-unit in vivo electrophysiological recording of locus coeruleus–norepinephrine neural activity demonstrated reduced sensory-evoked response as a consequence of the Restrict Binge schedule (Restrict Binge: 8.1±0.67, Naive: 11.9±1.09 Hz). These results, which suggest that a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating is to attenuate the responsiveness of the brain norepinephrine system, will further our understanding of how highly

  5. A new approach to control noise from entertainment facilities: Active control and measurement of amplified community noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, Richard J.; Casamajó, Joan

    2003-04-01

    While traffic noise is perhaps the most pervasive of community noises, much of the contribution now comes from amplified sound: live music, discos, theme parks, and exercise studios. Those producing the sound or music want it loud and those not interested want to be protected against noise. Noise limits at the receiving or producing property line must be met for the minimum community acceptance. However the time-, and perhaps the spatially-, varying sound in entertainment facilities is often constantly modified (and maybe monitored) near the source of the sound. Hence it is hard to relate and to control the sound at the property line. This paper presents a unique noise control device. It is based on the octave band ``transfer function'' between the sound produced in the entertainment area and the noise received at the property line. The overall insulation can be measured and is input to the instrument. When a noise level limit is exceeded at the receiver, due to the amplified interior noise at the facility, the sound output of the device is automatically controlled to reduce the noise. The paper provides details of the design and possible abatement scenarios with examples.

  6. Active noise and vibration control for vehicular applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Ellis, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated semi-active suspension systems based on real time nonlinear control of magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorbers. This effort was motivated by Laboratory interactions with the automobile industry and with the Defense Department. Background research and a literature search on semi-active suspensions was carried out. Numerical simulations of alternative nonlinear control algorithms were developed and adapted for use with an MR shock absorber. A benchtop demonstration system was designed, including control electronics and a mechanical demonstration fixture to hold the damper/spring assembly. A custom-made MR shock was specified and procured. Measurements were carried out at Los Alamos to characterize the performance of the device.

  7. Effects of inhomogeneous activity of players and noise on cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian-Yue; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Ying-Hai

    2007-11-01

    We study the public goods game in the noisy case by considering the players with inhomogeneous activity of teaching on a square lattice. It is shown that the introduction of the inhomogeneous activity of teaching the players can remarkably promote cooperation. By investigating the effects of noise on cooperative behavior in detail, we find that the variation of cooperator density ρC with the noise parameter κ displays several different behaviors: ρC monotonically increases (decreases) with κ ; ρC first increases (decreases) with κ and then it decreases (increases) monotonically after reaching its maximum (minimum) value, which depends on the amount of the multiplication factor r , on whether the system is homogeneous or inhomogeneous, and on whether the adopted updating is synchronous or asynchronous. These results imply that the noise plays an important and nontrivial role in the evolution of cooperation.

  8. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars. PMID:23498706

  9. Direct Evidence for Active Suppression of Salient-but-Irrelevant Sensory Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Leonard, Carly J.; Luck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have long debated whether attentional capture is purely stimulus-driven or purely goal-driven. In the current study, we test a hybrid account called the signal suppression hypothesis, which posits that stimuli automatically produce a bottom-up salience signal, but that this signal can be suppressed via top-down control processes. To test this account, we used a new capture-probe paradigm in which participants searched for a target shape while ignoring irrelevant color singletons. On occasional probe trials, letters were briefly presented inside the search shapes, and participants attempted to report these letters. Under conditions that promoted capture by singletons, accuracy was greater for the letter inside this singleton than for letters inside nonsingleton objects. However, when the conditions were changed to avoid capture by the singleton, accuracy for the letter inside the irrelevant singleton was reduced below the level observed for nonsingleton objects, indicating active suppression of the singleton. PMID:26420441

  10. Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-06

    Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

  11. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.

  12. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are presented for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. In addition to presenting the mathematical models and a brief description of existing analytical techniques, an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results is presented.

  13. ESCRT-0 Is Not Required for Ectopic Notch Activation and Tumor Suppression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Emiliana; Wollscheid, Nadine; Cortese, Katia; Tacchetti, Carlo; Vaccari, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multivesicular endosome (MVE) sorting depends on proteins of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) family. These are organized in four complexes (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III) that act in a sequential fashion to deliver ubiquitylated cargoes into the internal luminal vesicles (ILVs) of the MVE. Drosophila genes encoding ESCRT-I, -II, -III components function in sorting signaling receptors, including Notch and the JAK/STAT signaling receptor Domeless. Loss of ESCRT-I, -II, -III in Drosophila epithelia causes altered signaling and cell polarity, suggesting that ESCRTs genes are tumor suppressors. However, the nature of the tumor suppressive function of ESCRTs, and whether tumor suppression is linked to receptor sorting is unclear. Unexpectedly, a null mutant in Hrs, encoding one of the components of the ESCRT-0 complex, which acts upstream of ESCRT-I, -II, -III in MVE sorting is dispensable for tumor suppression. Here, we report that two Drosophila epithelia lacking activity of Stam, the other known components of the ESCRT-0 complex, or of both Hrs and Stam, accumulate the signaling receptors Notch and Dome in endosomes. However, mutant tissue surprisingly maintains normal apico-basal polarity and proliferation control and does not display ectopic Notch signaling activation, unlike cells that lack ESCRT-I, -II, -III activity. Overall, our in vivo data confirm previous evidence indicating that the ESCRT-0 complex plays no crucial role in regulation of tumor suppression, and suggest re-evaluation of the relationship of signaling modulation in endosomes and tumorigenesis. PMID:24718108

  14. An evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis for determination of trace elements in some geological samples.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Kapsimalis, R

    2009-12-01

    Compton suppressed neutron activation analysis has been used for a variety of applications, but never has a detailed discussion of its use in far more complex matrices, such as geological samples, been fully addressed. This investigation seeks to serve as a qualitative evaluation of Compton suppression neutron activation analysis (CSNAA) and to illustrate the benefits of using Compton suppression with thermal and epithermal neutrons for the analysis of several geological specimens. PMID:19577479

  15. Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures

  16. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yanyan; Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Hongzhi; Zhou, Tong; Qu, Weidong; Teng, Weiping; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E.; Pi, Jingbo

    2013-12-15

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: • Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. • Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. • Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis.

  17. Noise-based body-wave seismic tomography in an active underground mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, G.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lynch, R.; Roux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, ambient noise tomography has become increasingly popular to image the earth's upper crust. The seismic noise recorded in the earth's crust is dominated by surface waves emanating from the interaction of the ocean with the solid earth. These surface waves are low frequency in nature ( < 1 Hz) and not usable for imaging smaller structures associated with mining or oil and gas applications. The seismic noise recorded at higher frequencies are typically from anthropogenic sources, which are short lived, spatially unstable and not well suited for constructing seismic Green's functions between sensors with conventional cross-correlation methods. To examine the use of ambient noise tomography for smaller scale applications, continuous data were recorded for 5 months in an active underground mine in Sweden located more than 1km below surface with 18 high frequency seismic sensors. A wide variety of broadband (10 - 3000 Hz) seismic noise sources are present in an active underground mine ranging from drilling, scraping, trucks, ore crushers and ventilation fans. Some of these sources generate favorable seismic noise, while others are peaked in frequency and not usable. In this presentation, I will show that the noise generated by mining activity can be useful if periods of seismic noise are carefully selected. Although noise sources are not temporally stable and not evenly distributed around the sensor array, good estimates of the seismic Green's functions between sensors can be retrieved for a broad frequency range (20 - 400 Hz) when a selective stacking scheme is used. For frequencies below 100 Hz, the reconstructed Green's functions show clear body-wave arrivals for almost all of the 153 sensor pairs. The arrival times of these body-waves are picked and used to image the local velocity structure. The resulting 3-dimensional image shows a high velocity structure that overlaps with a known ore-body. The material properties of the ore-body differ from

  18. Central Insulin Action Activates Kupffer Cells by Suppressing Hepatic Vagal Activation via the Nicotinic Alpha 7 Acetylcholine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kumi; Tanida, Mamoru; Nagata, Naoto; Inaba, Yuka; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Ota, Tsuguhito; Asahara, Shun-ichiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Toshinai, Koji; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2016-03-15

    Central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling, which suppresses the gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. The vagus nerve plays an important role in this centrally mediated hepatic response; however, the precise mechanism underlying this brain-liver interaction is unclear. Here, we present our findings that the vagus nerve suppresses hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAchR) on Kupffer cells, and that central insulin action activates hepatic IL-6/STAT3 signaling by suppressing vagal activity. Indeed, central insulin-mediated hepatic IL-6/STAT3 activation and gluconeogenic gene suppression were impeded in mice with hepatic vagotomy, pharmacological cholinergic blockade, or α7-nAchR deficiency. In high-fat diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice, control of the vagus nerve by central insulin action was disturbed, inducing a persistent increase of inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that dysregulation of the α7-nAchR-mediated control of Kupffer cells by central insulin action may affect the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic inflammation in obesity. PMID:26947072

  19. Speech recognition in noise with active and passive hearing protectors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bockstael, Annelies; De Coensel, Bert; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Bart, Vinck

    2011-06-01

    The perceived negative influence of standard hearing protectors on communication is a common argument for not wearing them. Thus, "augmented" protectors have been developed to improve speech intelligibility. Nevertheless, their actual benefit remains a point of concern. In this paper, speech perception with active earplugs is compared to standard passive custom-made earplugs. The two types of active protectors included amplify the incoming sound with a fixed level or to a user selected fraction of the maximum safe level. For the latter type, minimal and maximal amplification are selected. To compare speech intelligibility, 20 different speech-in-noise fragments are presented to 60 normal-hearing subjects and speech recognition is scored. The background noise is selected from realistic industrial noise samples with different intensity, frequency, and temporal characteristics. Statistical analyses suggest that the protectors' performance strongly depends on the noise condition. The active protectors with minimal amplification outclass the others for the most difficult and the easiest situations, but they also limit binaural listening. In other conditions, the passive protectors clearly surpass their active counterparts. Subsequently, test fragments are analyzed acoustically to clarify the results. This provides useful information for developing prototypes, but also indicates that tests with human subjects remain essential. PMID:21682395

  20. Design for active and passive flutter suppression and gust alleviation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, M.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical design techniques for active and passive control of aeroelastic systems are based on a rational approximation of the unsteady aerodynamic loads in the entire Laplace domain, which yields matrix equations of motion with constant coefficients. Some existing schemes are reviewed, the matrix Pade approximant is modified, and a technique which yields a minimal number of augmented states for a desired accuracy is presented. The state-space aeroelastic model is used to design an active control system for simultaneous flutter suppression and gust alleviation. The design target is for a continuous controller which transfers some measurements taken on the vehicle to a control command applied to a control surface. Structural modifications are formulated in a way which enables the treatment of passive flutter suppression system with the same procedures by which active control systems are designed.

  1. Oral progestin induces rapid, reversible suppression of ovarian activity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R A; Pelican, K M; Brown, J L; Wildt, D E; Ottinger, M A; Howard, J G

    2010-04-01

    The influence of oral progestin (altrenogest; ALT) on cat ovarian activity was studied using non-invasive fecal steroid monitoring. Queens were assigned to various ALT dosages: (1) 0mg/kg (control; n=5 cats); (2) 0.044 mg/kg (LOW; n=5); (3) 0.088 mg/kg (MID; n=6); or (4) 0.352 mg/kg (HIGH; n=6). Fecal estrogen and progestagen concentrations were quantified using enzyme immunoassays for 60 days before, 38 days during and 60 days after ALT treatment. Initiation of follicular activity was suppressed in all cats during progestin treatment, whereas controls continued to cycle normally. Females (n=6) with elevated fecal estrogens at treatment onset completed a normal follicular phase before returning to baseline and remained suppressed until treatment withdrawal. All cats receiving oral progestin re-initiated follicular activity after treatment, although MID cats experienced the most synchronized return (within 10-16 days). Mean baseline fecal estrogens and progestagens were higher (P<0.05) after treatment in HIGH, but not in LOW or MID cats compared to pre-treatment values. The results demonstrate that: (1) oral progestin rapidly suppresses initiation of follicular activity in the cat, but does not influence a follicular phase that exists before treatment initiation; and (2) queens return to normal follicular activity after progestin withdrawal. This study provides foundational information for research aimed at using progestin priming to improve ovarian response in felids scheduled for ovulation induction and assisted breeding. PMID:20051246

  2. Oral progestin induces rapid, reversible suppression of ovarian activity in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, R.A.; Pelican, K.M.; Brown, J.L.; Wildt, D.E.; Ottinger, M.A.; Howard, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of oral progestin (altrenogest; ALT) on cat ovarian activity was studied using non-invasive fecal steroid monitoring. Queens were assigned to various ALT dosages: 1) 0 mg/kg (control; n = 5 cats); 2) 0.044 mg/kg (LOW; n = 5); 3) 0.088 mg/kg (MID; n = 6); or 4) 0.352 mg/kg (HIGH; n = 6). Fecal estrogen and progestagen concentrations were quantified using enzyme immunoassays for 60 days before, 38 days during and 60 days after ALT treatment. Initiation of follicular activity was suppressed in all cats during progestin treatment, whereas controls continued to cycle normally. Females (n = 6) with elevated fecal estrogens at treatment onset completed a normal follicular phase before returning to baseline and remained suppressed until treatment withdrawal. All cats receiving oral progestin reinitiated follicular activity after treatment, although MID cats experienced the most synchronized return (within 10-16 days). Mean baseline fecal estrogens and progestagens were higher (P < 0.05) after treatment in HIGH, but not LOW or MID cats compared to pre-treatment values. Results demonstrate that: 1) oral progestin rapidly suppresses initiation of follicular activity in the cat, but does not influence a follicular phase that exists before treatment initiation; and 2) queens return to normal follicular activity after progestin withdrawal. This study provides foundational information for research aimed at using progestin priming to improve ovarian response in felids scheduled for ovulation induction and assisted breeding. PMID:20051246

  3. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram suppresses activity in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Akhmetshina, Dinara; Zakharov, Andrei; Vinokurova, Daria; Nasretdinov, Azat; Valeeva, Guzel; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-06-01

    Inhibition of serotonin uptake, which causes an increase in extracellular serotonin levels, disrupts the development of thalamocortical barrel maps in neonatal rodents. Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the disruptive effect of excessive serotonin on barrel map formation involves a depression at thalamocortical synapses. However, the effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors on the early thalamocortical activity patterns in the developing barrel cortex in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, using extracellular recordings of the local field potentials and multiple unit activity (MUA) we explored the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (10-20mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on sensory evoked activity in the barrel cortex of neonatal (postnatal days P2-5) rats in vivo. We show that administration of citalopram suppresses the amplitude and prolongs the delay of the sensory evoked potentials, reduces the power and frequency of the early gamma oscillations, and suppresses sensory evoked and spontaneous neuronal firing. In the adolescent P21-29 animals, citalopram affected neither sensory evoked nor spontaneous activity in barrel cortex. We suggest that suppression of the early thalamocortical activity patterns contributes to the disruption of the barrel map development caused by SSRIs and other conditions elevating extracellular serotonin levels. PMID:27016034

  4. Cationic chlorophyl derivatives with SOD mimicking activity suppress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Maniki, M; Nakamura, K

    1996-06-01

    Derivatives of chlorophyl, e.g. Fe-chlorin e6-Na, alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetraphenylporphine-tetrasulfonic acid disulfonic acid salt tetrahydrate (Fe-TPPTS) and alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetrakis (4-N-trimethylaminophenyl) porphine, tetra (p-toluensulfonate (Fe-TTMAPP), express SOD mimicking activity. Examination was made of suppressive effects of human cancer cell lines by derivatives of chlorophyl. Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP suppressed proliferation of the human ovarian cancer cell lines but Fe-chlorin e6-Na failed to suppress the proliferation. Lipid peroxide was increased by application of Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP, but decreased by application of Fe-chlorin e6-Na. SOD activity of the cancer cells did not change by application of these drugs. TPPTS and TTMAPP have a cationic charge but Fe-chlorin e6-Na has an anionic charge. It is suggested that charge of these drugs relates to the suppressive effects of the cancer cell proliferation. PMID:10851538

  5. Broad-spectrum therapeutic suppression of metastatic melanoma through nuclear hormone receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Nora; Buss, Colin G; Posada, Jessica; Merghoub, Taha; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2014-02-27

    Melanoma metastasis is a devastating outcome lacking an effective preventative therapeutic. We provide pharmacologic, molecular, and genetic evidence establishing the liver-X nuclear hormone receptor (LXR) as a therapeutic target in melanoma. Oral administration of multiple LXR agonists suppressed melanoma invasion, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Molecular and genetic experiments revealed these effects to be mediated by LXRβ, which elicits these outcomes through transcriptional induction of tumoral and stromal apolipoprotein-E (ApoE). LXRβ agonism robustly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis across a diverse mutational spectrum of melanoma lines. LXRβ targeting significantly prolonged animal survival, suppressed the progression of established metastases, and inhibited brain metastatic colonization. Importantly, LXRβ activation displayed melanoma-suppressive cooperativity with the frontline regimens dacarbazine, B-Raf inhibition, and the anti-CTLA-4 antibody and robustly inhibited melanomas that had acquired resistance to B-Raf inhibition or dacarbazine. We present a promising therapeutic approach that uniquely acts by transcriptionally activating a metastasis suppressor gene. PMID:24581497

  6. Suppression of cellular proliferation and invasion by the concerted lipid and protein phosphatase activities of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Lindsay; Maccario, Helene; Perera, Nevin M.; Yang, Xuesong; Spinelli, Laura; Tibarewal, Priyanka; Glancy, Ben; Gray, Alex; Weijer, Cornelis J.; Downes, C. Peter; Leslie, Nick R.

    2009-01-01

    PTEN is a tumour suppressor with phosphatase activity in vitro against both lipids and proteins and other potential non-enzymatic mechanisms of action. Although the importance of PTEN’s lipid phosphatase activity in regulating the PI3K signalling pathway is recognised, the significance of PTEN’s other mechanisms of action is currently unclear. Here, we describe the systematic identification of a PTEN mutant, PTEN Y138L, with activity against lipid, but not soluble substrates. Using this mutant we provide evidence for the interfacial activation of PTEN against lipid substrates. We also show that when re-expressed at physiological levels in PTEN null U87MG glioblastoma cells the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN is not required to regulate cellular PtdInsP3 levels or the downstream protein kinase Akt/PKB. Finally, in 3D Matrigel cultures of U87MG cells similarly re-expressing PTEN mutants, both the protein and lipid phosphatase activities were required to inhibit invasion, but either activity alone significantly inhibited proliferation, albeit only weakly for the protein phosphatase activity. Our data provides a novel tool to address the significance of PTEN’s separable lipid and protein phosphatase activities and suggest that both activities act to suppress proliferation and act together to suppress invasion. PMID:19915616

  7. Lateral and feedforward inhibition suppress asynchronous activity in a large, biophysically-detailed computational model of the striatal network

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Jason T.; Halterman, Benjamin L.; Finkel, Leif H.; Wolf, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive lateral inhibitory projections from other MSNs and feedforward inhibitory projections from fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing striatal interneurons (FSIs). The functional roles of these connections are unknown, and difficult to study in an experimental preparation. We therefore investigated the functionality of both lateral (MSN-MSN) and feedforward (FSI-MSN) inhibition using a large-scale computational model of the striatal network. The model consists of 2744 MSNs comprised of 189 compartments each and 121 FSIs comprised of 148 compartments each, with dendrites explicitly represented and almost all known ionic currents included and strictly constrained by biological data as appropriate. Our analysis of the model indicates that both lateral inhibition and feedforward inhibition function at the population level to limit non-ensemble MSN spiking while preserving ensemble MSN spiking. Specifically, lateral inhibition enables large ensembles of MSNs firing synchronously to strongly suppress non-ensemble MSNs over a short time-scale (10–30 ms). Feedforward inhibition enables FSIs to strongly inhibit weakly activated, non-ensemble MSNs while moderately inhibiting activated ensemble MSNs. Importantly, FSIs appear to more effectively inhibit MSNs when FSIs fire asynchronously. Both types of inhibition would increase the signal-to-noise ratio of responding MSN ensembles and contribute to the formation and dissolution of MSN ensembles in the striatal network. PMID:25505406

  8. Suppression of ovine lymphocyte activation by Teladorsagia circumcincta larval excretory-secretory products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is an important pathogenic nematode of sheep. It has been demonstrated previously that stimulation of murine T lymphocytes with excretory-secretory (ES) products derived from fourth stage larvae of T. circumcincta (Tci-L4-ES) results in de novo expression of Foxp3, a transcription factor intimately involved in regulatory T cell function. In the current study, Foxp3+ T cell responses in the abomasum and the effects of Tci-L4-ES on ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) following T. circumcincta infection were investigated. T. circumcincta infection resulted in a significant increase in numbers of abomasal Foxp3+ T cells, but not an increase in the proportion of T cells expressing Foxp3. Unlike in mice, Tci-L4-ES was incapable of inducing T cell Foxp3 expression but instead suppressed mitogen-induced and antigen-specific activation and proliferation of ovine PBMC in vitro. This effect was heat labile, suggesting that it is mediated by protein(s). Suppression was associated with up-regulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA, and specific monoclonal antibody neutralisation of IL-10 resulted in a 50% reduction in suppression, indicating involvement of the IL-10 signaling pathway. Suppression was significantly reduced in PBMC isolated from T. circumcincta infected vs. helminth-naïve lambs, and this reduction in suppression was associated with an increase in Tci-L4-ES antigen-specific T cells within the PBMC. In conclusion, we have identified a mechanism by which T. circumcincta may modulate the host adaptive immune response, potentially assisting survival of the parasite within the host. However, the impact of Tci-L4-ES-mediated lymphocyte suppression during T. circumcincta infection remains to be determined. PMID:23964850

  9. Method and system to perform energy-extraction based active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, Atul (Inventor); Joshi, Suresh M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method to provide active noise control to reduce noise and vibration in reverberant acoustic enclosures such as aircraft, vehicles, appliances, instruments, industrial equipment and the like is presented. A continuous-time multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state space mathematical model of the plant is obtained via analytical modeling and system identification. Compensation is designed to render the mathematical model passive in the sense of mathematical system theory. The compensated system is checked to ensure robustness of the passive property of the plant. The check ensures that the passivity is preserved if the mathematical model parameters are perturbed from nominal values. A passivity-based controller is designed and verified using numerical simulations and then tested. The controller is designed so that the resulting closed-loop response shows the desired noise reduction.

  10. Noise-induced effects in an active medium with periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepnev, A. V.; Shepelev, I. A.; Vadivasova, T. E.

    2014-01-01

    A model of an active medium with periodic boundary conditions in which the elementary cell is represented by a FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillator has been studied. Depending on the system parameters, the elementary cell can occur in either auto-oscillatory or excitable state. In both cases, an autonomous medium in the absence of noise performs sustained oscillations and exhibits the phenomenon of multistability. A method for diagnostics of the character of medium with the aid of external noise is proposed, specific features in behavior of the system near the point of transition from the excitable to auto-oscillatory state are considered, and the phenomena of coherent resonance and noise-induced switching are described.

  11. Comparative study of two structures of shunt active filter suppressing particular harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchaita, L.; Salem Nia, A.; Saadate, S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of shunt active filters used for suppressing particular harmonics generated by nonlinear loads in utility distribution power systems. Both structures of shunt active filter, voltage source active filter (VSAF) and current source active filter (CSAF), are considered. The analytical study of specific harmonics identification in a given spectrum is first presented. For simulation as well as experimentation the nonlinear load is a conventional three phase thyristor rectifier and harmonics 5 and 7 are selected to be eliminated by active filter. The whole system consisting of the ac power supply network, the SCR rectifier and the shunt active filter (VSAF/CSAF) is then simulated. The simulation results are discussed and the efficiency of the two kinds of active filter are compared. Finally, for the first structure, VSAF, the simulation results are confirmed by experimental test realized by means of a fully digital control active power filter developed in our laboratory.

  12. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: One and two interacting units.

    PubMed

    Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We consider the coaction of two distinct noise sources on the activation process of a single excitable unit and two interacting excitable units, which are mathematically described by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. We determine the most probable activation paths around which the corresponding stochastic trajectories are clustered. The key point lies in introducing appropriate boundary conditions that are relevant for a class II excitable unit, which can be immediately generalized also to scenarios involving two coupled units. We analyze the effects of the two noise sources on the statistical features of the activation process, in particular demonstrating how these are modified due to the linear or nonlinear form of interactions. Universal properties of the activation process are qualitatively discussed in the light of a stochastic bifurcation that underlies the transition from a stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. PMID:26764778

  13. Active Self-Testing Noise Measurement Sensors for Large-Scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10. PMID:24351634

  14. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2011-05-01

    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft. PMID:21568404

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Morizane, Yuki; Thanos, Aristomenis; Takeuchi, Kimio; Murakami, Yusuke; Kayama, Maki; Trichonas, George; Miller, Joan; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Vavvas, Demetrios G

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a critical role in tissue remodeling under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although MMP-9 expression is low in most cells and is tightly controlled, the mechanism of its regulation is poorly understood. We utilized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that were nullizygous for the catalytic α subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key regulator of energy homeostasis, to identify AMPK as a suppressor of MMP-9 expression. Total AMPKα deletion significantly elevated MMP-9 expression compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs, whereas single knock-out of the isoforms AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 caused minimal change in the level of MMP-9 expression. The suppressive role of AMPK on MMP-9 expression was mediated through both its activity and presence. The AMPK activators 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside and A769662 suppressed MMP-9 expression in WT MEFs, and AMPK inhibition by the overexpression of dominant negative (DN) AMPKα elevated MMP-9 expression. However, in AMPKα(-/-) MEFs transduced with DN AMPKα, MMP-9 expression was suppressed. AMPKα(-/-) MEFs showed increased phosphorylation of IκBα, expression of IκBα mRNA, nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB compared with WT. Consistently, selective NF-κB inhibitors BMS345541 and SM7368 decreased MMP-9 expression in AMPKα(-/-) MEFs. Overall, our results suggest that both AMPKα isoforms suppress MMP-9 expression and that both the activity and presence of AMPKα contribute to its function as a regulator of MMP-9 expression by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. PMID:21402702

  16. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Mariko; Nakata, Rieko; Katsukawa, Michiko; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and are involved in the control of COX-2 expression, and vice versa. Here, we show that COX-2 promoter activity was suppressed by essential oils derived from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel, and bergamot in cell-based transfection assays using bovine arterial endothelial cells. Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression and an activator of PPARalpha and gamma. PPARgamma-dependent suppression of COX-2 promoter activity was observed in response to carvacrol treatment. In human macrophage-like U937 cells, carvacrol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 expression through its agonistic effect on PPARgamma. These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol. PMID:19578162

  17. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  18. Multirate flutter suppression system design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Martin C.; Mason, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies will be applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing (also called the PAPA wing). Eventually, the designs will be implemented in hardware and tested on the BACT wing in a wind tunnel. This report describes a project at the University of Washington to design a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing. The objective of the project was two fold. First, to develop a methodology for designing robust multirate compensators, and second, to demonstrate the methodology by applying it to the design of a multirate flutter suppression system for the BACT wing. The contributions of this project are (1) development of an algorithm for synthesizing robust low order multirate control laws (the algorithm is capable of synthesizing a single compensator which stabilizes both the nominal plant and multiple plant perturbations; (2) development of a multirate design methodology, and supporting software, for modeling, analyzing and synthesizing multirate compensators; and (3) design of a multirate flutter suppression system for NASA's BACT wing which satisfies the specified design criteria. This report describes each of these contributions in detail. Section 2.0 discusses our design methodology. Section 3.0 details the results of our multirate flutter suppression system design for the BACT wing. Finally, Section 4.0 presents our conclusions and suggestions for future research. The body of the report focuses primarily on the results. The associated theoretical background appears in the three technical papers that are included as Attachments 1-3. Attachment 4 is a user's manual for the software that is key to our design methodology.

  19. Synthesis of active controls for flutter suppression on a flight research wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Perry, B., III; Murrow, H. N.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some activities associated with the preliminary design of an active control system for flutter suppression capable of demonstrating a 20% increase in flutter velocity. Results from two control system synthesis techniques are given. One technique uses classical control theory, and the other uses an 'aerodynamic energy method' where control surface rates or displacements are minimized. Analytical methods used to synthesize the control systems and evaluate their performance are described. Some aspects of a program for flight testing the active control system are also given. This program, called DAST (Drones for Aerodynamics and Structural Testing), employs modified drone-type vehicles for flight assessments and validation testing.

  20. Sizing of active piezoelectric struts for vibration suppression on a space-based interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirlin, S. W.; Laskin, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper concerns itself with the active suppression of mechanical vibrations on a representative future spaceborne optical interferometer. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a set of piezoelectric struts into the truss structure of the interferometer and the use of these active struts to modify the damping and stiffness characteristics of the truss. It is shown that vibration propagation can be significantly reduced through the use of very simple control laws. It is further shown that the force and stroke requirements for the active struts for this application are rather modest and fall well within the capabilities already demonstrated by prototype hardware in ground testing.

  1. The activation and suppression of plant innate immunity by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions released by infective juvenile nematodes are thought to be crucial for host invasion, for nematode migration inside plants, and for feeding on host cells. In the past, much of the research focused on the manipulation of developmental pathways in host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. However, recent findings demonstrate that plant-parasitic nematodes also deliver effectors into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to suppress plant defense responses. In this review, we describe the current insights in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the activation and suppression of host innate immunity by plant-parasitic nematodes along seven critical evolutionary and developmental transitions in plant parasitism. PMID:24906126

  2. Does adrenergic activity suppress insulin secretion during surgery? A clinical experiment with halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Aärimaa, M; Syvälahti, E; Ovaska, J

    1978-01-01

    Peroperative inhibition of insulin release is widely attributed to increased alpha-adrenergic activity. To test this hypothesis serum insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at short intervals in 11 patients who underwent major surgery. Five patients were anesthetized with halothane and six with general anesthesia without halothane. The results were similar in both patient groups; halothane had no effect on insulin. This suggests that suppression of insulin under operations is probably not due to activation of the alpha-adrenergic receptors of the pancreatic beta-cells. The authors propose that suppression of insulin secretion during surgery may be caused by adrenaline, which, in competing for the glucose receptors, insensitizes the pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:202205

  3. Active controls for flutter suppression and gust alleviation in supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Lottati, I.

    1980-01-01

    Application is made in the present paper of the recently developed relaxed aerodynamic energy concept and synthesis techniques to the definition of appropriate active control systems for the low-speed flutter model of the B-2707-300 supersonic cruise airplane. The effectiveness of the resulting activated systems is analytically tested for flutter suppression, wing root bending moment alleviation, and ride control (fuselage accelerations). The results obtained indicate that considerable increase in flutter speeds can be obtained by the various control systems, using a single trailing-edge control. In all cases, the flutter suppression control system led to a substantial reduction in both wing root bending moments and in fuselage and wing accelerations.

  4. Troglitazone inhibits endothelial cell proliferation through suppression of casein kinase 2 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuy-Sook; Park, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seahyoung; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Jang, Yangsoo; Park, Hyun-Young . E-mail: hypark65@nih.go.kr

    2006-07-21

    Troglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), has been reported to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation by suppressing Akt activation. Recently, it has been also proposed that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays an important role in such effect of troglitazone. However, the mechanism of how troglitazone regulates PTEN remains to be elucidated. We therefore investigated the effects of troglitazone on casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is known to negatively regulate PTEN activity. Troglitazone significantly inhibited serum-induced proliferation of HUVEC in a concentration dependent manner. Serum-induced Akt and its downstream signaling pathway activation was attenuated by troglitazone (10 {mu}M) pretreatment. The phosphorylation of PTEN, which was directly related to Akt activation, was decreased with troglitazone pretreatment and was inversely proportional to CK2 activity. DRB, a CK2 inhibitor, also showed effects similar to that of troglitazone on Akt and its downstream signaling molecules. In conclusion, our results suggest that troglitazone inhibits proliferation of HUVECs through suppression of CK2 activity rendering PTEN to remain activated, and this effect of troglitazone in HUVECs seems to be PPAR{gamma} independent.

  5. LArGe R&D for active background suppression in Gerda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Barnabé-Heider, M.; Budjáš, D.; Cattadori, C.; D'Andragora, A.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Junker, M.; Klimenko, A.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-07-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for future application in the GERDA experiment. Similar to GERDA, LArGe operates bare germanium detectors submersed into liquid argon (1 m3, 1.4tons), which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. The background suppression efficiency was studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique using a BEGe detector for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 103 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe with a coaxial HPGe detector (without PSD) yield a background index of the order 10-2 cts/(keV-kg-y), which is at the level of the GERDA phase I design goal. As a consequence of these results, the development of an active liquid argon veto in GERDA is pursued.

  6. Inhibition of Cellular Methyltransferases Promotes Endothelial Cell Activation by Suppressing Glutathione Peroxidase 1 Protein Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Madalena; Florindo, Cristina; Kalwa, Hermann; Silva, Zélia; Turanov, Anton A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; de Almeida, Isabel Tavares; Blom, Henk J.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Michel, Thomas; Castro, Rita; Loscalzo, Joseph; Handy, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is a negative regulator of most methyltransferases and the precursor for the cardiovascular risk factor homocysteine. We have previously identified a link between the homocysteine-induced suppression of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) and endothelial dysfunction. Here we demonstrate a specific mechanism by which hypomethylation, promoted by the accumulation of the homocysteine precursor SAH, suppresses GPx-1 expression and leads to inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. The expression of GPx-1 and a subset of other selenoproteins is dependent on the methylation of the tRNASec to the Um34 form. The formation of methylated tRNASec facilitates translational incorporation of selenocysteine at a UGA codon. Our findings demonstrate that SAH accumulation in endothelial cells suppresses the expression of GPx-1 to promote oxidative stress. Hypomethylation stress, caused by SAH accumulation, inhibits the formation of the methylated isoform of the tRNASec and reduces GPx-1 expression. In contrast, under these conditions, the expression and activity of thioredoxin reductase 1, another selenoprotein, is increased. Furthermore, SAH-induced oxidative stress creates a proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells characterized by up-regulation of adhesion molecules and an augmented capacity to bind leukocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that SAH accumulation in endothelial cells can induce tRNASec hypomethylation, which alters the expression of selenoproteins such as GPx-1 to contribute to a proatherogenic endothelial phenotype. PMID:24719327

  7. Protective effect of carnosine after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion possibly through suppressing astrocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Jihui; Bo, Shuhong; Lu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) induced by chronic hypoperfusion is a common cause of vascular dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of carnosine on white matter lesion after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through suppressing astrocyte activation. Methods: Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to permanent occlusion of the right unilateral common carotid arteries (rUCCAO) and treated with carnosine or histidine. Open field test, freezing test, Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses and western blot were performed after rUCCAO. Results: We found that carnosine ameliorated white matter lesion and cognitive impairment after rUCCAO. Carnosine suppressed the activation of astrocyte in both wide type mice and histidine decarboxylase knockout mice. However, administration of histidine did not show the same effect. We found that there were no differences between rUCCAO group and sham group for the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Furthermore, carnosine significantly attenuated the increase of inflammatory cytokine interferon gama. Conclusion: These data suggest carnosine induced neuroprotection during SIVD in mice is not dependent on the histaminergic pathway or the regulation of the expression of GLT-1 and GLAST, but may be due to a suppression of astrocyte activation and inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:26885268

  8. Ligustrazine improves blood circulation by suppressing Platelet activation in a rat model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajuan; Zhu, Huizhi; Tong, Jiabing; Li, Zegeng

    2016-07-01

    Chuan-xiong (Ligusticum wallichii) is a traditional herbal medicine in Eastern Asia, but the effect of its active component ligustrazine remains unclear. We explored its effect and possible mechanism in a well-characterized rat model of allergic asthma. Ligustrazine suppressed bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacholine, and suppressed lung inflammation in asthmatic rats. Ligustrazine exhibited potent immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects: it suppressed lymphocyte and eosinophil mobilization, and reduced cytokine IL-5 and IL-13 production significantly in lung tissues from asthmatic rats (P<0.05). Further histological examinations clearly demonstrated that ligustrazine improved blood circulation and ameliorated platelet activation, aggregation and adhesion, which induced sustained infiltration and activation of various inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes and eosinophils, followed by synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The present study suggests that ligustrazine is a potent agent for the treatment of allergic asthma due to its strong anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. PMID:27362664

  9. Transdermal neuromodulation of noradrenergic activity suppresses psychophysiological and biochemical stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, William J.; Boasso, Alyssa M.; Mortimore, Hailey M.; Silva, Rhonda S.; Charlesworth, Jonathan D.; Marlin, Michelle A.; Aebersold, Kirsten; Aven, Linh; Wetmore, Daniel Z.; Pal, Sumon K.

    2015-01-01

    We engineered a transdermal neuromodulation approach that targets peripheral (cranial and spinal) nerves and utilizes their afferent pathways as signaling conduits to influence brain function. We investigated the effects of this transdermal electrical neurosignaling (TEN) method on sympathetic physiology under different experimental conditions. The TEN method involved delivering high-frequency pulsed electrical currents to ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the right trigeminal nerve and cervical spinal nerve afferents. Under resting conditions, TEN significantly suppressed basal sympathetic tone compared to sham as indicated by functional infrared thermography of facial temperatures. In a different experiment, subjects treated with TEN reported significantly lower levels of tension and anxiety on the Profile of Mood States scale compared to sham. In a third experiment when subjects were experimentally stressed TEN produced a significant suppression of heart rate variability, galvanic skin conductance, and salivary α-amylase levels compared to sham. Collectively these observations demonstrate TEN can dampen basal sympathetic tone and attenuate sympathetic activity in response to acute stress induction. Our physiological and biochemical observations are consistent with the hypothesis that TEN modulates noradrenergic signaling to suppress sympathetic activity. We conclude that dampening sympathetic activity in such a manner represents a promising approach to managing daily stress. PMID:26353920

  10. Transdermal neuromodulation of noradrenergic activity suppresses psychophysiological and biochemical stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Tyler, William J; Boasso, Alyssa M; Mortimore, Hailey M; Silva, Rhonda S; Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Marlin, Michelle A; Aebersold, Kirsten; Aven, Linh; Wetmore, Daniel Z; Pal, Sumon K

    2015-01-01

    We engineered a transdermal neuromodulation approach that targets peripheral (cranial and spinal) nerves and utilizes their afferent pathways as signaling conduits to influence brain function. We investigated the effects of this transdermal electrical neurosignaling (TEN) method on sympathetic physiology under different experimental conditions. The TEN method involved delivering high-frequency pulsed electrical currents to ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the right trigeminal nerve and cervical spinal nerve afferents. Under resting conditions, TEN significantly suppressed basal sympathetic tone compared to sham as indicated by functional infrared thermography of facial temperatures. In a different experiment, subjects treated with TEN reported significantly lower levels of tension and anxiety on the Profile of Mood States scale compared to sham. In a third experiment when subjects were experimentally stressed TEN produced a significant suppression of heart rate variability, galvanic skin conductance, and salivary α-amylase levels compared to sham. Collectively these observations demonstrate TEN can dampen basal sympathetic tone and attenuate sympathetic activity in response to acute stress induction. Our physiological and biochemical observations are consistent with the hypothesis that TEN modulates noradrenergic signaling to suppress sympathetic activity. We conclude that dampening sympathetic activity in such a manner represents a promising approach to managing daily stress. PMID:26353920

  11. Variation in harbour porpoise activity in response to seismic survey noise.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Brookes, Kate L; Graham, Isla M; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of harbour porpoises exposed to impulse noise from a 10 day two-dimensional seismic survey. Here, we used an array of passive acoustic loggers coupled with calibrated noise measurements to test whether the seismic survey influenced the activity patterns of porpoises remaining in the area. We showed that the probability of recording a buzz declined by 15% in the ensonified area and was positively related to distance from the source vessel. We also estimated received levels at the hydrophones and characterized the noise response curve. Our results demonstrate how environmental impact assessments can be developed to assess more subtle effects of noise disturbance on activity patterns and foraging efficiency. PMID:24850891

  12. Variation in harbour porpoise activity in response to seismic survey noise

    PubMed Central

    Pirotta, Enrico; Brookes, Kate L.; Graham, Isla M.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Animals exposed to anthropogenic disturbance make trade-offs between perceived risk and the cost of leaving disturbed areas. Impact assessments tend to focus on overt behavioural responses leading to displacement, but trade-offs may also impact individual energy budgets through reduced foraging performance. Previous studies found no evidence for broad-scale displacement of harbour porpoises exposed to impulse noise from a 10 day two-dimensional seismic survey. Here, we used an array of passive acoustic loggers coupled with calibrated noise measurements to test whether the seismic survey influenced the activity patterns of porpoises remaining in the area. We showed that the probability of recording a buzz declined by 15% in the ensonified area and was positively related to distance from the source vessel. We also estimated received levels at the hydrophones and characterized the noise response curve. Our results demonstrate how environmental impact assessments can be developed to assess more subtle effects of noise disturbance on activity patterns and foraging efficiency. PMID:24850891

  13. Improper activation of D1 and D2 receptors leads to excess noise in prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Michael C.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    The dopaminergic system has been shown to control the amount of noise in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and likely plays an important role in working memory and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We developed a model that takes into account the known receptor distributions of D1 and D2 receptors, the changes these receptors have on neuron response properties, as well as identified circuitry involved in working memory. Our model suggests that D1 receptor under-stimulation in supragranular layers gates internal noise into the PFC leading to cognitive symptoms as has been proposed in attention disorders, while D2 over-stimulation gates noise into the PFC by over-activation of cortico-striatal projecting neurons in infragranular layers. We apply this model in the context of a memory-guided saccade paradigm and show deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenic patients. We also show set-shifting impairments similar to those observed in rodents with D1 and D2 receptor manipulations. We discuss how the introduction of noise through changes in D1 and D2 receptor activation may account for many of the symptoms of schizophrenia depending on where this dysfunction occurs in the PFC. PMID:25814948

  14. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  15. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  16. Active Control of a Moving Noise SOURCE—EFFECT of Off-Axis Source Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, J.; PAN, J.; HODGSON, M.

    2002-03-01

    An optimally arranged multiple-channel active-control system is known to be able to create a large quiet zone in free space for a stationary primary noise source. When the primary noise source moves, the active control of the noise becomes much more difficult, as the primary noise field changes with time in space. In this case, the controller of the control system must respond fast enough to compensate for the change; much research has been focused on this issue. In this paper, it is shown that a moving source also causes difficulties from an acoustical perspective. A moving source not only changes continuously the strengths and phases of the sound field in the space, but also changes the wavefront of the primary sound field continuously. It is known that the efficiency of active noise control is determined mainly by the wavefront matching between the primary and control fields. To keep the control system effective in the case of a moving source, the wavefront of the control field needs to change, in order to continuously match the primary-wavefront change. This paper shows that there are limitations to the control-wavefront change. An optimally pre-arranged, multiple-channel control system is not able to construct a matching wavefront when the primary source moves outside a certain range. In other words, the control system is still able to create a large quiet zone only when the primary source moves within a range around the central axis of the control system. Both the location and the size of the quiet zone change with the location of the primary source.

  17. Dopamine Activation Preserves Visual Motion Perception Despite Noise Interference of Human V5/MT

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Nada; Fu, Richard Z.; Abou-El-Ela Bourquin, Bilal; Bhrugubanda, Vamsee; Schultz, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    When processing sensory signals, the brain must account for noise, both noise in the stimulus and that arising from within its own neuronal circuitry. Dopamine receptor activation is known to enhance both visual cortical signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and visual perceptual performance; however, it is unknown whether these two dopamine-mediated phenomena are linked. To assess this, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied to visual cortical area V5/MT to reduce the SNR focally and thus disrupt visual motion discrimination performance to visual targets located in the same retinotopic space. The hypothesis that dopamine receptor activation enhances perceptual performance by improving cortical SNR predicts that dopamine activation should antagonize TMS disruption of visual perception. We assessed this hypothesis via a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with the dopamine receptor agonists cabergoline (a D2 agonist) and pergolide (a D1/D2 agonist) administered in separate sessions (separated by 2 weeks) in 12 healthy volunteers in a William's balance-order design. TMS degraded visual motion perception when the evoked phosphene and the visual stimulus overlapped in time and space in the placebo and cabergoline conditions, but not in the pergolide condition. This suggests that dopamine D1 or combined D1 and D2 receptor activation enhances cortical SNR to boost perceptual performance. That local visual cortical excitability was unchanged across drug conditions suggests the involvement of long-range intracortical interactions in this D1 effect. Because increased internal noise (and thus lower SNR) can impair visual perceptual learning, improving visual cortical SNR via D1/D2 agonist therapy may be useful in boosting rehabilitation programs involving visual perceptual training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we address the issue of whether dopamine activation improves visual perception despite increasing sensory noise in the visual cortex

  18. Analysis of noise characteristics for the active pixels in CMOS image sensors for X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Gyuseong; Bae, Jun-Hyung

    2006-09-01

    CMOS image sensors have poorer performance compared to conventional charge coupled devices (CCDs). Since CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in general have higher temporal noise, higher dark current, smaller full well charge capacitance, and lower spectral response, they cannot provide the same wide dynamic range and superior signal to noise ratio as CCDs. In view of electronic noise, the main source for the CMOS APS is the pixel, along with other signal processing blocks such as row and column decoder, analog signal processor (ASP), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and timing and control logic circuitry. Therefore, it is important and necessary to characterize noise of the active pixels in CMOS APSs, and we performed experimental measurements and comparisons with theoretical estimations. To derive noise source of the pixels, we designed and fabricated four types of CMOS active pixels, and each pixel is composed of a photodiode and three MOS transistors. The size of these pixels is 100 μm×100 μm. The test chip was fabricated using ETRI 0.8 μm (2P/2M) standard CMOS process. It was found that the dominant noise in CMOS active pixels is shot noise during integration under normal operating conditions. And, it was also seen that epitaxial type pixels have similar noise level compared to non-epitaxial type, and the noise of diffusion type pixel is larger than for a well type pixel on the same substrate type.

  19. Experimental Study of Active Techniques for Blade/Vortex Interaction Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobiki, Noboru; Murashige, Atsushi; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi

    This paper presents the experimental results of the effect of Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) and Active Flap on the Blade/Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Wind tunnel tests were performed with a 1-bladed rotor system to evaluate the simplified BVI phenomenon avoiding the complicated aerodynamic interference which is characteristically and inevitably caused by a multi-bladed rotor. Another merit to use this 1-bladed rotor system is that the several objective active techniques can be evaluated under the same condition installed in the same rotor system. The effects of the active techniques on the BVI noise reduction were evaluated comprehensively by the sound pressure, the blade/vortex miss distance obtained by Laser light Sheet (LLS), the blade surface pressure distribution and the tip vortex structure by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The correlation among these quantities to describe the effect of the active techniques on the BVI conditions is well obtained. The experiments show that the blade/vortex miss distance is more dominant for BVI noise than the other two BVI governing factors, such as blade lift and vortex strength at the moment of BVI.

  20. Active control of noise on the source side of a partition to increase its sound isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarabini, Marco; Roure, Alain; Pinhede, Cedric

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a local active noise control system that virtually increases the sound isolation of a dividing wall by means of a secondary source array. With the proposed method, sound pressure on the source side of the partition is reduced using an array of loudspeakers that generates destructive interference on the wall surface, where an array of error microphones is placed. The reduction of sound pressure on the incident side of the wall is expected to decrease the sound radiated into the contiguous room. The method efficiency was experimentally verified by checking the insertion loss of the active noise control system; in order to investigate the possibility of using a large number of actuators, a decentralized FXLMS control algorithm was used. Active control performances and stability were tested with different array configurations, loudspeaker directivities and enclosure characteristics (sound source position and absorption coefficient). The influence of all these parameters was investigated with the factorial design of experiments. The main outcome of the experimental campaign was that the insertion loss produced by the secondary source array, in the 50-300 Hz frequency range, was close to 10 dB. In addition, the analysis of variance showed that the active noise control performance can be optimized with a proper choice of the directional characteristics of the secondary source and the distance between loudspeakers and error microphones.

  1. ELK3 Suppresses Angiogenesis by Inhibiting the Transcriptional Activity of ETS-1 on MT1-MMP

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Sun-Hee; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-01-01

    Ets transcription factors play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Knockout of the Ets gene family members in mice resulted in disrupted angiogenesis and malformed vascular systems. In this study, the role and mechanism of ELK3, an Ets factor, in angiogenesis was investigated using ELK3-specific siRNA in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo implantation assay. The suppression of ELK3 expression resulted in the reinforcement of VEGF-induced tube formation in HUVECs. The in vivo Matrigel plug assay also showed that ELK3 knockdown resulted in increased angiogenesis. Luciferase activity of the MT1-MMP promoter induced by ETS-1 factor was attenuated ELK3 co-transfection. CHIP assay showed the binding of ELK3 on the MT1-MMP promoter. MT1-MMP knockdown in the ELK3 knockdowned cells resulted in the decrease of tube formation suggesting that MT1-MMP transcriptional repression is required for ELK3-mediated anti-angiogenesis effect. Our data also showed that the suppressive effect of ELK3 on the angiogenesis was partly due to the inhibitory effect of ELK3 to the ETS-1 transcriptional activity on the MT1-MMP promoter rather than direct suppression of ELK3 on the target gene, since the expression level of co-repressor Sin3A is low in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that ELK3 plays a negative role of VEGF-induced angiogenesis through indirectly inhibiting ETS-1 function. PMID:24719561

  2. ELK3 suppresses angiogenesis by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of ETS-1 on MT1-MMP.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sun-Hee; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-01-01

    Ets transcription factors play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Knockout of the Ets gene family members in mice resulted in disrupted angiogenesis and malformed vascular systems. In this study, the role and mechanism of ELK3, an Ets factor, in angiogenesis was investigated using ELK3-specific siRNA in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo implantation assay. The suppression of ELK3 expression resulted in the reinforcement of VEGF-induced tube formation in HUVECs. The in vivo Matrigel plug assay also showed that ELK3 knockdown resulted in increased angiogenesis. Luciferase activity of the MT1-MMP promoter induced by ETS-1 factor was attenuated ELK3 co-transfection. CHIP assay showed the binding of ELK3 on the MT1-MMP promoter. MT1-MMP knockdown in the ELK3 knockdowned cells resulted in the decrease of tube formation suggesting that MT1-MMP transcriptional repression is required for ELK3-mediated anti-angiogenesis effect. Our data also showed that the suppressive effect of ELK3 on the angiogenesis was partly due to the inhibitory effect of ELK3 to the ETS-1 transcriptional activity on the MT1-MMP promoter rather than direct suppression of ELK3 on the target gene, since the expression level of co-repressor Sin3A is low in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that ELK3 plays a negative role of VEGF-induced angiogenesis through indirectly inhibiting ETS-1 function. PMID:24719561

  3. Suppression of contractile activity in the small intestine by indomethacin and omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Bhattarai, Deepa; Phan, Tri M; Dial, Elizabeth J; Uray, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat a number of conditions, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used to prevent NSAID-induced gastric mucosal damage; however, the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal motility are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of a prototypical NSAID, indomethacin, either alone or in conjunction with the PPI omeprazole, on intestinal motility. Rats were randomly divided into four groups treated with vehicle, omeprazole, indomethacin, or a combination of indomethacin and omeprazole. Intestinal motility and transit were measured along with inflammatory mediators in the intestinal smooth muscle, markers of mucosal damage, and bacterial counts in the intestinal wall. Indomethacin, but not omeprazole, caused mucosal injury indicated by lower gut bleeding; however, both omeprazole and indomethacin suppressed contractile activity and frequency in the distal part of the small intestine. Cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce indomethacin-induced intestinal bleeding. Furthermore, although indomethacin caused increased inflammation as indicated by increased edema development and inflammatory mediators, cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce inflammation in the intestinal smooth muscle or prevent the increased bacterial count in the intestinal wall induced by indomethacin. We conclude that both NSAID and PPI treatment suppressed contractile activity in the distal regions of the small intestine. The suppression of intestinal contractility was associated with increased inflammation in both cases; however, indomethacin and omeprazole appear to affect intestinal motility by different mechanisms. PMID:25721304

  4. Flutter suppression control law synthesis for the Active Flexible Wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    The Active Flexible Wing Project is a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. The objectives are the validation of methodologies associated with mathematical modeling, flutter suppression control law development and digital implementation of the control system for application to flexible aircraft. A flutter suppression control law synthesis for this project is described. The state-space mathematical model used for the synthesis included ten flexible modes, four control surface modes and rational function approximation of the doublet-lattice unsteady aerodynamics. The design steps involved developing the full-order optimal control laws, reducing the order of the control law, and optimizing the reduced-order control law in both the continuous and the discrete domains to minimize stochastic response. System robustness was improved using singular value constraints. An 8th order robust control law was designed to increase the symmetric flutter dynamic pressure by 100 percent. Preliminary results are provided and experiences gained are discussed.

  5. Effects of three activities on annoyance responses to recorded flyovers. [human tolerance of jet aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shepherd, W. T.; Fletcher, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Human subjects participated in an experiment in which they were engaged in TV viewing, telephone listening, or reverie (no activity) for a 1/2-hour session. During the session, they were exposed to a series of recorded aircraft sounds at the rate of one flight every 2 minutes. At each session, four levels of flyover noise, separated by 5 db increments were presented several times in a Latin Square balanced sequence. The peak levels of the noisiest flyover in any session was fixed at 95, 90, 85, 75, or 70 db. At the end of the test session, subjects recorded their responses to the aircraft sounds, using a bipolar scale which covered the range from very pleasant to extremely annoying. Responses to aircraft noises are found to be significantly affected by the particular activity in which the subjects are engaged.

  6. Noise focusing and the emergence of coherent activity in neuronal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, Javier G.; Soriano, Jordi; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Teller, Sara; Casademunt, Jaume

    2013-09-01

    At early stages of development, neuronal cultures in vitro spontaneously reach a coherent state of collective firing in a pattern of nearly periodic global bursts. Although understanding the spontaneous activity of neuronal networks is of chief importance in neuroscience, the origin and nature of that pulsation has remained elusive. By combining high-resolution calcium imaging with modelling in silico, we show that this behaviour is controlled by the propagation of waves that nucleate randomly in a set of points that is specific to each culture and is selected by a non-trivial interplay between dynamics and topology. The phenomenon is explained by the noise focusing effect--a strong spatio-temporal localization of the noise dynamics that originates in the complex structure of avalanches of spontaneous activity. Results are relevant to neuronal tissues and to complex networks with integrate-and-fire dynamics and metric correlations, for instance, in rumour spreading on social networks.

  7. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls - Review of developments and applications based on the aerodynamic energy concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of the aerodynamic energy concept, involving the use of active controls for flutter suppression, is reviewed. Applications of the concept include the suppression of external-store flutter of three different configurations of the YF-17 flutter model using a single trailing edge control surface activated by a single fixed-gain control law. Consideration is also given to some initial results concerning the flutter suppression of the 1/20 scale low speed wind-tunnel model of the Boeing 2707-300 supersonic transport using an activated trailing edge control surface.

  8. Heparin suppresses lipid raft-mediated signaling and ligand-independent EGF receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Tao; Song, Lifang; Templeton, Douglas M

    2007-04-01

    Heparin is well known to suppress vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, and attempts to exploit this therapeutically have led to recognition of multiple pathways for heparin's anti-mitogenic actions. At low concentrations (ca. 1 microg.ml(-1)), these suppressive effects may reflect physiological activities of endogenous heparan sulfates, and appear to be rapid responses to extracellular or cell surface-associated heparin. Because heparin has been shown to influence expression of caveolin proteins, and caveolae/lipid rafts are critical structures modulating cell signaling, we examined the effect of heparin on signaling involving cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. The VSMC line PAC-1 activates the MAP kinase Erk in response to the cholesterol-sequestering agents methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and nystatin. This follows a temporal sequence that involves Ras-GTP activation of MEK, and is independent of PKC, Src, and PI3 kinase. However, ligand-independent phosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by removal of cholesterol precedes Ras activation, and the EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 blocks Erk phosphorylation, supporting occurrence of the signaling sequence EGFR-Ras-MEK-Erk. Phosphorylation of EGFR occurs predominantly in caveolin-rich microdomains as identified by Western blotting of fractions from density gradient centrifugation of membranes prepared under detergent-free conditions. In these situations, heparin inhibits phosphorylation of EGFR on the Src-dependent site Tyr(845), but not the autophosphorylation of Tyr(1173), and decreases Ras activation and Erk phosphorylation. We conclude that heparin can suppress Erk signaling in VSMC with effects on site-specific phosphorylation of EGFR localized in caveolin-enriched lipid rafts. PMID:17226785

  9. Active Suppression of Early Immune Response in Tobacco by the Human Pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Shirron, Natali; Yaron, Sima

    2011-01-01

    The persistence of enteric pathogens on plants has been studied extensively, mainly due to the potential hazard of human pathogens such as Salmonella enterica being able to invade and survive in/on plants. Factors involved in the interactions between enteric bacteria and plants have been identified and consequently it was hypothesized that plants may be vectors or alternative hosts for enteric pathogens. To survive, endophytic bacteria have to escape the plant immune systems, which function at different levels through the plant-bacteria interactions. To understand how S. enterica survives endophyticaly we conducted a detailed analysis on its ability to elicit or evade the plant immune response. The models of this study were Nicotiana tabacum plants and cells suspension exposed to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The plant immune response was analyzed by looking at tissue damage and by testing oxidative burst and pH changes. It was found that S. Typhimurium did not promote disease symptoms in the contaminated plants. Live S. Typhimurium did not trigger the production of an oxidative burst and pH changes by the plant cells, while heat killed or chloramphenicol treated S. Typhimurium and purified LPS of Salmonella were significant elicitors, indicating that S. Typhimurium actively suppress the plant response. By looking at the plant response to mutants defective in virulence factors we showed that the suppression depends on secreted factors. Deletion of invA reduced the ability of S. Typhimurium to suppress oxidative burst and pH changes, indicating that a functional SPI1 TTSS is required for the suppression. This study demonstrates that plant colonization by S. Typhimurium is indeed an active process. S. Typhimurium utilizes adaptive strategies of altering innate plant perception systems to improve its fitness in the plant habitat. All together these results suggest a complex mechanism for perception of S. Typhimurium by plants. PMID:21541320

  10. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nancy Y; Wasserfall, Clive H; Meacham, Amy M; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-06-11

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  11. Myxoma virus suppresses proliferation of activated T lymphocytes yet permits oncolytic virus transfer to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Meacham, Amy M.; Wise, Elizabeth; Chan, Winnie; Wingard, John R.; McFadden, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) can be curative for certain hematologic malignancies, but the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major limitation for wider application. Ideally, strategies to improve allo-HCT would involve suppression of T lymphocytes that drive GVHD while sparing those that mediate graft-versus-malignancy (GVM). Recently, using a xenograft model, we serendipitously discovered that myxoma virus (MYXV) prevented GVHD while permitting GVM. In this study, we show that MYXV binds to resting, primary human T lymphocytes but will only proceed into active virus infection after the T cells receive activation signals. MYXV-infected T lymphocytes exhibited impaired proliferation after activation with reduced expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and soluble IL-2Rα, but did not affect expression of IL-4 and IL-10. MYXV suppressed T-cell proliferation in 2 patterns (full vs partial) depending on the donor. In terms of GVM, we show that MYXV-infected activated human T lymphocytes effectively deliver live oncolytic virus to human multiple myeloma cells, thus augmenting GVM by transfer of active oncolytic virus to residual cancer cells. Given this dual capacity of reducing GVHD plus increasing the antineoplastic effectiveness of GVM, ex vivo virotherapy with MYXV may be a promising clinical adjunct to allo-HCT regimens. PMID:25904246

  12. Antiosteoclastic activity of milk thistle extract after ovariectomy to suppress estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Lye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Min-Kyung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seoung-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE) and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. PMID:23781510

  13. Active Control of Inlet Noise on the JT15D Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerome P.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the year from November 1997 to December 1998 on the Active Noise Control of Turbofan Engines research project funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The concept of implementing active noise control techniques with fuselage-mounted error sensors is investigated both analytically and experimentally. The analytical part of the project involves the continued development of an advanced modeling technique to provide prediction and design guidelines for application of active noise control techniques to large, realistic high bypass engines of the type on which active control methods are expected to be applied. Results from the advanced analytical model are presented that show the effectiveness of the control strategies, and the analytical results presented for fuselage error sensors show good agreement with the experimentally observed results and provide additional insight into the control phenomena. Additional analytical results are presented for active noise control used in conjunction with a wavenumber sensing technique. The experimental work is carried out on a running JT15D turbofan jet engine in a test stand at Virginia Tech. The control strategy used in these tests was the feedforward Filtered-X LMS algorithm. The control inputs were supplied by single and multiple circumferential arrays of acoustic sources equipped with neodymium iron cobalt magnets mounted upstream of the fan. The reference signal was obtained from an inlet mounted eddy current probe. The error signals were obtained from a number of pressure transducers flush-mounted in a simulated fuselage section mounted in the engine test cell. The active control methods are investigated when implemented with the control sources embedded within the acoustically absorptive material on a passively-lined inlet. The experimental results show that the combination of active control techniques with fuselage

  14. Distinct promoter activation mechanisms modulate noise-driven HIV gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chavali, Arvind K.; Wong, Victor C.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur when the virus occupies a transcriptionally silent but reversible state, presenting a major obstacle to cure. There is experimental evidence that random fluctuations in gene expression, when coupled to the strong positive feedback encoded by the HIV genetic circuit, act as a ‘molecular switch’ controlling cell fate, i.e., viral replication versus latency. Here, we implemented a stochastic computational modeling approach to explore how different promoter activation mechanisms in the presence of positive feedback would affect noise-driven activation from latency. We modeled the HIV promoter as existing in one, two, or three states that are representative of increasingly complex mechanisms of promoter repression underlying latency. We demonstrate that two-state and three-state models are associated with greater variability in noisy activation behaviors, and we find that Fano factor (defined as variance over mean) proves to be a useful noise metric to compare variability across model structures and parameter values. Finally, we show how three-state promoter models can be used to qualitatively describe complex reactivation phenotypes in response to therapeutic perturbations that we observe experimentally. Ultimately, our analysis suggests that multi-state models more accurately reflect observed heterogeneous reactivation and may be better suited to evaluate how noise affects viral clearance. PMID:26666681

  15. Active Noise Control of Low Speed Fan Rotor-Stator Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Hu, Ziqiang; Pla, Frederic G.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Active Noise Cancellation System designed by General Electric and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using wall mounted secondary acoustic sources and sensors within the duct of a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine for active noise cancellation of fan tones. The control system is based on a modal control approach. A known acoustic mode propagating in the fan duct is cancelled using an array of flush-mounted compact sound sources. Controller inputs are signals from a shaft encoder and a microphone array which senses the residual acoustic mode in the duct. The canceling modal signal is generated by a modal controller. The key results are that the (6,0) mode was completely eliminated at 920 Hz and substantially reduced elsewhere. The total tone power was reduced 9.4 dB. Farfield 2BPF SPL reductions of 13 dB were obtained. The (4,0) and (4,1) modes were reduced simultaneously yielding a 15 dB modal PWL decrease. Global attenuation of PWL was obtained using an actuator and sensor system totally contained within the duct.

  16. Distinct promoter activation mechanisms modulate noise-driven HIV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Arvind K; Wong, Victor C; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur when the virus occupies a transcriptionally silent but reversible state, presenting a major obstacle to cure. There is experimental evidence that random fluctuations in gene expression, when coupled to the strong positive feedback encoded by the HIV genetic circuit, act as a 'molecular switch' controlling cell fate, i.e., viral replication versus latency. Here, we implemented a stochastic computational modeling approach to explore how different promoter activation mechanisms in the presence of positive feedback would affect noise-driven activation from latency. We modeled the HIV promoter as existing in one, two, or three states that are representative of increasingly complex mechanisms of promoter repression underlying latency. We demonstrate that two-state and three-state models are associated with greater variability in noisy activation behaviors, and we find that Fano factor (defined as variance over mean) proves to be a useful noise metric to compare variability across model structures and parameter values. Finally, we show how three-state promoter models can be used to qualitatively describe complex reactivation phenotypes in response to therapeutic perturbations that we observe experimentally. Ultimately, our analysis suggests that multi-state models more accurately reflect observed heterogeneous reactivation and may be better suited to evaluate how noise affects viral clearance. PMID:26666681

  17. Distinct promoter activation mechanisms modulate noise-driven HIV gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavali, Arvind K.; Wong, Victor C.; Miller-Jensen, Kathryn

    2015-12-01

    Latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur when the virus occupies a transcriptionally silent but reversible state, presenting a major obstacle to cure. There is experimental evidence that random fluctuations in gene expression, when coupled to the strong positive feedback encoded by the HIV genetic circuit, act as a ‘molecular switch’ controlling cell fate, i.e., viral replication versus latency. Here, we implemented a stochastic computational modeling approach to explore how different promoter activation mechanisms in the presence of positive feedback would affect noise-driven activation from latency. We modeled the HIV promoter as existing in one, two, or three states that are representative of increasingly complex mechanisms of promoter repression underlying latency. We demonstrate that two-state and three-state models are associated with greater variability in noisy activation behaviors, and we find that Fano factor (defined as variance over mean) proves to be a useful noise metric to compare variability across model structures and parameter values. Finally, we show how three-state promoter models can be used to qualitatively describe complex reactivation phenotypes in response to therapeutic perturbations that we observe experimentally. Ultimately, our analysis suggests that multi-state models more accurately reflect observed heterogeneous reactivation and may be better suited to evaluate how noise affects viral clearance.

  18. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Methods Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. Results The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Conclusions Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However

  19. Melatonin suppresses hypoxia-induced migration of HUVECs via inhibition of ERK/Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zheng, Jianchao; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Yichao; Zhou, Ruijue; Zheng, Lu; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin, a naturally-occurring hormone, possesses antioxidant properties and ameliorates vascular endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we evaluate the impact of melatonin on the migratory capability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to hypoxia and further investigate whether ERK/Rac1 signaling is involved in this process. Here, we found that melatonin inhibited hypoxia-stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, melatonin inhibited Rac1 activation and suppressed the co-localized Rac1 and F-actin on the membrane of HUVECs under hypoxic condition. In addition, the blockade of Rac1 activation with ectopic expression of an inactive mutant form of Rac1-T17N suppressed HIF-1α expression and cell migration in response to hypoxia, as well, but constitutive activation of Rac1 mutant Rac1-V12 restored HIF-1α expression, preventing the inhibition of melatonin on cell migration. Furthermore, the anti-Rac1 effect of melatonin in HUVECs appeared to be associated with its inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, but not that of the PI3k/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, our work indicates that melatonin exerts an anti-migratory effect on hypoxic HUVECs by blocking ERK/Rac1 activation and subsequent HIF-1α upregulation. PMID:25123138

  20. IK-guided PP2A suppresses Aurora B activity in the interphase of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyi; Jeong, Ae Lee; Park, Jeong Su; Han, Sora; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Keun Il; Kim, Yonghwan; Park, Jong Hoon; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Myung Sok; Yang, Young

    2016-09-01

    Aurora B activation is triggered at the mitotic entry and required for proper microtubule-kinetochore attachment at mitotic phase. Therefore, Aurora B should be in inactive form in interphase to prevent aberrant cell cycle progression. However, it is unclear how the inactivation of Aurora B is sustained during interphase. In this study, we find that IK depletion-induced mitotic arrest leads to G2 arrest by Aurora B inhibition, indicating that IK depletion enhances Aurora B activation before mitotic entry. IK binds to Aurora B, and colocalizes on the nuclear foci during interphase. Our data further show that IK inhibits Aurora B activation through recruiting PP2A into IK and Aurora B complex. It is thus believed that IK, as a scaffold protein, guides PP2A into Aurora B to suppress its activity in interphase until mitotic entry. PMID:26906715