Extensions of the Ferry shear wave model for active linear and nonlinear microrheology
Mitran, Sorin M.; Forest, M. Gregory; Yao, Lingxing; Lindley, Brandon; Hill, David B.
2009-01-01
The classical oscillatory shear wave model of Ferry et al. [J. Polym. Sci. 2:593-611, (1947)] is extended for active linear and nonlinear microrheology. In the Ferry protocol, oscillation and attenuation lengths of the shear wave measured from strobe photographs determine storage and loss moduli at each frequency of plate oscillation. The microliter volumes typical in biology require modifications of experimental method and theory. Microbead tracking replaces strobe photographs. Reflection from the top boundary yields counterpropagating modes which are modeled here for linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive laws. Furthermore, bulk imposed strain is easily controlled, and we explore the onset of normal stress generation and shear thinning using nonlinear viscoelastic models. For this paper, we present the theory, exact linear and nonlinear solutions where possible, and simulation tools more generally. We then illustrate errors in inverse characterization by application of the Ferry formulas, due to both suppression of wave reflection and nonlinearity, even if there were no experimental error. This shear wave method presents an active and nonlinear analog of the two-point microrheology of Crocker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85: 888 - 891 (2000)]. Nonlocal (spatially extended) deformations and stresses are propagated through a small volume sample, on wavelengths long relative to bead size. The setup is ideal for exploration of nonlinear threshold behavior. PMID:20011614
Origin of the effective mobility in non-linear active micro-rheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santamaría-Holek, I.; Pérez-Madrid, A.
2016-10-01
The distinction between the damping coefficient and the effective non-linear mobility of driven particles in active micro-rheology of supercooled liquids is explained in terms of individual and collective dynamics. The effective mobility arises as a collective effect which gives insight into the energy landscape of the system. On the other hand, the damping coefficient is a constant that modulates the effect of external forces over the thermal energy which particles have at their disposition to perform Brownian motion. For long times, these thermal fluctuations become characterized in terms of an effective temperature that is a consequence of the dynamic coupling between kinetic and configurational degrees of freedom induced by the presence of the strong external force. The interplay between collective mobility and effective temperature allows to formulate a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation that may be used to determine the collective diffusion coefficient. The explicit relations we deduce reproduce simulation data remarkably well.
A Quantitative Study of Bulk Stresses in Nonlinear Microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Depuit, Ryan; Squires, Todd
2010-11-01
We investigate the nonlinear microrheology of a simple model system - a spherical probe translating through a dilute suspension of rigid rods - to elucidate a variety of issues inherent in the interpretation of nonlinear microrheology. We have developed a computational system to quantitatively examine the issues present in interpretation of nonlinear microrheology, as originally discussed by Squires (Langmuir, 2008). Following recent work emphasizing the importance of the microstructural behavior in the bulk (Sriram et. al, 2009), we focus our attention on the bulk microstructural deformation, and examine the significance of its (Lagrangian) transient nature, as well as the consequences of the mixed and inhomogeneous flows inherent to nonlinear microrheology. From this quantitative study, we pose solutions for the current theoretical issues facing nonlinear microrheology in interpretation and comparison of the microviscosity with the shear viscosity from traditional bulk rheometry.
Active microrheology of smectic membranes.
Qi, Zhiyuan; Ferguson, Kyle; Sechrest, Yancey; Munsat, Tobin; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A; Maclennan, Joseph E; Clark, Noel A; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R
2017-02-01
Thin fluid membranes embedded in a bulk fluid of different viscosity are of fundamental interest as experimental realizations of quasi-two-dimensional fluids and as models of biological membranes. We have probed the hydrodynamics of thin fluid membranes by active microrheology using small tracer particles to observe the highly anisotropic flow fields generated around a rigid oscillating post inserted into a freely suspended smectic liquid crystal film that is surrounded by air. In general, at distances more than a few Saffman lengths from the meniscus around the post, the measured velocities are larger than the flow computed by modeling a moving disklike inclusion of finite extent by superposing Levine-MacKintosh response functions for pointlike inclusions in a viscous membrane. The observed discrepancy is attributed to additional coupling of the film with the air below the film that is displaced directly by the shaft of the moving post.
Active microrheology of smectic membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Zhiyuan; Ferguson, Kyle; Sechrest, Yancey; Munsat, Tobin; Park, Cheol Soo; Glaser, Matthew A.; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Clark, Noel A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Powers, Thomas R.
2017-02-01
Thin fluid membranes embedded in a bulk fluid of different viscosity are of fundamental interest as experimental realizations of quasi-two-dimensional fluids and as models of biological membranes. We have probed the hydrodynamics of thin fluid membranes by active microrheology using small tracer particles to observe the highly anisotropic flow fields generated around a rigid oscillating post inserted into a freely suspended smectic liquid crystal film that is surrounded by air. In general, at distances more than a few Saffman lengths from the meniscus around the post, the measured velocities are larger than the flow computed by modeling a moving disklike inclusion of finite extent by superposing Levine-MacKintosh response functions for pointlike inclusions in a viscous membrane. The observed discrepancy is attributed to additional coupling of the film with the air below the film that is displaced directly by the shaft of the moving post.
Passive versus active local microrheology in mammalian cells and amoebae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riviere, C.; Gazeau, F.; Marion, S.; Bacri, J.-C.; Wilhelm, C.
2004-12-01
We compare in this paper the rotational magnetic microrheology detailed by Marion et al [18] and Wilhelm et al [19] to the passive tracking microrheology. The rotational microrheology has been designed to explore, using magnetic rotating probes, the local intracellular microenvironment of living cells in terms of viscoelasticity. Passive microrheology techniques is based on the analysis of spontaneous diffusive motions of Brownian probes. The dependence of mean square displacement (MSD) with the time then directly reflects the type of movement (sub-, hyper- or diffusive motions). Using the same intracellular probes, we performed two types of measurements (active and passive). Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, one should obtain the same information from the both techniques in a thermally equilibrium system. Interestingly, our measurements differ, and the discordances directly inform on active biological processes, which add to thermally activated fluctuations in our out-of equilibrium systems. In both cell models used, mammalian Hela cells and amoebae Entamoeba Histolytica, a hyper-diffusive regime at a short time is observed, which highlights the presence of an active non-thermal driving force, acting on the probe. However, the nature of this active force in mammalian cells and amoebae is different, according to their different phenotypes. In mammalian cells active processes are governed by the transport, via molecular motors, on the microtubule network. In amoebae, which are highly motile cells free of microtubule network, the active processes are dominated by strong fluxes of cytoplasm driven by extension of pseudopodia, in random directions, leading to an amplitude of motion one order of magnitude higher than for mammalian cells. Figs 7, Refs 32.
Application of Microrheology in Food Science.
Yang, Nan; Lv, Ruihe; Jia, Junji; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng
2017-02-28
Microrheology provides a technique to probe the local viscoelastic properties and dynamics of soft materials at the microscopic level by observing the motion of tracer particles embedded within them. It is divided into passive and active microrheology according to the force exerted on the embedded particles. Particles are driven by thermal fluctuations in passive microrheology, and the linear viscoelasticity of samples can be obtained on the basis of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation. In active microrheology, tracer particles are controlled by external forces, and measurements can be extended to the nonlinear regime. Microrheology techniques have many advantages such as the need for only small sample amounts and a wider measurable frequency range. In particular, microrheology is able to examine the spatial heterogeneity of samples at the microlevel, which is not possible using traditional rheology. Therefore, microrheology has considerable potential for studying the local mechanical properties and dynamics of soft matter, particularly complex fluids, including solutions, dispersions, and other colloidal systems. Food products such as emulsions, foams, or gels are complex fluids with multiple ingredients and phases. Their macroscopic properties, such as stability and texture, are closely related to the structure and mechanical properties at the microlevel. In this article, the basic principles and methods of microrheology are reviewed, and the latest developments and achievements of microrheology in the field of food science are presented.
Active microrheology of a model of the nuclear micromechanical environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrd, Henry; Kilfoil, Maria
2014-03-01
In order to successfully complete the final stages of chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells require the motor enzyme topoisomerase II, which can resolve topological constraints between entangled strands of duplex DNA. We created an in vitro model of a close approximation of the nuclear micromechanical environment in terms of DNA mass and entanglement density, and investigated the influence of this motor enzyme on the DNA mechanics. Topoisomerase II is a non-processive ATPase which we found significantly increases the motions of embedded microspheres in the DNA network. Because of this activity, we study the mechanical properties of our model system by active microrheology by optical trapping. We test the limits of fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT) under this type of activity by comparing the active microrheology to passive measurements, where thermal motion alone drives the beads. We can relate any departure from FDT to the timescale of topoisomerase II activity in the DNA network. These experiments provide insight into the physical necessity of this motor enzyme in the cell.
Advances in the microrheology of complex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waigh, Thomas Andrew
2016-07-01
New developments in the microrheology of complex fluids are considered. Firstly the requirements for a simple modern particle tracking microrheology experiment are introduced, the error analysis methods associated with it and the mathematical techniques required to calculate the linear viscoelasticity. Progress in microrheology instrumentation is then described with respect to detectors, light sources, colloidal probes, magnetic tweezers, optical tweezers, diffusing wave spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, elastic- and quasi-elastic scattering techniques, 3D tracking, single molecule methods, modern microscopy methods and microfluidics. New theoretical techniques are also reviewed such as Bayesian analysis, oversampling, inversion techniques, alternative statistical tools for tracks (angular correlations, first passage probabilities, the kurtosis, motor protein step segmentation etc), issues in micro/macro rheological agreement and two particle methodologies. Applications where microrheology has begun to make some impact are also considered including semi-flexible polymers, gels, microorganism biofilms, intracellular methods, high frequency viscoelasticity, comb polymers, active motile fluids, blood clots, colloids, granular materials, polymers, liquid crystals and foods. Two large emergent areas of microrheology, non-linear microrheology and surface microrheology are also discussed.
Advances in the microrheology of complex fluids.
Waigh, Thomas Andrew
2016-07-01
New developments in the microrheology of complex fluids are considered. Firstly the requirements for a simple modern particle tracking microrheology experiment are introduced, the error analysis methods associated with it and the mathematical techniques required to calculate the linear viscoelasticity. Progress in microrheology instrumentation is then described with respect to detectors, light sources, colloidal probes, magnetic tweezers, optical tweezers, diffusing wave spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, elastic- and quasi-elastic scattering techniques, 3D tracking, single molecule methods, modern microscopy methods and microfluidics. New theoretical techniques are also reviewed such as Bayesian analysis, oversampling, inversion techniques, alternative statistical tools for tracks (angular correlations, first passage probabilities, the kurtosis, motor protein step segmentation etc), issues in micro/macro rheological agreement and two particle methodologies. Applications where microrheology has begun to make some impact are also considered including semi-flexible polymers, gels, microorganism biofilms, intracellular methods, high frequency viscoelasticity, comb polymers, active motile fluids, blood clots, colloids, granular materials, polymers, liquid crystals and foods. Two large emergent areas of microrheology, non-linear microrheology and surface microrheology are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhnhold, A.; Paul, W.
2015-04-01
We present molecular dynamics simulations for active one-particle microrheology of an unentangled polymer melt. The tracer particle is forced to oscillate by an oscillating harmonic potential, which models an experiment using optical tweezers. The amplitude and phase shift of this oscillation are related to the complex shear modulus of the polymer melt. In the linear response regime at low frequencies, the active microrheology gives the same result as the passive microrheology, where the thermal motion of a tracer particle is related to the complex modulus. We expand the analysis to include full hydrodynamic effects instead of stationary Stokes friction only, and show that different approaches suggested in the literature lead to completely different results, and that none of them improves on the description using the stationary Stokes friction.
Small-world rheology: an introduction to probe-based active microrheology.
Wilson, Laurence G; Poon, Wilson C K
2011-06-14
We introduce active, probe-based microrheological techniques for measuring the flow and deformation of complex fluids. These techniques are ideal for mechanical characterization either when little sample is available, or when samples show significant spatial heterogeneity. We review recent results, paying particular attention to comparing and contrasting rheological parameters obtained from micro- and macro-rheological techniques.
Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.
Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson
2015-03-01
We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.
Passive and active microrheology for cross-linked F-actin networks in vitro.
Lee, Hyungsuk; Ferrer, Jorge M; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lang, Matthew J; Kamm, Roger D
2010-04-01
Actin filament (F-actin) is one of the dominant structural constituents in the cytoskeleton. Orchestrated by various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), F-actin is assembled into higher-order structures such as bundles and networks that provide mechanical support for the cell and play important roles in numerous cellular processes. Although mechanical properties of F-actin networks have been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms for network elasticity are not fully understood, in part because different measurements probe different length and force scales. Here, we developed both passive and active microrheology techniques using optical tweezers to estimate the mechanical properties of F-actin networks at a length scale comparable to cells. For the passive approach we tracked the motion of a thermally fluctuating colloidal sphere to estimate the frequency-dependent complex shear modulus of the network. In the active approach, we used an optical trap to oscillate an embedded microsphere and monitored the response in order to obtain network viscoelasticity over a physiologically relevant force range. While both active and passive measurements exhibit similar results at low strain, the F-actin network subject to high strain exhibits non-linear behavior which is analogous to the strain-hardening observed in macroscale measurements. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy, we also characterize the microstructure of reconstituted F-actin networks in terms of filament length, mesh size and degree of bundling. Finally, we propose a model of network connectivity by investigating the effect of filament length on the mechanical properties and structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, R. R. R.; Mansel, B. W.; Kramer, A.; Kroy, K.; Williams, M. A. K.
2013-03-01
The same fundamental questions that have driven enquiry into cytoskeletal mechanics can be asked of the considerably less-studied, yet arguably just as important, biopolymer matrix in the plant cell wall. In this case, it is well-known that polysaccharides, rather than filamentous and tubular protein assemblies, play a major role in satisfying the mechanical requirements of a successful cell wall, but developing a clear structure-function understanding has been exacerbated by the familiar issue of biological complexity. Herein, in the spirit of the mesoscopic approaches that have proved so illuminating in the study of cytoskeletal networks, the linear microrheological and strain-stiffening responses of biopolymeric networks reconstituted from pectin, a crucial cell wall polysaccharide, are examined. These are found to be well-captured by the glassy worm-like chain (GWLC) model of self-assembled semi-flexible filaments. Strikingly, the nonlinear mechanical response of these pectin networks is found to be much more sensitive to temperature changes than their linear response, a property that is also observed in F-actin networks, and is well reproduced by the GWLC model. Additionally, microrheological measurements suggest that over long timescales (>10 s) internal stresses continue to redistribute facilitating low frequency motions of tracer particles.
Probing matrix and tumor mechanics with in situ calibrated optical trap based active microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staunton, Jack Rory; Vieira, Wilfred; Tanner, Kandice; Tissue Morphodynamics Unit Team
Aberrant extracellular matrix deposition and vascularization, concomitant with proliferation and phenotypic changes undergone by cancer cells, alter mechanical properties in the tumor microenvironment during cancer progression. Tumor mechanics conversely influence progression, and the identification of physical biomarkers promise improved diagnostic and prognostic power. Optical trap based active microrheology enables measurement of forces up to 0.5 mm within a sample, allowing interrogation of in vitro biomaterials, ex vivo tissue sections, and small organisms in vivo. We fabricated collagen I hydrogels exhibiting distinct structural properties by tuning polymerization temperature Tp, and measured their shear storage and loss moduli at frequencies 1-15k Hz at multiple amplitudes. Lower Tp gels, with larger pore size but thicker, longer fibers, were stiffer than higher Tp gels; decreasing strain increased loss moduli and decreased storage moduli at low frequencies. We subcutanously injected probes with metastatic murine melanoma cells into mice. The excised tumors displayed storage and loss moduli 40 Pa and 10 Pa at 1 Hz, increasing to 500 Pa and 1 kPa at 15 kHz, respectively.
KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG,MICHAEL; REINELT,DOUGLAS A.
1999-09-01
The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams.
Optical tweezers based active microrheology of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS).
Chiang, Chia-Chun; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Chen, Yin-Quan; Yen, Pei-Wen; Huang, Yi-Chiao; Chen, Jun-Yeh; Lavastre, Olivier; Guillaume, Husson; Guillaume, Darsy; Chiou, Arthur
2011-04-25
We used oscillatory optical tweezers to investigate the microrheological properties of Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS; Mw = 70 kDa) polymer solutions with different concentrations from 0.001 mM to 10 mM in terms of elastic modulus G'(ω) and loss modulus G"(ω) as a function of angular frequency (ω) in the range of 6 rad/s to 6000 rad/s. The viscoelastic properties (including zero-shear-rate viscosity, crossing frequency and transition frequency) as a function of polymer concentration, deduced from our primary data, reveal the subtle structural changes in the polymer solutions as the polymer concentration increases from dilute to semi-dilute regimes, passing through the critical micelle formation concentration and the polymer overlapping concentration. The experimental results are consistent with the Maxwell model in some regime, and with the Rouse model in other, indicating the transient network character and the micelles formation in different regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigand, William; Messmore, Ashley; Anderson, Rae
The sea annelid, Chaetopterus Variopedatus, secretes a bioluminescent mucus that also exhibits complex viscoelastic properties. The constituents of the mucus are relatively unknown but it does play an important role in the development of the worms' parchment-like housing tubes. In order to determine how and why this mucus can exhibit material properties ranging from fluidity to rigidity we perform microrheology experiments. We determine the microscale viscoelastic properties by using optical tweezers to produce small oscillations in the mucus which allow us to determine both the linear storage and loss moduli (G',G'') along with the viscosity of the fluid. By varying the size of the microspheres (2-10 µm) and oscillation amplitude (.5-10 µm) we are able to determine the dominant intrinsic length scales of the molecular mesh comprising the mucus. By varying the oscillation frequency (1-15Hz) we determine the crossover frequency at which G' surpasses G'', to quantify the longest relaxation time of the mesh network. Initial results show a strong dependence on bead size which indicate that the dominant entanglement lengthscale of the mucus mesh is ~5 um. Microspheres of this size exhibit a wide variety of stress responses in different regions of the mucus demonstrating the substantial microscale heterogeneity of the mucus. We carry out measurements on a population of worms of varying size and age to determine mucus variability between worms.
The microrheology of wet forms
Kraynik, A.M.; Reinelt, D.A.
1996-05-01
The Kelvin cell is the only known topology for stable, perfectly ordered, dry foams. During topological transitions (T1s) associated with large elastic-plastic deformations, these cells switch neighbors and some faces gain or lose two sides, but the resulting bubbles with different shape are still Kelvin cells. The bubbles in a stable, perfectly ordered. wet foam are not limited to one topology (or even the two described here). The topological transitions considered here result in gain or loss of two dry films per bubble. The transition from Kelvin to RD topology is triggered by films shrinking in area, as in the dry case. However, the reverse transition from RD to Kelvin topology involves a different mechanism--opposite interfaces of an eight-way vertex touch and a new film grows from the point of contact as the foam is compressed. Microrheological analysis based on 2D models of foam structure has been useful preparation for 3D, despite obvious differences between 2D and 3D. Linear elastic behavior is anisotropic for perfectly ordered 3D foams--nonlinear elastic behavior is isotropic for 2D foams with polydisperse hexagonal structure. The shear moduli of a wet Kelvin foam decrease with increasing {phi}--the shear modulus of a wet 2D foam (with three-way Plateau borders) does not depend on {phi} at all. The effective isotropic shear moduli G of perfectly ordered wet foams tend to decrease with increasing {phi} but do not exhibit linear dependence, which may stem from the disorder of real systems.
Out-of-equilibrium microrheology inside living cells.
Wilhelm, Claire
2008-07-11
Both forced and spontaneous motions of magnetic microbeads engulfed by Dictyostelium cells have served as experimental probes of intracellular dynamics. The complex shear modulus G*(omega), determined from active oscillatory measurements, has a power-law dynamics and increases with the probe size, reflecting intracellular structural complexity. The combined use of passive microrheology allows one to derive the power spectrum of active forces acting on intracellular phagosomes and to test the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem inside living cells.
Martinez-Torres, C.; Streppa, L.; Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F.; Argoul, P.
2016-01-18
Compared to active microrheology where a known force or modulation is periodically imposed to a soft material, passive microrheology relies on the spectral analysis of the spontaneous motion of tracers inherent or external to the material. Passive microrheology studies of soft or living materials with atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever tips are rather rare because, in the spectral densities, the rheological response of the materials is hardly distinguishable from other sources of random or periodic perturbations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose here a wavelet-based decomposition of AFM cantilever tip fluctuations and we show that when applying this multi-scale method to soft polymer layers and to living myoblasts, the structural damping exponents of these soft materials can be retrieved.
Anisotropy and probe-medium interactions in the microrheology of nematic fluids.
Cordoba, Andres; Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin; de Pablo, Juan J.
2016-01-01
A theoretical formalism is presented to analyze and interpret microrheology experiments in anisotropic fluids with nematic order. The predictions of that approach are examined in the context of a simple coarse-grained molecular model which is simulated using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics calculations. The proposed formalism is used to study the effect of confinement, the type of anchoring at the probe-particle surface, and the strength of the nematic field on the rheological response functions obtained from probe-particle active microrheology. As expected, a stronger nematic field leads to increased anisotropy in the rheological response of the material. It is also found that the defect structures that arise around the probe particle, which are determined by the type of anchoring and the particle size, have a significant effect on the rheological response observed in microrheology simulations. Independent estimates of the bulk dynamic modulus of the model nematic fluid considered here are obtained from small-amplitude oscillatory shear simulations with Lees Edwards boundary conditions. The results of simulations indicate that the dynamic modulus extracted from particle-probe microrheology is different from that obtained in the absence of the particle, but that the differences decrease as the size of the defect also decreases. Importantly, the results of the nematic microrheology theory proposed here are in much closer agreement with simulations than those from earlier formalisms conceived for isotropic fluids. As such, it is anticipated that the theoretical framework advanced in this study could provide a useful tool for interpretation of microrheology experiments in systems such as liquid crystals and confined macromolecular solutions or gels.
Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane
2012-02-01
The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.
Micro-rheology and interparticle interactions in aerosols probed with optical tweezers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid, Jonathan P.; Power, Rory M.; Cai, Chen; Simpson, Stephen H.
2014-09-01
Using optical tweezers for micro-rheological investigations of a surrounding fluid has been routinely demonstrated. In this work, we will demonstrate that rheological measurements of the bulk and surface properties of aerosol particles can be made directly using optical tweezers, providing important insights into the phase behavior of materials in confined environments and the rate of molecular diffusion in viscous phases. The use of holographic optical tweezers to manipulate aerosol particles has become standard practice in recent years, providing an invaluable tool to investigate particle dynamics, including evaporation/ condensation kinetics, chemical aging and phase transformation. When combined with non-linear Raman spectroscopy, the size and refractive index of a particle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy <+/- 0.05%). Active control of the relative positions of pairs of particles can allow studies of the coalescence of particles, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the bulk and surface properties that govern the hydrodynamic relaxation in particle shape. In particular, we will show how the viscosity and surface tension of particles can be measured directly in the under-damped regime at low viscosity. In the over-damped regime, we will show that viscosity measurements can extend close to the glass transition, allowing measurements over an impressive dynamic range of 12 orders of magnitude in relaxation timescale and viscosity. Indeed, prior to the coalescence event, we will show how the Brownian trajectories of trapped particles can yield important and unique insights into the interactions of aerosol particles.
Microrheology of keratin networks in cancer cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paust, T.; Paschke, S.; Beil, M.; Marti, O.
2013-12-01
Microrheology is a valuable tool to determine viscoelastic properties of polymer networks. For this purpose measurements with embedded tracer beads inside the extracted network of pancreatic cancer cells were performed. Observing the beads motion with a CCD-high-speed-camera leads to the dynamic shear modulus. The complex shear modulus is divided into real and imaginary parts which give insight into the mechanical properties of the cell. The dependency on the distance of the embedded beads to the rim of the nucleus shows a tendency for a deceasing storage modulus. We draw conclusions on the network topology of the keratin network types based on the mechanical behavior.
Mathematical inference in one point microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenegger, Christel; McKinley, Scott
2016-11-01
Pioneered by the work of Mason and Weitz, one point passive microrheology has been successfully applied to obtaining estimates of the loss and storage modulus of viscoelastic fluids when the mean-square displacement obeys a local power law. Using numerical simulations of a fluctuating viscoelastic fluid model, we study the problem of recovering the mechanical parameters of the fluid's memory kernel using statistical inference like mean-square displacements and increment auto-correlation functions. Seeking a better understanding of the influence of the assumptions made in the inversion process, we mathematically quantify the uncertainty in traditional one point microrheology for simulated data and demonstrate that a large family of memory kernels yields the same statistical signature. We consider both simulated data obtained from a full viscoelastic fluid simulation of the unsteady Stokes equations with fluctuations and from a Generalized Langevin Equation of the particle's motion described by the same memory kernel. From the theory of inverse problems, we propose an alternative method that can be used to recover information about the loss and storage modulus and discuss its limitations and uncertainties. NSF-DMS 1412998.
Python algorithms in particle tracking microrheology
2012-01-01
Background Particle tracking passive microrheology relates recorded trajectories of microbeads, embedded in soft samples, to the local mechanical properties of the sample. The method requires intensive numerical data processing and tools allowing control of the calculation errors. Results We report the development of a software package collecting functions and scripts written in Python for automated and manual data processing, to extract viscoelastic information about the sample using recorded particle trajectories. The resulting program package analyzes the fundamental diffusion characteristics of particle trajectories and calculates the frequency dependent complex shear modulus using methods published in the literature. In order to increase conversion accuracy, segmentwise, double step, range-adaptive fitting and dynamic sampling algorithms are introduced to interpolate the data in a splinelike manner. Conclusions The presented set of algorithms allows for flexible data processing for particle tracking microrheology. The package presents improved algorithms for mean square displacement estimation, controlling effects of frame loss during recording, and a novel numerical conversion method using segmentwise interpolation, decreasing the conversion error from about 100% to the order of 1%. PMID:23186362
Microrheology close to an equilibrium phase transition
Reinhardt, J.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M.
2014-04-14
We investigate the microstructural and microrheological response to a tracer particle of a two-dimensional colloidal suspension under thermodynamic conditions close to a liquid-gas phase boundary. On the liquid side of the binodal, increasing the velocity of the (repulsive) tracer leads to the development of a pronounced cavitation bubble, within which the concentration of colloidal particles is strongly depleted. The tendency of the liquid to cavitate is characterized by a dimensionless “colloidal cavitation” number. On the gas side of the binodal, a pulled (attractive) tracer leaves behind it an extended trail of colloidal liquid, arising from downstream advection of a wetting layer on its surface. For both situations the velocity dependent friction is calculated.
2014-07-01
to characterize are active gels. They are formed by semiflexible polymer filaments driven by motor proteins that convert chemical energy from the...a single-chain mean-field model to describe the mechanical properties of active gels. We model the semiflexible filaments as bead-spring chains and...attachment state of the filaments , and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential
Spontaneous Oscillations in Nonlinear Active Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Shiladitya; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2011-03-01
We present a generic continuum model of a nonlinear active gel with both passive and active crosslinks. The model is relevant for actin gels with passive elasticity provided by ABPs such as filamin-A or α -actinin and dynamic active crosslinkers such as myosin-II. We consider an one dimensional continuum active solid where compressional deformations are coupled to molecular motor dynamics. Three kinds of nonlinearities are incorporated : (a) nonlinear load dependence of unbinding rate of molecular motors, (b) pressure nonlinearities stemming from excluded volume interactions, and (c) nonlinearity due to convection of bound motors along the gel. Unbinding rate nonlinearity stabilizes the oscillatory instabilities predicted by the linear theory and lead to sustained oscillations at intermediate concentrations of ATP. Pressure nonlinearity due to excluded volume interactions stabilizes the contractile instability and leads to a contracted ground state. Our work provides a generic framework for the description of the large scale properties of nonlinear isotropic active solids. This work is supported by the NSF on grants DMR-MWN-0806511 and DMR-100478.
Active microrheology of fluids inside developing zebrafish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taormina, Mike; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer
2014-03-01
Biological fluids are a source of diverse and interesting behavior for the soft matter physicist. Since their mechanical properties must be tuned to fulfill functional roles important to the development and health of living things, they often display complex behavior on length and time scales spanning many orders of magnitude. For microbes colonizing an animal host, for example, the mechanical properties of the host environment are of great importance, affecting mobility and hence the ability to establish a stable population. Indeed, some species possess the ability to affect the fluidity of their environment, both directly by chemically modifying it, and indirectly by influencing the host cells' secretion of mucus. Driving magnetically doped micron-scale probes which have been orally micro-gavaged into the intestinal bulb of a larval zebrafish allows the rheology of the mucosal layer within the fish to be measured over three decades of frequency, complementing ecological data on microbial colonization with physical information about the gut environment. Here, we describe the technique, provide the first measurement of mucosal viscosity in a developing animal, and explore the technique's applicability to other small-volume or spatially inhomogeneous fluid samples.
Thinning and thickening in active microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ting; Sperl, Matthias
2016-02-01
When pulling a probe particle in a many-particle system at a fixed velocity, the probe's effective friction, defined as the average external force over its velocity, γeff:=
Microrheology using a custom-made AFM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Benzaquen, Michael; Steinberger, Audrey
In the past few years, a new method was developed to measure local properties of liquids (X. Xiong et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 2009). This method consists of gluing a micron-sized glass fiber at the tip of an AFM cantilever and probing the liquid with it. In ENS Lyon, this method was perfected (C. Devailly et al., EPL, 106 5, 2014) with the help of an interferometer developped in the same laboratory (L. Bellon et al., Opt. Commun. 207 49, 2002 and P. Paolino et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 2013), which background noise can reach 10-14 m /√{ Hz } . This method allows us to measure a wide range of viscosities (1 mPa . s to 500 mPa . s) of transparent and opaque fluids using a small sample volume ( 5 mL). In this presentation, I will briefly describe the interferometer developped in ENS Lyon, then explain precisely the microrheology measurements and then compare the experimental results to a model developped by M. Benzaquen. This work is supported financially by the ANR project NANOFLUIDYN (Grant Number ANR-13-BS10-0009).
Modeling Aspects of Two-Bead Microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenegger, Christel; Forest, M. Gregory
2008-07-01
We revisit the Mason and Weitz (Phys. Rev. Lett., 74, 1995) and Levine and Lubensky (Phys. Rev. Lett., 85, 2000) analysis for one- and two-bead microrheology. Our first motivation is the possibility of drawing inferences from experimental data about local diffusive properties of individual beads and nonlocal dynamic moduli of the medium separating the two beads. Our second motivation is the ability to perform direct numerical simulations of hydrodynamically coupled Brownian beads in soft matter. For both goals, we first must have a model for the coupling between these two transport properties. We reformulate the coupled generalized Langevin equations (GLE) following the scalar GLE analysis of Fricks et al. (J. Appl. Math., 2008), assuming an exponential series parametrization of both local and nonlocal memory kernels. We then show the two-bead GLE model can be represented as a vector Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which allows for a fast and statistically accurate numerical simulation of coupled bead paths (time series) and of ensemble-averaged statistics of the process. In this proceedings, we announce the framework to accomplish these two goals of inversion and direct simulation.
Particle tracking microrheology of purified gastrointestinal mucins.
Georgiades, Pantelis; Pudney, Paul D A; Thornton, David J; Waigh, Thomas A
2014-04-01
The rheological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucin solutions, the building blocks of the mucus layer that covers the epithelia of the two organs, were investigated using particle tracking microrheology. We used biochemically well characterized purified porcine mucins (MUC5AC and MUC2) as models for human mucins, to probe their viscoelasticity as a function of mucin concentration and pH. Furthermore, we used both reducing (dithiothreitol, DTT) and chaotropic agents (guanidinium chloride and urea) to probe the mesoscopic forces that mediate the integrity of the polymer network. At neutral pH both gastric and duodenal mucins formed self-assembled semi-dilute networks above a certain critical mucin concentration (c*) with the viscosity (η) scaling as η∼c(0.53±0.08) for MUC5AC and η∼c(0.53±0.06) for MUC2, where c is the mucin concentration. Above an even higher mucin concentration threshold (ce , the entanglement concentration) reptation occurs and there is a dramatic increase in the viscosity scaling, η∼c(3.92±0.38) for MUC5AC and η∼c(5.1±0.8) for MUC2. The dynamics of the self-assembled comb polymers is examined in terms of a scaling model for flexible polyelectrolyte combs. Both duodenum and gastric mucin are found to be pH switchable gels, gelation occurring at low pHs. There is a hundred-fold increase in the elastic shear modulus once the pH is decreased. The addition of DTT, guanidinium chloride and urea disassembles both the semi-dilute and gel structures causing a large increase in the compliance (decrease in their shear moduli). Addition of the polyphenol EGCG has a reverse effect on mucin viscoelasticity, that is, it triggers a sol-gel transition in semi-dilute mucin solutions at neutral pH.
Microrheology and Particle Dynamics at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yanmei
The rheological properties at liquid-liquid interfaces are important in many industrial processes such as manufacturing foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and petroleum products. This dissertation focuses on the study of linear viscoelastic properties at liquid-liquid interfaces by tracking the thermal motion of particles confined at the interfaces. The technique of interfacial microrheology is first developed using one- and two-particle tracking, respectively. In one-particle interfacial microrheology, the rheological response at the interface is measured from the motion of individual particles. One-particle interfacial microrheology at polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oil-water interfaces depends strongly on the surface chemistry of different tracer particles. In contrast, by tracking the correlated motion of particle pairs, two-particle interfacial microrheology significantly minimizes the effects from tracer particle surface chemistry and particle size. Two-particle interfacial microrheology is further applied to study the linear viscoelastic properties of immiscible polymer-polymer interfaces. The interfacial loss and storage moduli at PDMS-polyethylene glycol (PEG) interfaces are measured over a wide frequency range. The zero-shear interfacial viscosity, estimated from the Cross model, falls between the bulk viscosities of two individual polymers. Surprisingly, the interfacial relaxation time is observed to be an order of magnitude larger than that of the PDMS bulk polymers. To explore the fundamental basis of interfacial nanorheology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to investigate the nanoparticle dynamics. The diffusion of single nanoparticles in pure water and low-viscosity PDMS oils is reasonably consistent with the prediction by the Stokes-Einstein equation. To demonstrate the potential of nanorheology based on the motion of nanoparticles, the shear moduli and viscosities of the bulk phases and interfaces are calculated from single
Gelation kinetics of gelatin using particle tracking microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama
2012-02-01
Previous studies with gelatin have observed four distinct stages during the physical gelation process [Normand et al. Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 1063]. In this presentation we report measurements of microrheology in an effort to examine the time evolution of the gel on short length scales and time scales. By tracking latex particles in gelatin solution at different temperatures we can follow the microrheological changes and kinetics of the gelation process. Using the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation viscoelastic properties of these quasi-static gel states the evolution of the storage and loss moduli, G' and G'', are examined as functions of both time and temperature. The data show that both G' and G'' exhibit power law scaling versus frequency with the same exponent. The temperature and concentration dependence of the frequency at which the system crosses over from viscous to elastic behavior will be presented.
Studying microstructural dynamics of complex fluids with particle tracking microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breedveld, Victor
2004-11-01
Over the last decade, particle tracking microrheology has matured as a new tool for complex fluids research. The main advantages of microrheology over traditional macroscopic rheometry are: the required sample size is extremely small ( ˜ 1 microliter); local viscoelastic properties in a sample can be probed with high spatial resolution ( ˜1-10 micrometer); and the sample is not disturbed by moving rheometer parts. I will present two examples of recent work in my group that highlight how these characteristics can be exploited to acquire unique information about the microstructure of complex fluids. First, we have studied protein unfolding. Traditionally, protein unfolding is studied with spectroscopic techniques (circular dichroism, NMR, fluorescence). Although viscosity has been listed in textbooks as a suitable technique, few -if any- quantitative rheological studies of unfolding have been reported, mainly due to technical difficulties. With microrheology, we have been able to quantify the size of the folded and unfolded protein, as well as the Gibbs free energy of unfolding, for aqueous bovine serum albumine solutions upon addition of urea as a denaturant. The results are in excellent agreement with literature data. Secondly, we have developed new technology for studying the microstructural dynamics of solvent-responsive complex fluids. In macroscopic rheometry it is virtually impossible to change solvent composition and measure the rheological response of a sample. By integrating microfluidics and microrheology we have been able to overcome this barrier: due to the micrometer lengthscales in microfluidiv devices, diffusive timescales in a dialysis set-up become short enough to achieve rapid and reversible changes in sample composition, without affecting the concentration of macromolecular components. Our dialysis cell for microrheology is a unique tool for studying the dynamics of structural and rheological changes induced by solvent composition. I will
Linear microrheology with optical tweezers of living cells 'is not an option'!
Tassieri, Manlio
2015-08-07
Optical tweezers have been successfully adopted as exceptionally sensitive transducers for microrheology studies of complex fluids. Despite the general trend, in this article I explain why a similar approach should not be adopted for microrheology studies of living cells. This conclusion is acheived on the basis of statistical mechanics principles that indicate the unsuitability of optical tweezers for such purpose.
Fluctuating hydrodynamics and microrheology of a dilute suspension of swimming bacteria.
Lau, A W C; Lubensky, T C
2009-07-01
A bacterial bath is a model active system consisting of a population of rodlike motile or self-propelled bacteria suspended in a fluid environment. This system can be viewed as an active, nonequilibrium version of a lyotropic liquid crystal or as a generalization of a driven diffusive system. We derive a set of phenomenological equations, which include the effects of internal force generators in the bacteria, describing the hydrodynamic flow, orientational dynamics of the bacteria, and fluctuations induced by both thermal and nonthermal noises. These equations violate the fluctuation dissipation theorem and the Onsager reciprocity relations. We use them to provide a quantitative account of results from recent microrheological experiments on bacterial baths.
Szluha, Kornelia; Lazanyi, Kornelia; Furka, Andrea; Kiss, Ferenc; Szabo, Imre; Pintye, Eva; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert
2014-01-01
Despite of the studies on widespread biological effects of irradiation, surprisingly only little number of papers can be found dealing with its in vivo hemorheological impact. Furthermore, other studies suggested that low-dose irradiation might differ from high-dose in more than linear ways. On Balb/c Jackson female adult mice hematological and hemorheological impacts of total body irradiation were investigated 1 hour following 0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 Gy dose irradiation. In case of 0.01 Gy further groups were analyzed 30 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. According to the results, it seems that the dose-dependent changes of blood micro-rheological parameters are not linear. The irradiation dose of 0.01 Gy acted as a point of 'inflexion', because by this dose we found the most expressed changes in hematological parameters, as well as in red blood cell aggregation, deformability and osmoscan data. The time-dependent changes showed progressive decrease in pH, rise in lactate concentration, further decrease in erythrocyte aggregation index and deformability, with moderate shifting of the optimal osmolarity point and modulation in membrane stability. As conclusion, low-dose total body irradiation may cause micro-rheological changes, being non-linearly correlated with the irradiation dose.
Intracellular micro-rheology probed by micron-sized wires.
Chevry, Loudjy; Colin, Rémy; Abou, Bérengère; Berret, Jean-François
2013-09-01
In the last decade, rapid advances have been made in the field of micro-rheology of cells and tissues. Given the complexity of living systems, there is a need for the development of new types of nano- and micron-sized probes, and in particular of probes with controlled interactions with the surrounding medium. In the present paper, we evaluate the use of micron-sized wires as potential probes of the mechanical properties of cells. The wire-based micro-rheology technique is applied to living cells such as murine fibroblasts and canine kidney epithelial cells. The mean-squared angular displacement of wires associated to their rotational dynamics is obtained as a function of the time using optical microscopy and image processing. It reveals a Brownian-like diffusive regime of the form Δψ(2)(t,L) ≈ t/L(3), where L denotes the wire length. This scaling suggests that an effective viscosity of the intracellular medium can be determined, and that in the range 1-10 μm it does not depend on the length scale over which it is measured.
Particle tracking microrheology of gel-forming amyloid fibril networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corrigan, A. M.; Donald, A. M.
2009-04-01
Microrheology is a technique that is increasingly used to investigate the local viscoelastic properties of complex fluids non-invasively, by tracking the motion of micron-sized probe spheres. In this work, passive Particle Tracking Microrheology (PTM) is used to study network formation in the milk protein β -lactoglobulin at 80 ° C and p H 2. In these conditions the protein aggregates to form thread-like structures known as amyloid fibrils, which can further aggregate into elastic networks. Using PTM, gels were observed to form at significantly lower concentrations than determined by bulk rheometry, where the oscillatory shear forces may disrupt either fibril or network formation. During incubation, the Mean Square Displacement (MSD) of the probe particles exhibited time-cure superposition, allowing the critical relaxation exponent to be calculated as ˜ 0.63 , consistent with other biopolymer gels. Combined with the gel-like appearance of the complex modulus at long incubation times, this confirms that a true gel is forming, with physical or chemical crosslinks forming between the fibrils, refining the conclusions of other workers in the field.
Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael
2016-08-20
Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.
Surface adsorption and hopping cause probe-size-dependent microrheology of actin networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jun; Tang, Jay X.
2011-04-01
A network of filaments formed primarily by the abundant cytoskeletal protein actin gives animal cells their shape and elasticity. The rheological properties of reconstituted actin networks have been studied by tracking micron-sized probe beads embedded within the networks. We investigate how microrheology depends on surface properties of probe particles by varying the stickiness of their surface. For this purpose, we chose carboxylate polystyrene (PS) beads, silica beads, bovine serum albumin (BSA) -coated PS beads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) -grafted PS beads, which show descending stickiness to actin filaments, characterized by confocal imaging and microrheology. Probe size dependence of microrheology is observed for all four types of beads. For the slippery PEG beads, particle-tracking microrheology detects weaker networks using smaller beads, which tend to diffuse through the network by hopping from one confinement “cage” to another. This trend is reversed for the other three types of beads, for which microrheology measures stiffer networks for smaller beads due to physisorption of nearby filaments to the bead surface. We explain the probe size dependence with two simple models. We also evaluate depletion effect near nonadsorption bead surface using quantitative image analysis and discuss the possible impact of depletion on microrheology. Analysis of these effects is necessary in order to accurately define the actin network rheology both in vitro and in vivo.
Pokki, Juho; Parmar, Jemish; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Torun, Hamdi; Guerrero, Miguel; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J
2015-10-07
Ophthalmic wireless microrobots are proposed for minimally invasive vitreoretinal surgery. Devices in the vitreous experience nonlinear mobility as a result of the complex mechanical properties of the vitreous and its interaction with the devices. A microdevice that will minimize its interaction with the macromolecules of the vitreous (i.e., mainly hyaluronan (HA) and collagen) can be utilized for ophthalmic surgeries. Although a few studies on the interactions between the vitreous and microdevices exist, there is no literature on the influence of coatings on these interactions. This paper presents how coatings on devices affect mobility in the vitreous. Surgical catheters in the vasculature use hydrophilic polymer coatings that reduce biomolecular absorption and enhance mobility. In this work such polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and HA coatings were utilized, and their effects on mobility in the vitreous were characterized. Hydrophilic titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating was also developed and characterized. Collagenase and hyaluronidase enzymes were coated on probes' surfaces with a view to enhancing their mobility by enzymatic digestion of the collagen and HA of the vitreous, respectively. To model the human vitreous, ex vivo porcine vitreous and collagen were used. For studying the effects of hyaluronidase, the vitreous and HA were used. The hydrophilic and enzymatic coatings were characterized by oscillatory magnetic microrheology. The statistical significance of the mean relative displacements (i.e., mobility) of the coated probes with respect to control probes was assessed. All studied hydrophilic coatings improve mobility, except for HA which decreases mobility potentially due to bonding with vitreal macromolecules. TiO2 coating improves mobility in collagen by 28.3% and in the vitreous by 15.4%. PEG and PVP coatings improve mobility in collagen by 19.4 and by 39.6%, respectively, but their improvement in the vitreous is
Microrheological Coagulation Assay Exploiting Micromechanical Resonators.
Padovani, Francesco; Duffy, James; Hegner, Martin
2017-01-03
Rheological measurements in biological liquids yield insights into homeostasis and provide information on important molecular processes that affect fluidity. We present a fully automated cantilever-based method for highly precise and sensitive measurements of microliter sample volumes of human blood plasma coagulation (0.009 cP for viscosity range 0.5-3 cP and 0.0012 g/cm(3) for density range 0.9-1.1 g/cm(3)). Microcantilever arrays are driven by a piezoelectric element, and resonance frequencies and quality factors of sensors that change over time are evaluated. A highly accurate approximation of the hydrodynamic function is introduced that correlates resonance frequency and quality factor of cantilever beams immersed in a fluid to the viscosity and density of that fluid. The theoretical model was validated using glycerol reference solutions. We present a surface functionalization protocol that allows minimization of unspecific protein adsorption onto cantilevers. Adsorption leads to measurement distortions and incorrect estimation of the fluid parameters (viscosity and density). Two hydrophilic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) sensor surfaces are compared to a hydrophobic terminated SAM coating. As expected, the hydrophobic modified surfaces induced the highest mass adsorption and could promote conformational changes of the proteins and subsequent abnormal biological activity. Finally, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assay was performed, and the viscosity, density, and coagulation rate of human blood plasma were measured along with the standard coagulation time. The method could extend and improve current coagulation testing.
1- and 2-particle Microrheology of Hyaluronic Acid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagan, Austin; Kearns, Sarah; Ross, David; Das, Moumita; Thurston, George; Franklin, Scott
2015-03-01
Hyaluronic acid (also called HA or Hyaluronan) is a high molecular weight polysaccaride ubiquitous in the extracellular matrix of soft tissue such as cartilage, skin, the eye's vitreous gel and synovial fluid. It has been shown to play an important role in mechanotransduction, cell migration and proliferation, and in tissue morphodynamics. We present a confocal microrheology study of hyaluronic acid of varying concentrations. The mean squared displacement (MSD) of sub-micron colloidal tracer particles is tracked in two dimensions and shows a transition from diffusive motion at low concentrations to small-time trapping by the protein network as the concentration increases. Correlations between particle motion can be used to determine an effective mean-squared displacement which deviates from the single-particle MSD as the fluid becomes less homogeneous. The real and effective mean-squared displacements are used to probe the local and space-averaged frequency dependent rheological properties of the fluid as the concentration changes.
Investigating collagen self-assembly with optical tweezers microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forde, Nancy; Shayegan, Marjan; Altindal, Tuba
Collagen is the fundamental structural protein in vertebrates. Assembled from individual triple-helical proteins to make strong fibres, collagen is a beautiful example of a hierarchical self-assembling system. Using optical tweezers to perform microrheology measurements, we explore the dynamics of interactions between collagens responsible for their self-assembly and examine the development of heterogeneous mechanics during assembly into fibrillar gels. Telopeptides, short non-helical regions that flank the triple helix, have long been known to facilitate fibril self-assembly. We find that their removal not only slows down fibril nucleation but also results in a significant frequency-dependent reduction in the elastic modulus of collagens in solution. We interpret these results in terms of a model in which telopeptides facilitate transient intermolecular interactions, which enhance network connectivity in solution and lead to more rapid assembly in fibril-forming conditions. Current address: Department of Physics, McGill University.
Fong, Erika J; Sharma, Yasha; Fallica, Brian; Tierney, Dylan B; Fortune, Sarah M; Zaman, Muhammad H
2013-04-01
Probing the physical properties of heterogeneous materials is essential to understand the structure, function and dynamics of complex fluids including cells, mucus, and polymer solutions. Particle tracking microrheology is a useful method to passively probe viscoelastic properties on micron length scales by tracking the thermal motion of beads embedded in the sample. However, errors associated with active motion have limited the implementation to dynamic systems. We present a simple method to decouple active and Brownian motion, enabling particle tracking to be applied to fluctuating heterogeneous systems. We use the movement perpendicular to the major axis of motion in time to calculate rheological properties. Through simulated data we demonstrate that this method removes directed motion and performs equally well when there is no directed motion, with an average percent error of <1%. We use this method to measure glycerol-water mixtures to show the capability to measure a range of materials. Finally, we use this technique to characterize the compliance of human sputum. We also investigate the effect of a liquefaction agent used to prepare sputum for diagnostic purposes. Our results suggest that the addition of high concentration sodium hydroxide increases sample heterogeneity by increasing the maximum observed creep compliance.
The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport
Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej
2016-01-01
We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality. PMID:27640818
Two-Point Particle Tracking Microrheology of Nematic Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos
2016-11-01
Biological and technological complex fluids that are usually available in microscopic amounts (e.g. liquid crystals and biopolymer networks) can exhibit microstructural order leading to nematic rheological behavior. However, current microrheological methods cannot measure their directional viscoelastic coefficients. We recently introduced a directional two-point particle-tracking microrheology (D2PTM) technique to determine these coefficients (1). Here, we experimentally validate D2PTM by applying this method to disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a lyotropic chromonic nematic liquid crystal that has recently sparked attention due to its biocompatibility and other interesting properties. We chose DSCG because its directional viscosity coefficients have been previously characterized by dynamic light scattering and are available in the literature. Our results suggest that D2PTM measurements agree well with measurements from previous methods. Furthermore, this new technique provides additional information about the microrheological response of nematic fluids that was not accessible via previous methods.
Application of laser tweezers to passive microrheology of collagen solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shayegan, Marjan; Forde, Nancy R.
2009-05-01
Rheology is the field that can describe both viscous and elastic properties of a material in response to applied force or deformation. Passive microrheology (PMR) is a technique in which motion of a particle arising from thermal fluctuations is measured on nanometer length scales. One experimental approach to PMR uses optical tweezers, which trap and probe μm-sized particles, located within the material, at a high bandwidth. In this study, viscoelastic properties of solutions of collagen are characterized. To do this, we have probed the power spectral density of fluctuations of 1-μm-diameter microspheres optically trapped in acidic solutions of varying concentration of collagen type I (0, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml). The results show evidence that the behaviour of the solutions becomes increasingly non-Newtonian at high protein concentration. We attribute this to the presence of the viscoelastic polymer. This introduces frequency dependence to the complex modulus of the solution which is used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity of these systems.
Tracking errors in 2D multiple particle tracking microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalczyk, Anne; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Willenbacher, Norbert
2015-01-01
Tracking errors due to particles moving in and out of the focal plane are a fundamental problem of multiple particle tracking microrheology. Here, we present a new approach to treat these errors so that a statistically significant number of particle trajectories with reasonable length are received, which is important for an unbiased analysis of multiple particle tracking data from inhomogeneous fluids. Starting from Crocker and Grier’s tracking algorithm, we identify particle displacements between subsequent images as artificial jumps; if this displacement deviates more than four standard deviations from the mean value, trajectories are terminated at such positions. In a further processing step, trajectories separated by a time gap Δ {τ\\text{max}} are merged based on an adaptive search radius criterion accounting for individual particle mobility. For a series of Newtonian fluids covering the viscosity range 6-1300 mPa s, this approach yields the correct viscosity but also results in a viscosity-independent number of trajectories equal to the average number of particles in an image with a minimum length covering at least two orders of magnitude in time. This allows for an unbiased characterization of heterogeneous fluids. For a Carbopol ETD 2050 solution we recover the expected broad variation of particle mobility. Consistent with the widely accepted structural model of highly swollen microgel particles suspended in a polymer solution, we find about 2/3 of the tracers are elastically trapped.
Static and Dynamic Errors in Particle Tracking Microrheology
Savin, Thierry; Doyle, Patrick S.
2005-01-01
Particle tracking techniques are often used to assess the local mechanical properties of cells and biological fluids. The extracted trajectories are exploited to compute the mean-squared displacement that characterizes the dynamics of the probe particles. Limited spatial resolution and statistical uncertainty are the limiting factors that alter the accuracy of the mean-squared displacement estimation. We precisely quantified the effect of localization errors in the determination of the mean-squared displacement by separating the sources of these errors into two separate contributions. A “static error” arises in the position measurements of immobilized particles. A “dynamic error” comes from the particle motion during the finite exposure time that is required for visualization. We calculated the propagation of these errors on the mean-squared displacement. We examined the impact of our error analysis on theoretical model fluids used in biorheology. These theoretical predictions were verified for purely viscous fluids using simulations and a multiple-particle tracking technique performed with video microscopy. We showed that the static contribution can be confidently corrected in dynamics studies by using static experiments performed at a similar noise-to-signal ratio. This groundwork allowed us to achieve higher resolution in the mean-squared displacement, and thus to increase the accuracy of microrheology studies. PMID:15533928
Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials
Zhu, Yu; Chai, Zhen; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong Gong, Qihuang
2015-03-02
An all-optical tunabe chirality is realized in a photonic metamaterial, the metamolecule of which consists of a nonlinear nano-Au:polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer sandwiched between two L-shaped gold nano-antennas twisted 90° with each other. The maximum circular dichroism reached 30%. Under excitation of a 40 kW/cm{sup 2} weak pump light, the peak in the circular dichroism shifts 45 nm in the short-wavelength direction. An ultrafast response time of 35 ps is maintained. This work not only opens up the possibility for the realization of ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable chirality but also offers a way to construct ultrahigh-speed on-chip biochemical sensors.
Local collective motion analysis for multi-probe dynamic imaging and microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Manas; Mason, Thomas G.
2016-08-01
Dynamical artifacts, such as mechanical drift, advection, and hydrodynamic flow, can adversely affect multi-probe dynamic imaging and passive particle-tracking microrheology experiments. Alternatively, active driving by molecular motors can cause interesting non-Brownian motion of probes in local regions. Existing drift-correction techniques, which require large ensembles of probes or fast temporal sampling, are inadequate for handling complex spatio-temporal drifts and non-Brownian motion of localized domains containing relatively few probes. Here, we report an analytical method based on local collective motion (LCM) analysis of as few as two probes for detecting the presence of non-Brownian motion and for accurately eliminating it to reveal the underlying Brownian motion. By calculating an ensemble-average, time-dependent, LCM mean square displacement (MSD) of two or more localized probes and comparing this MSD to constituent single-probe MSDs, we can identify temporal regimes during which either thermal or athermal motion dominates. Single-probe motion, when referenced relative to the moving frame attached to the multi-probe LCM trajectory, provides a true Brownian MSD after scaling by an appropriate correction factor that depends on the number of probes used in LCM analysis. We show that LCM analysis can be used to correct many different dynamical artifacts, including spatially varying drifts, gradient flows, cell motion, time-dependent drift, and temporally varying oscillatory advection, thereby offering a significant improvement over existing approaches.
The Mechanical Properties of Early Drosophila Embryos Measured by High-Speed Video Microrheology
Wessel, Alok D.; Gumalla, Maheshwar; Grosshans, Jörg; Schmidt, Christoph F.
2015-01-01
In early development, Drosophila melanogaster embryos form a syncytium, i.e., multiplying nuclei are not yet separated by cell membranes, but are interconnected by cytoskeletal polymer networks consisting of actin and microtubules. Between division cycles 9 and 13, nuclei and cytoskeleton form a two-dimensional cortical layer. To probe the mechanical properties and dynamics of this self-organizing pre-tissue, we measured shear moduli in the embryo by high-speed video microrheology. We recorded position fluctuations of injected micron-sized fluorescent beads with kHz sampling frequencies and characterized the viscoelasticity of the embryo in different locations. Thermal fluctuations dominated over nonequilibrium activity for frequencies between 0.3 and 1000 Hz. Between the nuclear layer and the yolk, the cytoplasm was homogeneous and viscously dominated, with a viscosity three orders of magnitude higher than that of water. Within the nuclear layer we found an increase of the elastic and viscous moduli consistent with an increased microtubule density. Drug-interference experiments showed that microtubules contribute to the measured viscoelasticity inside the embryo whereas actin only plays a minor role in the regions outside of the actin caps that are closely associated with the nuclei. Measurements at different stages of the nuclear division cycle showed little variation. PMID:25902430
Mechanics of living cells measured by laser tracking microrheology.
Yamada, S; Wirtz, D; Kuo, S C
2000-01-01
To establish laser-tracking microrheology (LTM) as a new technique for quantifying cytoskeletal mechanics, we measure viscoelastic moduli with wide bandwidth (5 decades) within living cells. With the first subcellular measurements of viscoelastic phase angles, LTM provides estimates of solid versus liquid behavior at different frequencies. In LTM, the viscoelastic shear moduli are inferred from the Brownian motion of particles embedded in the cytoskeletal network. Custom laser optoelectronics provide sub-nanometer and near-microsecond resolution of particle trajectories. The kidney epithelial cell line, COS7, has numerous spherical lipid-storage granules that are ideal probes for noninvasive LTM. Although most granules are percolating through perinuclear spaces, a subset of perinuclear granules is embedded in dense viscoelastic cytoplasm. Over all time scales embedded particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior and are not merely tethered by molecular motors. At low frequencies, lamellar regions (820 +/- 520 dyne/cm(2)) are more rigid than viscoelastic perinuclear regions (330 +/- 250 dyne/cm(2), p < 0.0001), but spectra converge at high frequencies. Although the actin-disrupting agent, latrunculin A, softens and liquefies lamellae, physiological levels of F-actin, alone (11 +/- 1.2 dyne/cm(2)) are approximately 70-fold softer than lamellae. Therefore, F-actin is necessary for lamellae mechanics, but not sufficient. Furthermore, in time-lapse of apparently quiescent cells, individual lamellar granules can show approximately 4-fold changes in moduli that last >10 s. Over a broad range of frequencies (0.1-30, 000 rad/s), LTM provides a unique ability to noninvasively quantify dynamic, local changes in cell viscoelasticity. PMID:10733956
Microrheology, Stress Fluctuations, and Active Behavior of Living Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, A. W.; Hoffman, B. D.; Davies, A.; Crocker, J. C.; Lubensky, T. C.
2003-11-01
We report the first measurements of the intrinsic strain fluctuations of living cells using a recently developed tracer correlation technique along with a theoretical framework for interpreting such data in heterogeneous media with nonthermal driving. The fluctuations' spatial and temporal correlations indicate that the cytoskeleton can be treated as a course-grained continuum with power-law rheology, driven by a spatially random stress tensor field. Combined with recent cell rheology results, our data imply that intracellular stress fluctuations have a nearly 1/ω2 power spectrum, as expected for a continuum with a slowly evolving internal prestress.
A Hybrid Nonlinear Control Scheme for Active Magnetic Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xia, F.; Albritton, N. G.; Hung, J. Y.; Nelms, R. M.
1996-01-01
A nonlinear control scheme for active magnetic bearings is presented in this work. Magnet winding currents are chosen as control inputs for the electromechanical dynamics, which are linearized using feedback linearization. Then, the desired magnet currents are enforced by sliding mode control design of the electromagnetic dynamics. The overall control scheme is described by a multiple loop block diagram; the approach also falls in the class of nonlinear controls that are collectively known as the 'integrator backstepping' method. Control system hardware and new switching power electronics for implementing the controller are described. Various experiments and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the concepts' potentials.
Developing an active artificial hair cell using nonlinear feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Bryan S.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2015-09-01
The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. These cells have inspired a variety of artificial hair cells (AHCs) to serve as biologically inspired sound, fluid flow, and acceleration sensors and could one day replace damaged hair cells in humans. Most of these AHCs rely on passive transduction of stimulus while it is known that the biological cochlea employs active processes to amplify sound-induced vibrations and improve sound detection. In this work, an active AHC mimics the active, nonlinear behavior of the cochlea. The AHC consists of a piezoelectric bimorph beam subjected to a base excitation. A feedback control law is used to reduce the linear damping of the beam and introduce a cubic damping term which gives the AHC the desired nonlinear behavior. Model and experimental results show the AHC amplifies the response due to small base accelerations, has a higher frequency sensitivity than the passive system, and exhibits a compressive nonlinearity like that of the mammalian cochlea. This bio-inspired accelerometer could lead to new sensors with lower thresholds of detection, improved frequency sensitivities, and wider dynamic ranges.
Transient response of an active nonlinear sandwich piezolaminated plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oveisi, Atta; Nestorović, Tamara
2017-04-01
In this paper, the dynamic modelling and active vibration control of a piezolaminated plate with geometrical nonlinearities are investigated using a semi-analytical approach. For active vibration control purposes, the core orthotropic elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded with two piezo-layers on its top and bottom surfaces which act as sensor and actuator, respectively. In the modelling procedure, the piezo-layers are assumed to be connected via a proportional derivative (PD) feedback control law. Hamilton's principle is employed to acquire the strong form of the dynamic equation in terms of additional higher order strain expressions by means of von Karman strain-displacement correlation. The obtained nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) is converted to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NODEs) by engaging Galerkin method and using the orthogonality of shape functions for the simply supported boundary conditions. Then, the resulting system of NODEs is solved numerically by employing the built-in Mathematica function, "NDSolve". Next, the vibration attenuation performance is evaluated and sensitivity of the closed-loop system is investigated for several control parameters and the external disturbance parameters. The proposed solution in open loop configuration is validated by finite element (FE) package ABAQUS both in the spatial domain and for the time-/frequency-dependent response.
Optical activity via Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning chiral medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Anwar Ali; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Rahmat Ali
2016-11-01
Optical activity is investigated in a chiral medium by employing the four level cascade atomic model, in which the optical responses of the atomic medium are studied with Kerr nonlinearity. Light entering into a chiral medium splits into circular birefringent beams. The angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams and the polarization states of the two light beams is manipulated with Kerr nonlinearity. In the stationary chiral medium the angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams is calculated to be 1.3 radian. Furthermore, circular birefringence is optically controlled in a spinning chiral medium, where the maximum rotary photon drag angle for left (right) circularly polarized beam is ±1.1 (±1.5) microradian. The change in the angle of divergence between circular birefringent beams by rotary photon drag is calculated to be 0.4 microradian. The numerical results may help to understand image designing, image coding, discovery of photonic crystals and optical sensing technology.
Gan, Tiansheng; Gong, Xiangjun; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Guangzhao
2016-12-01
Microrheology of growing biofilms provides insightful information about its structural evolution and properties. In this study, the authors have investigated the microrheology of Escherichia coli (strain HCB1) biofilms at different indentation depth (δ) by using magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy as a function of disturbing frequency (f). As δ increases, the dynamic stiffness (ks) for the biofilms in the early stage significantly increases. However, it levels off when the biofilms are matured. The facts indicate that the biofilms change from inhomogeneous to homogeneous in structure. Moreover, ks is scaled to f, which coincides with the rheology of soft glasses. The exponent increases with the incubation time, indicating the fluidization of biofilms. In contrast, the upper layer of the matured biofilms is solidlike in that the storage modulus is always larger than the loss modulus, and its viscoelasticity is slightly influenced by the shear stress.
Active Nonlinear Feedback Control for Aerospace Systems. Processor
1990-12-01
relating to the role of nonlinearities in feedback control. These area include Lyapunov function theory, chaotic controllers, statistical energy analysis , phase robustness, and optimal nonlinear control theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.
2014-05-01
The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects
Bauer, Katharina Christin; Schermeyer, Marie-Therese; Seidel, Jonathan; Hubbuch, Jürgen
2016-05-30
Microrheological measurements prove to be suitable to identify rheological parameters of biopharmaceutical solutions. These give information about the flow characteristics but also about the interactions and network structures in protein solutions. For the microrheological measurement tracer particles are required. Due to their specific surface characteristic not all are suitable for reliable measurement results in biopharmaceutical systems. In the present work a screening of melamine, PMMA, polystyrene and surface modified polystyrene as tracer particles were investigated at various protein solution conditions. The surface characteristics of the screened tracer particles were evaluated by zeta potential measurements. Furthermore each tracer particle was used to determine the dynamic viscosity of lysozyme solutions by microrheology and compared to a standard. The results indicate that the selection of the tracer particle had a strong impact on the quality of the microrheological measurement dependent on pH and additive type. Surface modified polystyrene was the only tracer particle that yielded good microrheological results for all tested conditions. The study indicated that the electrostatic surface charge of the tracer particle had a minor impact than its hydrophobicity. This characteristic was the crucial surface property that needs to be considered for the selection of a suitable tracer particle to achieve high measurement accuracy.
A nonlinear dynamical analogue model of geomagnetic activity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimas, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Roberts, D. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Buechner, J.
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction within the framework of deterministic nonlinear dynamics. An earlier dripping faucet analog model of the low-dimensional solar wind-magnetosphere system is reviewed, and a plasma physical counterpart to that model is constructed. A Faraday loop in the magnetotail is considered, and the relationship of electric potentials on the loop to changes in the magnetic flux threading the loop is developed. This approach leads to a model of geomagnetic activity which is similar to the earlier mechanical model but described in terms of the geometry and plasma contents of the magnetotail. The model is characterized as an elementary time-dependent global convection model. The convection evolves within a magnetotail shape that varies in a prescribed manner in response to the dynamical evolution of the convection. The result is a nonlinear model capable of exhibiting a transition from regular to chaotic loading and unloading. The model's behavior under steady loading and also some elementary forms of time-dependent loading is discussed.
Typology of nonlinear activity waves in a layered neural continuum.
Koch, Paul; Leisman, Gerry
2006-04-01
Neural tissue, a medium containing electro-chemical energy, can amplify small increments in cellular activity. The growing disturbance, measured as the fraction of active cells, manifests as propagating waves. In a layered geometry with a time delay in synaptic signals between the layers, the delay is instrumental in determining the amplified wavelengths. The growth of the waves is limited by the finite number of neural cells in a given region of the continuum. As wave growth saturates, the resulting activity patterns in space and time show a variety of forms, ranging from regular monochromatic waves to highly irregular mixtures of different spatial frequencies. The type of wave configuration is determined by a number of parameters, including alertness and synaptic conditioning as well as delay. For all cases studied, using numerical solution of the nonlinear Wilson-Cowan (1973) equations, there is an interval in delay in which the wave mixing occurs. As delay increases through this interval, during a series of consecutive waves propagating through a continuum region, the activity within that region changes from a single-frequency to a multiple-frequency pattern and back again. The diverse spatio-temporal patterns give a more concrete form to several metaphors advanced over the years to attempt an explanation of cognitive phenomena: Activity waves embody the "holographic memory" (Pribram, 1991); wave mixing provides a plausible cause of the competition called "neural Darwinism" (Edelman, 1988); finally the consecutive generation of growing neural waves can explain the discontinuousness of "psychological time" (Stroud, 1955).
Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials.
Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A
2014-02-27
Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications.
Nonlinear Dual Reconstruction of SPECT Activity and Attenuation Images
Liu, Huafeng; Guo, Min; Hu, Zhenghui; Shi, Pengcheng; Hu, Hongjie
2014-01-01
In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), accurate attenuation maps are needed to perform essential attenuation compensation for high quality radioactivity estimation. Formulating the SPECT activity and attenuation reconstruction tasks as coupled signal estimation and system parameter identification problems, where the activity distribution and the attenuation parameter are treated as random variables with known prior statistics, we present a nonlinear dual reconstruction scheme based on the unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) principles. In this effort, the dynamic changes of the organ radioactivity distribution are described through state space evolution equations, while the photon-counting SPECT projection data are measured through the observation equations. Activity distribution is then estimated with sub-optimal fixed attenuation parameters, followed by attenuation map reconstruction given these activity estimates. Such coupled estimation processes are iteratively repeated as necessary until convergence. The results obtained from Monte Carlo simulated data, physical phantom, and real SPECT scans demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed method both from visual inspection of the images and a quantitative evaluation, compared to the widely used EM-ML algorithms. The dual estimation framework has the potential to be useful for estimating the attenuation map from emission data only and thus benefit the radioactivity reconstruction. PMID:25225796
Nonlinear dual reconstruction of SPECT activity and attenuation images.
Liu, Huafeng; Guo, Min; Hu, Zhenghui; Shi, Pengcheng; Hu, Hongjie
2014-01-01
In single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), accurate attenuation maps are needed to perform essential attenuation compensation for high quality radioactivity estimation. Formulating the SPECT activity and attenuation reconstruction tasks as coupled signal estimation and system parameter identification problems, where the activity distribution and the attenuation parameter are treated as random variables with known prior statistics, we present a nonlinear dual reconstruction scheme based on the unscented Kalman filtering (UKF) principles. In this effort, the dynamic changes of the organ radioactivity distribution are described through state space evolution equations, while the photon-counting SPECT projection data are measured through the observation equations. Activity distribution is then estimated with sub-optimal fixed attenuation parameters, followed by attenuation map reconstruction given these activity estimates. Such coupled estimation processes are iteratively repeated as necessary until convergence. The results obtained from Monte Carlo simulated data, physical phantom, and real SPECT scans demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed method both from visual inspection of the images and a quantitative evaluation, compared to the widely used EM-ML algorithms. The dual estimation framework has the potential to be useful for estimating the attenuation map from emission data only and thus benefit the radioactivity reconstruction.
Stretch activation and nonlinear elasticity of muscle cross-bridges.
Thomas, N; Thornhill, R A
1996-01-01
When active insect fibrillar flight muscle is stretched, its ATPase rate increases and it develops "negative viscosity," which allows it to perform oscillatory work. We use a six-state model for the cross-bridge cycle to show that such "stretch activation" may arise naturally as a nonlinear property of a cross-bridge interacting with a single attachment site on a thin filament. Attachment is treated as a thermally activated process in which elastic energy must be supplied to stretch or compress the cross-bridge spring. We find that stretch activation occurs at filament displacements where, before the power stroke, the spring is initially in compression rather than in tension. In that case, pulling the filaments relieves the initial compression and reduces the elastic energy required for attachment. The result is that the attachment rate is enhanced by stretching. The model also displays the "delayed tension" effect observed in length-step experiments. When the muscle is stretched suddenly, the power stroke responds very quickly, but there is a time lag before dissociation at the end of the cycle catches up with the increased attachment rate. This lag is responsible for the delayed tension and hence also for the negative viscosity. PMID:8744318
Passive microrheology in the effective time domain: analyzing time dependent colloidal dispersions.
Vyas, Bhavna M; Orpe, Ashish V; Kaushal, Manish; Joshi, Yogesh M
2016-10-21
We studied the aging dynamics of an aqueous suspension of LAPONITE®, a model time dependent soft glassy material, using a passive microrheology technique. This system is known to undergo physical aging during which its microstructure evolves progressively to explore lower free energy states. Optical microscopy is used to monitor the motion of micron-sized tracer probes embedded in a sample kept between two glass plates. The mean square displacements (MSD) obtained from the motion of the tracer particles show a systematic change from a purely diffusive behavior at short aging times to a subdiffusive behavior as the material ages. Interestingly, the MSDs at all the aging times as well as different LAPONITE® concentrations superpose remarkably to show a time-aging time master curve when the system is transformed from the real time domain to the effective time domain, which is obtained by rescaling the material clock to account for the age dependent relaxation time. The transformation of the master curve from the effective time domain to the real time domain leads to the prediction of the MSD in real time over a span of 5 decades when the measured data at individual aging times are only over 2 decades. Since the MSD obtained from microrheology is proportional to the creep compliance of a material, by using the Boltzmann superposition principle along with the convolution relation in the effective time domain, we predict the stress relaxation behavior of the system in real time. This work shows that the effective time approach applied to microrheology facilitates the prediction of long time creep and relaxation dynamics of a time dependent soft material by carrying out short time experiments at different aging times.
Microrheology with Optical Tweezers: Measuring the relative viscosity of solutions ‘at a glance'
Tassieri, Manlio; Giudice, Francesco Del; Robertson, Emma J.; Jain, Neena; Fries, Bettina; Wilson, Rab; Glidle, Andrew; Greco, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Bicanic, Tihana; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2015-01-01
We present a straightforward method for measuring the relative viscosity of fluids via a simple graphical analysis of the normalised position autocorrelation function of an optically trapped bead, without the need of embarking on laborious calculations. The advantages of the proposed microrheology method are evident when it is adopted for measurements of materials whose availability is limited, such as those involved in biological studies. The method has been validated by direct comparison with conventional bulk rheology methods, and has been applied both to characterise synthetic linear polyelectrolytes solutions and to study biomedical samples. PMID:25743468
Inducing in situ, nonlinear soil response applying an active source
Johnson, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.; Pearce, F.; Lawrence, Z.; Menq, F.-Y.
2009-01-01
[1] It is well known that soil sites have a profound effect on ground motion during large earthquakes. The complex structure of soil deposits and the highly nonlinear constitutive behavior of soils largely control nonlinear site response at soil sites. Measurements of nonlinear soil response under natural conditions are critical to advancing our understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes. Many factors limit the use of earthquake observations to estimate nonlinear site response such that quantitative characterization of nonlinear behavior relies almost exclusively on laboratory experiments and modeling of wave propagation. Here we introduce a new method for in situ characterization of the nonlinear behavior of a natural soil formation using measurements obtained immediately adjacent to a large vibrator source. To our knowledge, we are the first group to propose and test such an approach. Employing a large, surface vibrator as a source, we measure the nonlinear behavior of the soil by incrementally increasing the source amplitude over a range of frequencies and monitoring changes in the output spectra. We apply a homodyne algorithm for measuring spectral amplitudes, which provides robust signal-to-noise ratios at the frequencies of interest. Spectral ratios are computed between the receivers and the source as well as receiver pairs located in an array adjacent to the source, providing the means to separate source and near-source nonlinearity from pervasive nonlinearity in the soil column. We find clear evidence of nonlinearity in significant decreases in the frequency of peak spectral ratios, corresponding to material softening with amplitude, observed across the array as the source amplitude is increased. The observed peak shifts are consistent with laboratory measurements of soil nonlinearity. Our results provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies of strong ground motion during earthquakes.
Improved training of neural networks for the nonlinear active control of sound and vibration.
Bouchard, M; Paillard, B; Le Dinh, C T
1999-01-01
Active control of sound and vibration has been the subject of a lot of research in recent years, and examples of applications are now numerous. However, few practical implementations of nonlinear active controllers have been realized. Nonlinear active controllers may be required in cases where the actuators used in active control systems exhibit nonlinear characteristics, or in cases when the structure to be controlled exhibits a nonlinear behavior. A multilayer perceptron neural-network based control structure was previously introduced as a nonlinear active controller, with a training algorithm based on an extended backpropagation scheme. This paper introduces new heuristical training algorithms for the same neural-network control structure. The objective is to develop new algorithms with faster convergence speed (by using nonlinear recursive-least-squares algorithms) and/or lower computational loads (by using an alternative approach to compute the instantaneous gradient of the cost function). Experimental results of active sound control using a nonlinear actuator with linear and nonlinear controllers are presented. The results show that some of the new algorithms can greatly improve the learning rate of the neural-network control structure, and that for the considered experimental setup a neural-network controller can outperform linear controllers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.
1996-07-01
While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.
Limit cycle analysis of active disturbance rejection control system with two nonlinearities.
Wu, Dan; Chen, Ken
2014-07-01
Introduction of nonlinearities to active disturbance rejection control algorithm might have high control efficiency in some situations, but makes the systems with complex nonlinearity. Limit cycle is a typical phenomenon that can be observed in the nonlinear systems, usually causing failure or danger of the systems. This paper approaches the problem of the existence of limit cycles of a second-order fast tool servo system using active disturbance rejection control algorithm with two fal nonlinearities. A frequency domain approach is presented by using describing function technique and transfer function representation to characterize the nonlinear system. The derivations of the describing functions for fal nonlinearities and treatment of two nonlinearities connected in series are given to facilitate the limit cycles analysis. The effects of the parameters of both the nonlinearity and the controller on the limit cycles are presented, indicating that the limit cycles caused by the nonlinearities can be easily suppressed if the parameters are chosen carefully. Simulations in the time domain are performed to assess the prediction accuracy based on the describing function.
Noncontact microrheology at acoustic frequencies using frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy.
Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S
2010-08-01
We report an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method for assessing elastic and viscous properties of soft samples at acoustic frequencies under non-contact conditions. The method can be used to measure material properties via frequency modulation and is based on hydrodynamics theory of thin gaps we developed here. A cantilever with an attached microsphere is forced to oscillate tens of nanometers above a sample. The elastic modulus and viscosity of the sample are estimated by measuring the frequency-dependence of the phase lag between the oscillating microsphere and the driving piezo at various heights above the sample. This method features an effective area of pyramidal tips used in contact AFM but with only piconewton applied forces. Using this method, we analyzed polyacrylamide gels of different stiffness and assessed graded mechanical properties of guinea pig tectorial membrane. The technique enables the study of microrheology of biological tissues that produce or detect sound.
Vincent, Romaric R; Williams, Martin A K
2009-09-28
Many of the functional attributes of pectin, whether in the plant cell wall or in engineered food materials, are linked to its gelling properties and in particular to its ability to assemble in the presence of calcium. Pectin's fine structure and local concentration relative to that of its cross-linking ion play a major role in determining resultant gel micro-structures, and consequently the mechanical and transport properties of pectin matrices. Recent studies have sought to probe the basic properties of such calcium-induced matrices, using a light scattering technique called diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS). In addition to the low frequency mechanical behaviour, which provides information about the nature and density of cross-links, microrheological measurements carried out with DWS are able to determine the high frequency behaviour, which is closely linked to the response of the basic strands of the network. By using these microrheological measurements, two distinct regimes have been identified into which pectin gels appear to fall: one corresponding to the presence of semi-flexible networks, a generally accepted paradigm in biological gels, and another where flexible networks dominate. In order to explain the origin of these dramatically different networks, distinct assembly pathways have been proposed in which the relative importance of the free energy gained by association and the frictional barrier to polymeric re-arrangement during network formation can differ significantly. By manipulating the local environment in the plant cell wall it is possible that Nature makes full use of both of these network types for fulfilling different tasks; such as providing strain-hardening, maximizing local elastic properties or controlling macromolecular transport.
Rheology and microrheology of materials at the air-water interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walder, Robert Benjamin
2008-10-01
The study of materials at the air-water interface is an important area of research in soft condensed matter physics. Films at the air-water interface have been a system of interest to physics, chemistry and biology for the last 20 years. The unique properties of these surface films provide ideal models for 2-d films, surface chemistry and provide a platform for creating 2 dimensional analogue materials to cellular membranes. Measurements of the surface rheology of cross-linked F-actin networks associated with a lipid monolayer at the air-water interface of a Langmuir monolayer have been performed. The rheological measurements are made using a Couette cell. These data demonstrate that the network has a finite elastic modulus that grows as a function of the cross-linking concentration. We also note that under steady-state flow the system behaves as a power law fluid in which the effective viscosity decreases with imposed shear. A Langmuir monolayer trough that is equipped for simultaneous microrheology and standard rheology measurements has been constructed. The central elements are the trough itself with a full range of optical tools accessing the air-water interface from below the trough and a portable knife-edge torsion pendulum that can access the interface from above. The ability to simultaneously measure the mechanical response of Langmuir monolayers on very different length scales is an important step for our understanding of the mechanical response of two-dimensional viscoelastic networks. The optical tweezer microrheometer is used to study the micromechanical properties of Langmuir monolayers. Microrheology measurements are made a variety of surface pressures that correspond to different ordered phases of the monolayer. The complex shear modulus shows an order of magnitude increase for the liquid condensed phase of DPPC compared to the liquid expanded phase.
Microrheology of single microtubule filaments and synthesized cytoskeletal networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Matthias; Rohrbach, Alexander
2015-03-01
The ability to sense and respond to external mechanical forces is crucial for cells in many processes such as cell growth and division. Common models on mechanotransduction rely on the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the cell periphery and their translocation by diffusion (passive) or molecular motors (active). These processes are rather slow (~ seconds) and it has been argued that the cytoskeleton itself might be able to transport a mechanical signal within microseconds via stress waves. Microtubules are the stiffest component of the cytoskeleton and thus ideal candidates for this purpose. We study the frequency dependent response of single microtubule filaments and small networks thereof in a bottom-up approach using several (N =2-10) time-multiplexed optical tweezers together with back focal plane interferometry. Small synthesized networks with a defined geometry are constructed using trapped Neutravidin beads as anchor points for biotinylated filaments. The network is then probed by a defined oscillation of one anchor (actor). The frequency dependent response of the remaining beads (sensors) is analyzed experimentally and modeled theoretically over a wide frequency range.
Frequency domain stability analysis of nonlinear active disturbance rejection control system.
Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaohui; Xia, Yuanqing; Pu, Fan; Chang, Kai
2015-05-01
This paper applies three methods (i.e., root locus analysis, describing function method and extended circle criterion) to approach the frequency domain stability analysis of the fast tool servo system using nonlinear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) algorithm. Root locus qualitative analysis shows that limit cycle is generated because the gain of the nonlinear function used in ADRC varies with its input. The parameters in the nonlinear function are adjustable to suppress limit cycle. In the process of root locus analysis, the nonlinear function is transformed based on the concept of equivalent gain. Then, frequency domain description of the nonlinear function via describing function is presented and limit cycle quantitative analysis including estimating prediction error is presented, which virtually and theoretically demonstrates that the describing function method cannot guarantee enough precision in this case. Furthermore, absolute stability analysis based on extended circle criterion is investigated as a complement.
Vibration control of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system by reinforcement learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucak, İ. Ö.; Öz, H. R.
2012-06-01
This article presents the investigation of performance of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system with a stochastic real-valued reinforcement learning control strategy. As an example, a model of a quarter car with a nonlinear suspension spring subjected to excitation from a road profile is considered. The excitation is realised by the roughness of the road. The quarter-car model to be considered here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed active suspension system suppresses the vibrations greatly. A simulation of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and examine the performance of the learning control algorithm.
Nonlinear Coupling between Cortical Oscillations and Muscle Activity during Isotonic Wrist Flexion
Yang, Yuan; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; van de Ruit, Mark; van der Helm, Frans C. T.; Schouten, Alfred C.
2016-01-01
Coupling between cortical oscillations and muscle activity facilitates neuronal communication during motor control. The linear part of this coupling, known as corticomuscular coherence, has received substantial attention, even though neuronal communication underlying motor control has been demonstrated to be highly nonlinear. A full assessment of corticomuscular coupling, including the nonlinear part, is essential to understand the neuronal communication within the sensorimotor system. In this study, we applied the recently developed n:m coherence method to assess nonlinear corticomuscular coupling during isotonic wrist flexion. The n:m coherence is a generalized metric for quantifying nonlinear cross-frequency coupling as well as linear iso-frequency coupling. By using independent component analysis (ICA) and equivalent current dipole source localization, we identify four sensorimotor related brain areas based on the locations of the dipoles, i.e., the contralateral primary sensorimotor areas, supplementary motor area (SMA), prefrontal area (PFA) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). For all these areas, linear coupling between electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) is present with peaks in the beta band (15–35 Hz), while nonlinear coupling is detected with both integer (1:2, 1:3, 1:4) and non-integer (2:3) harmonics. Significant differences between brain areas is shown in linear coupling with stronger coherence for the primary sensorimotor areas and motor association cortices (SMA, PFA) compared to the sensory association area (PPC); but not for the nonlinear coupling. Moreover, the detected nonlinear coupling is similar to previously reported nonlinear coupling of cortical activity to somatosensory stimuli. We suggest that the descending motor pathways mainly contribute to linear corticomuscular coupling, while nonlinear coupling likely originates from sensory feedback. PMID:27999537
Nonlinear Coupling between Cortical Oscillations and Muscle Activity during Isotonic Wrist Flexion.
Yang, Yuan; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; van de Ruit, Mark; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C
2016-01-01
Coupling between cortical oscillations and muscle activity facilitates neuronal communication during motor control. The linear part of this coupling, known as corticomuscular coherence, has received substantial attention, even though neuronal communication underlying motor control has been demonstrated to be highly nonlinear. A full assessment of corticomuscular coupling, including the nonlinear part, is essential to understand the neuronal communication within the sensorimotor system. In this study, we applied the recently developed n:m coherence method to assess nonlinear corticomuscular coupling during isotonic wrist flexion. The n:m coherence is a generalized metric for quantifying nonlinear cross-frequency coupling as well as linear iso-frequency coupling. By using independent component analysis (ICA) and equivalent current dipole source localization, we identify four sensorimotor related brain areas based on the locations of the dipoles, i.e., the contralateral primary sensorimotor areas, supplementary motor area (SMA), prefrontal area (PFA) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). For all these areas, linear coupling between electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) is present with peaks in the beta band (15-35 Hz), while nonlinear coupling is detected with both integer (1:2, 1:3, 1:4) and non-integer (2:3) harmonics. Significant differences between brain areas is shown in linear coupling with stronger coherence for the primary sensorimotor areas and motor association cortices (SMA, PFA) compared to the sensory association area (PPC); but not for the nonlinear coupling. Moreover, the detected nonlinear coupling is similar to previously reported nonlinear coupling of cortical activity to somatosensory stimuli. We suggest that the descending motor pathways mainly contribute to linear corticomuscular coupling, while nonlinear coupling likely originates from sensory feedback.
Hanna, Andrew I; Mandic, Danilo P
2003-03-01
A complex-valued nonlinear gradient descent (CNGD) learning algorithm for a simple finite impulse response (FIR) nonlinear neural adaptive filter with an adaptive amplitude of the complex activation function is proposed. This way the amplitude of the complex-valued analytic nonlinear activation function of a neuron in the learning algorithm is made gradient adaptive to give the complex-valued adaptive amplitude nonlinear gradient descent (CAANGD). Such an algorithm is beneficial when dealing with signals that have rich dynamical behavior. Simulations on the prediction of complex-valued coloured and nonlinear input signals show the gradient adaptive amplitude, CAANGD, outperforming the standard CNGD algorithm.
Controlling Spatiotemporal Chaos in Active Dissipative-Dispersive Nonlinear Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Susana; Pradas, Marc; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Grigorios
2015-11-01
We present a novel generic methodology for the stabilization and control of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems exhibiting low-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The methodology is exemplified with the generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the simplest possible prototype that retains that fundamental elements of any nonlinear process involving wave evolution. The equation is applicable on a wide variety of systems including falling liquid films and plasma waves with dispersion due to finite banana width. We show that applying the appropriate choice of time-dependent feedback controls via blowing and suction, we are able to stabilize and/or control all stable or unstable solutions, including steady solutions, travelling waves and spatiotemporal chaos, but also use the controls obtained to stabilize the solutions to more general long wave models. We acknowledge financial support from Imperial College through a Roth PhD studentship, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK through Grants No. EP/H034587, EP/J009636, EP/K041134, EP/L020564 and EP/L024926 and European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
In Situ Mapping of the Mechanical Properties of Biofilms by Particle-tracking Microrheology.
Chew, Su C; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Yang, Liang
2015-12-04
Bacterial cells are able to form surface-attached biofilm communities known as biofilms by encasing themselves in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS serves as a physical and protective scaffold that houses the bacterial cells and consists of a variety of materials that includes proteins, exopolysaccharides and DNA. The composition of the EPS may change, which remodels the mechanic properties of the biofilm to further develop or support alternative biofilm structures, such as streamers, as a response to environmental cues. Despite this, there are little quantitative descriptions on how EPS components contribute to the mechanical properties and function of biofilms. Rheology, the study of the flow of matter, is of particular relevance to biofilms as many biofilms grow in flow conditions and are constantly exposed to shear stress. It also provides measurement and insight on the spreading of the biofilm on a surface. Here, particle-tracking microrheology is used to examine the viscoelasticity and effective crosslinking roles of different matrix components in various parts of the biofilm during development. This approach allows researchers to measure mechanic properties of biofilms at the micro-scale, which might provide useful information for controlling and engineering biofilms.
Fiber-based optical trapping for cell mechanics study and microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M.; Yu, Xiaokong; Wen, Qi; Tao, Mingjiang; Liu, Yuxiang
2016-09-01
In this work, we developed fiber based optical trapping system and explored its applications in biology and physics. We aim to replace objective lenses with optical fibers, both for optical trapping and particle position detection. Compared with objective lens based counterparts, fiber based optical trapping systems are small, low-cost, integratable, independent of objective lenses, and can work in turbid mediums. These advantages make fiber optical trapping systems ideal for applications in tightly confined spaces as well as integration with various microscopy techniques. We demonstrate the applications of fiber optical trapping systems in both single-cell mechanics and microrheology study of asphalt binders. Fiber optical trapping system is being used to study mechanical properties of viscoelastic hydrogel, as an important extra cellular matrix (ECM) material that is used to understand the force propagation on cell membranes on 2D substrates or in 3D compartments. Moreover, the fiber optical trapping system has also been demonstrated to measure the cellular response to the external mechanical stimuli. Direct measurements of cellular traction forces in 3D compartments are underway. In addition, fiber optical trapping systems are used to measure the microscale viscoelastic properties of asphalt binders, in order to improve the fundamental understanding of the relationship between mechanical and chemical properties of asphalt binders. This fundamental understanding could help targeted asphalt recycling and pavement maintenance. Fiber optical trapping systems are versatile and highly potential tools that can find applications in various areas ranging from mechanobiology to complex fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albalooshi, Fatema A.; Krieger, Evan; Sidike, Paheding; Asari, Vijayan K.
2015-03-01
Thermal images are exploited in many areas of pattern recognition applications. Infrared thermal image segmentation can be used for object detection by extracting regions of abnormal temperatures. However, the lack of texture and color information, low signal-to-noise ratio, and blurring effect of thermal images make segmenting infrared heat patterns a challenging task. Furthermore, many segmentation methods that are used in visible imagery may not be suitable for segmenting thermal imagery mainly due to their dissimilar intensity distributions. Thus, a new method is proposed to improve the performance of image segmentation in thermal imagery. The proposed scheme efficiently utilizes nonlinear intensity enhancement technique and Unsupervised Active Contour Models (UACM). The nonlinear intensity enhancement improves visual quality by combining dynamic range compression and contrast enhancement, while the UACM incorporates active contour evolutional function and neural networks. The algorithm is tested on segmenting different objects in thermal images and it is observed that the nonlinear enhancement has significantly improved the segmentation performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shuang; Wang, Jin-Jin; Liu, Jin-Jie; Li, Ya-Qian
2015-10-01
In the present work, we investigate the nonlinear parametrically excited vibration and active control of a gear pair system involving backlash, time-varying meshing stiffness and static transmission error. Firstly, a gear pair model is established in a strongly nonlinear form, and its nonlinear vibration characteristics are systematically investigated through different approaches. Several complicated phenomena such as period doubling bifurcation, anti period doubling bifurcation and chaos can be observed under the internal parametric excitation. Then, an active compensation controller is designed to suppress the vibration, including the chaos. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified numerically. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark
2013-09-01
Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.
Re-Mediating Classroom Activity with a Non-Linear, Multi-Display Presentation Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bligh, Brett; Coyle, Do
2013-01-01
This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to evaluate the use of a novel, multi-screen, non-linear presentation tool. The Thunder tool allows presenters to manipulate and annotate multiple digital slides and to concurrently display a selection of juxtaposed resources across a wall-sized projection area. Conventional, single screen presentation…
Linear and non-linear fluorescence imaging of neuronal activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Jonathan A. N.
Optical imaging of neuronal activity offers new possibilities for understanding brain physiology. The predominant methods in neuroscience for measuring electrical activity require electrodes inserted into the tissue. Such methods, however, provide limited spatial information and are invasive. Optical methods are less physically invasive and offer the possibility for simultaneously imaging the activity of many neurons. In this thesis one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy techniques were applied to several in vivo and in vitro mammalian preparations. Using one-photon absorption fluorescence microscopy and gradient index (GRIN) lens optics, cortical electrical activity in response to electric stimulation was resolved in three-dimensions at high-speed in the primary somatosensory cortex of the mouse in vivo using voltage-sensitive dyes. Imaging at depths up to 150 mum below the cortex surface, it was possible to resolve depth-dependent patterns of neuronal activity in response to cortical and thalamic electric stimulation. The patterns of activity were consistent with known cortical cellular architecture. In a qualitatively different set of experiments, one-photon fluorescence microscopy via voltage-sensitive dyes was successfully employed to image an in vitro preparation of the perfused rat brainstem during the process of respiratory rhythmogenesis. Imaging results yielded insights into the spatial organization of the central respiratory rhythm generation region in the ventrolateral medulla. A multifocal two-photon scanning microscope was constructed, and design and operation principles are described. Utilizing the novel device, anatomical and functional two-photon imaging via potentiometric dyes and calcium dyes is described, and the results of in vivo versus in vitro imaging are compared. Anatomical imaging results used either functional probe background fluorescence or green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Spectroscopic experiments measuring the two
Modeling of Equivalent Nonlinear Resistance and Capacitance of Active Cochlea
2007-11-02
based on the studies of OAEs, partially because OAEs can be objectively measured at ear canal and viewed as an observation of OHC activities. Zweig ...actually supports the previous models proposed by Zweig and Talmadge, and by Hubbard on the following grounds. First, all these models are based on...the classical passive one-dimensional transmission line cochlear model. Second, both the models of Zweig and of Hubbard, and the model proposed in
Neural activation in the "reward circuit" shows a nonlinear response to facial attractiveness.
Liang, Xiaoyun; Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Zhang, Yi
2010-01-01
Positive behavioral responses to attractive faces have led neuroscientists to investigate underlying neural mechanisms in a "reward circuit" that includes brain regions innervated by dopamine pathways. Using male faces ranging from attractive to extremely unattractive, disfigured ones, this study is the first to demonstrate heightened responses to both rewarding and aversive faces in numerous areas of this putative reward circuit. Parametric analyses employing orthogonal linear and nonlinear regressors revealed positive nonlinear effects in anterior cingulate cortex, lateral orbital frontal cortex (LOFC), striatum (nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen), and ventral tegmental area, in addition to replicating previously documented linear effects in medial orbital frontal cortex (MOFC) and LOFC and nonlinear effects in amygdala and MOFC. The widespread nonlinear responses are consistent with single cell recordings in animals showing responses to both rewarding and aversive stimuli, and with some human fMRI investigations of non-face stimuli. They indicate that the reward circuit does not process face valence with any simple dissociation of function across structures. Perceiver gender modulated some responses to our male faces: Women showed stronger linear effects, and men showed stronger nonlinear effects, which may have functional implications. Our discovery of nonlinear responses to attractiveness throughout the reward circuit echoes the history of amygdala research: Early work indicated a linear response to threatening stimuli, including faces; later work also revealed a nonlinear response with heightened activation to affectively salient stimuli regardless of valence. The challenge remains to determine how such dual coding influences feelings, such as pleasure and pain, and guides goal-related behavioral responses, such as approach and avoidance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeeb, R.; Manohar, C. S.; Roy, D.
2007-09-01
The problem of active control of nonlinear structural dynamical systems, in the presence of both process and measurement noises, is considered. The focus of the study is on the use of particle filters for state estimation in feedback control algorithms for nonlinear structures, when a limited number of noisy output measurements are available. The control design is done using the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) method. The stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing the dynamical systems are discretized using explicit forms of Ito-Taylor expansions. The Bayesian bootstrap filter and that based on sequential important sampling (SIS) are employed for state estimation. The simulation results show the feasibility of using particle filters and SDRE techniques in control of nonlinear structural dynamical systems.
Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection
Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwab, Karin; Groh, Tobias; Schwab, Matthias; Witte, Herbert
2009-03-01
An approach combining time-continuous nonlinear stability analysis and a parametric bispectral method was introduced to better describe cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electroencephalogram (EEG). Signal models and data-driven investigations were performed to find optimal parameters of the nonlinear methods and to confirm the occurrence of nonlinear sections in the fetal EEG. The resulting measures were applied to the in utero electrocorticogram (ECoG) of fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation when organized sleep states were not developed and compared to previous results at 0.9 gestation. Cycling of the nonlinear stability of the fetal ECoG occurred already at this early gestational age, suggesting the presence of premature sleep states. This was accompanied by cycling of the time-variant biamplitude which reflected ECoG synchronization effects during premature sleep states associated with nonrapid eye movement sleep later in gestation. Thus, the combined nonlinear and time-variant approach was able to provide important insights into the properties of the immature fetal ECoG.
Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.
1992-01-01
Numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series are presented. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical invariants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), given a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.
Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.
1993-01-01
This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.
Fiori, Simone
2003-12-01
In recent work, we introduced nonlinear adaptive activation function (FAN) artificial neuron models, which learn their activation functions in an unsupervised way by information-theoretic adapting rules. We also applied networks of these neurons to some blind signal processing problems, such as independent component analysis and blind deconvolution. The aim of this letter is to study some fundamental aspects of FAN units' learning by investigating the properties of the associated learning differential equation systems.
Laser speckle micro-rheology for biomechanical evaluation of breast tumors (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjarian Kashany, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.
2016-03-01
The stiffness of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) is recognized as a key regulator of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Therefore technologies that quantify ECM stiffness with micro-scale scale resolution will likely provide important insights into neoplastic progression. Laser Speckle Micro-Rheology (LSM) is a novel optical tool for measuring tissue viscoelastic properties with micro-scale resolution. In LSM, speckle images are collected through an objective lens by a high-speed camera. Spatio-temporal correlation analysis of speckle frames yields the intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), for each pixel, and subsequently a 2D map of viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω) is reconstructed. Here, we investigate the utility of LSM for micro-mechanical evaluation of the ECM in human breast lesions. Specimens collected 18 women undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy were evaluated with LSM. Because collagen is the key protein associated with ECM stiffness, G*(ω) maps obtained from LSM were compared with collagen content measured by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Regions of low G*(ω), identified by LSM, corresponded to low-intensity SHG signal and adipose tissue. Likewise, regions with high G*(ω) in LSM images matched high intensity SHG signal caused by desmoplastic collagen accumulation. Quantitative regression analysis demonstrated a strong, statistically significant correlation between G*(ω) and SHG signal intensity (R=0.66 p< 0.01). These findings highlight the capability of LSM for quantifying the ECM micro-mechanics, potentially providing important insights into the biomechanical regulators of breast cancer progression.
Dynamical and Microrheological Analysis of Amyloplasts in the Plant Root Gravity-Sensing Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhongyu; Zou, Junjie; Li, Hanhai; Xue, Shan; Le, Jie; Wang, Yuren
2015-11-01
Gravitropism in plants is one of the most controversial issues. In the most wildly accepted starch-statolith hypothesis the sedimentation movement of amyloplasts in the gravisensing columella cells primarily triggers the asymmetric distribution of auxin which leads to the differential growth of the plant root. It has been gradually recognized that the inhomogeneous structures in statocytes arising from intracellular components such as cytoskeletons significantly affect the complex movements of amyloplasts and the final gravimorphogenesis. In this letter, we implement a diffusive dynamics measurement and inplanta microrheological analysis of amyloplasts in the wild-type plants and actin cytoskeleton mutants for the first time. We found that the intracellular environment of columella cells exhibits the spatial heterogeneity and the cage-confinement on amyloplasts which is the typically characteristics in colloidal suspensions. By comparing the distinct diffusive dynamics of amyloplasts in different types of plants with the behaviors of colloidal systems in different states, we quantitatively characterized the influence of the actin organization dominated intracellular envoronments on the amyloplast movements. Furthermore, the cage-confinement strength was measured by calculating the spatial fluctuation of local apparent viscosity within the columella cells. Finally, a linear association between the initial mechanical stimulation in the columella cells the subsequent intercellular signal transduction and the final gravity response was observed and a possible gravity sensing mechanism was suggested. It suggests the existence of a potential gravity-sensing mechanism that dictates a linear frustration effect of the actin cytoskeleton on the conversion of the mechanical stimulation of amyloplasts into gravitropic signals.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soluble fiber ß-glucan is one of the key dietary materials in healthy food products known for reducing serum cholesterol levels. The micro-structural heterogeneity and micro-rheology of high-viscosity barley ß-glucan solutions were investigated by the diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) technology. By...
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in an active nonlinear cochlear model in the time domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fruth, Florian; Jülicher, Frank; Lindner, Benjamin
2015-12-01
A large fraction of human cochleas emits sounds even in the absence of external stimulation. These so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a hallmark of the active nonlinear amplification process taking place in the cochlea. Here, we extend a previously proposed frequency domain model and put forward an active nonlinear one-dimensional model of the cochlea in the time domain describing human SOAEs [5]. In our model, oscillatory elements are close to an instability (Hopf bifurcation), they are subject to dynamical noise and coupled by hydrodynamic, elastic and dissipative interactions. Furthermore, oscillators are subject to a weak spatial irregularity in their activity (normally distributed and exponentially correlated in space) that gives rise to the individuality of each simulated cochlea. Our model captures main statistical features of the distribution of emission frequencies, the distribution of the numbers of emissions per cochlea, and the distribution of the distances between neighboring emissions as were previously measured in experiment [14].
Vibrational spectroscopic and non-linear optical activity studies on nicotinanilide : A DFT approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2015-06-01
The molecular structure of nicotinanilide was optimized by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set using Gaussian 09 program. The first order hyperpolarizability of the molecule was calculated, which exhibits the higher nonlinear optical activity. The natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction, which leads to the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecule. The Frontier molecular orbitals analysis of the molecule shows that the delocalization of electron density occurs within the molecule. The lower energy gap indicates that the hydrogen bond formation between the charged species. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program and the corresponding vibrational spectra were simulated. Hence, the nicotinanilide molecule can be a good candidate for second-order NLO material.
Vibrational spectroscopic and non-linear optical activity studies on nicotinanilide : A DFT approach
Premkumar, S.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.
2015-06-24
The molecular structure of nicotinanilide was optimized by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set using Gaussian 09 program. The first order hyperpolarizability of the molecule was calculated, which exhibits the higher nonlinear optical activity. The natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction, which leads to the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecule. The Frontier molecular orbitals analysis of the molecule shows that the delocalization of electron density occurs within the molecule. The lower energy gap indicates that the hydrogen bond formation between the charged species. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program and the corresponding vibrational spectra were simulated. Hence, the nicotinanilide molecule can be a good candidate for second-order NLO material.
Roach, Shane M.; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.
2012-01-01
Activity-dependent variation of neuronal thresholds for action potential (AP) generation is one of the key determinants of spike-train temporal-pattern transformations from presynaptic to postsynaptic spike trains. In this study, we model the nonlinear dynamics of the threshold variation during synaptically driven broadband intracellular activity. First, membrane potentials of single CA1 pyramidal cells were recorded under physiologically plausible broadband stimulation conditions. Second, a method was developed to measure AP thresholds from the continuous recordings of membrane potentials. It involves measuring the turning points of APs by analyzing the third-order derivatives of the membrane potentials. Four stimulation paradigms with different temporal patterns were applied to validate this method by comparing the measured AP turning points and the actual AP thresholds estimated with varying stimulation intensities. Results show that the AP turning points provide consistent measurement of the AP thresholds, except for a constant offset. It indicates that 1) the variation of AP turning points represents the nonlinearities of threshold dynamics; and 2) an optimization of the constant offset is required to achieve accurate spike prediction. Third, a nonlinear dynamical third-order Volterra model was built to describe the relations between the threshold dynamics and the AP activities. Results show that the model can predict threshold accurately based on the preceding APs. Finally, the dynamic threshold model was integrated into a previously developed single neuron model and resulted in a 33% improvement in spike prediction. PMID:22156947
Light, Sharee N; Coan, James A; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H Hill; Davidson, Richard J
2009-03-01
Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture second-by-second changes in ongoing emotion until now. The relationship between pleasure and second-by-second lateral frontal activity was examined with the use of hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 128 children ages 6-10 years. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded during "pop-out toy," a standardized task that elicits pleasure. The task consisted of 3 epochs: an anticipation period sandwiched between 2 play periods. The amount of pleasure expressed during the task predicted the pattern of nonlinear change in lateral frontal activity. Children who expressed increasing amounts of pleasure during the task exhibited increasing left lateral frontal activity during the task, whereas children who expressed contentment exhibited increasing right/decreasing left activity. These findings indicate that task-dependent changes in pleasure relate to dynamic, nonlinear changes in lateral frontal activity as the task unfolds.
Xu, Duoxia; Qi, Yameng; Wang, Xu; Li, Xin; Wang, Shaojia; Cao, Yanping; Wang, Chengtao; Sun, Baoguo; Decker, Eric; Panya, Atikorn
2017-01-25
The impact of flaxseed gum (FG) on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein isolate (WPI) stabilized β-carotene emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered β-carotene emulsions with interfacial membranes consisting of WPI and FG. The microrheological behavior of the multilayered β-carotene emulsions was measured through the diffusive wave spectroscopy technique. WPI alone and WPI-FG (concentration of FG = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%) stabilized β-carotene emulsions were purely viscous giving a mean square displacement that scaled linearly with decorrelation time (τ). The presence of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05 wt% FG in the WPI-stabilized emulsions caused them to exhibit viscoelastic properties. Meanwhile, the increase in τ reflected the increase in the length scale of connectivity in the emulsions until a "cluster" was formed and the droplets were not free to move due to droplet-network interaction. The apparent increase in the macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index and decrease in the solid lipid balance and fluidity index of emulsions with lower concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.05 wt%) of FG indicated that the bridging flocculation of FG had a much more appreciable influence on the microrheological properties than depletion flocculation (higher concentrations, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%). Droplet size, zeta-potential, and transmission profiles using the centrifugal sedimentation technique and β-carotene degradation during storage were also characterized. With the addition of FG, the zeta-potential of WPI coated β-carotene droplets decreased from positive to negative, and an increase in the apparent droplet size was also noted. LUMISizer analysis exhibited an improvement in physical stability with the addition of 0.1 wt% FG. FG also helped to chemically stabilize the WPI emulsions against β-carotene degradation mainly by slowing down the mobility of the droplets.
An enhanced nonlinear damping approach accounting for system constraints in active mass dampers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venanzi, Ilaria; Ierimonti, Laura; Ubertini, Filippo
2015-11-01
Active mass dampers are a viable solution for mitigating wind-induced vibrations in high-rise buildings and improve occupants' comfort. Such devices suffer particularly when they reach force saturation of the actuators and maximum extension of their stroke, which may occur in case of severe loading conditions (e.g. wind gust and earthquake). Exceeding actuators' physical limits can impair the control performance of the system or even lead to devices damage, with consequent need for repair or substitution of part of the control system. Controllers for active mass dampers should account for their technological limits. Prior work of the authors was devoted to stroke issues and led to the definition of a nonlinear damping approach, very easy to implement in practice. It consisted of a modified skyhook algorithm complemented with a nonlinear braking force to reverse the direction of the mass before reaching the stroke limit. This paper presents an enhanced version of this approach, also accounting for force saturation of the actuator and keeping the simplicity of implementation. This is achieved by modulating the control force by a nonlinear smooth function depending on the ratio between actuator's force and saturation limit. Results of a numerical investigation show that the proposed approach provides similar results to the method of the State Dependent Riccati Equation, a well-established technique for designing optimal controllers for constrained systems, yet very difficult to apply in practice.
Active control of highly efficient third-harmonic generation in ultrathin nonlinear metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Zibo; Li, Chong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-10-01
Active electric control of highly efficient third harmonic generation was realized in an ultrathin nonlinear metasurface by using a nanocomposite consisting of gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycrystalline strontium titanate as the electro-optic material. Owing to the nonlinearity enhancement associated with the slow light effect, quantum confinement effect, and field-reinforcement, a high conversion efficiency of 3 × 10-5 was obtained, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported efficiencies at comparable pump intensities. A modulation of 12% in the intensity of the third harmonic generation and a 30-nm shift in the transparency window center were achieved by varying the applied voltage from -30 V to zero. Our results pave the way toward the realization of multi-functional integrated photonic devices and chips based on metasurfaces.
Nonreciprocal nonlinear wave scattering by loss-compensated active hyperbolic structures
Shramkova, O. V.; Tsironis, G. P.
2017-01-01
The combinatorial frequency generation (CFG) in active periodic semiconductor-dielectric structures has been explored through illumination by a pair of pump waves with dissimilar frequencies and incidence angles. We study the influence of gain on linear refraction properties of the stack and on the efficiency of the mixing processes by the system with the resistive character of nonlinearity. We demonstrate that the introduction of gain dielectric material inside the stack not only compensates for losses caused by the collisions of the electrons in semiconductor media but also improves the efficiency of the CFG. We show that in systems with weak asymmetry of linear response we can get significant nonreciprocity of nonlinear interaction. PMID:28225004
Active Resonator Reset in the Nonlinear Dispersive Regime of Circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bultink, C. C.; Rol, M. A.; O'Brien, T. E.; Fu, X.; Dikken, B. C. S.; Dickel, C.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; de Sterke, J. C.; Bruno, A.; Schouten, R. N.; DiCarlo, L.
2016-09-01
We present two pulse schemes to actively deplete measurement photons from a readout resonator in the nonlinear dispersive regime of circuit QED. One method uses digital feedback conditioned on the measurement outcome, while the other is unconditional. In the absence of analytic forms and symmetries to exploit in this nonlinear regime, the depletion pulses are numerically optimized using the Powell method. We speed up photon depletion by more than six inverse resonator linewidths, saving approximately 1650 ns compared to depletion by waiting. We quantify the benefit by emulating an ancilla qubit performing repeated quantum-parity checks in a repetition code. Fast depletion increases the mean number of cycles to a spurious error detection event from order 1 to 75 at a 1 -μ s cycle time.
Raj, Saurabh; Wojdyla, Michal; Petrov, Dmitri
2013-04-01
The dynamic micromechanical and structural properties of single human red blood cells are studied using a combination of dual trap optical tweezers and confocal Raman spectroscopy. Such a combination permits us to show a direct relationship between the rheological properties and chemical structure conformation. The frequency dependence of the complex stiffness of the cells was measured using both one and two probe response functions under identical experimental conditions. Both the microrheology and Raman measurements were performed at different stretching forces applied to the cell. A detailed analysis of the auto- and cross-correlated probe motions allows exploring the local and overall viscoelastic properties of the cells over a controlled range of the deformations. The observed growth of the cell viscoelasticity with stretching was associated with structural changes in the cell membrane monitored via the Raman spectroscopy.
Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw
Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.
Distortion products and backward-traveling waves in nonlinear active models of the cochlea
Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Botti, Teresa; Bertaccini, Daniele; Shera, Christopher A.
2011-01-01
This study explores the phenomenology of distortion products in nonlinear cochlear models, predicting their amplitude and phase along the basilar membrane. The existence of a backward-traveling wave at the distortion-product frequency, which has been recently questioned by experiments measuring the phase of basilar-membrane vibration, is discussed. The effect of different modeling choices is analyzed, including feed-forward asymmetry, micromechanical roughness, and breaking of scaling symmetry. The experimentally observed negative slope of basilar-membrane phase is predicted by numerical simulations of nonlinear cochlear models under a wide range of parameters and modeling choices. In active models, positive phase slopes are predicted by the quasi-linear analytical computations and by the fully nonlinear numerical simulations only if the distortion-product sources are localized apical to the observation point and if the stapes reflectivity is unrealistically small. The results of this study predict a negative phase slope whenever the source is distributed over a reasonably wide cochlear region and/or a reasonably high stapes reflectivity is assumed. Therefore, the above-mentioned experiments do not contradict “classical” models of cochlear mechanics and of distortion-product generation. PMID:21568417
Comparisons between linear and nonlinear methods for decoding motor cortical activities of monkey.
Xu, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Zhang, Shaomin; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang
2011-01-01
Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) aim at building a direct communication link between the neural system and external devices. The decoding of neuronal signals is one of the important steps in BMI systems. Existing decoding methods commonly fall into two categories, i.e., linear methods and nonlinear methods. This paper compares the performance between the two kinds of methods in the decoding of motor cortical activities of a monkey. Kalman filter (KF) is chosen as an example of linear methods, and General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) are two nonlinear approaches evaluated in our work. The experiments are conducted to reconstruct 2D trajectories in a center-out task. The correlation coefficient (CC) and the root mean square error (RMSE) are used to assess the performance. The experimental results show that GRNN and SVR achieve better performance than Kalman filter with average improvements of about 30% in CC and 40% in RMSE. This demonstrates that nonlinear models can better encode the relationship between the neuronal signals and response. In addition, GRNN and SVR are more effective than Kalman filter on noisy data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M.
2015-01-01
The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (~11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from -35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.
Nonlinear fractal dynamics of human colonic pressure activity based upon the box-counting method.
Yan, Rongguo; Guo, Xudong
2013-01-01
The computational fractal dimension of human colonic pressure activity acquired by a telemetric capsule robot under normal physiological conditions was studied using the box-counting method. The fractal dimension is a numeric value that quantifies to measure how rough the signal is from nonlinear dynamics, rather than its amplitude or other linear statistical features. The colonic pressure activities from the healthy subject during three typical periods were analysed. The results showed that the activity might be fractal with a non-integer fractal dimension after it being integrated over time using the cumsum method, which was never revealed before. Moreover, the activity (after it being integrated) acquired soon after wakening up was the roughest (also the most complex one) with the largest fractal dimension, closely followed by that acquired during sleep with that acquired long time after awakening up (in the daytime) ranking third with the smallest fractal dimension. Fractal estimation might provide a new method to learn the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal pressure recordings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijlani, Bhavin J.
2011-07-01
This thesis explored the theory, design, fabrication and characterization of AlGaAs Bragg reflection waveguides (BRW) towards the goal of a platform for monolithic integration of active and optically nonlinear devices. Through integration of a diode laser and nonlinear phase-matched cavity, the possibility of on-chip nonlinear frequency generation was explored. Such integrated devices would be highly useful as a robust, alignment free, small footprint and electrically injected alternative to bulk optic systems. A theoretical framework for modal analysis of arbitrary 1-D photonic crystal defect waveguides is developed. This method relies on the transverse resonance condition. It is then demonstrated in the context of several types of Bragg reflection waveguides. The framework is then extended to phase-match second-order nonlinearities and incorporating quantum-wells for diode lasers. Experiments within a slab and ridge waveguide demonstrated phase-matched Type-I second harmonic generation at fundamental wavelength of 1587 and 1600 nm, respectively; a first for this type of waveguide. For the slab waveguide, conversion efficiency was 0.1 %/W. In the more strongly confined ridge waveguides, efficiency increased to 8.6 %/W owing to the increased intensity. The normalized conversion efficiency was estimated to be at 600 %/Wcm2. Diode lasers emitting at 980 nm in the BRW mode were also fabricated. Verification of the Bragg mode was performed through imaging the near- field of the mode. Propagation loss of this type of mode was measured directly for the first time at ≈ 14 cm-1. The lasers were found to be very insensitive with characteristic temperature at 215 K. Two designs incorporating both laser and phase-matched nonlinearity within the same cavity were fabricated, for degenerate and non-degenerate down-conversion. Though the lasers were sub-optimal, a parametric fluorescence signal was readily detected. Fluorescence power as high as 4 nW for the degenerate design
Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Kotan, Robert; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Posan, Janos; Furka, Istvan; Sapy, Peter; Miko, Iren; Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert
2014-01-01
Previously we have investigated the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and provided data on its micro-rheological impact in the rat. We hypothesized that non-steroid anti-inflammatory agent flunixin, the xanthine-derivate pentoxifylline and the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin may have various beneficial effects improving microcirculatory and rheological parameters. In female rats, under general anesthesia, 10 μg/kg cerulein s.c. was administered and 2 hours afterwards microcirculation was tested by laser Doppler flowmetry on the tongue and after performing laparotomy on the small intestine, liver and pancreas prior to terminal blood sampling. From blood samples hematological parameters, blood pH, lactate concentration, erythrocyte deformability, osmoscan parameters and erythrocyte aggregation were tested. Compared to normal control in acute pancreatitis group we found severe deterioration in tissue microcirculation together with impaired erythrocyte deformability and enhanced aggregation, accompanied by acidic pH and increasing lactate concentration. Improvement was found when using flunixin (s.c.), pentoxifylline (i.p.) or enoxaparin (s.c.). These drugs could partly improve the blood flux on the surface of the investigated organs, and the flunixin had the most expressed improving effects on micro-rheological parameters. Surprisingly, the improving effect of pentoxifylline on micro-rheological parameters was not obvious (red blood cell deformability did not improved better than in the other treated groups), however, microcirculatory parameters improved.
Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Buchser, E.; Rutschmann, B.; Aminian, K.
2008-02-01
The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.
Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M. E-mail: carlos.raupp@iag.usp.br
2015-01-20
The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (∼11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from –35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.
Non-linear modelling and control of semi-active suspensions with variable damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Huang; Long, Chen; Yuan, Chao-Chun; Jiang, Hao-Bin
2013-10-01
Electro-hydraulic dampers can provide variable damping force that is modulated by varying the command current; furthermore, they offer advantages such as lower power, rapid response, lower cost, and simple hardware. However, accurate characterisation of non-linear f-v properties in pre-yield and force saturation in post-yield is still required. Meanwhile, traditional linear or quarter vehicle models contain various non-linearities. The development of a multi-body dynamics model is very complex, and therefore, SIMPACK was used with suitable improvements for model development and numerical simulations. A semi-active suspension was built based on a belief-desire-intention (BDI)-agent model framework. Vehicle handling dynamics were analysed, and a co-simulation analysis was conducted in SIMPACK and MATLAB to evaluate the BDI-agent controller. The design effectively improved ride comfort, handling stability, and driving safety. A rapid control prototype was built based on dSPACE to conduct a real vehicle test. The test and simulation results were consistent, which verified the simulation.
SOM-based nonlinear least squares twin SVM via active contours for noisy image segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiaomin; Wang, Tingting
2017-02-01
In this paper, a nonlinear least square twin support vector machine (NLSTSVM) with the integration of active contour model (ACM) is proposed for noisy image segmentation. Efforts have been made to seek the kernel-generated surfaces instead of hyper-planes for the pixels belonging to the foreground and background, respectively, using the kernel trick to enhance the performance. The concurrent self organizing maps (SOMs) are applied to approximate the intensity distributions in a supervised way, so as to establish the original training sets for the NLSTSVM. Further, the two sets are updated by adding the global region average intensities at each iteration. Moreover, a local variable regional term rather than edge stop function is adopted in the energy function to ameliorate the noise robustness. Experiment results demonstrate that our model holds the higher segmentation accuracy and more noise robustness.
Rodrigo, M A; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Penya-roja, J M; Valverde, J L
1999-01-01
In this paper, several tuning algorithms, specifically ITAE, IMC and Cohen and Coon, were applied in order to tune an activated sludge aeration PID controller. Performance results of these controllers were compared by simulation with those obtained by using a nonlinear fuzzy PID controller. In order to design this controller, a trial and error procedure was used to determine, as a function of error at current time and at a previous time, sets of parameters (including controller gain, integral time and derivative time) which achieve satisfactory response of a PID controller actuating over the aeration process. Once these sets of data were obtained, neural networks were used to obtain fuzzy membership functions and fuzzy rules of the fuzzy PID controller.
Evaluation of nonlinear properties of epileptic activity using largest Lyapunov exponent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedeva, Tatiana M.; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Sysoev, Ilya V.
2016-04-01
Absence seizures are known to be highly non-linear large amplitude oscillations with a well pronounced main time scale. Whilst the appearance of the main frequency is usually considered as a transition from noisy complex dynamics of baseline EEG to more regular absence activity, the dynamical properties of this type of epileptiformic activity in genetic absence models was not studied precisely. Here, the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from intracranial EEGs of 10 WAG/Rij rats (genetic model of absence epilepsy) was performed. Fragments of 10 seizures and 10 episodes of on-going EEG each of 4 s length were used for each animal, 3 cortical and 2 thalamic channels were analysed. The method adapted for short noisy data was implemented. The positive values of the largest Lyapunov exponent were found as for baseline as for spike wave discharges (SWDs), with values for SWDs being significantly less than for on-going activity. Current findings may indicate that SWD is a chaotic process with a well pronounced main timescale rather than a periodic regime. Also, the absence activity was shown to be less chaotic than the baseline one.
Yang, Yali; Valentine, Megan T
2013-01-01
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential in maintaining the shape, strength, and organization of cells. Its spatiotemporal organization is fundamental for numerous dynamic biological processes, and mechanical stress within the MT cytoskeleton provides an important signaling mechanism in mitosis and neural development. This raises important questions about the relationships between structure and mechanics in complex MT structures. In vitro, reconstituted cytoskeletal networks provide a minimal model of cell mechanics while also providing a testing ground for the fundamental polymer physics of stiff polymer gels. Here, we describe our development and implementation of a broad tool kit to study structure-mechanics relationships in reconstituted MT networks, including protocols for the assembly of entangled and cross-linked MT networks, fluorescence imaging, microstructure characterization, construction and calibration of magnetic tweezers devices, and mechanical data collection and analysis. In particular, we present the design and assembly of three neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnetic tweezers devices optimized for use with MT networks: (1) high-force magnetic tweezers devices that enable the application of nano-Newton forces and possible meso- to macroscale materials characterization; (2) ring-shaped NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers devices that enable oscillatory microrheology measurements; and (3) portable magnetic tweezers devices that enable direct visualization of microscale deformation in soft materials under applied force.
Lim, Y. F.; Williams, M. A. K.; Lentle, R. G.; Janssen, P. W. M.; Mansel, B. W.; Keen, S. A. J.; Chambers, P.
2013-01-01
Multiple particle-tracking techniques were used to quantify the thermally driven motion of ensembles of naked polystyrene (0.5 µm diameter) microbeads in order to determine the microrheological characteristics around the gut mucosa. The microbeads were introduced into living ex vivo preparations of the wall of the terminal ileum and proximal colon of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). The fluid environment surrounding both the ileal villi and colonic mucosa was heterogeneous; probably comprising discrete viscoelastic regions suspended in a continuous Newtonian fluid of viscosity close to water. Neither the viscosity of the continuous phase, the elastic modulus (G’) nor the sizes of viscoelastic regions varied significantly between areas within 20 µm and areas more than 20 µm from the villous mucosa nor from the tip to the sides of the villous mucosa. The viscosity of the continuous phase at distances further than 20 µm from the colonic mucosa was greater than that at the same distance from the ileal villous mucosa. Furthermore, the estimated sizes of viscoelastic regions were significantly greater in the colon than in the ileum. These findings validate the sensitivity of the method and call into question previous hypotheses that a contiguous layer of mucus envelops all intestinal mucosa and restricts diffusive mass transfer. Our findings suggest that, in the terminal ileum and colon at least, mixing and mass transfer are governed by more complex dynamics than were previously assumed, perhaps with gel filtration by viscoelastic regions that are suspended in a Newtonian fluid. PMID:23389898
Chen, Yin-Quan; Kuo, Chia-Yu; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Wu, Kelly; Su, Pin-Tzu; Huang, Chien-Shiou; Chiou, Arthur
2014-01-01
Cell division plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. It is managed by a complex sequence of cytoskeleton alteration that induces dividing cells to change their morphology to facilitate their division. The change in cytoskeleton structure is expected to affect the intracellular viscoelasticity, which may also contribute to cellular dynamic deformation during cell division. However, the intracellular viscoelasticity during cell division is not yet well understood. In this study, we injected 100-nm (diameter) carboxylated polystyrene beads into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells and applied video particle tracking microrheology to measure their intracellular viscoelasticity at different phases during cell division. The Brownian motion of the intracellular nanoprobes was analyzed to compute the viscoelasticity of HeLa cells in terms of the elastic modulus and viscous modulus as a function of frequency. Our experimental results indicate that during the course of cell division, both intracellular elasticity and viscosity increase in the transition from the metaphase to the anaphase, plausibly due to the remodeling of cytoskeleton and redistributions of molecular motors, but remain approximately the same from the anaphase to the telophase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald
2009-05-01
Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2016-05-01
The conformational analysis was carried out for 6-aminonicotinamide (ANA) using potential energy surface scan method and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The theoretical vibrational frequencies were calculated for the optimized geometry using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. The Mulliken atomic charge values were calculated. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intermolecular charge transfer studies and the related molecular properties were calculated. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum was simulated for both in the gas phase and liquid phase (ethanol) and the л to л* electronic transition was predicted. The nonlinear optical (NLO) activity was studied by means of the first order hyperpolarizability value, which was 8.61 times greater than the urea and the natural bond orbital analysis was also performed to confirm the NLO activity of the molecule. Hence, the ANA molecule is a promising candidate for the NLO materials.
Compressive nonlinearity in the hair bundle's active response to mechanical stimulation.
Martin, P; Hudspeth, A J
2001-12-04
The auditory system's ability to interpret sounds over a wide range of amplitudes rests on the nonlinear responsiveness of the ear. Whether measured by basilar-membrane vibration, nerve-fiber activity, or perceived loudness, the ear is most sensitive to small signals and grows progressively less responsive as stimulation becomes stronger. Seeking a correlate of this behavior at the level of mechanoelectrical transduction, we examined the responses of hair bundles to direct mechanical stimulation. As reported by the motion of an attached glass fiber, an active hair bundle from the bullfrog's sacculus oscillates spontaneously. Sinusoidal movement of the fiber's base by as little as +/-1 nm, corresponding to the application at the bundle's top of a force of +/-0.3 pN, causes detectable phase-locking of the bundle's oscillations to the stimulus. Although entrainment increases as the stimulus grows, the amplitude of the hair-bundle movement does not rise until phase-locking is nearly complete. A bundle is most sensitive to stimulation at its frequency of spontaneous oscillation. Far from that frequency, the sensitivity of an active hair bundle resembles that of a passive bundle. Over most of its range, an active hair bundle's response grows as the one-third power of the stimulus amplitude; the bundle's sensitivity declines accordingly in proportion to the negative two-thirds power of the excitation. This scaling behavior, also found in the response of the mammalian basilar membrane to sound, signals the operation of an amplificatory process at the brink of an oscillatory instability, a Hopf bifurcation.
Nonlinearly Activated Neural Network for Solving Time-Varying Complex Sylvester Equation.
Li, Shuai; Li, Yangming
2013-10-28
The Sylvester equation is often encountered in mathematics and control theory. For the general time-invariant Sylvester equation problem, which is defined in the domain of complex numbers, the Bartels-Stewart algorithm and its extensions are effective and widely used with an O(n³) time complexity. When applied to solving the time-varying Sylvester equation, the computation burden increases intensively with the decrease of sampling period and cannot satisfy continuous realtime calculation requirements. For the special case of the general Sylvester equation problem defined in the domain of real numbers, gradient-based recurrent neural networks are able to solve the time-varying Sylvester equation in real time, but there always exists an estimation error while a recently proposed recurrent neural network by Zhang et al [this type of neural network is called Zhang neural network (ZNN)] converges to the solution ideally. The advancements in complex-valued neural networks cast light to extend the existing real-valued ZNN for solving the time-varying real-valued Sylvester equation to its counterpart in the domain of complex numbers. In this paper, a complex-valued ZNN for solving the complex-valued Sylvester equation problem is investigated and the global convergence of the neural network is proven with the proposed nonlinear complex-valued activation functions. Moreover, a special type of activation function with a core function, called sign-bi-power function, is proven to enable the ZNN to converge in finite time, which further enhances its advantage in online processing. In this case, the upper bound of the convergence time is also derived analytically. Simulations are performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the neural network with different parameters and activation functions. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kletting, Marco; Rauh, Andreas; Aschemann, Harald; Hofer, Eberhard P.
2007-02-01
In this paper, interval arithmetic simulation techniques are presented to determine guaranteed enclosures of the state variables of both continuous and discrete-time systems with uncertain but bounded parameters. In nonlinear uncertain systems axis-parallel interval boxes are mapped to complexly shaped regions in the state space that represent sets of possible combinations of state variables. The approximation of each region by a single interval box causes an accumulating overestimation from time-step to time-step, usually called the wrapping effect. The algorithm presented in this paper minimizes the wrapping effect by applying consistency techniques based on interval Newton methods. Subintervals that do not belong to the exact solution at a given time can be eliminated in order to give a tighter but still conservative approximation of the exact solution. Additionally, efficient splitting and merging strategies are employed to limit the number of subintervals. The proposed algorithm is applied to the simulation of an activated sludge process in biological wastewater treatment.
Fundamental nonlinearities of the reactor-settler interaction in the activated sludge process.
Diehl, Stefan; Farås, Sebastian
2012-01-01
The activated sludge process can be modelled by ordinary and partial differential equations for the biological reactors and secondary settlers, respectively. Because of the complexity of such a system, simulation models are most often used to investigate them. However, simulation models cannot give general rules on how to control a complex nonlinear process. For a reduced-order model with only two components, soluble substrate and particulate biomass, general results on steady-state solutions have recently been obtained, such as existence, uniqueness and stability of solutions. The aim of the present paper is to utilize those results to formulate some implications of practical importance. In particular, strategies are described for the manual control of the effluent substrate concentration subject to the constraint that the settler is maintained in normal operation (with a sludge blanket in the thickening zone) in steady state. Such strategies contain how the two control parameters, the recycle and waste volumetric flow ratios, should be chosen for any (steady-state) values of the input variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawarathna, Dharmakirthi
The response of biological cells to an applied oscillating electric field contains both linear and nonlinear components (eg. induced harmonics). Such noninvasive measurements can be used to study active processes taking place inside the cells. The measurement of induced harmonics is the tool used for the study described here. A highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is used to detect the response at low frequencies, which greatly reduces electrode polarization effects. At high frequencies, a four- probe method is used. At low frequencies, harmonic generation by budding yeast cells in response to a sinusoidal electric field is reported, which is seen to be minimal when the field amplitude is less than a threshold value. Surprisingly, sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPases and glucose, a substrate of P-type ATPase responsible for nonlinear response in yeast, reduces the threshold field amplitude, increasing harmonic generation at low amplitudes while reducing it at large amplitudes. We have thus proposed a model that explicitly introduces a threshold field, similar to those observed in density waves, where fields above threshold drive charge transport through an energy landscape with multiple wells, and in Coulomb blockade tunnel junctions, recently exploited to define the current standard. At high frequencies, the induced harmonics exhibit pronounced features that depend on the specific organism. Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae ) cells produce numerous harmonics. When the second or third harmonic amplitude is plotted vs. applied frequency, we observe two peaks, around 3 kHz and 12 kHz, which are suppressed by the respiratory inhibitor potassium cyanide. We then measured the response to oscillatory electric fields of intact bovine heart mitochondria, a reproducible second harmonic (at ˜3-4 kHz applied frequency) was detected. Further, with coupled mouse mitochondria, an ADP sensitive peak (˜ 12-15 kHz applied frequency) was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Kaffas, Ahmed; Bekah, Devesh; Rui, Min; Kumaradas, J. Carl; Kolios, Michael C.
2013-02-01
Evidence suggests that compression and shear wave elastography are sensitive to the mechanical property changes occuring in dying cells following chemotherapy, and can hence be used to monitor cancer treatment response. A qualitative and quantitative understanding of the mechanical changes at the cellular level would allow to better infer how these changes affect macroscopic tissue mechanical properties and therefore allow the optimization of elastographic techniques (such as shear wave elastography) for the monitoring of cancer therapy. We used intracellular particle tracking microrheology (PTM) to investigate the mechanical property changes of cells exposed to paclitaxol, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. The average elastic and viscous moduli of the cytoplasm of treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells were calculated for frequency ranges between 0.2 and 100 rad s-1 (corresponding to 0.03 and 15.92 Hz, respectively). A significant increase in the complex shear modulus of the cell cytoplasm was detected at 12 h post treatment. At 24 h after drug exposure, the elastic and viscous moduli increased by a total of 191.3 Pa (>8000×) and 9 Pa (˜9×), respectively for low frequency shear modulus measurements (at 1 rad s-1). At higher frequencies (10 rad s-1), the elastic and viscous moduli increased by 188.5 Pa (˜60×) and 1.7 Pa (˜1.1×), respectively. Our work demonstrates that PTM can be used to measure changes in the mechanical properties of treated cells and that cell elasticity significantly increases by 24 h after chemotherapy exposure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.
2008-04-01
In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed.
Nonlinear Structured Illumination Using a Fluorescent Protein Activating at the Readout Wavelength
Hou, Wenya; Kielhorn, Martin; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Heintzmann, Rainer
2016-01-01
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a wide-field technique in fluorescence microscopy that provides fast data acquisition and two-fold resolution improvement beyond the Abbe limit. We observed a further resolution improvement using the nonlinear emission response of a fluorescent protein. We demonstrated a two-beam nonlinear structured illumination microscope by introducing only a minor change into the system used for linear SIM (LSIM). To achieve the required nonlinear dependence in nonlinear SIM (NL-SIM) we exploited the photoswitching of the recently introduced fluorophore Kohinoor. It is particularly suitable due to its positive contrast photoswitching characteristics. Contrary to other reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins which only have high photostability in living cells, Kohinoor additionally showed little degradation in fixed cells over many switching cycles. PMID:27783656
Xu, Duoxia; Aihemaiti, Zulipiya; Cao, Yanping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting
2016-07-01
The impact of chitosan (CTS) on the physicochemical stability, microrheological property and microstructure of whey protein isolate (WPI)-flaxseed gum (FG) stabilized lutein emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered lutein emulsions. Droplet size, zeta-potential, instability index, microstructure and microrheological behavior of lutein emulsions were measured. The influences of interfacial layer, metal chelator and free radical scavenger on the chemical stability of lutein emulsions were also investigated. It was found that multilayer emulsions had better physical stability showing the pronounced effect of 1wt% CTS. The mean square displacement analysis demonstrated that CTS led to increases of macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index for WPI-FG stabilized lutein emulsions due to CTS embedding in the network. CTS also helped to chemically stabilize the lutein emulsions against degradation. The combination of interfacial membrane and prooxidative metal chelator or free radical scavenger was an effective method to control lutein degradation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong
2014-05-01
This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2015-06-01
The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.
2015-06-24
The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jia; Wang, Lun; Cai, Guobiao; Qi, Xiaoqiang
2015-06-01
Near space hypersonic vehicle model is nonlinear, multivariable and couples in the reentry process, which are challenging for the controller design. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional order proportion integral derivative (NFOPIλDμ) active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy based on a natural selection particle swarm (NSPSO) algorithm is proposed for the hypersonic vehicle flight control. The NFOPIλDμ ADRC method consists of a tracking-differentiator (TD), an NFOPIλDμ controller and an extended state observer (ESO). The NFOPIλDμ controller designed by combining an FOPIλDμ method and a nonlinear states error feedback control law (NLSEF) is to overcome concussion caused by the NLSEF and conversely compensate the insufficiency for relatively simple and rough signal processing caused by the FOPIλDμ method. The TD is applied to coordinate the contradiction between rapidity and overshoot. By attributing all uncertain factors to unknown disturbances, the ESO can achieve dynamic feedback compensation for these disturbances and thus reduce their effects. Simulation results show that the NFOPIλDμ ADRC method can make the hypersonic vehicle six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model track desired nominal signals accurately and fast, has good stability, dynamic properties and strong robustness against external environmental disturbances.
Nonlinear changes in brain electrical activity due to cell phone radiation.
Marino, Andrew A; Nilsen, Erik; Frilot, Clifton
2003-07-01
We studied the effect of an electromagnetic field from a cellular telephone on brain electrical activity, using a novel analytical method based on a nonlinear model. The electroencephalogram (EEG) from rabbits was embedded in phase space and local recurrence plots were calculated and quantified using recurrence quantitation analysis to permit statistical comparisons between filtered segments of exposed and control epochs from individual rabbits. When the rabbits were exposed to the radiation from a standard cellular telephone (800 MHz band, 600 mW maximum radiated power) under conditions that simulated normal human use, the EEG was significantly affected in nine of ten animals studied. The effect occurred beginning about 100 ms after initiation of application of the field and lasted approximately 300 ms. In each case, the fields increased the randomness in the EEG. A control procedure ruled out the possibility that the observations were a product of the method of analysis. No differences were found between exposed and control epochs in any animal when the experiment was repeated after the rabbits had been sacrificed, indicating that absorption of radiation by the EEG electrodes could not account for the observed effect. No effect was seen when deposition of energy in the brain was minimized by repositioning the radiating antenna from the head to the chest, showing that the type of tissue that absorbed the energy determined the observed changes in the EEG. We conclude that, in normal use, the fields from a standard cellular telephone can alter brain function as a consequence of absorption of energy by the brain.
Yang, Yali; Bai, Mo; Klug, William S.; Levine, Alex J.
2012-01-01
We determine the time- and force-dependent viscoelastic responses of reconstituted networks of microtubules that have been strongly crosslinked by biotin-streptavidin bonds. To measure the microscale viscoelasticity of such networks, we use a magnetic tweezers device to apply localized forces. At short time scales, the networks respond nonlinearly to applied force, with stiffening at small forces, followed by a reduction in the stiffening response at high forces, which we attribute to the force-induced unbinding of crosslinks. At long time scales, force-induced bond unbinding leads to local network rearrangement and significant bead creep. Interestingly, the network retains its elastic modulus even under conditions of significant plastic flow, suggesting that crosslinker breakage is balanced by the formation of new bonds. To better understand this effect, we developed a finite element model of such a stiff filament network with labile crosslinkers obeying force-dependent Bell model unbinding dynamics. The coexistence of dissipation, due to bond breakage, and the elastic recovery of the network is possible because each filament has many crosslinkers. Recovery can occur as long as a sufficient number of the original crosslinkers are preserved under the loading period. When these remaining original crosslinkers are broken, plastic flow results. PMID:23577042
Liu, Sheng; Keeler, Gordon A.; Reno, John L.; ...
2016-06-10
We demonstrate 2D and multilayer dielectric metamaterials made from III–V semiconductors using a monolithic fabrication process. The resulting structures could be used to recompress chirped femtosecond optical pulses and in a variety of other optical applications requiring low loss. Moreover, these III–V all-dielectric metamaterials could enable novel active applications such as efficient nonlinear frequency converters, light emitters, detectors, and modulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbi, Mohtasham; Rasouli Dabbagh, Hamed; Moradpour, Solmaz; Shakeri, Kazem; Tarbali, Karim
2015-04-01
This paper presents an effective method to design active mass dampers (AMDs) for mitigating the seismic response of nonlinear frames. The method is based on using the Newmark-based instantaneous optimal control algorithm for designing AMD, as well as using distributed genetic algorithm (DGA) for optimization of the active control system. To this end, an optimization problem has been defined which considers the parameters of the active control system as design variables and minimization of the maximum required control force of AMD as the objective function with some constraints defined on the maximum stroke length of AMD. Also, the effect of design excitation on performance of AMD under testing earthquakes has been studied. To assess the capabilities of the proposed method, a numerical example has been worked out where an AMD has been designed to control the response of an eight-story nonlinear shear building frame with hysteretic bilinear elasto-plastic behavior under white noise and real earthquake excitations. The designed control systems have been tested under a number of scaled and real earthquakes including both near and far-field earthquakes. Controller’s robustness against variations of structural parameters has also been assessed. The results of numerical simulations show the effectiveness, simplicity and capability of the proposed method in designing AMDs for nonlinear frames. Also comparing the performance of AMD system with that of passive tuned mass damper and active tendon control shows that the AMD has been more effective in reducing the seismic response of nonlinear frames under design and different testing earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen
2016-07-01
Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.
Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831
Quantification of depth of anesthesia by nonlinear time series analysis of brain electrical activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Widman, G.; Schreiber, T.; Rehberg, B.; Hoeft, A.; Elger, C. E.
2000-10-01
We investigate several quantifiers of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal with respect to their ability to indicate depth of anesthesia. For 17 patients anesthetized with sevoflurane, three established measures (two spectral and one based on the bispectrum), as well as a phase space based nonlinear correlation index were computed from consecutive EEG epochs. In the absence of an independent way to determine anesthesia depth, the standard was derived from measured blood plasma concentrations of the anesthetic via a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for the estimated effective brain concentration of sevoflurane. In most patients, the highest correlation is observed for the nonlinear correlation index D*. In contrast to spectral measures, D* is found to decrease monotonically with increasing (estimated) depth of anesthesia, even when a ``burst-suppression'' pattern occurs in the EEG. The findings show the potential for applications of concepts derived from the theory of nonlinear dynamics, even if little can be assumed about the process under investigation.
Active suppression of nonlinear composite beam vibrations by selected control algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warminski, Jerzy; Bochenski, Marcin; Jarzyna, Wojciech; Filipek, Piotr; Augustyniak, Michal
2011-05-01
This paper is focused on application of different control algorithms for a flexible, geometrically nonlinear beam-like structure with Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator. Based on the mathematical model of a geometrically nonlinear beam, analytical solutions for Nonlinear Saturation Controller (NSC) are obtained using Multiple Scale Method. Effectiveness of different control strategies is evaluated by numerical simulations in Matlab-Simulink software. Then, the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) controller and selected control algorithms are implemented to the physical system to compare numerical and experimental results. Detailed analysis for the NSC system is carried out, especially for high level of amplitude and wide range of frequencies of excitation. Finally, the efficiency of the considered controllers is tested experimentally for a more complex autoparametric " L-shape" beam system.
Active control and nonlinear feedback instabilities in the earth's radiation belts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silevitch, M. B.; Villalon, E.; Rothwell, P. L.
The stability of trapped particle fluxes are examined near the Kennel-Petschek limit. In the absence of coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere, it is found that both the fluxes and the associated wave intensities are stable to external perturbations. However, if the ionosphere and magnetosphere are coupled through the ducting of the waves, a positive feedback may develop depending on the efficiency of the coupling. This result is a spiky, nonlinear precipitation pattern which for electrons has a period on the order of hundreds of seconds. A linear analysis that highlights the regions of instability is given, together with a computer simulation of the nonlinear regimes.
Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong
2016-01-01
Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Qiang; Cheng, Li
2013-01-01
There has been increasing interest in using the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic (AU) waves to detect damage onset (e.g., micro-fatigue cracks) due to their high sensitivity to damage with small dimensions. However, most existing approaches are able to infer the existence of fatigue damage qualitatively, but fail to further ascertain its location and severity. A damage characterization approach, in conjunction with the use of an active piezoelectric sensor network, was established, capable of evaluating fatigue cracks in a quantitative manner (including the co-presence of multiple fatigue cracks, and their individual locations and severities). Fundamental investigations, using both experiment and enhanced finite element analysis dedicated to the simulation of nonlinear AU waves, were carried out to link the accumulation of nonlinearities extracted from high-order AU waves to the characteristic parameters of a fatigue crack. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed, facilitating an intuitive presentation of identification results in images. The approach was verified experimentally by evaluating multi-fatigue cracks near rivet holes of a fatigued aluminum plate, showing satisfactory precision in characterizing real, barely visible fatigue cracks. Compared with existing methods, this approach innovatively (i) uses permanently integrated active sensor networks, conducive to automatic and online health monitoring; (ii) characterizes fatigue cracks at a quantitative level; (iii) allows detection of multiple fatigue cracks; and (iv) visualizes identification results in intuitive images.
Nonlinear EEG activation evoked by low-strength low-frequency magnetic fields.
Carrubba, Simona; Frilot, Clifton; Chesson, Andrew L; Marino, Andrew A
2007-05-01
Recent electrophysiological evidence suggested the existence of a human magnetic sense, but the kind of dynamical law that governed the stimulus-response relationship was not established. We tested the hypothesis that brain potentials evoked by the onset of a weak, low-frequency magnetic field were nonlinearly related to the stimulus. A field of 1G, 60 Hz was applied for 2s, with a 5s inter-stimulus period, and brain potentials were recorded from occipital electrodes in eight subjects, each of whom were measured twice, with at least 1 week between measurements. The recorded signals were subjected to nonlinear (recurrence analysis) and linear (time averaging) analyses. Using recurrence analysis, magnetosensory evoked potentials (MEPs) were detected in each subject in both the initial and replicate studies, with one exception. All MEPs exhibited the expected latency but differed in dynamical characteristics, indicating that they were nonlinearly related to the stimulus. MEPs were not detected using time averaging, thereby further confirming their nonlinearity. Evolutionarily conditioned structures that help mediate linear field-transduction in lower life forms may be expressed and functionally utilized in humans, but in a role where they facilitate vulnerability to man-made environmental fields.
Nonlinear wave structures on NO+ions in active plasma-jet space experiment ``North-Star''.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovaleva, Irina; Gavrilov, Boris; Zetzer, Julius; Pfaff, Robert; Poklad, Yuriy; Erlandson, Robert
Ionospheric density irregularities cause scintillations of GPS signals. Their nature and generation mechanisms are subject of many investigations. Model of nonlinear gradient-drift ion-cyclotron structures is proposed in [1,2]. In accordance with the model density humps or holes are formed by one ion species of ionosphere plasma and accompanied by short-wave-length oscillations on their trailing edge. The nonlinear structures are excited on transversal to geomagnetic field concentration gradient of ion species. Experimental registrations of the irregularities do not sufficiently attend to this properties. Experimental data of active ionospheric experiment “North Star” (plasma-jet space experiment)[3] are revised in relaxation phase of plasma-jet injections. The mentioned above nonlinear structures on NO+ ion species are identified. The generation mechanism is considered. [1]Kovaleva I.Kh.//Phys plasmas, 19, 102905, doi: 10.1063/1.4763561,2012 [2]Kovaleva I.Kh.//Plasma Phys Reports 39, 3, pp226-235, 2013 [3]Erlandson R.E.,MengC.I., Y.,Zetzer J,I.//J. Spacecraft and rockets V.41, N.4,pp481-482
Xu, Z.; Lu, W.; Bohn, P.W.
1995-05-04
Stilbazolium dyes, which form H-aggregates upon condensation at the air-water interface, typically display nonlinear optical (NLO) activity far below what would be predicted on the basis of their large intrinsic molecular hyperpolarizability, {beta}. Three separate hypothesis have been put forward to explain this observation: structural inversion to produce a centrosymmetric head-to-tail structure, local field effects, which act to reduce the effective magnitude of the nonlinear driving field, and changes in electronic structure, which shift the electronic resonance frequencies for the aggregates. Investigation of the linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of the dye 4-(4-dihexadecylaminostyryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide were performed on a series of samples in which the aggregation state of the structure was changed systematically, but without changing the composition of the film. These experiments show that, for this particular dye, changes in electronic structure upon aggregation comprise the most important factor in determining the reduction in second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the aggregate. 23 refs., 4 figs.
Gang, Noa; Persinger, Michael A
2011-12-01
There have been multiple claims that exposing water to a static magnetic field affects its properties which influence living systems. To test this hypothesis, planarian subsequent to dissection were maintained in spring water that had been previously exposed for only one day to one of three (16, 160, or 1,600 G) intensity static magnetic fields or to a reference condition. Although there was no significant difference in regeneration rates over the subsequent seven-day period, there was a statistically significant nonlinear effect for planarian mobility and diffusion rates. Both mobility rates and diffusion velocity of a liquid within the water that had been exposed to the 16 G field was about twice that for water exposed to the other intensities. These results imply that nonlinear biophysical effects may emerge under specific conditions of intensity ranges for particular volumes of water.
Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasthofer, Thomas
1996-01-01
The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.
2009-08-01
This paper deals with the geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated composite plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite (PFRC) material. Each layer of the substrate FG laminated composite plate is made of fiber-reinforced composite material in which the fibers are longitudinally aligned in the plane parallel to the top or bottom surface of the layer and the layer is assumed to be graded in the thickness direction by way of varying the fiber orientation angle across its thickness according to a power-law. The novelty of the present work is that, unlike the traditional laminated composite plates, the FG laminated composite plates are constructed in such a way that the continuous variation of material properties and stresses across the thickness of the plates is achieved. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation (FSDT) theory, a finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG laminated composite plates. Both symmetric and asymmetric FG laminated composite plates are considered as the substrate plates for presenting the numerical results. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear forced vibrations of FG laminated composite plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also investigated.
Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred
2016-08-01
Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young's moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.
Sadat Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed; Khajeh, Khosro
2005-12-16
Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known k {sub i} values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was used, the highest of positive charge on the molecules was recognized to be in close relation with their inhibition activity, while the electric charge on atom N1 of adenosine was found to be a poor descriptor. Consequently, the previously developed equation was improved and the newly formed one could predict the class of 91.66% of compounds correctly. Also optimized 2-3-1 and 3-4-1 neural networks could increase this rate to 95.83%.
Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Lu; Zhao, Haiquan
2016-03-01
The filtered-x least mean lp-norm (FxLMP) algorithm is proven to be useful for nonlinear active noise control (NANC) systems. However, its performance deteriorates when the impulsive noises are presented in NANC systems. To surmount this shortcoming, a new nonlinear adaptive algorithm based on Volterra expansion model (VFxlogLMP) is developed in this paper, which is derived by minimizing the lp-norm of logarithmic cost. It is found that the FxLMP and VFxlogLMP require to select an appropriate value of p according to the prior information on noise characteristics, which prohibit their practical applications. Based on VFxlogLMP algorithm, we proposed a continuous lp-norm algorithm with logarithmic cost (VFxlogCLMP), which does not need the parameter selection and thresholds estimation. Benefiting from the various error norms for 1≤p≤2, it remains the robustness of VFxlogLMP. Moreover, the convergence behavior of VFxlogCLMP for moving average secondary paths and stochastic input signals is performed. Compared to the existing algorithms, two versions of the proposed algorithms have much better convergence and stability in impulsive noise environments.
Burger, Divan Aristo; Schall, Robert
2015-01-01
Trials of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of tuberculosis (TB) treatments assess the decline, during the first few days to weeks of treatment, in colony forming unit (CFU) count of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with smear-microscopy-positive pulmonary TB. Profiles over time of CFU data have conventionally been modeled using linear, bilinear, or bi-exponential regression. We propose a new biphasic nonlinear regression model for CFU data that comprises linear and bilinear regression models as special cases and is more flexible than bi-exponential regression models. A Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) regression model is fitted jointly to the data of all patients from a trial, and statistical inference about the mean EBA of TB treatments is based on the Bayesian NLME regression model. The posterior predictive distribution of relevant slope parameters of the Bayesian NLME regression model provides insight into the nature of the EBA of TB treatments; specifically, the posterior predictive distribution allows one to judge whether treatments are associated with monolinear or bilinear decline of log(CFU) count, and whether CFU count initially decreases fast, followed by a slower rate of decrease, or vice versa. PMID:25322214
NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD MODELING OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION USING SDO/HMI AND SOLIS/VSM DATA
Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.; Pietarila, A.; Sun, X.
2012-08-15
We use SDO/HMI and SOLIS/VSM photospheric magnetic field measurements to model the force-free coronal field above a solar active region, assuming magnetic forces dominate. We take measurement uncertainties caused by, e.g., noise and the particular inversion technique, into account. After searching for the optimum modeling parameters for the particular data sets, we compare the resulting nonlinear force-free model fields. We show the degree of agreement of the coronal field reconstructions from the different data sources by comparing the relative free energy content, the vertical distribution of the magnetic pressure, and the vertically integrated current density. Though the longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux measured by the VSM and HMI is clearly different, we find considerable similarities in the modeled fields. This indicates the robustness of the algorithm we use to calculate the nonlinear force-free fields against differences and deficiencies of the photospheric vector maps used as an input. We also depict how much the absolute values of the total force-free, virial, and the free magnetic energy differ and how the orientation of the longitudinal and transverse components of the HMI- and VSM-based model volumes compare to each other.
Estacion, Mark; Waxman, Stephen G
2017-02-01
The Nav1.7 sodium channel is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Gain-of-function mutations that cause the painful disorder inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) shift channel activation in a hyperpolarizing direction. When expressed within DRG neurons, these mutations produce a depolarization of resting membrane potential (RMP). The biophysical basis for the depolarized RMP has to date not been established. To explore the effect on RMP of the shift in activation associated with a prototypical IEM mutation (L858H), we used dynamic clamp models that represent graded shifts that fractionate the effect of the mutation on activation voltage-dependence. Dynamic clamp recording from DRG neurons using a before-and-after protocol for each cell made it possible, even in the presence of cell-to-cell variation in starting RMP, to assess the effects of these graded mutant models. Our results demonstrate a non-linear, progressively larger effect on RMP as the shift in activation voltage-dependence becomes more hyperpolarized. The observed differences in RMP were predicted by the "late" current of each mutant model. Since the depolarization of RMP imposed by IEM mutant channels is known, in itself, to produce hyperexcitability of DRG neurons, the development of pharmacological agents that normalize or partially normalize activation voltage-dependence of IEM mutant channels merits further study.
Yu, Ning; Zhao, Hong-Bo
2008-11-01
Intracochlear ATP is an important mediator in regulating hearing function. ATP can activate ionotropic purinergic (P2x) and metabotropic purinergic (P2y) receptors to influence cell functions. In this paper, we report that ATP can activate P2x receptors directly to modify outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility, which is an active cochlear amplifier determining hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity in mammals. We found that ATP, but not UTP, a P2y receptor agonist, reduced the OHC electromotility-associated nonlinear capacitance (NLC) and shifted its voltage dependence to the right (depolarizing) direction. Blockage of the activation of P2x receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), suramin, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) could block the ATP effect. This modification also required extracellular Ca(++) participation. Removal of extracellular Ca(++) abolished the ATP effect. However, chelation of intracellular Ca(++) concentration by a fast calcium-chelating reagent 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, 10 mM) did not affect the effect of ATP on NLC. The effect is also independent of K(+) ions. Substitution of Cs(+) for intracellular or extracellular K(+) did not affect the ATP effect. Our findings indicate that ATP activates P2x receptors instead of P2y receptors to modify OHC electromotility. Extracellular Ca(++) is required for this modification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruani, A.; Chemla, D. S.
1981-01-01
Four-wave degenerate-frequency mixing is used to study experimentally and theoretically the Γ1 biexciton in CuCl and CdS. Propagation and polarization effects, which are particularly important in the case of CdS, are evidenced; giant oscillator strengths and autoionizing characters are also revealed. A formalism is sketched, which describes, for a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering-type experiment, the most general third-order susceptibility tensor in a solid where a three-nearly-equidistant-level system is distinguished amidst a large number of other, nonresonant, levels and where there is one two-photon-resonant autoionizing state. The propagation analysis accounts accurately on one side for the large shifts between the maxima of the spectra and the energetic position of the resonances, and on the other side for the severe nonlinearities and the highly structured profile of the observed line shapes. Thus, a very satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory is obtained and a number of biexciton parameters, including Fano's q parameter, is determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa; Youn, Hanbean; Cunningham, Ian A.
2017-03-01
The imaging properties of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel photodiode array coupled to a thin gadolinium-based granular phosphor screen with a fiber-optic faceplate are investigated. It is shown that this system has a nonlinear response at low detector exposure levels (<10 mR), resulting in an over-estimation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by a factor of two in some cases. Errors in performance metrics on this scale make it difficult to compare new technologies with established systems and predict performance benchmarks that can be achieved in practice and help understand performance bottlenecks. It is shown the CMOS response is described by a power-law model that can be used to linearize image data. Linearization removed an unexpected dependence of the DQE on detector exposure level.
Yu, Jianshe; Sun, Qiwen; Tang, Moxun
2014-12-21
Gene transcription is a stochastic process, and is often activated by multiple signal transduction pathways. In this work, we study gene transcription activated randomly by two cross-talking pathways, with the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules being produced in a simple birth and death process. We derive the analytical formulas for the mean and the second moment of mRNA copy numbers and characterize the nature of transcription noise. We find that the stationary noise strength Φ is close to its baseline limit 1 when the mRNA level is high due to strong activation or stable transcription, or the mRNA level is low due to unstable transcription or ineffective mRNA production. If Φ stays well above 1, then the gene is infrequently active but mRNAs are accumulated rapidly once it is active. In this case, the system generates a transcriptional bursting, and the mean mRNA level peaks at a finite time. By examining the nonlinear dependance of Φ on transcriptional efficiency, we show that the maximum noise strength is attained only when the gene is silent in the majority of cells as observed in recent experiments. By comparing the current findings with our previous results in sequential pathway model, we come up with a profound conclusion that parallel, cross-talking pathways tend to increase transcription noise, whereas sequential pathways tend to reduce transcription noise. A further study on gene transcription activated by entangling pathways may help us reveal the subtle connection between the characteristics of transcription noise and the topology of genetic network.
1989-06-15
following surprising situation. Namely associated with the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equations are standard numerical schemes which exhibit at...36. An Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations , A.S. Fokas, Physica D March 1989. 37. Evolution Theory, Periodic... gravity waves and wave excitation phenomena related to moving pressure distributions; numerical approximation and computation; nonlinear optics; and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.
2009-01-01
Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…
Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Ayuk, Eugene Lekem; Igbojekwe, Benardeth Ujunwa; Unaegbu, Marcellus
2016-01-01
The global increase in oxidative stress related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases caused by overwhelming level of free radicals in the body has encouraged the search for new antioxidant agents. Based on the ability of newly synthesized phenothiazine derivatives (6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one and 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one) to oxidize H2O2, a known free radical to sulfoxide, this study assessed the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The synthesized phenothiazine derivatives exhibited reducing power potential to convert Fe3+ to Fe2+ and high ability to scavenge H2O2 free radical in vitro. These activities were comparable to ascorbic acid, a standard antioxidant. The catalase activity significantly increased (p < 0.05) in groups 1 and 2 animals that received the phenothiazine derivatives compared to the controls (groups 3 and 4) suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to scavenge H2O2 in vivo. The malondialdehyde level in groups 1 and 2 animals was lower than that in group 3 that received the reference compound (ascorbic acid) and group 4 that received the solvent suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to prevent lipid membrane damage. AST and bilirubin levels were higher in group 2 animals which received 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one compared to group 3, the positive control. The results suggest that phenothiazine derivatives, especially 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one, possess antioxidant activity though 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one was slightly toxic. This activity may be due to the presence of electron donors such as sulfur as well as the richness of hydrogen in the additional benzene rings for substitution. Further study is needed to identify tolerable doses for possible therapeutic purposes. PMID:27127652
Nonlinear dose-dependent impact of D1 receptor activation on motor cortex plasticity in humans.
Fresnoza, Shane; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A; Kuo, Min-Fang
2014-02-12
The neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. The effects are determined by receptor subtype specificity, concentration level, and the kind of neuroplasticity induced. D1-like receptors have been proposed to be involved in cognitive processes via their impact on plasticity. Cognitive studies in humans and animals revealed a dosage-dependent effect of D1-like receptor activation on task performance. In humans, D1-like receptor activation re-establishes plasticity under D2 receptor block. However, a dosage-dependent effect has not been explored so far. To determine the impact of the amount of D1-like receptor activation on neuroplasticity in humans, we combined sulpiride, a selective D2 receptor antagonist, with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA (25, 100, and 200 mg) or applied placebo medication. The impact on plasticity induced by anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was compared with the impact on plasticity induced by excitatory and inhibitory paired associative stimulation (PAS) at the primary motor cortex of healthy humans. Stimulation-generated cortical excitability alterations were monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potential amplitudes. D1-like receptor activation produced an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve on plasticity induced by both facilitatory tDCS and PAS. For excitability-diminishing tDCS and PAS, aftereffects were abolished or converted trendwise into facilitation. These data extend findings of dose-dependent inverted U-shaped effects of D1 receptor activation on neuroplasticity of the motor cortex.
Trejo-Soto, C; Costa-Miracle, E; Rodriguez-Villarreal, I; Cid, J; Castro, M; Alarcon, T; Hernandez-Machado, A
2017-04-04
We introduce a new framework to study the non-Newtonian behaviour of fluids at the microscale based on the analysis of front advancement. We apply this methodology to study the non-linear rheology of blood in microchannels. We carry out experiments in which the non-linear viscosity of blood samples is quantified at different haematocrits and ages. Under these conditions, blood exhibits a power-law dependence on the shear rate. In order to analyse our experimental data, we put forward a scaling theory which allows us to define an adhesion scaling number. This theory yields a scaling behaviour of the viscosity expressed as a function of the adhesion capillary number. By applying this scaling theory to samples of different ages, we are able to quantify how the characteristic adhesion energy varies as time progresses. This connection between microscopic and mesoscopic properties allows us to estimate quantitatively the change in the cell-cell adhesion energies as the sample ages.
Detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals based on time-frequency and non-linear analysis.
Gajic, Dragoljub; Djurovic, Zeljko; Gligorijevic, Jovan; Di Gennaro, Stefano; Savic-Gajic, Ivana
2015-01-01
We present a new technique for detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. After preprocessing of EEG signals we extract representative features in time, frequency and time-frequency domain as well as using non-linear analysis. The features are extracted in a few frequency sub-bands of clinical interest since these sub-bands showed much better discriminatory characteristics compared with the whole frequency band. Then we optimally reduce the dimension of feature space to two using scatter matrices. A decision about the presence of epileptiform activity in EEG signals is made by quadratic classifiers designed in the reduced two-dimensional feature space. The accuracy of the technique was tested on three sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded at the University Hospital Bonn: surface EEG signals from healthy volunteers, intracranial EEG signals from the epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within the seizure focus and intracranial EEG signals of epileptic seizures also from within the seizure focus. An overall detection accuracy of 98.7% was achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2016-05-01
The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-amino-3-chloro-5-trifluoromethylpyridine using potential energy surface (PES) scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The theoretical vibrational frequencies were calculated for the optimized geometry using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program package. The Mulliken atomic charge values were calculated. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intermolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness of the molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical (NLO) activity was studied and the first order hyperpolarizability value was computed, which was 3.48 times greater than the urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was also performed to confirm the NLO activity of the molecule. Hence, the ACTP molecule is a promising candidate for NLO materials.
Novel method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with nonlinear optically active side groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strohriegl, Peter; Mueller, Harry; Nuyken, Oskar
1993-01-01
Because of their excellent optical properties, a variety of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores has been prepared and investigated by different research groups. The method normally used for the synthesis of these polymers is the free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylates with NLO-active side groups. However, the NLO- chromophores, usually large conjugated molecules with an electron donor and an electron acceptor substituent, often contain a number of functional groups, e.g., nitro- or azo groups. These may act as retarders or inhibitors in a free radical polymerization. So in many cases the yields are not quantitative and the molecular weights are quite low. We present an alternative method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores, the polymeranalogous esterification of poly(methacryloyl chloride). In a first step, reactive prepolymers are prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacryloyl chloride (MAC1) or by copolymerization of MAC1 with methyl methacrylate (MMA). These prepolymers are esterified using NLO-active side groups with a hydroxy-terminated spacer. Well defined, high molecular weight polymethacrylates with high dye contents can be prepared by this method. A copolymer with 19 mole% of azochromophores exhibits an electro-optical coefficient of 9 pm/V at 1300 mm after poling, whereas 19 pm/V (1500 nm) were measured for a polymer with 90 mole% of NLO active azobenzene side groups. In addition, the novel method provides easy access to some novel copolymers with both NLO-active azobenzene units and photocrosslinkable cinnamoyl groups.
Malarczyk, Elzbieta; Kochmanska-Rdest, Janina; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna
2009-01-01
Laccase, an enzyme responsible for aerobic transformations of natural phenolics, in industrial applications requires the presence of low-molecular substances known as mediators, which accelerate oxidation processes. However, the use of mediators is limited by their toxicity and the high costs of exploitation. The activation of extracellular laccase in growing fungal culture with highly diluted mediators, ABTS and HBT is described. Two high laccase-producing fungal strains, Trametes versicolor and Cerrena unicolor, were used in this study as a source of enzyme. Selected dilutions of the mediators significantly increased the activity of extracellular laccase during 14 days of cultivation what was distinctly visible in PAGE technique and in colorimetric tests. The same mediator dilutions increased demethylation properties of laccase, which was demonstrated during incubation of enzyme with veratric acid. It was established that the activation effect was assigned to specific dilutions of mediators. Our dose-response dilution process smoothly passes into the range of action of homeopathic dilutions and is of interest for homeopaths. PMID:19732425
Two-dimensional nonlinear optical activity spectroscopy of coupled multi-chromophore system.
Choi, Jun-Ho; Cheon, Sangheon; Lee, Hochan; Cho, Minhaeng
2008-07-14
Most biomolecules are chiral. A variety of optical activity measurement techniques have been extensively used to study chiral natures of complicated biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Recently, coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopic techniques have been developed and widely used to study structures and dynamics of biomolecules via measuring couplings between chromophores. However, such 2D optical spectroscopic methods utilizing linearly polarized beams do not provide information on the molecular chirality. Thus, we have theoretically shown that novel 2D optical activity measurement techniques based on three- and four-wave-mixing schemes are of use to obtain the 2D spectrum of a chiral molecule. Particularly, we carried out numerical simulations of 2D optical activity spectra of polypeptides and a light-harvesting complex. These methods utilizing circularly polarized beams and related spectroscopic techniques will be of great use in understanding and elucidating the underlying mechanisms of ultrafast chemical and conformational changes of chiral biomolecules in the future.
Kunz, Petra Y.; Fent, Karl
2009-01-01
Numerous estrogenic compounds are present in aquatic environments, but currently it is not well understood how compounds that differ in maxima and slope of their individual dose-response curves contribute to the overall mixture effect. In order to better understand such interactions we investigated 3 commonly used UV filters, for their estrogenic mixture activity and analysed their joint effects by using the concentration addition (CA) concept. Thereby, we extended the method of isoboles for analysis of 3 compounds that differ in maxima and slopes of their dose-response curves. 3-Benzylidene camphor (3BC), benzophenone-1 (BP1) and benzophenone-2 (BP2) are estrogenic in fish and act as pure- or partial estrogen receptor {alpha} agonists. First we exposed juvenile fathead minnows for 14 days to six concentrations of each UV filter alone to determine vitellogenin (VTG) induction curves, calculate equi-effective mixture concentrations and predict mixture effects. For 3BC, BP1 and BP2 significant VTG-induction occurred at 420, 2668, and 4715 {mu}g/L, respectively. BP2 displayed a full dose-response curve, whereas 3BC and BP1 showed submaximal activity of 70 and 78%, respectively. Second, we exposed fish to 6 equi-effective mixtures (EC-NOEC, EC1, EC5, EC10, EC20, EC30) of these UV filters. Significant VTG-induction occurred at EC5 and higher. Submaximal activity of 67% as compared to the control EE2 (100 ng/L) was reached. The curves for the observed and predicted mixture activity agreed for mixture levels (EC10 to EC30), however, at EC-NOEC, EC1 and EC5, lower activity was observed than predicted by CA. Detailed isobolographic analysis indicate additivity at EC10 to EC30, and antagonism at low levels (EC-NOEC to EC5). Our data show for the first time, that for compounds with differences in maxima and slope, considerably more mixture combinations are additive than previously thought. This should be taken into account for hazard and risk assessment of UV filters and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geniet, F.; Leon, J.
2003-05-01
A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.
Nonlinear rheology of active particle suspensions: insights from an analytical approach.
Heidenreich, Sebastian; Hess, Siegfried; Klapp, Sabine H L
2011-01-01
We consider active suspensions in the isotropic phase subjected to a shear flow. Using a set of extended hydrodynamic equations we derive a variety of analytical expressions for rheological quantities such as shear viscosity and normal stress differences. In agreement to full-blown numerical calculations and experiments we find a shear-thickening or -thinning behavior depending on whether the particles are contractile or extensile. Moreover, our analytical approach predicts that the normal stress differences can change their sign in contrast to passive suspensions.
Alam, M; Sanghera, M K; Schwabe, K; Lütjens, G; Jin, X; Song, J; von Wrangel, C; Stewart, R M; Jankovic, J; Grossman, R G; Darbin, O; Krauss, Joachim K
2016-03-01
Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia are associated with alterations of basal ganglia motor circuits and abnormal neuronal activity in the output nucleus, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). This study aims to compare the electrophysiological hallmarks for PD and dystonia in the linear and non-linear time stamp domains in patients who underwent microelectrode recordings during functional stereotactic surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) or pallidotomy. We analyzed single-unit neuronal activity in the posteroventral lateral region of the GPi in awake patients prior to pallidotomy or the implantation of DBS electrodes in 29 patients with PD (N = 83 neurons) and 13 patients with dystonia (N = 41 neurons) under comparable conditions. The discharge rate and the instantaneous frequency of the GPi in dystonia patients were significantly lower than in PD patients (P < 0.001), while the total number of bursts, the percentage of spikes in bursts and the mean duration of bursts were higher (P < 0.001). Further, non-linear analysis revealed higher irregularity or entropy in the data streams of GPi neurons of PD patients compared to the dystonia patients group (P < 0.001). This study indicates that both linear and non-linear features of neuronal activity in the human GPi differ between PD and dystonia. Our results may serve as the basis for future studies on linear and non-linear analysis of neuronal firing patterns in various movement disorders.
DeRosa, Marc L.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Lites, Bruce W.; Amari, Tahar; Canou, Aurelien; McTiernan, James M.; Regnier, Stephane; Thalmann, Julia K.; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd; Tadesse, Tilaye; Valori, Gherardo; Wheatland, Michael S.; Conlon, Paul A.; Fuhrmann, Marcel
2009-05-10
Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models are thought to be viable tools for investigating the structure, dynamics, and evolution of the coronae of solar active regions. In a series of NLFFF modeling studies, we have found that NLFFF models are successful in application to analytic test cases, and relatively successful when applied to numerically constructed Sun-like test cases, but they are less successful in application to real solar data. Different NLFFF models have been found to have markedly different field line configurations and to provide widely varying estimates of the magnetic free energy in the coronal volume, when applied to solar data. NLFFF models require consistent, force-free vector magnetic boundary data. However, vector magnetogram observations sampling the photosphere, which is dynamic and contains significant Lorentz and buoyancy forces, do not satisfy this requirement, thus creating several major problems for force-free coronal modeling efforts. In this paper, we discuss NLFFF modeling of NOAA Active Region 10953 using Hinode/SOT-SP, Hinode/XRT, STEREO/SECCHI-EUVI, and SOHO/MDI observations, and in the process illustrate three such issues we judge to be critical to the success of NLFFF modeling: (1) vector magnetic field data covering larger areas are needed so that more electric currents associated with the full active regions of interest are measured, (2) the modeling algorithms need a way to accommodate the various uncertainties in the boundary data, and (3) a more realistic physical model is needed to approximate the photosphere-to-corona interface in order to better transform the forced photospheric magnetograms into adequate approximations of nearly force-free fields at the base of the corona. We make recommendations for future modeling efforts to overcome these as yet unsolved problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rupert, J. K.; Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.
2005-01-01
In the late 1980s, microgravity researchers began to voice their concern that umbilical-transmitted energy could significantly degrade the acceleration environment of microgravity space science experiments onboard manned spacecraft. Since umbilicals are necessary for many experiments, control designers began to seek ways to compensate for these "indirect" disturbances. Hampton, et al., used the Kane s method to develop a model of the active rack isolation system (ARIS) that includes (1) actuator control forces, (2) direct disturbance forces, and (3) indirect, actuator-transmitted disturbances. Their model does not, however, include the indirect, umbilical-transmitted disturbances. Since the umbilical stiffnesses are not negligible, these indirect disturbances must be included in the model. Until the umbilicals have been appropriately included, the model will be incomplete. This Technical Memorandum presents a nonlinear model of ARIS with umbilicals included. Model verification was achieved by utilizing two commercial-off-the-shelf software tools. Various forces and moments were applied to the model to yield simulated responses of the system. Plots of the simulation results show how various critical points on an ARIS-outfitted international standard payload rack behave under the application of direct disturbances, indirect disturbances, and control forces. Simulations also show system response to a variety of initial conditions.
Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.
2016-08-01
The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.
Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M
2016-08-16
The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio
1993-01-01
This paper is on the control of nonlinear-nonstationary vibration of an aircraft-type frame-stringer structure and the acoustic radiation resulting from high levels of excitation by a nearby supersonic model jet exhaust. The objective of the control is to reduce the acoustic fatigue and the interior noise in a high-speed aircraft. Control of the structural response is achieved by actively forcing the structure with an actuator at the shock oscillation frequency whose amplitude is locked into a self-control cycle. This controller follows the amplitude modulation that results from the rotation and counter-rotation of the jet column. Results show that the peak level of the power in the structural response due to shock impingement is reduced by a factor of 63, corresponding to a power level reduction of 18 dB. As a result, new broadband components emerge with at least four harmonics contributing to the broadening of the response spectrum. At accelerating and decelerating supersonic speeds, the exhaust from the jet induces higher transient loading on the nearby flexible structure due to the occurrence of multiple shocks from the jet.
Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.
2016-01-01
The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events. PMID:27482096
Kim, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Doo Hee
2009-03-01
The purpose of this study was to improve the speech processing strategy for cochlear implants (CIs) based on a nonlinear time-varying filter model of a biological cochlea. The level-dependent frequency response characteristic of the basilar membrane is known to produce robust formant representation and speech perception in noise. A dual resonance nonlinear (DRNL) model was adopted because it is simpler than other adaptive nonlinear models of the basilar membrane and can be readily incorporated into the CI speech processor. Spectral analysis showed that formant information is more saliently represented at the output of the proposed CI speech processor compared to the conventional strategy in noisy conditions. Acoustic simulation and hearing experiments showed that the DRNL-based nonlinear strategy improves speech performance in a speech-spectrum-shaped noise.
Nonlinear ordinary difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, T. K.
1979-01-01
Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrzejak, Ralph G.; Lehnertz, Klaus; Mormann, Florian; Rieke, Christoph; David, Peter; Elger, Christian E.
2001-12-01
We compare dynamical properties of brain electrical activity from different recording regions and from different physiological and pathological brain states. Using the nonlinear prediction error and an estimate of an effective correlation dimension in combination with the method of iterative amplitude adjusted surrogate data, we analyze sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) time series: surface EEG recordings from healthy volunteers with eyes closed and eyes open, and intracranial EEG recordings from epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within and from outside the seizure generating area as well as intracranial EEG recordings of epileptic seizures. As a preanalysis step an inclusion criterion of weak stationarity was applied. Surface EEG recordings with eyes open were compatible with the surrogates' null hypothesis of a Gaussian linear stochastic process. Strongest indications of nonlinear deterministic dynamics were found for seizure activity. Results of the other sets were found to be inbetween these two extremes.
Inoue, S.; Hayashi, K.; Kusano, K.
2016-02-20
We analyze a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure and its stability in large solar active region (AR) 12192, using the 3D coronal magnetic field constructed under a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation. In particular, we focus on the magnetic structure that produced an X3.1-class flare, which is one of the X-class flares observed in AR 12192. According to our analysis, the AR contains a multiple-flux-tube system, e.g., a large flux tube, with footpoints that are anchored to the large bipole field, under which other tubes exist close to a polarity inversion line (PIL). These various flux tubes of different sizes and shapes coexist there. In particular, the latter are embedded along the PIL, which produces a favorable shape for the tether-cutting reconnection and is related to the X-class solar flare. We further found that most of magnetic twists are not released even after the flare, which is consistent with the fact that no observational evidence for major eruptions was found. On the other hand, the upper part of the flux tube is beyond a critical decay index, essential for the excitation of torus instability before the flare, even though no coronal mass ejections were observed. We discuss the stability of the complicated flux tube system and suggest the reason for the existence of the stable flux tube. In addition, we further point out a possibility for tracing the shape of flare ribbons, on the basis of a detailed structural analysis of the NLFFF before a flare.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, S.; Hayashi, K.; Kusano, K.
2016-02-01
We analyze a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure and its stability in large solar active region (AR) 12192, using the 3D coronal magnetic field constructed under a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation. In particular, we focus on the magnetic structure that produced an X3.1-class flare, which is one of the X-class flares observed in AR 12192. According to our analysis, the AR contains a multiple-flux-tube system, e.g., a large flux tube, with footpoints that are anchored to the large bipole field, under which other tubes exist close to a polarity inversion line (PIL). These various flux tubes of different sizes and shapes coexist there. In particular, the latter are embedded along the PIL, which produces a favorable shape for the tether-cutting reconnection and is related to the X-class solar flare. We further found that most of magnetic twists are not released even after the flare, which is consistent with the fact that no observational evidence for major eruptions was found. On the other hand, the upper part of the flux tube is beyond a critical decay index, essential for the excitation of torus instability before the flare, even though no coronal mass ejections were observed. We discuss the stability of the complicated flux tube system and suggest the reason for the existence of the stable flux tube. In addition, we further point out a possibility for tracing the shape of flare ribbons, on the basis of a detailed structural analysis of the NLFFF before a flare.
Bakharev, B V
2008-01-01
A nonlinear voltage dependence between the membrane and excitatory postsynaptic potentials coming via corticocortical connections was derived based on literature data. The existence of a region of stability of oscillations with increasing mean value of nonspecific afferent input was shown. As the afferent input strongly increases, a high-frequency component of oscillations (40-60 Hz), appeas which may result in the instability of oscillations and initiation of abnormal brain activity.
Zinn, C; Maier, H; Zenner, H; Gummer, A W
2000-04-01
The transverse vibration response of the organ of Corti near the apical end of the guinea-pig cochlea was measured in vivo. For cochleae in good physiological condition, as ascertained with threshold compound action potentials and the endocochlear potential, increasing amounts of attenuation and phase lag were found as the intensity was decreased below 80 dB SPL. These nonlinear phenomena disappeared post mortem. The data suggest that an active, nonlinear damping mechanism exists at low intensities at the apex of the cochlea. The phase nonlinearity, evident at all frequencies except at the best frequency (BF), was limited to a total phase change of 0.25 cycles, implying negative feedback of electromechanical force from the outer hair cells into a compliant organ of Corti. The amplitude nonlinearity was largest above BF, possibly due to interaction with a second vibration mode. The high-frequency flank of the amplitude response curve was shifted to lower frequencies by as much as 0.6 octave (oct) for a 50-dB reduction of sound intensity; the reduction of BF was 0.3 oct, but there was no change of relative bandwidth (Q(10 dB)). Detailed frequency responses measured at 60 dB SPL were consistent with non-dispersive, travelling-wave motion: travel time to the place of BF (400 Hz at 60 dB SPL) was 2.9 ms, Q(10 dB) was 1.0; standing-wave motion occurred above 600 Hz. Based on comparison with neural and mechanical data from the base of the cochlea, amplitudes at the apex appear to be sufficient to yield behavioural thresholds. It is concluded that active negative feedback may be a hallmark of the entire cochlea at low stimulus frequencies and that, in contrast to the base, the apex does not require active amplification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhao; Zhou, Yunshan
2010-04-01
The reaction of an aqueous solution of sodium molybdate with L-tyrosine in the presence of reducing agent results in the formation of a new compound of the formula of Na 8Co 3[Mo VI126 Mo V28O 462H 14(H 2O) 46(HOC 6H 4CH 2CH( NH3+)COO -) 12]·ca. 200H 2O. The compound contains nanosized ring-shaped clusters with tyrosine ligands possessing different types of functional groups (one -CO 2, one -NH3+ and one -ArOH) coordinated through the carboxylate groups at the active sites of the inner cavity. Importantly, the result demonstrates that not only active sites/areas of the cluster surface under a specified condition can be directly monitored and detected but also novel type surfaces within the cavity of a nano-structured ring-shaped cluster can be generated simultaneously. The nonlinear optical properties of the new cluster are studied using the well-known Z-scan technique at a wavelength of 532 nm with laser pulse duration of 18 ps. The results show that the new cluster exhibits interesting self-focusing nonlinear optical response with the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) being 1.069 × 10 -13(esu) and 2.529 × 10 -15(esu), respectively, which may find application in material science.
Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Frazer, Laszlo; Clark, Daniel J; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Sonny H; Freeman, Arthur J; Ketterson, John B; Jang, Joon I; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G
2015-06-03
The synthesis and properties of the hybrid organic/inorganic germanium perovskite compounds, AGeI3, are reported (A = Cs, organic cation). The systematic study of this reaction system led to the isolation of 6 new hybrid semiconductors. Using CsGeI3 (1) as the prototype compound, we have prepared methylammonium, CH3NH3GeI3 (2), formamidinium, HC(NH2)2GeI3 (3), acetamidinium, CH3C(NH2)2GeI3 (4), guanidinium, C(NH2)3GeI3 (5), trimethylammonium, (CH3)3NHGeI3 (6), and isopropylammonium, (CH3)2C(H)NH3GeI3 (7) analogues. The crystal structures of the compounds are classified based on their dimensionality with 1–4 forming 3D perovskite frameworks and 5–7 1D infinite chains. Compounds 1–7, with the exception of compounds 5 (centrosymmetric) and 7 (nonpolar acentric), crystallize in polar space groups. The 3D compounds have direct band gaps of 1.6 eV (1), 1.9 eV (2), 2.2 eV (3), and 2.5 eV (4), while the 1D compounds have indirect band gaps of 2.7 eV (5), 2.5 eV (6), and 2.8 eV (7). Herein, we report on the second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of the compounds, which display remarkably strong, type I phase-matchable SHG response with high laser-induced damage thresholds (up to ∼3 GW/cm(2)). The second-order nonlinear susceptibility, χS(2), was determined to be 125.3 ± 10.5 pm/V (1), (161.0 ± 14.5) pm/V (2), 143.0 ± 13.5 pm/V (3), and 57.2 ± 5.5 pm/V (4). First-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations indicate that the large SHG response is attributed to the high density of states in the valence band due to sp-hybridization of the Ge and I orbitals, a consequence of the lone pair activation.
Blanchard, Solenna; Saillet, Sandrine; Ivanov, Anton; Benquet, Pascal; Bénar, Christian-George; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Wendling, Fabrice
2016-01-01
Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler…) recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable) variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel) with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq
2015-03-01
Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.
In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio
2012-12-01
The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.
1987-01-01
Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…
1974-02-14
Wester- velt. [60] Streaming. In 1831, Michael Faraday [61] noted that currents of air were set up in the neighborhood of vibrating plates-the first... ducei in the case of a paramettc amy (from Berktay an Leahy 141). C’ "". k•, SEC 10.1 NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 345 The principal results of their analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevorkian, J.
This report discusses research in the area of slowly varying nonlinear oscillatory systems. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: adiabatic invariants and transient resonance in very slowly varying Hamiltonian systems; sustained resonance in very slowly varying Hamiltonian systems; free-electron lasers with very slow wiggler taper; and bursting oscillators.
Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M
2007-01-01
Background and purpose: Biophase equilibration must be considered to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlations of opioids. The objective was to characterise in a quantitative manner the non-linear distribution kinetics of morphine in brain. Experimental approach: Male rats received a 10-min infusion of 4 mg kg−1 of morphine, combined with a continuous infusion of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, or 40 mg kg−1 morphine alone. Unbound extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations obtained by intracerebral microdialysis and total blood concentrations were analysed using a population modelling approach. Key results: Blood pharmacokinetics of morphine was best described with a three-compartment model and was not influenced by GF120918. Non-linear distribution kinetics in brain ECF was observed with increasing dose. A one compartment distribution model was developed, with separate expressions for passive diffusion, active saturable influx and active efflux by Pgp. The passive diffusion rate constant was 0.0014 min−1. The active efflux rate constant decreased from 0.0195 min−1 to 0.0113 min−1 in the presence of GF120918. The active influx was insensitive to GF120918 and had a maximum transport (Nmax/Vecf) of 0.66 ng min−1 ml−1 and was saturated at low concentrations of morphine (C50=9.9 ng ml−1). Conclusions and implications: Brain distribution of morphine is determined by three factors: limited passive diffusion; active efflux, reduced by 42% by Pgp inhibition; low capacity active uptake. This implies blood concentration-dependency and sensitivity to drug-drug interactions. These factors should be taken into account in further investigations on PK-PD correlations of morphine. PMID:17471182
Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it
2015-03-15
In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.
Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge
2015-03-01
In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge
2015-03-01
In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.
Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Dettmer, Marius; O'Connor, Daniel P; Paloski, William H; Layne, Charles S
2015-01-01
Analysis of electromyographic (EMG) data is a cornerstone of research related to motor control in Parkinson's disease. Nonlinear EMG analysis tools have shown to be valuable, but analysis is often complex and interpretation of the data may be difficult. A previously introduced algorithm (SYNERGOS) that provides a single index value based on simultaneous multiple muscle activations (MMA) has been shown to be effective in detecting changes in EMG activation due to modifications of walking speeds in healthy adults. In this study, we investigated if SYNERGOS detects MMA changes associated with both different walking speeds and levodopa intake. Nine male Parkinsonian patients walked on a treadmill with increasing speed while on or off medication. We collected EMG data and computed SYNERGOS indices and employed a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model to the values. SYNERGOS was sensitive to neuromuscular modifications due to both alterations of gait speed and intake of levodopa. We believe that the current experiment provides evidence for the potential value of SYNERGOS as a nonlinear tool in clinical settings, by providing a single value index of MMA. This could help clinicians to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and treatments in Parkinson's disease in a simple manner.
Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin
2014-12-01
In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (P<0.01). The ARVs were higher while the %REC and %DET were lower in presence of muscle soreness compared with before exercise (P<0.05). The study provides new key information on linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel MMG recordings of the wrist extensor muscles following eccentric exercise that results in muscle soreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness.
Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K; Rocha, F
2008-01-15
A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of basic red 9 sorption by activated carbon. The r(2) was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions namely coefficient of determination (r(2)), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), the average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. Non-linear regression was found to be a better way to obtain the parameters involved in the isotherms and also the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r(2) was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K(2) was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm.
Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C
2010-07-14
Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravanakumar, G.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.
2015-06-01
Single crystal of guanidinium L-monohydrogen tartrate (GuHT) was grown by slow evaporation technique and was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction to confirm its crystal structure. UV-vis spectral study reveal that the GuHT crystal is optically transparent and its band gap was estimated from the transmittance data. The laser induced surface damage threshold study was carried out for the grown crystal using Nd:YAG laser. The second harmonic generation (SHG) nonlinearity of the grown crystalline sample was measured by Kurtz and Perry powder technique. The optimized molecular geometry, first order hyperpolarizability, dipole moment and polarizability of GuHT were obtained by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level of basis set. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound was computed. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap explains the charge transfer interactions that take place within the molecule.
Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K; Rocha, F
2008-03-01
A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm.
1991-08-19
experiments," contributed paper, topical meeting on Integrated Photonics , Hilton Head (1990). 20. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Diano, and E. M. Wright...34Picosecond pulse switching in semiconductor active nonlinear directional couplers," contributed paper, topical meeting on Integrated Photonics , Hilton...meeting on Integrated Photonics , Hilton Head (1990). 22. E. M. Wright, "Amplifier and laser switches," invited paper, workshop on Semiconductor Laser
2013-01-01
Devices and Method for Detecting Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices, U. S. Patent 7,680,599, Mar. 16, 2010. 11. Steele, D.; Rotondo, F.; Houck...Patent 7,987,068, Jul. 26, 2011. 9 14. Keller, W. Active Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Electronic Signature Detection , U. S. Patent...operate without interfering with each other. The CNR uses a narrowband, nonlinear radar target detection methodology. This methodology has the advantage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Özsen, İffet; Alyar, Hamit; Alyar, Saliha; Özbek, Neslihan
2016-09-01
Schiff bases; 1,8-bis(thiophene-2-carboxaldimine)-p-menthane (L1) and 1,8-bis(furan-2-carboxaldimine)-p-menthane (L2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1Hsbnd 13C NMR, UV-vis, FT-IR and LC-MS methods. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for L1 and L2 were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The vibrational band assignments, nonlinear optical (NLO) activities, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and absorption spectrum have been investigated by the same basis set. Schiff base-copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and structurally characterized with spectroscopic methods, magnetic and conductivity measurements. The spectroscopic data suggest that Schiff base ligands coordinate through azomethine-N and thiophene-S/furan-O donors (as SNNS and ONNO chelating systems) to give a tetragonal geometry around the copper(II) ions. Schiff bases and Cu(II) complexes have been screened for their biological activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria, those are, Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtitilus, Yersinia enterotica, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pseudomonas by using microdilution technique (MIC values in mM). Biological activity results show that Cu(II) complexes have higher activities than parent ligands and metal chelation may affect significantly the antibacterial behavior of the organic ligands.
Savcheva, A.; Van Ballegooijen, A.; DeLuca, E.; Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.
2012-05-01
In this paper we show that when accurate nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models are analyzed together with high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, we can determine the physical causes for the coronal mass ejection (CME) eruption on 2007 February 12. We compare the geometrical and topological properties of the three-dimensional magnetic fields given by both methods in their pre-eruptive phases. We arrive at a consistent picture for the evolution and eruption of the sigmoid. Both the MHD simulation and the observed magnetic field evolution show that flux cancellation plays an important role in building the flux rope. We compute the squashing factor, Q, in different horizontal maps in the domains. The main shape of the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) is very similar between the NLFFF and MHD models. The main QSLs lie on the edge of the flux rope. While the QSLs in the NLFFF model are more complex due to the intrinsic large complexity in the field, the QSLs in the MHD model are smooth and possess lower maximum value of Q. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of hyperbolic flux tubes (HFTs) in both models in vertical cross sections of Q. The main HFT, located under the twisted flux rope in both models, is identified as the most probable site for reconnection. We also show that there are electric current concentrations coinciding with the main QSLs. Finally, we perform torus instability analysis and show that a combination between reconnection at the HFT and the resulting expansion of the flux rope into the torus instability domain is the cause of the CME in both models.
Kim, Hyun Sung; Yoon, Kyung Byung
2012-02-08
The third-order nonlinear optical (3NLO) activity of PbS quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated in zeolite Y has been expected to depend sensitively on the countercation of the zeolite host. However, ion exchange of the pristine countercation, H(+), with other cations has not been possible because the framework decomposes and the QDs aggregate immediately when the PbS QD-incorporating zeolite Y with H(+) as the countercation is exposed to the atmosphere. We now report that when H(+) is transformed to NH(4)(+), the framework of PbS QD-containing zeolite Y does not undergo decomposition and the PbS QDs do not undergo aggregation to form larger QDs during the aqueous ion exchange of NH(4)(+) with alkali-metal ions (M(A)(+) = Li, Na(+), K(+), Rb(+)). The 3NLO activity of the M(A)(+)-exchanged PbS QD-incorporating zeolite Y film increases with increasing size of M(A)(+). The stabilization of the surface-bound exciton by the electron-rich framework oxide and electron-poor cation is proposed to be responsible for the increase. This is the first example of a method for systematically increasing the 3NLO activity of QDs dispersed in a dielectric matrix by systematically changing its properties. These results will serve as a guideline for future research and also promote applications of QD-incorporating zeolites in various fields.
New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Dexuan
1996-01-01
The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.
Nonlinear and quantum atom optics.
Rolston, S L; Phillips, W D
2002-03-14
Coherent matter waves in the form of Bose-Einstein condensates have led to the development of nonlinear and quantum atom optics - the de Broglie wave analogues of nonlinear and quantum optics with light. In nonlinear atom optics, four-wave mixing of matter waves and mixing of combinations of light and matter waves have been observed; such progress culminated in the demonstration of phase-coherent matter-wave amplification. Solitons represent another active area in nonlinear atom optics: these non-dispersing propagating modes of the equation that governs Bose-Einstein condensates have been created experimentally, and observed subsequently to break up into vortices. Quantum atom optics is concerned with the statistical properties and correlations of matter-wave fields. A first step in this area is the measurement of reduced number fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate partitioned into a series of optical potential wells.
Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo M; Cardoso, Gladys Casas; Chávez, Maria Del Carmen; Garcia, María M; Morell, Carlos; Torrens, Francisco; Abad, Concepción
2011-06-01
In the preset report, for the first time, support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN), Bayesian networks (BNs), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) are applied and compared on two "in-house" datasets to describe the tyrosinase inhibitory activity from the molecular structure. The data set Data I is used for the identification of tyrosinase inhibitors (TIs) including 701 active and 728 inactive compounds. Data II consists of active chemicals for potency estimation of TIs. The 2D TOMOCOMD-CARDD atom-based quadratic indices are used as molecular descriptors. The derived models show rather encouraging results with the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AURC) curve in the test set above 0.943 and 0.846 for the Data I and Data II, respectively. Multiple comparison tests are carried out to compare the performance of the models and reveal the improvement of machine learning (ML) techniques with respect to statistical ones (see Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst. 2010, 104, 249). In some cases, these ameliorations are statistically significant. The tests also demostrate that k-NN, despite being a rather simple approach, presents the best behavior in both data. The obtained results suggest that the ML-based models could help to improve the virtual screening procedures and the confluence of these different techniques can increase the practicality of data mining procedures of chemical databases for the discovery of novel TIs as possible depigmenting agents.
Quantum well nonlinear microcavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.
We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beech, G. S.; Hampton, R. D.; Rupert, J. K.
2004-01-01
Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels that are unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's active rack isolation system (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) An isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic; i.e., mathematical, model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. This Technical Memorandum documents the validation of that high-fidelity dynamic model of ARIS. The verification of this dynamics model was achieved by utilizing two commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software tools: Deneb's ENVISION(registered trademark), and Online Dynamics Autolev(trademark). ENVISION is a robotics software package developed for the automotive industry that employs three-dimensional computer-aided design models to facilitate both forward and inverse kinematics analyses. Autolev is a DOS-based interpreter designed, in general, to solve vector-based mathematical problems and specifically to solve dynamics problems using Kane's method. The simplification of this model was achieved using the small-angle theorem for the joint angle of the ARIS actuators. This simplification has a profound effect on the overall complexity of the closed-form solution while yielding a closed-form solution easily employed using COTS control hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falzone, Tobias; Blair, Savanna; Robertson-Anderson, Rae
2015-03-01
The semiflexible biopolymer actin, a ubiquitous component of nearly all biological organisms, plays an important role in many mechanically-driven processes such as muscle contraction, cancer invasion and cell motility. As such, entangled actin networks, which possess unique and complex viscoelastic properties, have been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. However, due to this viscoelastic complexity, much is still unknown regarding the correlation of the applied stress on actin networks to the induced filament strain at the molecular and micro scale. Here, we use simultaneous optical trapping and fluorescence microscopy to characterize the link between applied microscopic forces and strain propagation as a function of strain rate and concentration. Specifically, we track fiduciary markers on entangled actin filaments before, during and after actively driving embedded microspheres through the network. These measurements provide much needed insight into the molecular-level dynamics connecting stress and strain in semiflexible polymer networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Konyashchenko, D. A.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Lutsenko, A. P.; Mavritskiy, A. O.
2017-02-01
A laser system utilising the method of synchronous pumping of a Ti : sapphire laser by a high-power femtosecond Yb3+-doped laser is described. The pulse repetition rate of the Ti : sapphire laser is successfully locked to the repetition rate of the Yb laser for more than 6 hours without the use of any additional electronics. The measured timing jitter is shown to be less than 1 fs. A simple qualitative model addressing the synchronisation mechanism utilising the cross-phase modulation of oscillation and pump pulses within a Ti : sapphire active medium is proposed. Output parameters of the Ti : sapphire laser as functions of its cavity length are discussed in terms of this model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Öner, Nazmiye; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2014-12-01
The effective psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) known as the near-death molecule have encouraged the imagination of many research disciplines for several decades. Although there is no theoretical study, a number of paper composed by experimental techniques have been reported for DMT molecule. In this study, the molecular modeling of DMT was carried out using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations showed that the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO is low, demonstrating that DMT is a biologically active molecule. Large hyperconjugation interaction energies imply that molecular charge transfer occurs in DMT. Moreover, NLO analysis indicates that DMT can be used an effective NLO material.
Öner, Nazmiye; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2014-12-10
The effective psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) known as the near-death molecule have encouraged the imagination of many research disciplines for several decades. Although there is no theoretical study, a number of paper composed by experimental techniques have been reported for DMT molecule. In this study, the molecular modeling of DMT was carried out using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations showed that the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO is low, demonstrating that DMT is a biologically active molecule. Large hyperconjugation interaction energies imply that molecular charge transfer occurs in DMT. Moreover, NLO analysis indicates that DMT can be used an effective NLO material.
Vibrational Control of a Nonlinear Elastic Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, P. L.; Maestrello, L.
1998-01-01
The paper is concerned with the stabilization of the nonlinear panel oscillation by an active control. The control is actuated by a combination of additive and parametric vibrational forces. A general method of vibrational control is presented for stabilizing panel vibration satisfying a nonlinear beam equation. To obtain analytical results, a perturbation technique is used in the case of weak nonlinearity. Possible application to other types of problems is briefly discussed.
Filtering by nonlinear systems.
Campos Cantón, E; González Salas, J S; Urías, J
2008-12-01
Synchronization of nonlinear systems forced by external signals is formalized as the response of a nonlinear filter. Sufficient conditions for a nonlinear system to behave as a filter are given. Some examples of generalized chaos synchronization are shown to actually be special cases of nonlinear filtering.
Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy; Saravanan, Anbalagan; Anish Kumar, Kodyingil; Yashwanth, Ramesh; Visvesh, Sridharan
2016-08-01
In the present study, a novel activated carbon was prepared from low-cost eucalyptus seeds, which was utilised for the effectively removal of toxic zinc from the water/wastewater. The prepared adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic characterisation studies. Adsorption process was experimentally performed for optimising the influencing factors such as adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, initial zinc concentration, and temperature for the maximum removal of zinc from aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm of zinc removal was ensued Freundlich model, and the kinetic model ensued pseudo-second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for zinc removal was evaluated as 80.37 mg/g. The results of the thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption process was exothermic, thermodynamically feasible and impulsive process. Finally, a batch adsorber was planned to remove zinc from known volume and known concentration of wastewater using best obeyed model such as Freundlich. The experimental details showed the newly prepared material can be effectively utilised as a cheap material for the adsorption of toxic metal ions from the contaminated water.
Predictive simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2012-04-01
Most of the nonlinear ultrasonic studies to date have been experimental, but few theoretical predictive studies exist, especially for Lamb wave ultrasonic. Compared with nonlinear bulk waves and Rayleigh waves, nonlinear Lamb waves for structural health monitoring become more challenging due to their multi-mode dispersive features. In this paper, predictive study of nonlinear Lamb waves is done with finite element simulation. A pitch-catch method is used to interrogate a plate with a "breathing crack" which opens and closes under tension and compression. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) used as transmitter and receiver are modeled with coupled field elements. The "breathing crack" is simulated via "element birth and death" technique. The ultrasonic waves generated by the transmitter PWAS propagate into the structure, interact with the "breathing crack", acquire nonlinear features, and are picked up by the receiver PWAS. The features of the wave packets at the receiver PWAS are studied and discussed. The received signal is processed with Fast Fourier Transform to show the higher harmonics nonlinear characteristics. A baseline free damage index is introduced to assess the presence and the severity of the crack. The paper finishes with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.
Yin, Zheng; Wang, Qiang-Xin; Zeng, Ming-Hua
2012-03-14
{[Cu6(pybz)8(OH)2]·I5(–)·I7(–)}n (1), obtained hydrothermally by using iodine molecules as a versatile precursor template, consists of a cationic framework with two types of zigzag channels, which segregate I5(–) and I7(–) anions. The framework exhibits the first observed bipillared-bilayer structure featuring both interdigitation and interpenetration. 1 displays high framework stability in both acidic (HCl) and alkaline (NaOH) solutions. 1 slowly releases iodine in dry methanol to give [Cu6(pybz)8(OH)2](I–)2·3.5CH3OH (1′) and partially recovers iodine from cyclohexane to form [Cu6(pybz)8(OH)2](I–)2·xI2 (1″). Differences of up to 100 times in electrical conductivity and of 4 times in nonlinear optical activity (NLO) have been measured between 1 and 1′. This compound is one of few displaying multifunctionality, electrical conductivity, NLO, and crystal–crystal stability upon release and recovery of iodine. It is also unique in the iodine release from polyiodide anions in a metal–organic framework.
Xu, Huajun; Yang, Dan; Liu, Fenggang; Fu, Mingkai; Bo, Shuhui; Liu, Xinhou; Cao, Yuan
2015-11-28
In this work, we investigated the enhancement of the electro-optic response by introducing electron-rich heteroatoms as additional donors into the donor or bridge of a conventional second-order nonlinear optical chromophore. A series of chromophores C2-C4 based on the same tricyanofuran acceptor (TCF) but with different heteroatoms in the alkylamino phenyl donor (C2 or C3) or thiophene bridge (C4) have been synthesized and systematically investigated. Density functional theory calculations suggested that chromophores C2-C4 had a smaller energy gap and larger first-order hyperpolarizability (β) than traditional chromophore C1 due to the additional heteroatoms. Single crystal structure analyses and optimized configurations indicate that the rationally introduced heteroatom group would bring larger β and weaker intermolecular interactions which were beneficial for translating molecular β into macro-electro-optic activity in electric field poled films. The electro-optic coefficient of poled films containing 25 wt% of these new chromophores doped in amorphous poly-carbonate afforded values of 83 and 91 pm V(-1) at 1310 nm for chromophores C3 and C4, respectively, which are two times higher than that of the traditional chromophore C1 (39 pm V(-1)). High r33 values indicated that introducing heteroatoms to the donor and bridge of a conventional molecular structure can efficiently improve the electron-donating ability, which improves the β. The long-chain on the donor or bridge part, acting as the isolation group, may reduce inter-molecular electrostatic interactions, thus enhancing the macroscopic EO activity. These results, together with good solubility and compatibility with the polymer, show the new chromophore's potential application in electro-optic devices.
2016-07-01
confining the activities to a technology platform that has already been commercialized, and which can meet the challenging size and temperature ...6 3.1 Encapsulated Bulk Acoustic Mode Resonators ................................................................ 6 3.2 Temperature Compensation...Comparison of Frequency Response of LE Resonators with/without Release Etch-hole ........ 6 Figure 2: Frequency Temperature Measurement of a Lamé
Nonlinear traveling wave solution for the MJO skeleton model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Stechmann, S. N.
2014-12-01
Recently, a minimal dynamical model is presented for capturing MJO's fundamental features. The model is a nonlinear oscillator model for the MJO skeleton and it involves interactions between convection, moisture and circulation. I will present the exact nonlinear traveling wave solutions for the model based on its energy conservation. The exact nonlinear solution provides for an explicit comparison of features between linear and nonlinear waves such as dispersion relations and traveling wave speeds. Moreover, the nonlinear solutions, compared with the linear ones, produce a narrow region of active convection and a wider region of suppressed convection. These predictions offer nonlinear MJO features that could potentially be targets of observational investigations.
Nonlinear theory for fishbone modes
Porcelli, F.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.
1996-12-31
We present a nonlinear theory for fishbone activity, on the basis of a recently developed weak turbulence model of beam driven plasma waves with a discrete spectrum near the instability threshold. Fishbone oscillations are triggered by an internal kink mode driven unstable by the resonant interaction with trapped fast ions. We focus on the regime where the mode frequency is close to the thermal ion diamagnetic frequency. In this regime, a (stable) internal kink mode exists in the absence of the fast ions, which can therefore be treated perturbatively. A Lagrangian formalism for the nonlinear wave-particle interaction is used. The oscillatory behavior of the resonant ions trapped in a finite amplitude toroidal wave is discussed on the basis of a nonlinear pendulum model. Numerical estimates of saturation levels and resonant fishbone losses for present Tokamak experiments are obtained.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.
Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V
2015-07-31
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Noise in nonlinear nanomechanical resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleland, Andrew
2006-03-01
Noise limits the sensitivity of linear sensors, in a manner that is well understood, but also limits nonlinear systems in a less trivial way. Nonlinear nanomechanical resonators present interesting possibilities for the sensitive detection of forces and masses, but the noise limitations have not been explored much to date. Here we report on noise effects on nonlinear resonators operated in regimes where they have either one or two stable attractors. We have made quantitative measurements of the nonlinear response of a radiofrequency mechanical resonator with very high quality factor, measuring the noise-free transitions between the two attractors, and find good agreement with theory. We measure the transition rate response to controlled levels of white noise, and extract the basin activation energy. This allows us to obtain precise values for the relevant frequencies and the cubic nonlinearity in the Duffing oscillator, with applications to parametric sensing, in particular mass sensing. References: ``Noise-enabled precision measurements of a Duffing nanomechanical resonator,'' J.S. Aldridge and A.N. Cleland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 156403 (2005). ``Thermomechanical noise limits on parametric sensing with nanomechanical resonators,'' A.N. Cleland, New J. Phys. 7, 235 (2005).
Movement Enhances the Nonlinearity of Hippocampal Theta
Sheremet, Alex; Burke, Sara N.
2016-01-01
The nonlinear, metastable dynamics of the brain are essential for large-scale integration of smaller components and for the rapid organization of neurons in support of behavior. Therefore, understanding the nonlinearity of the brain is paramount for understanding the relationship between brain dynamics and behavior. Explicit quantitative descriptions of the properties and consequences of nonlinear neural networks, however, are rare. Because the local field potential (LFP) reflects the total activity across a population of neurons, nonlinearites of the nervous system should be quantifiable by examining oscillatory structure. We used high-order spectral analysis of LFP recorded from the dorsal and intermediate regions of the rat hippocampus to show that the nonlinear character of the hippocampal theta rhythm is directly related to movement speed of the animal. In the time domain, nonlinearity is expressed as the development of skewness and asymmetry in the theta shape. In the spectral domain, nonlinear dynamics manifest as the development of a chain of harmonics statistically phase coupled to the theta oscillation. This evolution was modulated across hippocampal regions, being stronger in the dorsal CA1 relative to more intermediate areas. The intensity and timing of the spiking activity of pyramidal cells and interneurons was strongly correlated to theta nonlinearity. Because theta is known to propagate from dorsal to ventral regions of the hippocampus, these data suggest that the nonlinear character of theta decreases as it travels and supports a hypothesis that activity dissipates along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe the first explicit quantification regarding how behavior enhances the nonlinearity of the nervous system. Our findings demonstrate uniquely how theta changes with increasing speed due to the altered underlying neuronal dynamics and open new directions of research on the relationship between single
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sander, W. A., III
1973-01-01
Dc to dc static power conditioning systems on unmanned spacecraft have as their inputs highly fluctuating dc voltages which they condition to regulated dc voltages. These input voltages may be less than or greater than the desired regulated voltages. The design of two circuits which address specific problems in the design of these power conditioning systems and a nonlinear analysis of one of the circuits are discussed. The first circuit design is for a nondissipative active ripple filter which uses an operational amplifier to amplify and cancel the sensed ripple voltage. A dc to dc converter operating at a switching frequency of 1 MHz is the second circuit discussed. A nonlinear analysis of the type of dc to dc converter utilized in designing the 1 MHz converter is included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Jacqueline M.; Hickstein, Daniel D.
2013-11-01
Structure-property relationships are established in the nonlinear optical (NLO) material, zinc tris(thiourea)sulfate (ZTS), via an experimental charge-density study, x-ray constrained wave-function refinement, and quantum-mechanical calculations. The molecular charge-transfer characteristics of ZTS, that are important for NLO activity, are topologically analyzed via a multipolar refinement of high-resolution x-ray diffraction data, which is supported by neutron diffraction measurements. The extent to which each chemical bond is ionic or covalent in nature is categorized by Laplacian-based bonding classifiers of the electron density; these include bond ellipticities, energy densities, and the local source function. Correspondingly, the NLO origins of ZTS are judged to best resemble those of organic NLO materials. The molecular dipole moment, μi, and (hyper)polarizability coefficients, αij and βijk, are calculated from the experimental diffraction data using the x-ray constrained wave-function method. Complementary gas-phase ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations of μi, αij, and βijk offer a supporting comparison. When taken alone, the experimental charge-density analysis does not fare well in deriving μi, αij, or βijk, which is not entirely surprising given that the associated calculations are only generally valid for organic molecules. However, by refining the x-ray data within the constrained wave-function method, the evaluations of μi, αij, and βijk are shown to agree very well with those from ab initio calculations and show remarkable normalization to experimental refractive index measurements. The small differences observed between ab initio and x-ray constrained wave-function refinement results can be related directly to gas- versus solid-state phase differences. μi is found to be 28.3 Debye (gas phase) and 29.7 Debye (solid state) while βijk coefficients are not only significant but are also markedly three dimensional in form. Accordingly
Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer.
Lukens, Joseph M; Peters, Nicholas A; Pooser, Raphael C
2016-12-01
Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing-conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.
Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-12-01
Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing---conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9\\% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.
Naturally stable Sagnac–Michelson nonlinear interferometer
Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-11-16
Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. As a result, our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires nomore » active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.« less
Naturally stable Sagnac–Michelson nonlinear interferometer
Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-11-16
Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. As a result, our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.
Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, W. B.
1985-01-01
The special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics are examined. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot firing ground testing. Deadband, side force and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as asympotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies. Numerical solutions are included for comparison with the analysis. Also, nonlinear frequency-response tables are made for a typical range of values.
Nonlinear analysis of drought dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, M.
2015-12-01
Drought is an extreme natural hazard and becomes a severe problem in the world. It arises as a result of interactions between climate input and human activity, displaying the nonlinearity and complexity. Nonlinear time series analyses open a way to study the underlying dynamic characteristics of drought, and then provide the forward knowledge to understanding the physical mechanism of drought event. The rationale behind this idea is that information about the representation of nonlinear properties could be used as an additional quality indicator. To that end, the correlation dimension method, a powerful nonlinear time series analysis method based on the chaos theory, has been suggested to assess the intrinsic dimensionality or degree of freedom of time series according to Takens (1981). It can provide an assessment of the dominant processes that is required to map the observed dynamics. In this study, daily discharge and hourly groundwater level data of 63 catchments in Germany and China were investigated with correlation dimension method. The results indicated that the correlation dimension values of studied discharge exhibited none clear spatial patterns, but showed significant correlations with the spatial heterogeneity within the catchments. In contrast, the correlation dimension values of groundwater level displayed spatial patterns due to the different aquifer conditions (confined or unconfined). High correlation dimension values indicate partly confined conditions. In addition, Hurst analysis was involved to qualify the persistence of drought. It seems that drought mechanisms can be learnt from the data themselves in an inverse manner.
Nonlinear connectivity by Granger causality.
Marinazzo, Daniele; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu; Stramaglia, Sebastiano
2011-09-15
The communication among neuronal populations, reflected by transient synchronous activity, is the mechanism underlying the information processing in the brain. Although it is widely assumed that the interactions among those populations (i.e. functional connectivity) are highly nonlinear, the amount of nonlinear information transmission and its functional roles are not clear. The state of the art to understand the communication between brain systems are dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Granger causality. While DCM models nonlinear couplings, Granger causality, which constitutes a major tool to reveal effective connectivity, and is widely used to analyze EEG/MEG data as well as fMRI signals, is usually applied in its linear version. In order to capture nonlinear interactions between even short and noisy time series, a few approaches have been proposed. We review them and focus on a recently proposed flexible approach has been recently proposed, consisting in the kernel version of Granger causality. We show the application of the proposed approach on EEG signals and fMRI data.
Principles of Nonlinear Optics
1989-11-01
Holography 74 6.2 Semiclassical Analysis 77 7. The Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation and Soliton Propagation 81 8. Conclusion Ancession For 86 ETis -GRA...is analyzed through the nonlinear Schrodinger equation , which is first heuristically derived. The distortionless pulses arising out of a balance...Eq. (71) has the same form as the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (2], (4], [17], (20], which is used to explain soliton propagation through fibers (21
1992-07-07
mrtegrating the original governing differential equation. 2. A. H. Nayfeh, " Parametric Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems," Computers...Structures, Vol. 20. No. 1-3. 1985, pp. 487-493. A parametric identification technique that exploits nonlinear resonances and comparisons of the behavior of...617-631. Presentations 1. A. H. Vn’.yfeh, " Parametric Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems," Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures
Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of chiral molecules.
Fischer, Peer; Hache, François
2005-10-01
We review nonlinear optical processes that are specific to chiral molecules in solution and on surfaces. In contrast to conventional natural optical activity phenomena, which depend linearly on the electric field strength of the optical field, we discuss how optical processes that are nonlinear (quadratic, cubic, and quartic) functions of the electromagnetic field strength may probe optically active centers and chiral vibrations. We show that nonlinear techniques open entirely new ways of exploring chirality in chemical and biological systems: The cubic processes give rise to nonlinear circular dichroism and nonlinear optical rotation and make it possible to observe dynamic chiral processes at ultrafast time scales. The quadratic second-harmonic and sum-frequency-generation phenomena and the quartic processes may arise entirely in the electric-dipole approximation and do not require the use of circularly polarized light to detect chirality. They provide surface selectivity and their observables can be relatively much larger than in linear optical activity. These processes also give rise to the generation of light at a new color, and in liquids this frequency conversion only occurs if the solution is optically active. We survey recent chiral nonlinear optical experiments and give examples of their application to problems of biophysical interest.
Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.
Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-12-08
We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission.
Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chien-ming
2007-12-01
Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bénichou, O.; Illien, P.; Oshanin, G.; Sarracino, A.; Voituriez, R.
2016-03-01
We study analytically the dynamics and the microstructural changes of a host medium caused by a driven tracer particle moving in a confined, quiescent molecular crowding environment. Imitating typical settings of active microrheology experiments, we consider here a minimal model comprising a geometrically confined lattice system (a two-dimensional striplike or a three-dimensional capillary-like system) populated by two types of hard-core particles with stochastic dynamics (a tracer particle driven by a constant external force and bath particles moving completely at random). Resorting to a decoupling scheme, which permits us to go beyond the linear-response approximation (Stokes regime) for arbitrary densities of the lattice gas particles, we determine the force-velocity relation for the tracer particle and the stationary density profiles of the host medium particles around it. These results are validated a posteriori by extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters. Our theoretical analysis reveals two striking features: (a) We show that, under certain conditions, the terminal velocity of the driven tracer particle is a nonmonotonic function of the force, so in some parameter range the differential mobility becomes negative, and (b) the biased particle drives the whole system into a nonequilibrium steady state with a stationary particle density profile past the tracer, which decays exponentially, in sharp contrast with the behavior observed for unbounded lattices, where an algebraic decay is known to take place.
Schroer, Carsten F. E.; Heuer, Andreas
2015-12-14
In active microrheology, the mechanical properties of a material are tested by adding probe particles which are pulled by an external force. In case of supercooled liquids, strong forcing leads to a thinning of the host material which becomes more pronounced as the system approaches the glass transition. In this work, we provide a quantitative theoretical description of this thinning behavior based on the properties of the Potential Energy Landscape (PEL) of a model glass-former. A key role plays the trap-like nature of the PEL. We find that the mechanical properties in the strongly driven system behave the same as in a quiescent system at an enhanced temperature, giving rise to a well-characterized effective temperature. Furthermore, this effective temperature turns out to be independent of the chosen observable and individually shows up in the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the system. Based on this underlying theoretical understanding, we can estimate its dependence on temperature and force by the PEL-properties of the quiescent system. We furthermore critically discuss the relevance of effective temperatures obtained by scaling relations for the description of out-of-equilibrium situations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.
1992-01-01
The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.
Optically Nonlinear Polymeric Materials.
1983-01-01
optical chromophores into the hydrophobic portions of the polymer, second order . ,nonlinear optical effects may be obtained. Experimental 01 0...8217V cinnamaldehyde , giving the polymer shown in Figure 3. This chromophore should have greater optical nonlinearity because of its better electron
Nonlinear Optics and Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)
2007-01-01
Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.
1992-01-01
Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.
Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.
Wise, Frank
2013-03-01
Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.
Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovitch, Oded
2005-08-01
The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.
Zweig, George
2016-05-01
An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.
Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity
Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2011-01-01
Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control. PMID:22355655
Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F
2016-07-01
In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leslie, Thomas M.
1993-01-01
A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film
Nonlinear optomechanical pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conti, Claudio; Boyd, Robert
2014-03-01
A transparent material exhibits ultrafast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, such as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, and optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems such as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma or the Casimir effect. Here, we show that an ultrafast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Nonlinear structural analysis techniques for engine structures and components are addressed. The finite element method and boundary element method are discussed in terms of stress and structural analyses of shells, plates, and laminates.
Nonlinear Dynamics in Cardiology
Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.
2013-01-01
The dynamics of many cardiac arrhythmias, as well as the nature of transitions between different heart rhythms, have long been considered evidence of nonlinear phenomena playing a direct role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. In most types of cardiac disease, the pathology develops slowly and gradually, often over many years. In contrast, arrhythmias often occur suddenly. In nonlinear systems, sudden changes in qualitative dynamics can, counter-intuitively, result from a gradual change in a system parameter –this is known as a bifurcation. Here, we review how nonlinearities in cardiac electrophysiology influence normal and abnormal rhythms and how bifurcations change the dynamics. In particular, we focus on the many recent developments in computational modeling at the cellular level focused on intracellular calcium dynamics. We discuss two areas where recent experimental and modeling work have suggested the importance of nonlinearities in calcium dynamics: repolarization alternans and pacemaker cell automaticity. PMID:22524390
Adaptive and Nonlinear Control
1992-02-29
in [22], we also applied the concept of zero dynamics to the problem of exact linearization of a nonlinear control system by dynamic feedback. Exact ...nonlinear systems, although it was well-known that the conditions for exact linearization are very stringent and consequently do not apply to a broad...29th IEEE Conference n Decision and Control, Invited Paper delivered by Dr. Gilliam. Exact Linearization of Zero Dynamics, 29th IEEE Conference on
Perturbed nonlinear differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, T. G.
1974-01-01
For perturbed nonlinear systems, a norm, other than the supremum norm, is introduced on some spaces of continuous functions. This makes possible the study of new types of behavior. A study is presented on a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas developed are applied to the study of integral manifolds, and examples are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Açıkyıldız, Metin; Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Yalvaç, Duygu
2015-11-01
The present study was designed to compare the linear and non-linear methods used to check the compliance of the experimental data corresponding to the isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetics equations (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order). In this context, adsorption experiments were carried out to remove an anionic dye, Remazol Brillant Yellow 3GL (RBY), from its aqueous solutions using a commercial activated carbon as a sorbent. The effects of contact time, initial RBY concentration, and temperature onto adsorbed amount were investigated. The amount of dye adsorbed increased with increased adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 240 min. The amount of dye adsorbed enhanced with increased temperature, suggesting that the adsorption process is endothermic. The experimental data was analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations in order to predict adsorption isotherm. It was determined that the isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo second-order kinetic model. According to the kinetic and isotherm data, it was found that the determination coefficients obtained from linear method were higher than those obtained from non-linear method.
Nonlinear systems in medicine.
Higgins, John P.
2002-01-01
Many achievements in medicine have come from applying linear theory to problems. Most current methods of data analysis use linear models, which are based on proportionality between two variables and/or relationships described by linear differential equations. However, nonlinear behavior commonly occurs within human systems due to their complex dynamic nature; this cannot be described adequately by linear models. Nonlinear thinking has grown among physiologists and physicians over the past century, and non-linear system theories are beginning to be applied to assist in interpreting, explaining, and predicting biological phenomena. Chaos theory describes elements manifesting behavior that is extremely sensitive to initial conditions, does not repeat itself and yet is deterministic. Complexity theory goes one step beyond chaos and is attempting to explain complex behavior that emerges within dynamic nonlinear systems. Nonlinear modeling still has not been able to explain all of the complexity present in human systems, and further models still need to be refined and developed. However, nonlinear modeling is helping to explain some system behaviors that linear systems cannot and thus will augment our understanding of the nature of complex dynamic systems within the human body in health and in disease states. PMID:14580107
Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.
2011-07-01
Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.
Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging
Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.
2015-11-23
Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.
Algebraic Nonlinear Collective Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.
1998-11-01
Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real numberΛ. TheΛ=0 solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear group action on Euclidean space transforms a certain family of deformed droplets among themselves. For positiveΛ, the droplets have a neck that becomes more pronounced asΛincreases; for negativeΛ, the droplets contain a spherical bubble of radius |Λ|1/3. The nonlinear vector field algebra is extended to the nonlinear general collective motion algebra gcm(3) which includes the inertia tensor. The quantum algebraic models of nonlinear nuclear collective motion are given by irreducible unitary representations of the nonlinear gcm(3) Lie algebra. These representations model fissioning isotopes (Λ>0) and bubble and two-fluid nuclei (Λ<0).
Surrogate-assisted network analysis of nonlinear time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laut, Ingo; Räth, Christoph
2016-10-01
The performance of recurrence networks and symbolic networks to detect weak nonlinearities in time series is compared to the nonlinear prediction error. For the synthetic data of the Lorenz system, the network measures show a comparable performance. In the case of relatively short and noisy real-world data from active galactic nuclei, the nonlinear prediction error yields more robust results than the network measures. The tests are based on surrogate data sets. The correlations in the Fourier phases of data sets from some surrogate generating algorithms are also examined. The phase correlations are shown to have an impact on the performance of the tests for nonlinearity.
Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating
Casademunt, Jaume
2017-01-01
The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leble, Sergei B.
S.B. Leble's book deals with nonlinear waves and their propagation in metallic and dielectric waveguides and media with stratification. The underlying nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) are derived giving also their solutions for specific situations. The reader will find new elements to the traditional approach. Various dispersion and relaxation laws for different guides are considered as well as the explicit form of projection operators, NEEs, quasi-solitons and of Darboux transforms. Special points relate to: 1. the development of a universal asymptotic method of deriving NEEs for guide propagation; 2. applications to the cases of stratified liquids, gases, solids and plasmas with various nonlinearities and dispersion laws; 3. connections between the basic problem and soliton- like solutions of the corresponding NEEs; 4. discussion of details of simple solutions in higher- order nonsingular perturbation theory.
Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.
Nonlinear optical Galton board
Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Perez, A.; Roldan, Eugenio
2007-06-15
We generalize the concept of optical Galton board (OGB), first proposed by Bouwmeester et al. [Phys. Rev. A 61, 013410 (2000)], by introducing the possibility of nonlinear self-phase modulation on the wave function during the walker evolution. If the original Galton board illustrates classical diffusion, the OGB, which can be understood as a grid of Landau-Zener crossings, illustrates the influence of interference on diffusion, and is closely connected with the quantum walk. Our nonlinear generalization of the OGB shows new phenomena, the most striking of which is the formation of nondispersive pulses in the field distribution (solitonlike structures). These exhibit a variety of dynamical behaviors, including ballistic motion, dynamical localization, nonelastic collisions, and chaotic behavior, in the sense that the dynamics is very sensitive to the nonlinearity strength.
Blehm, Benjamin H; Devine, Alexus; Staunton, Jack R; Tanner, Kandice
2016-03-01
Variation in matrix elasticity has been shown to determine cell fate in both differentiation and development of malignant phenotype. The tissue microenvironment provides complex biochemical and biophysical signals in part due to the architectural heterogeneities found in extracellular matrices (ECMs). Three dimensional cell cultures can partially mimic in vivo tissue architecture, but to truly understand the role of viscoelasticity on cell fate, we must first determine in vivo tissue mechanical properties to improve in vitro models. We employed Active Microrheology by Optical Trapping InVivo (AMOTIV), using in situ calibration to measure in vivo zebrafish tissue mechanics. Previously used trap calibration methods overestimate complex moduli by ∼ 2-20 fold compared to AMOTIV. Applying differential microscale stresses and strains showed that hyaluronic acid (HA) gels display semi-flexible polymer behavior, while laminin-rich ECM hydrogels display flexible polymer behavior. In contrast, zebrafish tissues displayed different moduli at different stresses, with higher power law exponents at lower stresses, indicating that living tissue has greater stress dependence than the 3D hydrogels examined. To our knowledge, this work is the first vertebrate tissue rheological characterization performed in vivo. Our fundamental observations are important for the development and refinement of in vitro platforms.
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; Betancourt, O.; Garabedian, P.
1981-01-01
The computer code developed by Bauer et al. (1978) for the study of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of a plasma in toroidal geometry is extended so that the growth rates of instabilities may be estimated more accurately. The original code, which is based on the variational principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics, is upgraded by the introduction of a nonlinear formula for the growth rate of an unstable mode which acts as a quantitative measure of instability that is important in estimating numerical errors. The revised code has been applied to the determination of the nonlinear saturation, ballooning modes and beta limits for tokamaks, stellarators and torsatrons.
1981-05-01
Systems, New York, Marcel Dekker, (to appear). 3. Desoer , C.A. and S.E. Kuh, Basic Circuit Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969, pp. 423-425. 130 NONLINEAR...DIAGNOSIS A 7*ssior For 1 MU3 CRA&T IY’IC TAB Ju-st i.cat IC- P.U A: CONTENTS Fault Diagnosis in Electronic Circuits , R. Saeks and R.-w. Liu...Vincentelli and R. Saeks .............. 61 Multitest Diagnosibility of Nonlinear Circuits and Systems, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli and R. Saeks
2015-05-07
honeycomb lattices, M.J. Ablowitz and Y. Zhu, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 87 (2013) 19591979 11. Nonlinear Temporal-Spatial Surface Plasmon Polaritons , M. J. Ablowitz...temporal-spatial surface plasmon polaritons . Op- tics Communications, 330:49–55, 2014. 37 [39] M.C. Rechtsman, Y. Plotnik, J.M. Zeuner, , D. Song, Z...honeycomb lattices, M.J. Ablowitz and Y. Zhu, SIAM J. Appl. Math., Vol. 87 (2013) 1959-1979 11. Nonlinear Temporal-Spatial Surface Plasmon Polaritons
Problems of nonlinear deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoliuk, E. I.; Shalashilin, V. I.
A method of continuing the solution is discussed with respect to a parameter for a certain class of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics. Modifications of the method are developed in order to implement a unified continuation process at regular and limit points in the set of solutions, with extensions to nonlinear boundary value problems. Algorithms are developed for solving large deflection problems of elastic arches and large axisymmetric deflection problems for shells of revolution. In particular, the algorithms are used for the analysis of large deflections of circular arches and toroidal shells. Examples of natural vibration and stability problems for parallelograms and trapezoidal membranes and panels are given.
Maimistov, Andrei I
2010-11-13
The classic examples of optical phenomena resulting in the appearance of solitons are self-focusing, self-induced transparency, and parametric three-wave interaction. To date, the list of the fields of nonlinear optics and models where solitons play an important role has significantly expanded. Now long-lived or stable solitary waves are called solitons, including, for example, dissipative, gap, parametric, and topological solitons. This review considers nonlinear optics models giving rise to the appearance of solitons in a narrow sense: solitary waves corresponding to the solutions of completely integrable systems of equations basic for the models being discussed. (review)
Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, Ellwood
1985-01-01
The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.
Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging.
Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A
2004-03-26
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) processes are "coherent," but the phase of the anti-Stokes radiation is lost by most incoherent spectroscopic CARS measurements. We propose a Raman microscopy imaging method called nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging, which measures Raman spectra by obtaining the temporal anti-Stokes signal through nonlinear interferometry. With a more complete knowledge of the anti-Stokes signal, we show through simulations that a high-resolution Raman spectrum can be obtained of a molecule in a single pulse using broad band radiation. This could be useful for identifying the three-dimensional spatial distribution of molecular species in tissue.
Perturbed nonlinear differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, T. G.
1972-01-01
The existence of a solution defined for all t and possessing a type of boundedness property is established for the perturbed nonlinear system y = f(t,y) + F(t,y). The unperturbed system x = f(t,x) has a dichotomy in which some solutions exist and are well behaved as t increases to infinity, and some solution exists and are well behaved as t decreases to minus infinity. A similar study is made for a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, R+, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas are applied to integral manifolds.
Lee, Paul H.
2016-01-01
Healthy adults are advised to perform at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity weekly, but this advice is based on studies using self-reports of questionable validity. This study examined the dose-response relationship of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality using segmented Cox regression to empirically determine the break-points of the dose-response relationship. Data from 7006 adult participants aged 18 or above in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included in the analysis and linked with death certificate data using a probabilistic matching approach in the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer over the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Each minute with accelerometer count <100; 1952–5724; and ≥5725 were classified as sedentary, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Segmented Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of time spent in sedentary behaviors, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Data were analyzed in 2016. During 47,119 person-year of follow-up, 608 deaths occurred. Each additional hour per day of sedentary behaviors was associated with a HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) among participants who spend at least 10.9 h per day on sedentary behaviors, and each additional minute per day spent on moderate-intensity physical activity was associated with a HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91, 0.96) among participants with daily moderate-intensity physical activity ≤14.1 min. Associations of moderate physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality were independent of each other. To conclude, evidence from
Polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paley, Mark S.
1993-01-01
One very promising class of organic compounds for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications are polydiacetylenes, which are novel in that they are highly conjugated polymers which can also be crystalline. Polydiacetylenes offer several advantages over other organic materials: because of their highly conjugated electronic structures, they are capable of possessing large optical nonlinearities with fast response times; because they are crystalline, they can be highly ordered, which is essential for optimizing their NLO properties; and, last, because they are polymeric, they can be formed as thin films, which are useful for device fabrication. We have actively been carrying out ground-based research on several compounds of interest.
Nonlinear phased array imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.
2016-04-01
A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.
Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics
Davis, M.J.
1993-12-01
Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zidan, M. D.; Arfan, A.; Allahham, A.
2017-03-01
Z-scan technique was used to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of Quinine and 1-(carboxymethyl)-6-methoxy-4-(3-(3-vinylpiperidin-4-yl) propanoyl) quinolin-1-ium chloride (Quinotoxine) salts. The two salts were characterized using UV-visible, FTIR and NMR measurements. The characterization spectra confirm the expected molecular structure of the prepared "Quinotoxine " salt. The z-scan measurements were performed with a CW Diode laser at 635 nm wavelength and 26 mW power. The nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n2), the ground-state absorption cross sections (σg), the excited-state absorption cross sections (σex) and thermo-optic coefficient of the samples were determined. Our results reveal that the σex is higher than the σg indicating that the reverse saturable absorption (RSA) is the dominating mechanism for the observed absorption nonlinearities. The results suggest that this material should be considered as a promising candidate for future optical devices applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram
2010-05-01
An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.
Nonlinear plasmonic nanorulers.
Butet, Jérémy; Martin, Olivier J F
2014-05-27
The evaluation of distances as small as few nanometers using optical waves is a very challenging task that can pave the way for the development of new applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this article, we propose a new measurement method based on the control of the nonlinear optical response of plasmonic nanostructures by means of Fano resonances. It is shown that Fano resonances resulting from the coupling between a bright mode and a dark mode at the fundamental wavelength enable unprecedented and direct manipulation of the nonlinear electromagnetic sources at the nanoscale. In the case of second harmonic generation from gold nanodolmens, the different nonlinear sources distributions induced by the different coupling regimes are clearly revealed in the far-field distribution. Hence, the configuration of the nanostructure can be accurately determined in 3-dimensions by recording the wave scattered at the second harmonic wavelength. Indeed, the conformation of the different elements building the system is encoded in the nonlinear far-field distribution, making second harmonic generation a promising tool for reading 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers. Furthemore, it is shown that 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers can be implemented with simpler geometries than in the linear regime while providing complete information on the structure conformation, including the top nanobar position and orientation.
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-11-01
With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.
Nonlinear Theory and Breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Frank
2007-01-01
The main points of recent theoretical and computational studies on boundary-layer transition and turbulence are to be highlighted. The work is based on high Reynolds numbers and attention is drawn to nonlinear interactions, breakdowns and scales. The research focuses in particular on truly nonlinear theories, i.e. those for which the mean-flow profile is completely altered from its original state. There appear to be three such theories dealing with unsteady nonlinear pressure-displacement interactions (I), with vortex/wave interactions (II), and with Euler-scale flows (III). Specific recent findings noted for these three, and in quantitative agreement with experiments, are the following. Nonlinear finite-time break-ups occur in I, leading to sublayer eruption and vortex formation; here the theory agrees with experiments (Nishioka) regarding the first spike. II gives rise to finite-distance blowup of displacement thickness, then interaction and break-up as above; this theory agrees with experiments (Klebanoff, Nishioka) on the formation of three-dimensional streets. III leads to the prediction of turbulent boundary-layer micro-scale, displacement-and stress-sublayer-thicknesses.
Nonlinear Image Denoising Methodologies
2002-05-01
53 5.3 A Multiscale Approach to Scale-Space Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.4...etc. In this thesis, Our approach to denoising is first based on a controlled nonlinear stochastic random walk to achieve a scale space analysis ( as in... stochastic treatment or interpretation of the diffusion. In addition, unless a specific stopping time is known to be adequate, the resulting evolution
Nonlinear dynamics experiments
Fischer, W.
2011-01-01
The goal of nonlinear dynamics experiments is to improve the understanding of single particle effects that increase the particle amplitude and lead to loss. Particle motion in storage rings is nearly conservative and for transverse dynamics the Hamiltonian in action angle variables (I{sub x},I{sub y},{phi}{sub x},{phi}{sub y}) near an isolated resonance k{nu}{sub x} + l{nu}{sub y} {approx} p is H = I{sub x}{nu}{sub x0} + I{sub y}{nu}{sub y0} + g(I{sub x}, I{sub y}) + h(I{sub x}, I{sub y})cos(k{phi}{sub x} + l{phi}{sub y} - p{theta}), (1) where k, l, p are integers, {theta} = 2{pi}s/L is the azimuth, and s and L are the path length and circumference respectively. The amplitude dependent tunes are given by {nu}{sub x,y}(I{sub x},I{sub y}) = {nu}{sub x0,y0} + {partial_derivative}g(I{sub x},I{sub y})/{partial_derivative}I{sub x,y} (2) and h(I{sub x},I{sub y}) is the resonance driving term (RDT). If the motion is governed by multiple resonances, h(I{sub x},I{sub y}) has to be replace by a series of terms. The particle motion is completely determined by the terms g and h, which can be calculated from higher order multipoles (Sec. ??), or obtained from simulations. Deviations from pure Hamiltonian motion occur due to synchrotron radiation damping (Sec. ??) in lepton or very high energy hadron rings, parameter variations, and diffusion processes such as residual gas and intrabeam scattering. The time scale of the non-Hamiltonian process determines the applicability of the Hamiltonian analysis. Transverse nonlinearities are introduced through sextupoles or higher order multipoles and magnetic field errors in dipoles and quadrupoles. Sextupoles can already drive all resonances. The beam-beam interaction and space charge also introduce nonlinear fields. Intentionally introduced nonlinearities are used to extract beam on a resonance or through capture in stable islands. Localization and minimization of nonlinearities in a ring is a general strategy to decrease emittance growth
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. Final report
Montgomery, D.C.
1998-11-01
This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant`s lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the
2011-01-01
The effect of exogenous, highly diluted formaldehyde on the rate of demethylation/re-methylation of veratric acid by the bacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis was studied using electrophoretic and microscopic techniques. The activity of 4-O-demethylase, responsible for accumulation of vanillic acid, and the levels of veratric and vanillic acids were determined using capillary electrophoresis. Formaldehyde was serially diluted at 1:100 ratios, and the total number of iterations was 20. After incubation of the successive dilutions of formaldehyde with the bacteria, demethylase activity oscillated in a sinusoidal manner. It was established using capillary electrophoresis that methylation of vanillic acid to veratric acid occurred at a double rate, as shown by the doubled fluctuation in the concentration of veratrate. There were also changes in the NADH oxidase activity, which is associated with methylation processes. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of numerous enlarged vacuoles in bacterial cells during the accumulation of large amounts of vanillic acid, and their disappearance together with a decrease in 4-O-demethylase activity. The presented results give evidence for the ability of living cells to detect the presence of submolecular concentrations of biological effectors in their environment and provide a basis for a scientific explanation of the law of hormesis and the therapeutic effect of homeopathic dilutions. PMID:22104369
Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint)
2011-12-01
Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...14. ABSTRACT A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the...846-9101 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line David M. French, Brad W. Hoff
Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed
2016-04-01
The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.
Compactons in Nonlinear Schroedinger Lattices with Strong Nonlinearity Management
Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Salerno, M.
2010-09-10
The existence of compactons in the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of fast periodic time modulations of the nonlinearity is demonstrated. In the averaged discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation, the resulting effective interwell tunneling depends on the modulation parameters and on the field amplitude. This introduces nonlinear dispersion in the system and can lead to a prototypical realization of single- or multisite stable discrete compactons in nonlinear optical waveguide and Bose-Einstein condensate arrays. These structures can dynamically arise out of Gaussian or compactly supported initial data.
Program for Nonlinear Structural Analysis
1981-09-01
November 1970. 2. R. E. Jones and W. L. Salus , "Survey and Development of Finite Elements for Nonlineer Structural Analysis", Volume II, "Nonlinear Shell...1970. 2. R. E. Jones and W. L. Salus , "Survey and Development of Finite Elements for Nonlinear Structural Analysis," Volume II, "Nonlinear Shell
Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada
2009-01-01
A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…
Persinger, M A
1995-04-01
The ratings of subjective experiences of the self "leaving" or of being detached from the body were obtained (over a 3-yr. period) for a total of 128 men and women who had been exposed only once to an experimental setting which enhances the awareness of cognitive processes. As hypothesized, the individuals who exhibited the greatest proportion of complex partial epileptic-like signs also reported the most intense experiences of detachment from the body; however, these occurred primarily when the geomagnetic activity on the day of the experiment exceeded about 15 nT but was less than about 45 nT. Geomagnetic activity for the day after or the three days before the experiment was not associated with these experiences. The effect was equivalent to a correlation coefficient (eta) of .38.
Nonlinear electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.
1993-01-01
Nonlinear analysis of electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is performed. It is shown that the analysis leads to the propagation of the weakly nonlinear dispersive waves, and the nonlinear behavior is governed by the nonlinear Burger's equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scafetta, N.; Willson, R. C.
2013-11-01
Herein we adopt a multiscale dynamical spectral analysis technique to compare and study the dynamical evolution of the harmonic components of the overlapping ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3 (Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite/Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor 3), SOHO/VIRGO (Solar and Heliopheric Observatory/Variability of solar Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations), and SORCE/TIM (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment/Total Irradiance Monitor) total solar irradiance (TSI) records during 2003.15 to 2013.16 in solar cycles 23 and 24. The three TSI time series present highly correlated patterns. Significant power spectral peaks are common to these records and are observed at the following periods: ~ 0.070 yr, ~ 0.097 yr, ~ 0.20 yr, ~ 0.25 yr, ~ 0.30-0.34 yr, and ~ 0.39 yr. Less certain spectral peaks occur at about 0.55 yr, 0.60-0.65 yr and 0.7-0.9 yr. Four main frequency periods at ~ 4.8 days (~ 0.068 yr), ~ 27.3 days (~ 0.075 yr), at ~ 34-35 days (~ 0.093-0.096 yr), and ~ 36-38 days (~ 0.099-0.104 yr) characterize the solar rotation cycle. The amplitude of these oscillations, in particular of those with periods larger than 0.5 yr, appears to be modulated by the ~ 11 yr solar cycle. Similar harmonics have been found in other solar indices. The observed periodicities are found highly coherent with the spring, orbital and synodic periods of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Jupiter. We conclude that solar activity is likely modulated by planetary gravitational and electromagnetic forces acting on the Sun. The strength of the Sun's response to planetary forcing depends nonlinearly on the state of internal solar dynamics; planetary-Sun coupling effects are enhanced during solar activity maxima and attenuated during minima.
Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C.; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio
2016-07-01
We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass (≃10-12 m2/W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The nonlinear coefficient can be increased to values in the range of 10-10 m2/W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.
Nonlinear computer-generated holograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapira, Asia; Juwiler, Irit; Arie, Ady
2011-08-01
We propose a novel technique for arbitrary wavefront shaping in quadratic nonlinear crystals by introducing the concept of computer-generated holograms (CGHs) into the nonlinear optical regime. We demonstrate the method experimentally showing a conversion of a fundamental Gaussian beam pump light into the first three Hermite--Gaussian beams at the second harmonic in a stoichiometric lithium tantalate nonlinear crystal, and we characterize its efficiency dependence on the fundamental power and the crystal temperature. Nonlinear CGHs open new possibilities in the fields of nonlinear beam shaping, mode conversion, and beam steering.
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam
2016-08-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora
2016-01-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arefiev, A.; Breizman, B.
2000-10-01
The ion response to the rf-field in the magnetic beach problem can be essentially nonlinear. This paper presents a self-consistent theory of the rf-wave propagation and ion motion through the ion cyclotron resonance. An important ingredient of the problem is the ion flow along the magnetic field. The flow velocity limits the time the ions spend at the resonance, which in turn limits the ion energy gain. A feature that makes the problem nonlinear is that the flow accelerates under the effect of the grad B force and rf-pressure. This acceleration can produce a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance, resulting in partial reflection of the incident wave. *Work supported by VASIMR project at NASA and by U.S. DOE Contract DE-FG03-96ER-54346.
Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.
Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav
2015-01-12
International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.
Augmented nonlinear differentiator design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie
2017-06-01
This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.
Nonlinear differential equations
Dresner, L.
1988-01-01
This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.
Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Caihong; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Huabing; Chen, Jian; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Wu, Peiheng
2014-10-01
Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.
Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)
1980-01-01
Nonlinear analysis of building structures and numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations and Newton's method are discussed. Other topics include: nonlinear interaction problems; solution procedures for nonlinear problems; crash dynamics and advanced nonlinear applications; material characterization, contact problems, and inelastic response; and formulation aspects and special software for nonlinear analysis.
Nonlinear Neural Network Oscillator.
A nonlinear oscillator (10) includes a neural network (12) having at least one output (12a) for outputting a one dimensional vector. The neural ... neural network and the input of the input layer for modifying a magnitude and/or a polarity of the one dimensional output vector prior to the sample of...first or a second direction. Connection weights of the neural network are trained on a deterministic sequence of data from a chaotic source or may be a
1998-09-11
34Evolution of Bloch electrons with Applied Electromagnetic Fields: the Semiclassical Equations ", European Jour- nal of Applied Mathematics (1996...establishment (with Jalal Shatah) of the existence of homoclinic orbits with complex spa- tial structure for perturbed NLS equations . This existence...a very small amount of diffraction. (v) McLaughlin (with T. Ueda) have in progress a study of precursors for model nonlinear wave equations . This
1994-01-03
August, 1991. Thesis - "Applications of the Inverse Spectral Transform to a Korteweg - DeVries Equation with a Kuramoto-Sivashinsky-Type Perturbation... equations , the mathematical theory of nematic optics involves strong coupling between the electromagnetic and nematic director (molecular orientation... equations for the electric field E coupled to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the director n, a field of unit vectors which describes the local molecular
Shen, Y.R.; Chen, C.K.; de Castro, A.R.B.
1980-01-01
Surface electromagnetic waves are waves propagating along the interface of two media. Their existence was predicted by Sommerfield in 1909. In recent years, interesting applications have been found in the study of overlayers and molecular adsorption on surfaces, in probing of phase transitions, and in measurements of refractive indices. In the laboratory, the nonlinear interaction of surface electromagnetic waves were studied. The preliminary results of this recent venture in this area are presented.
2009-02-09
of parameters. Hence one expects that the solutions of the two equations , PES and NLS, are comparable. In Fig. 3 we plot the two solutions for...power saturated term, in the PES equation ) have stable soliton solutions or mode-locking evolution. In general the solitons are found to be unstable...literature. Generally speaking, the above lattice equations omitting nonlinear terms have solutions propagating along z direction, i.e., ψ(r, z) = e−iµzϕ(r
1983-12-30
Equation * Discrete IST and numerical simulations * Long time asymptotic solutions of nonlinear evolution equations * Painlevf equations . Focussing...larger class of solutions io KdV than does the Gel’fand-’Levitan equation . Specifically we have shown by direct calculation that if 0(k;x,t) solves oV...Investigation of the full generality of the solutions of KdV via this new formulation. (b) Developnent of similar types - integral equations for
1987-11-23
generalized wave equation (GWE) when (z) 0 (1-Z2)/2: - X(z). (1.5) The compatibility condition required for the existence of solutions to these B~icklund...Phys. tion of a class of nonlocal nonlinear evolution equations , A 15 (1982) 781. INS *47, Clarkson University (1985), to be published in J. Math... semilinear form. The above approach will fail if there exist linearizable quasilinear equations which can not be mapped to a semilinear from. It is shown in
Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.
Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A
2014-10-20
We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations
Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.
1983-03-01
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.
2016-01-01
One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764
Characterizing nonlinearity in invasive EEG recordings from temporal lobe epilepsy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casdagli, M. C.; Iasemidis, L. D.; Sackellares, J. C.; Roper, S. N.; Gilmore, R. L.; Savit, R. S.
Invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from depth and subdural electrodes, performed in eight patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, are analyzed using a variety of nonlinear techniques. A surrogate data technique is used to find strong evidence for nonlinearities in epileptogenic regions of the brain. Most of these nonlinearities are characterized as “spiking” by a wavelet analysis. A small fraction of the nonlinearities are characterized as “recurrent” by a nonlinear prediction algorithm. Recurrent activity is found to occur in spatio-temporal patterns related to the location of the epileptogenic focus. Residual delay maps, used to characterize “lag-one nonlinearity”, are remarkably stationary for a given electrode, and exhibit striking variations among electrodes. The clinical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Shi-Wei
2016-09-01
Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.
Fano resonances in the nonlinear optical response of coupled plasmonic nanostructures.
Butet, Jérémy; Martin, Olivier J F
2014-12-01
The coupling between metallic nanostructures is a common and easy way to control the optical properties of plasmonic systems. Even though the coupling between plasmonic oscillators has been widely studied in the linear regime, its influence on the nonlinear optical response of metallic nanostructures has been sparsely considered. Using a surface integral equation method, we investigate the second order nonlinear optical response of plasmonic metamolecules supporting Fano resonances revealing that the typical lineshape of Fano resonances is also clearly observable in the nonlinear regime. The physical mechanisms leading to nonlinear Fano resonances are revealed by the coupled oscillator model and the symmetry subgroup decomposition. It is found that the origin of the nonlinear scattered wave, i. e. the active plasmonic oscillator, can be selectively chosen. Furthermore, interferences between nonlinear emissions are clearly observed in specific configurations. The results presented in this article pave the way for the design of efficient nonlinear plasmonic metamolecules with controlled nonlinear radiation.
Frequency domain nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legare, Francois
2016-05-01
The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.
Linearization of Nonlinear Systems.
1986-11-24
series. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., CAS-32(11):1150-1171, November 1985. [BC85b] S. Boyd and L. 0. Chua. Uniqueness of circuits and systems containing...Control and Information Sciences vol. 58, p10 1- 1 19 , June 1983. [BC85c] S. Boyd and L. 0. Chua. Volterra series for nonlinear circuits . In Proc. IEEE...ISCAS, Tokyo, June 1985. [BCD84] S. Boyd, L. 0. Chua, and C. A. Desoer . Analytical foundations of Volterra series. IMA Journal of Mathematical
Nonlinear backreaction in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen Roland
This thesis, based on two papers by Green and Wald, investigates the problem of nonlinear backreaction in cosmology. We first analyze the problem in a general context by developing a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric (not necessarily a cosmological metric), but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition itself—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Next, we apply our framework to the cosmological context, specializing our background metric to be of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker form. We demonstrate that, in the case of dust matter, a cosmological constant, and vanishing spatial curvature (i.e., our universe today), Newtonian gravity alone provides a good
Nonlinear dynamics of neural delayed feedback
Longtin, A.
1990-01-01
Neural delayed feedback is a property shared by many circuits in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The evolution of the neural activity in these circuits depends on their present state as well as on their past states, due to finite propagation time of neural activity along the feedback loop. These systems are often seen to undergo a change from a quiescent state characterized by low level fluctuations to an oscillatory state. We discuss the problem of analyzing this transition using techniques from nonlinear dynamics and stochastic processes. Our main goal is to characterize the nonlinearities which enable autonomous oscillations to occur and to uncover the properties of the noise sources these circuits interact with. The concepts are illustrated on the human pupil light reflex (PLR) which has been studied both theoretically and experimentally using this approach. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Ultrafast Structure Switching through Nonlinear Phononics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juraschek, D. M.; Fechner, M.; Spaldin, N. A.
2017-02-01
We describe a mechanism by which nonlinear phononics allows ultrafast coherent and directional control of transient structural distortions. With ErFeO3 as a model system, we use density functional theory to calculate the structural properties as input into an anharmonic phonon model that describes the response of the system to a pulsed optical excitation. We find that the trilinear coupling of two orthogonal infrared-active phonons to a Raman-active phonon causes a transient distortion of the lattice. In contrast to the quadratic-linear coupling that has been previously explored, the direction of the distortion is determined by the polarization of the exciting light, introducing a novel mechanism for nonlinear phononic switching. Since the occurrence of the coupling is determined by the symmetry of the system we propose that it is a universal feature of orthorhombic and tetragonal perovskites.
Finite elements of nonlinear continua.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.
1972-01-01
The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.
Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.
Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz
2009-09-01
We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species.
Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potter, J. N.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.
2014-10-01
This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.
Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging.
Potter, J N; Croxford, A J; Wilcox, P D
2014-10-03
This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.
Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers
Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.
1995-04-01
Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.
Nonlinear optical studies of surfaces
Shen, Y.R.
1994-07-01
The possibly of using nonlinear optical processes for surface studies has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG), in particular, have been well accepted as viable surface probes. They have many advantages over the conventional techniques. By nature, they are highly surface-specific and has a submonolayer sensitivity. As coherent optical processes, they are capable of in-situ probing of surfaces in hostile environment as well as applicable to all interfaces accessible by light. With ultrafast pump laser pulses, they can be employed to study surface dynamic processes with a subpicosecond time resolution. These advantages have opened the door to many exciting research opportunities in surface science and technology. This paper gives a brief overview of this fast-growing new area of research. Optical SHG from a surface was first studied theoretically and experimentally in the sixties. Even the submonolayer surface sensitivity of the process was noticed fairly early. The success was, however, limited because of difficulties in controlling the experimental conditions. It was not until the early 1980`s that the potential of the process for surface analysis was duly recognized. The first surface study by SHG was actually motivated by the then active search for an understanding of the intriguing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It had been suspected that the enhancement in SERS mainly came from the local-field enhancement due to local plasmon resonances and pointing rod effect on rough metal surfaces. In our view, Raman scattering is a two-photon process and is therefore a nonlinear optical effect.
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.
1998-12-31
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.
Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali
2007-09-01
Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.
Dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for aircraft gust alleviation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Yang; Wan, Xiaopeng; Li, Aijun
2008-10-01
A dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for MIMO system is presented in this paper. The dynamic inversion method is used to decouple the multivariable system. The nonlinear control method is used to overcome the poor decoupling effect when the system model is inaccurate. The nonlinear control method has correcting function and is expressed in analytic form, it is easy to adjust the parameters of the controller and optimize the design of the control system. The method is used to design vertical transition mode of active control aircraft for gust alleviation. Simulation results show that the designed vertical transition mode improves the gust alleviation effect about 34% comparing with the normal aircraft.
Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang
2005-01-01
This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.
T. MILONNI; G. CSANAK; ET AL
1999-07-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objectives were to explore theoretically various aspects of nonlinear atom optics effects in cold-atom waves and traps. During the project a major development occurred the observation, by as many as a dozen experimental groups, of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold-atom traps. This stimulated us to focus our attention on those aspects of nonlinear atom optics relating to BEC, in addition to continuing our work on a nonequilibrium formalism for dealing with the interaction of an electromagnetic field with multi-level atomic systems, allowing for macroscopic coherence effects such as BEC. Studies of several problems in BEC physics have been completed or are near completion, including the suggested use of external electric fields to modify the nature of the interatomic interaction in cold-atom traps; properties of two-phase condensates; and molecular loss processes associated with BEC experiments involving a so-called Feshbach resonance.
Improved nonlinear prediction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi
2014-06-01
The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.
Novel liquid crystals-polymers and monomers: As nonlinear optical materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffin, Anselm C., III
1987-12-01
Progress is reviewed on research into the design, synthesis and characterization of, primarily, side chain liquid crystalline polymers for nonlinear optics. Materials described are polyesters and vinyl polymers and copolymers having push-pull pi-electronic nonlinear optically active structures as pendant groups. Chiral derivatives have also been prepared. The nonlinear optically active species employed have been nitroaromatics and pyridine N-oxides. Results of collaborative efforts in further characterization (electrooptic, dielectric, Langmuir-Blodgett films) are described.
Nonlinearity in structural and electronic materials
Bishop, A.R.; Beardmore, K.M.; Ben-Naim, E.
1997-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project strengthens a nonlinear technology base relevant to a variety of problems arising in condensed matter and materials science, and applies this technology to those problems. In this way the controlled synthesis of, and experiments on, novel electronic and structural materials provide an important focus for nonlinear science, while nonlinear techniques help advance the understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of microstructure and dynamics in complex materials. This research is primarily focused on four topics: (1) materials microstructure: growth and evolution, and porous media; (2) textures in elastic/martensitic materials; (3) electro- and photo-active polymers; and (4) ultrafast photophysics in complex electronic materials. Accomplishments included the following: organization of a ``Nonlinear Materials`` seminar series and international conferences including ``Fracture, Friction and Deformation,`` ``Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions,`` and ``Landscape Paradigms in Physics and Biology``; invited talks at international conference on ``Synthetic Metals,`` ``Quantum Phase Transitions,`` ``1996 CECAM Euroconference,`` and the 1995 Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society; large-scale simulations and microscopic modeling of nonlinear coherent energy storage at crack tips and sliding interfaces; large-scale simulation and microscopic elasticity theory for precursor microstructure and dynamics at solid-solid diffusionless phase transformations; large-scale simulation of self-assembling organic thin films on inorganic substrates; analysis and simulation of smoothing of rough atomic surfaces; and modeling and analysis of flux pattern formation in equilibrium and nonequilibrium Josephson junction arrays and layered superconductors.
Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc.
Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2015-12-15
The total baroreflex arc [the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP)] is known to exhibit nonlinear behaviors. However, few studies have quantitatively characterized its nonlinear dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop a nonlinear model of the sympathetically mediated total arc without assuming any model form. Normal rats were studied under anesthesia. The vagal and aortic depressor nerves were sectioned, the carotid sinus regions were isolated and attached to a servo-controlled piston pump, and the AP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were measured. CSP was perturbed using a Gaussian white noise signal. A second-order Volterra model was developed by applying nonparametric identification to the measurements. The second-order kernel was mainly diagonal, but the diagonal differed in shape from the first-order kernel. Hence, a reduced second-order model was similarly developed comprising a linear dynamic system in parallel with a squaring system in cascade with a slower linear dynamic system. This "Uryson" model predicted AP changes 12% better (P < 0.01) than a linear model in response to new Gaussian white noise CSP. The model also predicted nonlinear behaviors, including thresholding and mean responses to CSP changes about the mean. Models of the neural arc (the system relating CSP to SNA) and peripheral arc (the system relating SNA to AP) were likewise developed and tested. However, these models of subsystems of the total arc showed approximately linear behaviors. In conclusion, the validated nonlinear model of the total arc revealed that the system takes on an Uryson structure.
Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc
Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru
2015-01-01
The total baroreflex arc [the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP)] is known to exhibit nonlinear behaviors. However, few studies have quantitatively characterized its nonlinear dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop a nonlinear model of the sympathetically mediated total arc without assuming any model form. Normal rats were studied under anesthesia. The vagal and aortic depressor nerves were sectioned, the carotid sinus regions were isolated and attached to a servo-controlled piston pump, and the AP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were measured. CSP was perturbed using a Gaussian white noise signal. A second-order Volterra model was developed by applying nonparametric identification to the measurements. The second-order kernel was mainly diagonal, but the diagonal differed in shape from the first-order kernel. Hence, a reduced second-order model was similarly developed comprising a linear dynamic system in parallel with a squaring system in cascade with a slower linear dynamic system. This “Uryson” model predicted AP changes 12% better (P < 0.01) than a linear model in response to new Gaussian white noise CSP. The model also predicted nonlinear behaviors, including thresholding and mean responses to CSP changes about the mean. Models of the neural arc (the system relating CSP to SNA) and peripheral arc (the system relating SNA to AP) were likewise developed and tested. However, these models of subsystems of the total arc showed approximately linear behaviors. In conclusion, the validated nonlinear model of the total arc revealed that the system takes on an Uryson structure. PMID:26354845
Nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Larry; Latimer, Kelly
1988-01-01
In considering nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics, the following are examined: (1) SCOLE Configuration-Equations of Motion; (2) Modeling Error Sources; (3) Approximate Solutions; (4) Comparison of Model Accuracy; (5) Linear and Nonlinear Damping; (6) Experimental Results; and, (7) Future Work.
Chaos synchronization by nonlinear coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petereit, Johannes; Pikovsky, Arkady
2017-03-01
We study synchronization properties of three nonlinearly coupled chaotic maps. Coupling is introduced in such a way, that it cannot be reduced to pairwise terms, but includes combined action of all interacting units. For two models of nonlinear coupling we characterize the transition to complete synchrony, as well as partially synchronized states. Relation to hypernetworks of chaotic units is also discussed.
Solving Nonlinear Coupled Differential Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, L.; David, J.
1986-01-01
Harmonic balance method developed to obtain approximate steady-state solutions for nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. Method usable with transfer matrices commonly used to analyze shaft systems. Solution to nonlinear equation, with periodic forcing function represented as sum of series similar to Fourier series but with form of terms suggested by equation itself.
Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis
Mayergoyz, I.D.
1996-12-31
Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.
Linearization of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belendez, A.; Alvarez, M. L.; Fernandez, E.; Pascual, I.
2009-01-01
A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for…
Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, W. B.; Zalik, R. A.
1986-01-01
Three analytic consequences of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations are examined. The primary application of these analyses is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the Liquid Oxygen (LOX) pump of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during hot firing ground testing. The first task is to provide bounds on the coefficients of the equations which delimit the two cases of numerical solution as a circle or an annulus. The second task examines the mathematical generalization to multiple forcing functions, which includes the special problems of mass imbalance, side force, rubbing, and combination of these forces. Finally, stability and boundedness of the steady-state solutions is discussed and related to the corresponding linear problem.
Coupled nonlinear dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hongyan
In this dissertation, we study coupled nonlinear dynamical systems that exhibit new types of complex behavior. We numerically and analytically examine a variety of dynamical models, ranging from systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) with novel elements of feedback to systems of partial differential equations (PDE) that model chemical pattern formation. Chaos, dynamical uncertainty, synchronization, and spatiotemporal pattern formation constitute the primary topics of the dissertation. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, we study chaos and dynamical uncertainty in Chapter 2 with coupled Lorenz systems and demonstrate the existence of extreme complexity in high-dimensional ODE systems. In Chapter 3, we demonstrate that chaos synchronization can be achieved by mutual and multiplicative coupling of dynamical systems. Chapter 4 and 5 focus on pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems, and we investigate segregation and integration behavior of populations in competitive and cooperative environments, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, L. R.
1960-01-01
The problem of solving systems of nonlinear equations has been relatively neglected in the mathematical literature, especially in the textbooks, in comparison to the corresponding linear problem. Moreover, treatments that have an appearance of generality fail to discuss the nature of the solutions and the possible pitfalls of the methods suggested. Probably it is unrealistic to expect that a unified and comprehensive treatment of the subject will evolve, owing to the great variety of situations possible, especially in the applied field where some requirement of human or mechanical efficiency is always present. Therefore we attempt here simply to pose the problem and to describe and partially appraise the methods of solution currently in favor.
Nonlinear integrable ion traps
Nagaitsev, S.; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge
2011-10-01
Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.
Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos
2016-04-01
Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these
Adaptive nonlinear flight control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor
1998-08-01
Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator
Asymptotic expansions in nonlinear rotordynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, William B.
1987-01-01
This paper is an examination of special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot-firing ground testing. Deadband, side force, and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency, is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as singular asymptotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency, which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies.
Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley
2011-01-01
We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.
Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobias, S. M.
1997-01-01
Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.
Dynamic functional tuning of nonlinear cortical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stetter, Martin
2006-03-01
The mammalian neocortex is a highly complex and nonlinear dynamic system. One of its most prominent features is an omnipresent spontaneous neuronal activity. Here the possible functional role of this global background for cognitive flexibility is studied in a prototypic mean-field model area. It is demonstrated that the level of global background current efficiently controls the stimulus-response threshold and the stability and properties of short-term memory states. Moreover, it can dynamically gate arbitrary cortical subnetworks, when applied to parts of the area as a weak bias signal. These results suggest a central functional role of the level of background activation: the dynamic functional tuning of neocortical circuits.
Basic considerations on surface optical nonlinearities
Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Chen, W.; Shen, Y.R.
1986-01-01
The origins of the surface nonlinearity in surface second harmonic generation are discussed. It is shown that this second-order nonlinear optical process is characterized by a surface nonlinear susceptibility tensor containing both local and nonlocal contributions.
Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)
2005-01-01
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.
Nonlinear, discrete flood event models, 2. Assessment of statistical nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bates, Bryson C.
1988-05-01
The first paper (Part 1) of this series presented a Bayesian procedure for the estimation of parameters in nonlinear, discrete flood event models. Part 2 begins with a discussion of the concept of nonlinearity in parameter estimation, its consequences, and the need to assess its extent. Three measures of nonlinearity are considered. They are Beale's measure , a bias calculation , and maximum curvature measures . A case study is presented, using the model and data described in Part 1. The results show quite clearly that care is required in the application of all three measures to calibrated flood models, and in the interpretation of the measured values. Devised by Bates and Watts, 1980.
Three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eritenel, Tugan; Parker, Robert G.
2012-07-01
This work investigates the three-dimensional nonlinear vibration of gear pairs where the nonlinearity is due to portions of gear teeth contact lines losing contact (partial contact loss). The gear contact model tracks partial contact loss using a discretized stiffness network. The nonlinear dynamic response is obtained using the discretized stiffness network, but it is interpreted and discussed with reference to a lumped-parameter gear mesh model named the equivalent stiffness representation. It consists of a translational stiffness acting at a changing center of stiffness location (two parameters) and a twist stiffness. These four parameters, calculated from the dynamic response, change as the gears vibrate, and tracking their behavior as a post-processing tool illuminates the nonlinear gear response. There is a gear mesh twist mode where the twist stiffness is active in addition to the well-known mesh deflection mode where the translational stiffness is active. The twist mode is excited by periodic back and forth axial movement of the center of stiffness in helical gears. The same effect can occur in wide facewidth spur gears if tooth lead modifications or other factors such as shaft and bearing deflections disrupt symmetry about the axial centers of the mating teeth. Resonances of both modes are shown to be nonlinear due to partial and total contact loss. Comparing the numerical results with gear vibration experiments from the literature verifies the model and confirms partial contact loss nonlinearity in experiments.
PT symmetry breaking and nonlinear optical isolation in coupled microcavities.
Zhou, Xin; Chong, Y D
2016-04-04
We perform a theoretical study of the nonlinear dynamics of nonlinear optical isolator devices based on coupled microcavities with gain and loss. This reveals a correspondence between the boundary of asymptotic stability in the nonlinear regime, where gain saturation is present, and the PT -breaking transition in the underlying linear system. For zero detuning and weak input intensity, the onset of optical isolation can be rigorously derived, and corresponds precisely to the transition into the PT -broken phase of the linear system. When the couplings to the external ports are unequal, the isolation ratio exhibits an abrupt jump at the transition point, whose magnitude is given by the ratio of the couplings. This phenomenon could be exploited to realize an actively controlled nonlinear optical isolator, in which strong optical isolation can be turned on and off by tiny variations in the inter-resonator separation.
Nonlinear damping model for flexible structures. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Weijian
1990-01-01
The study of nonlinear damping problem of flexible structures is addressed. Both passive and active damping, both finite dimensional and infinite dimensional models are studied. In the first part, the spectral density and the correlation function of a single DOF nonlinear damping model is investigated. A formula for the spectral density is established with O(Gamma(sub 2)) accuracy based upon Fokker-Planck technique and perturbation. The spectral density depends upon certain first order statistics which could be obtained if the stationary density is known. A method is proposed to find the approximate stationary density explicitly. In the second part, the spectral density of a multi-DOF nonlinear damping model is investigated. In the third part, energy type nonlinear damping model in an infinite dimensional setting is studied.
Nonlinear Population Pharmacokinetics of Sirolimus in Patients With Advanced Cancer
Wu, K; Cohen, E E W; House, L K; Ramírez, J; Zhang, W; Ratain, M J; Bies, R R
2012-01-01
Sirolimus, the prototypical inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, has substantial antitumor activity. In this study, sirolimus showed nonlinear pharmacokinetic characteristics over a wide dose range (from 1 to 60 mg/week). The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model to describe the nonlinearity of sirolimus. Whole blood concentration data, obtained from four phase I clinical trials, were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) approach. The influence of potential covariates was evaluated. Model robustness was assessed using nonparametric bootstrap and visual predictive check approaches. The data were well described by a two-compartment model incorporating a saturable Michaelis–Menten kinetic absorption process. A covariate analysis identified hematocrit as influencing the oral clearance of sirolimus. The visual predictive check indicated that the final pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted observed concentrations. The pharmacokinetics of sirolimus, based on whole blood concentrations, appears to be nonlinear due to saturable absorption. PMID:23887441
Unsupervised Discovery of Nonlinear Structure Using Contrastive Backpropagation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton, Geoffrey; Osindero, Simon; Welling, Max; Teh, Yee-Whye
2006-01-01
We describe a way of modeling high-dimensional data vectors by using an unsupervised, nonlinear, multilayer neural network in which the activity of each neuron-like unit makes an additive contribution to a global energy score that indicates how surprised the network is by the data vector. The connection weights that determine how the activity of…
Neurodynamics: nonlinear dynamics and neurobiology.
Abarbanel, H D; Rabinovich, M I
2001-08-01
The use of methods from contemporary nonlinear dynamics in studying neurobiology has been rather limited.Yet, nonlinear dynamics has become a practical tool for analyzing data and verifying models. This has led to productive coupling of nonlinear dynamics with experiments in neurobiology in which the neural circuits are forced with constant stimuli, with slowly varying stimuli, with periodic stimuli, and with more complex information-bearing stimuli. Analysis of these more complex stimuli of neural circuits goes to the heart of how one is to understand the encoding and transmission of information by nervous systems.
Nonlinear dynamics in ventricular fibrillation.
Hastings, H M; Evans, S J; Quan, W; Chong, M L; Nwasokwa, O
1996-01-01
Electrogram recordings of ventricular fibrillation appear complex and possibly chaotic. However, sequences of beat-to-beat intervals obtained from these recordings are generally short, making it difficult to explicitly demonstrate nonlinear dynamics. Motivated by the work of Sugihara on atmospheric dynamics and the Durbin-Watson test for nonlinearity, we introduce a new statistical test that recovers significant dynamical patterns from smoothed lag plots. This test is used to show highly significant nonlinear dynamics in a stable canine model of ventricular fibrillation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8816831
Nonlinear effects in Thomson backscattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Tomassini, P.; Serafini, L.
2013-03-01
We analyze the nonlinear classical effects of the X/γ radiation produced by Thomson/Compton sources. We confirm the development of spectral fringes of the radiation on axis, which comports broadening, shift, and deformation of the spectrum. For the nominal parameters of the SPARC-LAB Thomson scattering and of the European Proposal for the gamma source ELI-NP, however, the radiation, when collected in the suitable acceptance angle, does not reveal many differences from that predicted by the linear model and the nonlinear redshift is subdominant with respect to the quantum recoil. An experiment aimed to the study of the nonlinearities is proposed on the SPARC-LAB source.
Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes
Ghosh, Debojyoti; Constantinescu, Emil M.; Brown, Jed
2014-04-01
In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.
Nonlinear Frequency Compression
Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas
2013-01-01
Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261
Nonlinear vibrational microscopy
Holtom, Gary R.; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Zumbusch, Andreas
2000-01-01
The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.
PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo
2010-10-01
Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed
Nonlinear effects in quantum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitali, David; Grigolini, Paolo
1990-12-01
region of high temperature to which the nonadiabatic corrections of Kenkre and co-workers apply. Finally, it is shown that a still more accurate approximation would be that of neglecting a reaction field proportional to σx(t)-<σx(t)>s, where <σx(t)>s denotes an average carried out only on the spin space. This approximation leads our approach to coincide with the exact result in the special case where both the spin and its bath are replaced by their classical counterparts. Under this approximation, the detrapping would be equivalent to an Arrhenius-like thermal-activation process. When the coupling strength between the system and its bath is decreased, the spin is expected to depart from the initial trapped state. The dynamics of this process is expected to be influenced by the joint action of the bath fluctuations (both thermal and quantum mechanical) and of the nonlinearity stemming from the reaction field, and ignored by the NBA. This intriguing problem should be the subject of further investigations.
Nonlinear viscosity of human wrist.
Gielen, C C; Houk, J C
1984-09-01
Nonlinear viscous properties of stretch and unloading reflexes in the human wrist were examined using constant-velocity ramp stretches and releases in the range between 5 and 500 mm/s. Subjects were asked to oppose an initial flexor preload and were instructed not to intervene voluntarily when the changes in position were applied. Electromyographic (EMG) activity and net force exerted by the wrist were measured. Although subjects were instructed not to intervene to the applied stretches, even well-practiced subjects sometimes showed unintended triggered reactions, which character could be assisting or resisting. A trial comparison method was used to detect and eliminate responses contaminated by unintended reactions. Ramp stretches further loaded the preloaded flexor muscles. Responses of EMG and force increased steeply initially but after about 1-cm displacement, the slope of these responses decreased to a lower value and remained constant during the remainder of the 5-cm ramp. For higher stretch velocities, the magnitudes and slopes of the responses of EMG and force increased but less than proportionally with ramp velocity. Except for the initial transient, EMG in the loaded flexor muscles and force responses could be described by a product relationship between a linear position-related term and a low fractional power of velocity, after a correction was made for delays in the reflex arc. Mean value of the exponent in the power function of velocity was 0.3 for EMG and 0.17 for force. For higher preloads, incremental responses of force to constant-velocity stretches, plotted as a function of wrist position, shifted to higher values and the slope of increase of force with position became somewhat steeper. This upward shift of the force trace reflects a change of apparent threshold of the stretch reflex. Ramp releases shortened and unloaded the preloaded flexor muscles and stretched the initially inactive extensor muscles. Flexor EMG activity declined progressively
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, Darren J.; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís
2012-04-01
Iceland is well situated to monitor North Atlantic Holocene climate variability. Terrestrial sites there offer the potential for well-dated, high-resolution, continuous records of environmental change and/or glacier activity. Laminated sediments from the proglacial lake Hvítárvatn provide a continuous record of environmental change and the development of the adjacent Langjökull ice cap for the past 10.2 ka. Replicate lake sediment cores, collected from multiple locations in the basin, are placed in a secure geochronology by splicing a varve chronology for the past 3 ka with a tephra-constrained, paleomagnetic secular variation derived chronology for older sediments. Multiple proxies, including sedimentation rate, bulk density, ice-rafted debris, sediment organic matter, biogenic silica, and diatom abundance, allow annual to multi-decadal resolution and reveal a dynamic Holocene terrestrial climate. Following regional deglaciation of the main Iceland Ice Sheet, summer temperatures were high enough that mountain ice caps had already melted, or were contributing insignificant sediment to the lake. Pronounced increases in sedimentation rate, sediment density, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter, between 8.7 and 7.9 ka suggest early Holocene warmth was interrupted by two distinct pulses of cold summers leading to widespread landscape destabilization and possibly glacier growth. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM; 7.9 to 5.5 ka) was characterized by high within-lake productivity and ice-free conditions in the watershed. Neoglaciation is recorded as a non-linear transition toward cooler summers, landscape destabilization, and the inception and expansion of Langjökull beginning ca 5.5 ka, with notable increases in ice cap size and landscape instability at 4.2 and 3.0 ka. The past two millennia are characterized by the abrupt onset of sustained cold periods at ca 550 and 1250 AD, separated by an interval of relative warmth from ca 950 to 1150 AD. The greatest
Nonlinear estimation of the BOLD signal.
Johnston, Leigh A; Duff, Eugene; Mareels, Iven; Egan, Gary F
2008-04-01
Signal variations in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiments essentially reflect the vascular system response to increased demand for oxygen caused by neuronal activity, termed the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect. The most comprehensive model to date of the BOLD signal is formulated as a mixed continuous-discrete-time system of nonlinear stochastic differential equations. Previous approaches to the analysis of this system have been based on linearised approximations of the dynamics, which are limited in their ability to capture the inherent nonlinearities in the physiological system. In this paper we present a nonlinear filtering method for simultaneous estimation of the hidden physiological states and the system parameters, based on an iterative coordinate descent framework. State estimates of the cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume and deoxyhaemoglobin content are determined using a particle filter, demonstrated via simulation to be accurate, robust and efficient in comparison to linearisation-based techniques. The adaptive state and parameter estimation algorithm generates physiologically reasonable parameter estimates for experimental fMRI data. It is anticipated that signal processing techniques for modelling and estimation will become increasingly important in fMRI analyses as limitations of linear and linearised modelling are reached.
Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu
2016-10-01
Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities.
Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins
Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu
2016-01-01
Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities. PMID:27708342
Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei
2017-01-01
We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.
Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei
2016-10-01
We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.
Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation
Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie
2013-04-23
Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.
Nonlinear waves: Dynamics and evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaponov-Grekhov, A. V.; Rabinovich, M. I.
Papers on nonlinear waves are presented, covering topics such as the history of studies on nonlinear dynamics since Poincare, attractors, pattern formation and the dynamics of two-dimensional structures in nonequilibirum dissipative media, the onset of spatial chaos in one-dimensional systems, and self-organization phenomena in laser thermochemistry. Additional topics include criteria for the existence of moving structures in two-component reaction-diffusion systems, space-time structures in optoelectronic devices, stimulated scattering and surface structures, and distributed wave collapse in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Consideration is also given to dimensions and entropies in multidimensional systems, measurement methods for correlation dimensions, quantum localization and dynamic chaos, self-organization in bacterial cells and populations, nonlinear phenomena in condensed matter, and the origin and evolutionary dynamics of Uranian rings.
Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash
2016-12-01
We introduce some Hilbert complexes involving second-order tensors on flat compact manifolds with boundary that describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion in nonlinear elasticity. We then use the general framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these decompositions in nonlinear elasticity, we study the strain compatibility equations of linear and nonlinear elasticity in the presence of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. As an application of these Hilbert complexes in computational mechanics, we briefly discuss the derivation of a new class of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear elasticity.
OPEN PROBLEM: Some nonlinear challenges in biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David
2008-08-01
Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'.
Nonlinear amplitude approximation for bilinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Chulwoo; D'Souza, Kiran; Epureanu, Bogdan I.
2014-06-01
An efficient method to predict vibration amplitudes at the resonant frequencies of dynamical systems with piecewise-linear nonlinearity is developed. This technique is referred to as bilinear amplitude approximation (BAA). BAA constructs a single vibration cycle at each resonant frequency to approximate the periodic steady-state response of the system. It is postulated that the steady-state response is piece-wise linear and can be approximated by analyzing the response over two time intervals during which the system behaves linearly. Overall the dynamics is nonlinear, but the system is in a distinct linear state during each of the two time intervals. Thus, the approximated vibration cycle is constructed using linear analyses. The equation of motion for analyzing the vibration of each state is projected along the overlapping space spanned by the linear mode shapes active in each of the states. This overlapping space is where the vibratory energy is transferred from one state to the other when the system switches from one state to the other. The overlapping space can be obtained using singular value decomposition. The space where the energy is transferred is used together with transition conditions of displacement and velocity compatibility to construct a single vibration cycle and to compute the amplitude of the dynamics. Since the BAA method does not require numerical integration of nonlinear models, computational costs are very low. In this paper, the BAA method is first applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system. Then, a three-degree-of-freedom system is introduced to demonstrate a more general application of BAA. Finally, the BAA method is applied to a full bladed disk with a crack. Results comparing numerical solutions from full-order nonlinear analysis and results obtained using BAA are presented for all systems.
Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, Robin O.
2015-10-01
Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.
Quantum and Nonlinear Optical Imaging
2007-11-02
Quantum and Nonlinear Optical Imaging Final Report Robert W. Boyd, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 716-275-2329...boyd@optics.rochester.edu July 1, 2004 Year 1 Accomplishments This project is aimed at developing quantum and nonlinear optical techniques for...importantly began the experimental portion of the research. We showed theoretically that the quantum statistical features of spontaneous parametric
A Nonlinear Transfer Operator Theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollicott, Mark
2017-02-01
In recent papers, Kenyon et al. (Ergod Theory Dyn Syst 32:1567-1584 2012), and Fan et al. (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 349:961-964 2011, Adv Math 295:271-333 2016) introduced a form of non-linear thermodynamic formalism based on solutions to a non-linear equation using matrices. In this note we consider the more general setting of Hölder continuous functions.
Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.
2003-01-01
Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.
Studies of Nonlinear Problems. I
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Fermi, E.; Pasta, J.; Ulam, S.
1955-05-01
A one-dimensional dynamical system of 64 particles with forces between neighbors containing nonlinear terms has been studied on the Los Alamos computer MANIAC I. The nonlinear terms considered are quadratic, cubic, and broken linear types. The results are analyzed into Fourier components and plotted as a function of time. The results show very little, if any, tendency toward equipartition of energy among the degrees of freedom.
Bilinear modeling and nonlinear estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III; Karray, Fakhreddine; Bennett, William H.
1989-01-01
New methods are illustrated for online nonlinear estimation applied to the lateral deflection of an elastic beam on board measurements of angular rates and angular accelerations. The development of the filter equations, together with practical issues of their numerical solution as developed from global linearization by nonlinear output injection are contrasted with the usual method of the extended Kalman filter (EKF). It is shown how nonlinear estimation due to gyroscopic coupling can be implemented as an adaptive covariance filter using off-the-shelf Kalman filter algorithms. The effect of the global linearization by nonlinear output injection is to introduce a change of coordinates in which only the process noise covariance is to be updated in online implementation. This is in contrast to the computational approach which arises in EKF methods arising by local linearization with respect to the current conditional mean. Processing refinements for nonlinear estimation based on optimal, nonlinear interpolation between observations are also highlighted. In these methods the extrapolation of the process dynamics between measurement updates is obtained by replacing a transition matrix with an operator spline that is optimized off-line from responses to selected test inputs.
Non-linear dynamics in parkinsonism.
Darbin, Olivier; Adams, Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony; Naritoku, Leslie; Dees, Daniel; Naritoku, Dean
2013-12-25
Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions) of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis." In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively. More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e., parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control) and are responsive to treatments (i.e., l-DOPA, deep brain stimulation). A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series) is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG), muscular activities (EMG), or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait) of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity, and hypokinesia.
Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc: higher-order nonlinearity.
Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2016-12-01
The total baroreflex arc is the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP). The nonlinear dynamics of this system were recently characterized. First, Gaussian white noise CSP stimulation was employed in open-loop conditions in normotensive and hypertensive rats with sectioned vagal and aortic depressor nerves. Nonparametric system identification was then applied to measured CSP and AP to establish a second-order nonlinear Uryson model. The aim in this study was to assess the importance of higher-order nonlinear dynamics via development and evaluation of a third-order nonlinear model of the total arc using the same experimental data. Third-order Volterra and Uryson models were developed by employing nonparametric and parametric identification methods. The R(2) values between the AP predicted by the best third-order Volterra model and measured AP in response to Gaussian white noise CSP not utilized in developing the model were 0.69 ± 0.03 and 0.70 ± 0.03 for normotensive and hypertensive rats, respectively. The analogous R(2) values for the best third-order Uryson model were 0.71 ± 0.03 and 0.73 ± 0.03. These R(2) values were not statistically different from the corresponding values for the previously established second-order Uryson model, which were both 0.71 ± 0.03 (P > 0.1). Furthermore, none of the third-order models predicted well-known nonlinear behaviors including thresholding and saturation better than the second-order Uryson model. Additional experiments suggested that the unexplained AP variance was partly due to higher brain center activity. In conclusion, the second-order Uryson model sufficed to represent the sympathetically mediated total arc under the employed experimental conditions.
Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turlier, Herve; Fedosov, Dmitry; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cecile; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Gompper, Gerhard; Betz, Timo
2015-03-01
Red blood cell membrane flickering stimulated an abundant biological, biophysical and biochemical literature over the past 50 years. While the phenomenon has been interpreted as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane, recent results suggest the involvement of metabolic processes. However, to date there is no direct and conclusive evidence that an active force drives membrane flickering. By comparing membrane undulations and active microrheology measurements on single human erythrocytes, we show that flickering is partly driven by an active metabolic process, as it does not satisfy the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation on timescales slower than 100ms. Analytical and numerical models of the red blood cell reproduce experimental results. The analytical model assumes that membrane activity results from reversible binding of the elastic spectrin network to the lipid bilayer and predicts active fluctuations to increase with local curvature and extensional prestress in the cytoskeleton. Our mean-field calculation shows that the strength and kinetics of the binding activity regulates thereupon both passive and active mechanical properties of the red blood cell. Numerical simulations explore other possible origins of active forces on the membrane and predict coherent timescales for the molecular underlying metabolic processes.
Artificial muscle using nonlinear elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratna, Banahalli
2002-03-01
Anisotropic freestanding films or fibers of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When a large change in the order parameter occurs, as at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. The crosslinked network imposes a symmetry-breaking field on the nematic and drives the nematic-isotropic transition towards a critical point with the application of external stress. Isostrain studies on these nonlinear elastomers, show that there are large deviations from ideal classical rubber elasticity and the contributions from total internal energy to the elastic restoring force cannot be ignored. The liquid crystal elastomers exhibiting anisoptopic contraction/extension coupled with a graded strain response to an applied external stimulus provide an excellent framework for mimicking muscular action. Liquid crystal elastomers by their very chemical nature have a number of ‘handles’ such as the liquid crystalline phase range, density of crosslinking, flexibility of the backbone, coupling between the backbone and the mesogen and the coupling between the mesogen and the external stimulus, that can be tuned to optimize the mechanical properties. We have demonstrated actuation in nematic elastomers under thermal and optical stimuli. We have been able to dope the elastomers with dyes to make them optically active. We have also doped them with carbon nanotubes in order to increase the thermal and electrical conductivity of the elastomer.
A nonlinear dynamic analogue model of substorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimas, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Roberts, D. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Büchner, J.
Linear prediction filter studies have shown that the magnetospheric response to energy transfer from the solar wind contains both directly driven and unloading components. These studies have also shown that the magnetospheric response is significantly nonlinear and, thus, the linear prediction filtering technique and other correlative techniques which assume a linear magnetospheric response cannot give a complete deacription of that response. Here, the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is discussed within the framework of deterministic nonlinear dynamics. An earlier dripping faucet mechanical analogue to the magnetosphere is first reviewed and then the plasma physical counterpart to the mechanical model is constructed. A Faraday loop in the magnetotail is considered and the relationship of electric potentials on the loop to changes in the magnetic flux threading the loop is developed. This approach leads to a model of geomagnetic activity which is similar to the earlier mechanical model but described in terms of the geometry and plasma contents of the magnetotail. This Faraday loop response model contains analogues to both the directly driven and the storage-release magnetospheric responses and it includes, in a fundamental way, the inherent nonlinearity of the solar wind-magnetosphere system. It can be chancterized as a nonlinear, damped harmonic oscillator that is driven by the loading-unloading substorm cycle. The model is able to explain many of the features of the linear prediction filter results. In particular, at low geomagnetic activity levels the model exbibits the "regular dripping" response which provides an explanation for the unloading component at 1 hour lag in the linear prediction filters. Further, the model suggests that the disappearance of the unloading component in the linear prediction filters at high geomagnetic activity levels is due to a chaotic transition beyond which the loading-unloading mechanism becomes aperiodic. The model predicts
Nonlinear variations in axisymmetric accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Soumyajit; Sengupta, Anindya; Ray, Arnab K.
2014-05-01
We subject the stationary solutions of inviscid and axially symmetric rotational accretion to a time-dependent radial perturbation, which includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. We bring out the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system by requiring the perturbation to be a standing wave under the second order of nonlinearity. We perform a dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system to reveal a saddle point in real time, whose implication is that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency traveling wave and carry out a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis, treating nonlinearity iteratively as a very feeble effect. Under this approach, both the amplitude and the energy flux of the perturbation exhibit growth, with the acoustic horizon segregating the regions of stability and instability.
Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, G. T.; Tobak, M.
1984-01-01
A comprehensive framework is proposed for the description and analysis of nonlinear problems in flight dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the aerodynamic component as the major source of nonlinearities in the flight dynamic system. Four aerodynamic flows are examined to illustrate the richness and regularity of the flow structures and the nature of the flow structures and the nature of the resulting nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments. A framework to facilitate the study of the aerodynamic system is proposed having parallel observational and mathematical components. The observational component, structure is described in the language of topology. Changes in flow structure are described via bifurcation theory. Chaos or turbulence is related to the analogous chaotic behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems characterized by the existence of strange attractors having fractal dimensionality. Scales of the flow are considered in the light of ideas from group theory. Several one and two degree of freedom dynamical systems with various mathematical models of the nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments are examined to illustrate the resulting types of dynamical behavior. The mathematical ideas that proved useful in the description of fluid flows are shown to be similarly useful in the description of flight dynamic behavior.
Nonlinear Tunneling and Nuclear Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labadorf, Christa; Chaffin, Eugene
2008-10-01
Recent astrophysical data have indicated a possible variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ = mp/me. Attributing the variation to a change in the strength of the nuclear force, we take into account nonlinear inteactions, such as those originally proposed in 1955 by Johnson and Teller, and examine the resulting change in nuclear half lives. Our Mathematica calculations show the effect of the nonlinear terms by solving the three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation in a model applied to a typical nucleus. We match the radial wavefunction and its derivative for the interior of the nucleus to the Coulomb wavefunctions on the exterior of the nucleus in a generalization of the procedure originally used by Pieronne and Marquez, 1978, but without the nonlinear interactions. The results indicate that the nonlinear interactions, in cases where the number of nodes in the radial wavefunction is poised on a change from one value to another, can cause a large change in half-life for a small change in the strength of the nuclear force.
Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.
2003-01-01
High precision estimation and control algorithms, to achieve unprecedented levels of pointing accuracy, will be required to support future formation flying missions such as interferometry missions. Achieving high pointing accuracy requires precise knowledge of the spacecraft rotation rate. Typically, the rotation rate is measured by a gyro. The measured rates can be corrupted by errors in alignment and scale factor, gyro biases, and noise. In this work, we present nonlinear observers for gyro calibration. Nonlinear observers are superior to extended or pseudo-linear Kalman filter type approaches for large errors and global stability. Three nonlinear gyro calibration observers are developed. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. The observers are then combined, and the gyro calibration parameters are estimated simultaneously. The stability of the combined observers is addressed, as well as the stability of the resulting closed loop systems. Simulated test results are presented for each scenario. Finally, the nonlinear observers are compared to a pseudo-linear Kalman filter.
Nonlinear graphene plasmonics (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; Garcia de Abajo, Javier F.
2016-09-01
The combination of graphene's intrinsically-high nonlinear optical response with its ability to support long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that couple strongly with light has generated great expectations for application of the atomically-thin material to nanophotonic devices. These expectations are mainly reinforced by classical analyses performed using the response derived from extended graphene, neglecting finite-size and nonlocal effects that become important when the carbon layer is structured on the nanometer scale in actual device designs. Based on a quantum-mechanical description of graphene using tight-binding electronic states combined with the random-phase approximation, we show that finite-size effects produce large contributions that increase the nonlinear response associated with plasmons in nanostructured graphene to significantly higher levels than previously thought, particularly in the case of Kerr-type optical nonlinearities. Motivated by this finding, we discuss and compare saturable absorption in extended and nanostructured graphene, with or without plasmonic enhancement, within the context of passive mode-locking for ultrafast lasers. We also explore the possibility of high-harmonic generation in doped graphene nanoribbons and nanoislands, where illumination by an infrared pulse of moderate intensity, tuned to a plasmon resonance, is predicted to generate light at harmonics of order 13 or higher, extending over the visible and UV regimes. Our atomistic description of graphene's nonlinear optical response reveals its complex nature in both extended and nanostructured systems, while further supporting the exceptional potential of this material for nonlinear nanophotonic devices.
Additive mode locking based on a nonlinear loop mirror ring laser
Kbashi, Hani J
2012-03-31
We present an experimental demonstration of additive pulse mode locking based on a nonlinear loop mirror ring laser. The proposed design uses nonlinear phase shifts induced by a loop mirror. The results show that interference between two overlapping pulses from two coupled fibres, containing a nonlinear medium for power-dependent phase modulation, leads to pulse compression, and can provide mode locking with different repetition rates depending on the interplay or combination between the modulated frequency (active mode locking) and the nonlinearity (passive mode locking) generated in the loop mirror.
Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turlier, H.; Fedosov, D. A.; Audoly, B.; Auth, T.; Gov, N. S.; Sykes, C.; Joanny, J.-F.; Gompper, G.; Betz, T.
2016-05-01
Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are seen to flicker under optical microscopy, a phenomenon initially described as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane. But recent studies have suggested the involvement of non-equilibrium processes, without definitively ruling out equilibrium interpretations. Using active and passive microrheology to directly compare the membrane response and fluctuations on single erythrocytes, we report here a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, which is a direct demonstration of the non-equilibrium nature of flickering. With an analytical model of the composite erythrocyte membrane and realistic stochastic simulations, we show that several molecular mechanisms may explain the active fluctuations, and we predict their kinetics. We demonstrate that tangential metabolic activity in the network formed by spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein, can generate curvature-mediated active membrane motions. We also show that other active membrane processes represented by direct normal force dipoles may explain the observed membrane activity. Our findings provide solid experimental and theoretical frameworks for future investigations of the origin and function of active motion in cells.
Nonlinear optical properties and supercontinuum spectrum of titania-modified carbon quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulchin, Yu N.; Mayor, A. Yu; Proschenko, D. Yu; Postnova, I. V.; Shchipunov, Yu A.
2016-04-01
We have studied the nonlinear optical properties and supercontinuum spectrum of solutions of carbon quantum dots prepared by a hydrothermal process from chitin and then coated with titania. The titania coating has been shown to have an activating effect on the carbon quantum dots, enhancing supercontinuum generation in the blue-violet spectral region and enabling their nonlinear optical characteristics to be varied.
Conserved nonlinear quantities in cosmology
Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo
2005-11-15
We give a detailed and improved presentation of our recently proposed formalism for nonlinear perturbations in cosmology, based on a covariant and fully nonperturbative approach. We work, in particular, with a covector combining the gradients of the energy density and of the local number of e-folds to obtain a nonlinear generalization of the familiar linear uniform-density perturbation. We show that this covector obeys a remarkably simple conservation equation which is exact, fully nonlinear and valid at all scales. We relate explicitly our approach to the coordinate-based formalisms for linear perturbations and for second-order perturbations. We also consider other quantities, which are conserved on sufficiently large scales for adiabatic perturbations, and discuss the issue of gauge invariance.
Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-05-01
As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.
Nonlinear structural crash dynamics analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.; Wittlin, G.; Kamat, M. P.
1979-01-01
Presented in this paper are the results of three nonlinear computer programs, KRASH, ACTION and DYCAST used to analyze the dynamic response of a twin-engine, low-wing airplane section subjected to a 8.38 m/s (27.5 ft/s) vertical impact velocity crash condition. This impact condition simulates the vertical sink rate in a shallow aircraft landing or takeoff accident. The three distinct analysis techniques for nonlinear dynamic response of aircraft structures are briefly examined and compared versus each other and the experimental data. The report contains brief descriptions of the three computer programs, the respective aircraft section mathematical models, pertinent data from the experimental test performed at NASA Langley, and a comparison of the analyses versus test results. Cost and accuracy comparisons between the three analyses are made to illustrate the possible uses of the different nonlinear programs and their future potential.
Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin
Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-05-18
As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.
Gain optimization with nonlinear controls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slater, G. L.; Kandadai, R. D.
1982-01-01
An algorithm has been developed for the analysis and design of controls for nonlinear systems. The technical approach is to use statistical linearization to model the nonlinear dynamics of a system. A covariance analysis is performed to determine the behavior of the dynamical system and a quadratic cost function. Expressions for the cost function and its derivatives are determined so that numerical optimization techniques can be applied to determine optimal feedback laws. The primary application for this report is centered about the design of controls for nominally linear systems but where the controls are saturated or limited by fixed constraints. The analysis is general however and numerical computation requires only that the specific nonlinearity be considered in the analysis.
Marginalization in Random Nonlinear Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasudeva Raju, Rajkumar; Pitkow, Xaq
2015-03-01
Computations involved in tasks like causal reasoning in the brain require a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. Marginalization corresponds to averaging over irrelevant variables to obtain the probability of the variables of interest. This is a fundamental operation that arises whenever input stimuli depend on several variables, but only some are task-relevant. Animals often exhibit behavior consistent with marginalizing over some variables, but the neural substrate of this computation is unknown. It has been previously shown (Beck et al. 2011) that marginalization can be performed optimally by a deterministic nonlinear network that implements a quadratic interaction of neural activity with divisive normalization. We show that a simpler network can perform essentially the same computation. These Random Nonlinear Networks (RNN) are feedforward networks with one hidden layer, sigmoidal activation functions, and normally-distributed weights connecting the input and hidden layers. We train the output weights connecting the hidden units to an output population, such that the output model accurately represents a desired marginal probability distribution without significant information loss compared to optimal marginalization. Simulations for the case of linear coordinate transformations show that the RNN model has good marginalization performance, except for highly uncertain inputs that have low amplitude population responses. Behavioral experiments, based on these results, could then be used to identify if this model does indeed explain how the brain performs marginalization.
Edge detection by nonlinear dynamics
Wong, Yiu-fai
1994-07-01
We demonstrate how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, our scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step-edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.
Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu
2016-07-01
We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.
Time series with tailored nonlinearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räth, C.; Laut, I.
2015-10-01
It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.
Universe acceleration and nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2015-12-01
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with a dimensional parameter β coupled to gravity is considered. We show that an accelerated expansion of the universe takes place if the nonlinear electromagnetic field is the source of the gravitational field. A pure magnetic universe is investigated, and the magnetic field drives the universe to accelerate. In this model, after the big bang, the universe undergoes inflation and the accelerated expansion and then decelerates approaching Minkowski spacetime asymptotically. We demonstrate the causality of the model and a classical stability at the deceleration phase.
Practical Aspects of Nonlinear Optimization.
1981-06-19
14. E. Levitan and B . Polyak, "Constrained Minimization Methods", USSR Comp. Math. and Math. Physics 6, 1, (1966). 15. J. May, "Solving Nonlinear...AD-AIO 858 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/G 12/1 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION.U) JUN 81 R B HOLMES, J W TOLLESON...dj, l<j< m , (2) with the understanding the Q so defined has a non-empty interior (is "solid"). No qualitative assumptions on the objective - i
Quantum Superinductor with Tunable Nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, M. T.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Ioffe, L. B.; Kitaev, A. Yu.; Gershenson, M. E.
2012-09-01
We report on the realization of a superinductor, a dissipationless element whose microwave impedance greatly exceeds the resistance quantum RQ. The design of the superinductor, implemented as a ladder of nanoscale Josephson junctions, enables tuning of the inductance and its nonlinearity by a weak magnetic field. The Rabi decay time of the superinductor-based qubit exceeds 1μs. The high kinetic inductance and strong nonlinearity offer new types of functionality, including the development of qubits protected from both flux and charge noises, fault tolerant quantum computing, and high-impedance isolation for electrical current standards based on Bloch oscillations.
Prediction of nonlinear soil effects
Hartzell, S.; Bonilla, L.F.; Williams, R.A.
2004-01-01
Mathematical models of soil nonlinearity in common use and recently developed nonlinear codes compared to investigate the range of their predictions. We consider equivalent linear formulations with and without frequency-dependent moduli and damping ratios and nonlinear formulations for total and effective stress. Average velocity profiles to 150 m depth with midrange National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classifications (B, BC, C, D, and E) in the top 30 m are used to compare the response of a wide range of site conditions from rock to soft soil. Nonlinear soil models are compared using the amplification spectrum, calculated as the ratio of surface ground motion to the input motion at the base of the velocity profile. Peak input motions from 0.1g to 0.9g are considered. For site class B, no significant differences exist between the models considered in this article. For site classes BC and C, differences are small at low input motions (0.1g to 0.2g), but become significant at higher input levels. For site classes D and E the overdamping of frequencies above about 4 Hz by the equivalent linear solution with frequency-independent parameters is apparent for the entire range of input motions considered. The equivalent linear formulation with frequency-dependent moduli and damping ratios under damps relative to the nonlinear models considered for site class C with larger input motions and most input levels for site classes D and E. At larger input motions the underdamping for site classes D and E is not as severe as the overdamping with the frequency-independent formulation, but there are still significant differences in the time domain. A nonlinear formulation is recommended for site classes D and E and for site classes BC and C with input motions greater than a few tenths of the acceleration of gravity. The type of nonlinear formulation to use is driven by considerations of the importance of water content and the availability of laboratory soils data. Our
Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy
Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.
2010-12-10
We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.
Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.
1992-01-01
The objective is to develop active model-independent controllers for slewing and vibration control of nonlinear multibody flexible systems, including flexible robots. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: passive stabilization; work-energy rate principle; Liapunov theory; displacement feedback; dynamic controller; displacement and acceleration feedback; velocity feedback; displacement feedback; physical interaction; a 6-DOF robot; and simulation results.
Solutions of the cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations.
Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Ding, Chunling; Lü, Xin-You; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying
2012-01-01
Cylindrical nonlinear optics is a burgeoning research area which describes cylindrical electromagnetic wave propagation in nonlinear media. Finding new exact solutions for different types of nonlinearity and inhomogeneity to describe cylindrical electromagnetic wave propagation is of great interest and meaningful for theory and application. This paper gives exact solutions for the cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations and presents an interesting connection between the exact solutions for different cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations. We also provide some examples and discussion to show the application of the results we obtained. Our results provide the basis for solving complex systems of nonlinearity and inhomogeneity with simple systems.
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Z. B.; Wang, Lu; Wang, X. G.
2015-02-01
A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ωpr e˜x1 /3ξ̂ψ,i n 2 /3n , with x position in radial direction, ξ̂ ψ,i n strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.
Epileptic EEG: a comprehensive study of nonlinear behavior.
Daneshyari, Moayed; Kamkar, L Lily; Daneshyari, Matin
2010-01-01
In this study, the nonlinear properties of the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are investigated by comparing two sets of EEG, one set for epileptic and another set for healthy brain activities. Adopting measures of nonlinear theory such as Lyapunov exponent, correlation dimension, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension, and Kolmogorov entropy, the chaotic behavior of these two sets is quantitatively computed. The statistics for the two groups of all measures demonstrate the differences between the normal healthy group and epileptic one. The statistical results along with phase-space diagram verify that brain under epileptic seizures possess limited trajectory in the state space than in healthy normal state, consequently behaves less chaotically compared to normal condition.
Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications
Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.
1993-12-31
New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.
Nonlinear Synchronization Analysis of Spatiotemporal Heart Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simonotto, Jennifer D.; Furman, Michael D.; Spano, Mark L.; Ditto, William L.; Liu, Gang; Kavanagh, Katherine M.
2003-08-01
A high-speed video camera and voltage-sensitive dyes were used to acquire high resolution (80×80 pixels) and high-speed (500 μs/frame) optical signals of ventricular fibrillation in a Langendorff-perfused porcine heart. The resulting spatiotemporal dynamics were recorded before and after the application of a defibrillation shock in order to study the mechanism of defibrillation failure. We calculate nonlinear synchronization index measures to qualify the evolution of different types of activity on the heart surface (focal, reentry). We observe changes with time in the spatial distribution of the first Fourier mode, showing that two main types of activity compete on the heart surface during a failed defibrillation.
Nonlinear models for estimating GSFC travel requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffalano, C.; Hagan, F. J.
1974-01-01
A methodology is presented for estimating travel requirements for a particular period of time. Travel models were generated using nonlinear regression analysis techniques on a data base of FY-72 and FY-73 information from 79 GSFC projects. Although the subject matter relates to GSFX activities, the type of analysis used and the manner of selecting the relevant variables would be of interest to other NASA centers, government agencies, private corporations and, in general, any organization with a significant travel budget. Models were developed for each of six types of activity: flight projects (in-house and out-of-house), experiments on non-GSFC projects, international projects, ART/SRT, data analysis, advanced studies, tracking and data, and indirects.
Nonlinear Connectivity in the Human Stretch Reflex Assessed by Cross-Frequency Phase Coupling.
Yang, Yuan; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Yao, Jun; van der Helm, Frans C T; Dewald, Julius P A; Schouten, Alfred C
2016-12-01
Communication between neuronal populations is facilitated by synchronization of their oscillatory activity. Although nonlinearity has been observed in the sensorimotor system, its nonlinear connectivity has not been widely investigated yet. This study investigates nonlinear connectivity during the human stretch reflex based on neuronal synchronization. Healthy participants generated isotonic wrist flexion while receiving a periodic mechanical perturbation to the wrist. Using a novel cross-frequency phase coupling metric, we estimate directional nonlinear connectivity, including time delay, from the perturbation to brain and to muscle, as well as from brain to muscle. Nonlinear phase coupling is significantly stronger from the perturbation to the muscle than to the brain, with a shorter time delay. The time delay from the perturbation to the muscle is 33 ms, similar to the reported latency of the spinal stretch reflex at the wrist. Source localization of nonlinear phase coupling from the brain to the muscle suggests activity originating from the motor cortex, although its effect on the stretch reflex is weak. As such nonlinear phase coupling between the perturbation and muscle activity is dominated by the spinal reflex loop. This study provides new evidence of nonlinear neuronal synchronization in the stretch reflex at the wrist joint with respect to spinal and transcortical loops.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984
1984-01-01
Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)
Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.
2015-11-01
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT
Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.
2015-11-10
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
Oscillatons formed by nonlinear gravity
Obregon, Octavio; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo; Schunck, Franz E.
2005-07-15
Oscillatons are solutions of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations that are globally regular and asymptotically flat. By means of a Legendre transformation we are able to visualize the behavior of the corresponding objects in nonlinear gravity where the scalar field has been absorbed by means of the conformal mapping.
On nonlinear higher spin curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manvelyan, Ruben; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad
2011-05-01
We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.
Nonlinear wavetrains in viscous conduits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark
2016-11-01
Viscous fluid conduits provide an ideal system for the study of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamics. A dense, viscous fluid serves as the background medium through which a lighter, less viscous fluid buoyantly rises. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable pipe forms. The long wave interfacial dynamics are well-described by a dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. In this talk, experiments, numerics, and asymptotics of the viscous fluid conduit system will be presented. Structures at multiple length scales are discussed, including solitons, dispersive shock waves, and periodic waves. Modulations of periodic waves will be explored in the weakly nonlinear regime with the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Modulational instability (stability) is identified for sufficiently short (long) periodic waves due to a change in dispersion curvature. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical simulations of perturbed nonlinear periodic wave solutions. Also, numerically observed are envelope bright and dark solitons well approximated by NLS. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).
Multilevel algorithms for nonlinear optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.
1994-01-01
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) gives rise to nonlinear optimization problems characterized by a large number of constraints that naturally occur in blocks. We propose a class of multilevel optimization methods motivated by the structure and number of constraints and by the expense of the derivative computations for MDO. The algorithms are an extension to the nonlinear programming problem of the successful class of local Brown-Brent algorithms for nonlinear equations. Our extensions allow the user to partition constraints into arbitrary blocks to fit the application, and they separately process each block and the objective function, restricted to certain subspaces. The methods use trust regions as a globalization strategy, and they have been shown to be globally convergent under reasonable assumptions. The multilevel algorithms can be applied to all classes of MDO formulations. Multilevel algorithms for solving nonlinear systems of equations are a special case of the multilevel optimization methods. In this case, they can be viewed as a trust-region globalization of the Brown-Brent class.
Nonlinear optical response of gold-silver nanoplanets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesca, Tiziana; Calvelli, Paolo; Battaglin, Giancarlo; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Mattei, Giovanni
2012-07-01
The nonlinear optical properties of AuAg nanoplanets produced by ion implantation and subsequent irradiation in silica have been investigated by means of the single beam z-scan technique. These plasmonic nanosystems evidenced intense local-field enhancement effects, also theoretically demonstrated, that have a dramatic impact on their nonlinear optical response. In particular, the nonlinear absorption behavior was characterized by a tunable changeover from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption that can be induced by slightly varying the pump intensity. Owing to this, these systems offer the possibility to activate and observe phenomena otherwise not accessible in the intensity range that can be employed to study these materials without damaging the matrix.
Nonlinear Varying Coefficient Models with Applications to Studying Photosynthesis
Kürüm, Esra; Li, Runze; Wang, Yang; ŞEntürk, Damla
2014-01-01
Motivated by a study on factors affecting the level of photosynthetic activity in a natural ecosystem, we propose nonlinear varying coefficient models, in which the relationship between the predictors and the response variable is allowed to be nonlinear. One-step local linear estimators are developed for the nonlinear varying coefficient models and their asymptotic normality is established leading to point-wise asymptotic confidence bands for the coefficient functions. Two-step local linear estimators are also proposed for cases where the varying coefficient functions admit different degrees of smoothness; bootstrap confidence intervals are utilized for inference based on the two-step estimators. We further propose a generalized F test to study whether the coefficient functions vary over a covariate. We illustrate the proposed methodology via an application to an ecology data set and study the finite sample performance by Monte Carlo simulation studies. PMID:24976756
Nonlinear Varying Coefficient Models with Applications to Studying Photosynthesis.
Kürüm, Esra; Li, Runze; Wang, Yang; SEntürk, Damla
2014-03-01
Motivated by a study on factors affecting the level of photosynthetic activity in a natural ecosystem, we propose nonlinear varying coefficient models, in which the relationship between the predictors and the response variable is allowed to be nonlinear. One-step local linear estimators are developed for the nonlinear varying coefficient models and their asymptotic normality is established leading to point-wise asymptotic confidence bands for the coefficient functions. Two-step local linear estimators are also proposed for cases where the varying coefficient functions admit different degrees of smoothness; bootstrap confidence intervals are utilized for inference based on the two-step estimators. We further propose a generalized F test to study whether the coefficient functions vary over a covariate. We illustrate the proposed methodology via an application to an ecology data set and study the finite sample performance by Monte Carlo simulation studies.
Quantitative full time course analysis of nonlinear enzyme cycling kinetics.
Cao, Wenxiang; De La Cruz, Enrique M
2013-01-01
Enzyme inhibition due to the reversible binding of reaction products is common and underlies the origins of negative feedback inhibition in many metabolic and signaling pathways. Product inhibition generates non-linearity in steady-state time courses of enzyme activity, which limits the utility of well-established enzymology approaches developed under the assumption of irreversible product release. For more than a century, numerous attempts to find a mathematical solution for analysis of kinetic time courses with product inhibition have been put forth. However, no practical general method capable of extracting common enzymatic parameters from such non-linear time courses has been successfully developed. Here we present a simple and practical method of analysis capable of efficiently extracting steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters and product binding constants from non-linear kinetic time courses with product inhibition and/or substrate depletion. The method is general and applicable to all enzyme systems, independent of reaction schemes and pathways.
Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.
2012-05-01
Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.
Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report
Tataronis, J. A.
2004-06-01
This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.
Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union
McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J. ); Abarbanel, H.D.I. . Dept. of Physics); Abraham, N.B. . Dept. of Physics); Fraser, A.M. ); Moon, F.C. . Sibley Scho
1992-08-01
This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent.
A nonlinear perspective in understanding the neurodynamics of EEG.
Pradhan, N; Dutt, D N
1993-11-01
The developments in nonlinear dynamics and the theory of chaos have considerably altered our perception and analysis of many complex systems, including the brain. This paper reviews the physical and dynamical aspect of brain's electrical activity from this new perspective and indicates possible future directions. The importance of emerging trends of nonlinear dynamics and chaos to neurobiology has been discussed in the context of various states of consciousness and behaviour. In the past, EEG analysis has been confined to descriptive stochastic statistics and any understanding of the transitional process of brain activities was either nonexistent or not amenable for investigation. With the developments in nonlinear dynamics, the chaotic dynamical parameters and trajectory behaviour will find their use as feature detection techniques in EEG. Furthermore, nonlinear dynamics provides a model for EEG generation and temporal prediction which will help in determining the nature of neuronal processes governing various states of brain activity. The formalism of globally coupled dynamic systems will find applications in modelling the transitional states of EEG.
Nonlinear Behavior in Optical and Other Systems
1987-09-01
numerical analysis). Others will be devoted to ’state of the art ’ discussions of specific problems (e.g. nonlinear waveguides, Anderson localization). It is...Nonlinearity and Statistical Physics. Approximate Cost of Workshop: $5,312. STATE OF THE ART DEVELOPMfENTS IN NONLINEAR OPTICS Organizers: J. Moloney, A... Art Developments in Nonlinear Optics V. List of Preprints and Reprints with Abstracts ANTICIPATED WORKSHOPS 1987 - 1988 I. Workshop on Singularities
Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel
2015-08-01
We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.
Stochastic Growth and Nonlinear Processes in Earth's Foreshock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cairns, Iver; Robinson, P. A.; Connors, Timothy
2000-10-01
Langmuir-like waves driven by electron beams in Earth's foreshock have been observed for many years. The foreshock is also a source of radiation near the electron plasma frequency fp and near 2f_p, long interpreted in terms of Langmuir waves undergoing nonlinear processes. However, standard plasma theory, in which homogeneous waves grow exponentially until saturated by a nonlinear process, encounters great difficulties explaining the burstiness, widely varying fields, and persistence far from the bow shock of the foreshock Langmuir waves Recently, however, stochastic growth theory (SGT) has been shown to provide a detailed explanation for the burstiness, field statistics, persistence, and spatial evolution of Langmuir waves in Earth's foreshock. This paper reviews this evidence for SGT and then presents a new, strong argument based on SGT that a nonlinear Langmuir process occurs near the upstream edge of Earth's foreshock. The argument involves the SGT prediction that the probability distribution P(log E) of wave electric fields E should suffer an abrupt fall-off at fields higher than the threshold field of an active nonlinear process. For two intervals of ISEE-1 data it is shown that the P(log E) distributions are well described by SGT with an active nonlinear process at fields of a few mV m-1. Based on calculated thresholds for foreshock beam parameters, the nonlinear process is most likely the electrostatic decay L arrow L' + S (L, L' and S denote Langmuir, Langmuir, and ion acoustic waves, respectively). Accordingly, these data are consistent with stochastic growth physics dominating the evolution of the Langmuir waves, and electrostatic decay occurring only near the foreshock's edge for the most intense Langmuir waves, similar to previous results for type III radio sources.
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, L. W.
2015-10-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Larry W.
2015-04-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon
From Nonlinear to Hamiltonian via Feedback1
2002-01-01
distribution unlimited. 13. Abstract Mechanical control systems are a very important class of nonlinear control systems . They posses a rich mathematical...methodologies developed for mechanical control systel logically rendering nonlinear control systems , mechanical by a proper choice of feedback. In particular, w...OF PA Nonlinear mechanical control systems , Hamiltonian Control Systems x 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19
Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.
2007-01-01
The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…
Unsymmetrical squaraines for nonlinear optical materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Chen, Chin-Ti (Inventor); Cheng, Lap-Tak (Inventor)
1996-01-01
Compositions for use in non-linear optical devices. The compositions have first molecular electronic hyperpolarizability (.beta.) either positive or negative in sign and therefore display second order non-linear optical properties when incorporated into non-linear optical devices.
Spatial Beam Dynamics Mediated by Hybrid Nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng; Lou, Cibo; Hu, Yi; Liu, Sheng; Zhao, Jianlin; Xu, Jingjun; Chen, Zhigang
We provide a brief overview of recent progresses on the study of a new type of nonlinearity, named hybrid nonlinearity: the coexistence of self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinearities in the same material under identical conditions. Such hybrid nonlinearity is established in a nonconventionally biased photorefractive crystal, which offers enhanced anisotropy and nonlocality, leading to a variety of unusual nonlinear beam dynamics in both continuous and discrete regimes. In homogenous media, elliptical optical solitons, stabilization of nonlinear optical vortices, as well as orientation-induced transition between bright and dark solitons are demonstrated. In discrete media, hybrid nonlinearity enables the creation of an ionic-type photonic lattice with alternating positive and negative optical potentials, which in turn enables the reconfiguration of lattice structures and Brillouin zones for band-gap engineering and light manipulation. Moreover, a host of nonlinear discrete localized states mediated by such hybrid nonlinearity are uncovered, including elliptical discrete solitons and "saddle" solitons. The novel concept of hybrid nonlinearity opens a door for exploring spatial beam dynamics and related nonlinear phenomena in anisotropic nonlinear systems beyond optics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, G.
1982-01-01
A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.
Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M.
2013-10-01
Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.
Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.
2009-06-01
Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.
Stabilization and utilization of nonlinear phenomena based on bifurcation control for slow dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yabuno, Hiroshi
2008-08-01
Mechanical systems may experience undesirable and unexpected behavior and instability due to the effects of nonlinearity of the systems. Many kinds of control methods to decrease or eliminate the effects have been studied. In particular, bifurcation control to stabilize or utilize nonlinear phenomena is currently an active topic in the field of nonlinear dynamics. This article presents some types of bifurcation control methods with the aim of realizing vibration control and motion control for mechanical systems. It is also indicated through every control method that slowly varying components in the dynamics play important roles for the control and the utilizations of nonlinear phenomena. In the first part, we deal with stabilization control methods for nonlinear resonance which is the 1/3-order subharmonic resonance in a nonlinear spring-mass-damper system and the self-excited oscillation (hunting motion) in a railway vehicle wheelset. The second part deals with positive utilizations of nonlinear phenomena by the generation and the modification of bifurcation phenomena. We propose the amplitude control method of the cantilever probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) by increasing the nonlinearity in the system. Also, the motion control of a two link underactuated manipulator with a free link and an active link is considered by actuating the bifurcations produced under high-frequency excitation. This article is a discussion on the bifurcation control methods presented by the author and co-researchers by focusing on the actuation of the slowly varying components included in the original dynamics.
Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities
Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi
2016-01-01
We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303
Instabilities and bifurcations of nonlinear impurity modes.
Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Kivshar, Yuri S; Kovalev, Alexander S
2003-04-01
We study the structure and stability of nonlinear impurity modes in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a single on-site nonlinear impurity emphasizing the effects of interplay between discreteness, nonlinearity, and disorder. We show how the interaction of a nonlinear localized mode (a discrete soliton or discrete breather) with a repulsive impurity generates a family of stationary states near the impurity site, as well as examine both theoretical and numerical criteria for the transition between different localized states via a cascade of bifurcations.
Nonlinear oscillatory processes in wheeled vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhlin, Yu. V.; Mitrokhin, S. G.
2011-04-01
The free damped vibrations of a wheeled vehicle with independent suspension are analyzed with allowance for the nonlinear characteristics of the suspension springs and shock absorbers. The vibrations of a wheeled vehicle with a suspension with smooth nonlinear characteristics are studied for a model with seven degrees of freedoms. The skeleton curves and nonlinear normal modes are obtained. For a model with two degrees of freedoms (quarter-car) that corresponds to axisymmetric vibrations, the nonlinear normal modes are found in the case of a shock absorber with nonsmooth nonlinear characteristic
Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byer, Robert L.
1991-01-01
The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.
The nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltani, P.; Kerschen, G.
2015-07-01
This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new feature of the NPTVA is that its nonlinear restoring force is designed according to a principle of similarity, i.e., the NPTVA should be an electrical analog of the nonlinear host system. Analytical formulas for the NPTVA parameters are derived using the homotopy perturbation method. Doing so, a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog’s equal-peak tuning rule is developed for piezoelectric vibration absorbers.
Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander
2014-09-01
Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics.
Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin
2016-05-01
Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.
Condition assessment of nonlinear processes
Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.
2002-01-01
There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.
Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.
2009-08-01
List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.
Nonlinear growth of periodic patterns.
Villain-Guillot, Simon; Josserand, Christophe
2002-09-01
We study the growth of a periodic pattern in one dimension for a model of spinodal decomposition, the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We particularly focus on the intermediate region, where the nonlinearity cannot be neglected anymore, and before the coalescence dominates. The dynamics is captured through the standard technique of a solubility condition performed over a particular family of quasistatic solutions. The main result is that the dynamics along this particular class of solutions can be expressed in terms of a simple ordinary differential equation. The density profile of the stationary regime found at the end of the nonlinear growth is also well characterized. Numerical simulations correspond satisfactorily to the analytical results through three different methods and asymptotic dynamics are well recovered, even far from the region where the approximations hold.
Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.
2008-10-01
We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.
Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.
2008-11-05
Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).
Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms
Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M.
1996-12-31
Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.
Nonlinear equations of 'variable type'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larkin, N. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ianenko, N. N.
In this monograph, new scientific results related to the theory of equations of 'variable type' are presented. Equations of 'variable type' are equations for which the original type is not preserved within the entire domain of coefficient definition. This part of the theory of differential equations with partial derivatives has been developed intensively in connection with the requirements of mechanics. The relations between equations of the considered type and the problems of mathematical physics are explored, taking into account quasi-linear equations, and models of mathematical physics which lead to equations of 'variable type'. Such models are related to transonic flows, problems involving a separation of the boundary layer, gasdynamics and the van der Waals equation, shock wave phenomena, and a combustion model with a turbulent diffusion flame. Attention is also given to nonlinear parabolic equations, and nonlinear partial differential equations of the third order.
Nonlinear Acoustic Characterization of Targets
2008-01-01
matching so as to transmit as much energy as possible into the test object. In addition to this limitation, ultrasound is only able to measure range by...metric arrays for standoff analysis of targets. In 1982, Yoneyama[4] discussed the nonlinear interaction of ultrasound with air as the “scattering of... cavitation effect. This produces a rectification at higher frequencies just as a diode does in an electrical circuit. This natural rectification allows
Nonlinear Optics and Organic Materials
1989-10-01
unmatched brilliance both probes a nd inelh~" ...) / these novel effects . A detailed understanding of the nature ,S .i of light, and how it interacts with...matter, is essential to evince these effects . Although everyday optical tools- windowpanes and eyeglasses-may remain unaffected, " such delicate...use the same pair of binoculars to focus on a faint star at night and a bird in daylight (1, 2). Intensity-dependent nonlinear effects However, when
Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Semiconductors.
1985-12-10
completing bnother article for publication. In addition, we have made four invention disclosures o the U.S. Air Force.We received the delivery of two large...of completing another article for publication. In addition, we have made four invention disclosures to the U. S. Air Force. We received the delivery...gives rise to four -photon mixing. Our attempts were focused on observing a number of new optical effects including nonlinear absorption and transmission
Nonlinear Waves and Inverse Scattering
1989-01-01
5) Numerical Simulation of the Modified Korteweg - deVries Equation , Thiab R. Taha and M.J. Ablowitz, 6th International Symposium on Computer Methods in... solved by the IST method. . Numerically Induced Chaos) /i We have been studying a class of non ’linear equations and their discrete approximations...Certain Nonlinear Evolution Equations IV, Numerical, Modified Korteweg -de Vries Equation , T.R. Taha and M.J. Ablowitz, J. Comp. Physics, Vol. 77, No
Dynamical Imaging using Spatial Nonlinearity
2014-01-29
829- 832. [29] H. Faulkner, J. Rodenburg, Movable Aperture Lensless Transmission Microscopy : A Novel Phase Retrieval Algorithm, Physical Review...Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy , Science, 248 (1990) 73-76. [3] P.J. Campagnola, H.A. Clark, W.A. Mohler, A. Lewis, L.M. Loew, Second-harmonic...imaging microscopy of living cells, J Biomed Opt, 6 (2001) 277-286. [4] C. Barsi, J.W. Fleischer, Nonlinear Abbe theory, Nat Photonics, 7 (2013) 639
Nonlinear Filtering and Approximation Techniques
1991-09-01
Shwartz), Academic Press (1991). [191 M.Cl. ROUTBAUD, Fiting lindairc par morceaux avec petit bruit d’obserration, These. Universit6 de Provence ( 1990...Kernel System (GKS), Academic Press (1983). 181 H.J. KUSHNER, Probability methods for approximations in stochastic control and for elliptic equations... Academic Press (1977). [9] F. LE GLAND, Time discretization of nonlinear filtering equations, in: 28th. IEEE CDC, Tampa, pp. 2601-2606. IEEE Press (1989