Origin of the effective mobility in non-linear active micro-rheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santamaría-Holek, I.; Pérez-Madrid, A.
2016-10-01
The distinction between the damping coefficient and the effective non-linear mobility of driven particles in active micro-rheology of supercooled liquids is explained in terms of individual and collective dynamics. The effective mobility arises as a collective effect which gives insight into the energy landscape of the system. On the other hand, the damping coefficient is a constant that modulates the effect of external forces over the thermal energy which particles have at their disposition to perform Brownian motion. For long times, these thermal fluctuations become characterized in terms of an effective temperature that is a consequence of the dynamic coupling between kinetic and configurational degrees of freedom induced by the presence of the strong external force. The interplay between collective mobility and effective temperature allows to formulate a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation that may be used to determine the collective diffusion coefficient. The explicit relations we deduce reproduce simulation data remarkably well.
A Quantitative Study of Bulk Stresses in Nonlinear Microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Depuit, Ryan; Squires, Todd
2010-11-01
We investigate the nonlinear microrheology of a simple model system - a spherical probe translating through a dilute suspension of rigid rods - to elucidate a variety of issues inherent in the interpretation of nonlinear microrheology. We have developed a computational system to quantitatively examine the issues present in interpretation of nonlinear microrheology, as originally discussed by Squires (Langmuir, 2008). Following recent work emphasizing the importance of the microstructural behavior in the bulk (Sriram et. al, 2009), we focus our attention on the bulk microstructural deformation, and examine the significance of its (Lagrangian) transient nature, as well as the consequences of the mixed and inhomogeneous flows inherent to nonlinear microrheology. From this quantitative study, we pose solutions for the current theoretical issues facing nonlinear microrheology in interpretation and comparison of the microviscosity with the shear viscosity from traditional bulk rheometry.
Linear and nonlinear microrheology of lysozyme layers forming at the air-water interface.
Allan, Daniel B; Firester, Daniel M; Allard, Victor P; Reich, Daniel H; Stebe, Kathleen J; Leheny, Robert L
2014-09-28
We report experiments studying the mechanical evolution of layers of the protein lysozyme adsorbing at the air-water interface using passive and active microrheology techniques to investigate the linear and nonlinear rheological response, respectively. Following formation of a new interface, the linear shear rheology, which we interrogate through the Brownian motion of spherical colloids at the interface, becomes viscoelastic with a complex modulus that has approximately power-law frequency dependence. The power-law exponent characterizing this frequency dependence decreases steadily with increasing layer age. Meanwhile, the nonlinear microrheology, probed via the rotational motion of magnetic nanowires at the interface, reveals a layer response characteristic of a shear-thinning power-law fluid with a flow index that decreases with age. We discuss two possible frameworks for understanding this mechanical evolution: gelation and the formation of a soft glass phase. PMID:24969505
Linear and nonlinear microrheology of lysozyme layers forming at the air-water interface.
Allan, Daniel B; Firester, Daniel M; Allard, Victor P; Reich, Daniel H; Stebe, Kathleen J; Leheny, Robert L
2014-09-28
We report experiments studying the mechanical evolution of layers of the protein lysozyme adsorbing at the air-water interface using passive and active microrheology techniques to investigate the linear and nonlinear rheological response, respectively. Following formation of a new interface, the linear shear rheology, which we interrogate through the Brownian motion of spherical colloids at the interface, becomes viscoelastic with a complex modulus that has approximately power-law frequency dependence. The power-law exponent characterizing this frequency dependence decreases steadily with increasing layer age. Meanwhile, the nonlinear microrheology, probed via the rotational motion of magnetic nanowires at the interface, reveals a layer response characteristic of a shear-thinning power-law fluid with a flow index that decreases with age. We discuss two possible frameworks for understanding this mechanical evolution: gelation and the formation of a soft glass phase.
Passive versus active local microrheology in mammalian cells and amoebae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riviere, C.; Gazeau, F.; Marion, S.; Bacri, J.-C.; Wilhelm, C.
2004-12-01
We compare in this paper the rotational magnetic microrheology detailed by Marion et al [18] and Wilhelm et al [19] to the passive tracking microrheology. The rotational microrheology has been designed to explore, using magnetic rotating probes, the local intracellular microenvironment of living cells in terms of viscoelasticity. Passive microrheology techniques is based on the analysis of spontaneous diffusive motions of Brownian probes. The dependence of mean square displacement (MSD) with the time then directly reflects the type of movement (sub-, hyper- or diffusive motions). Using the same intracellular probes, we performed two types of measurements (active and passive). Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, one should obtain the same information from the both techniques in a thermally equilibrium system. Interestingly, our measurements differ, and the discordances directly inform on active biological processes, which add to thermally activated fluctuations in our out-of equilibrium systems. In both cell models used, mammalian Hela cells and amoebae Entamoeba Histolytica, a hyper-diffusive regime at a short time is observed, which highlights the presence of an active non-thermal driving force, acting on the probe. However, the nature of this active force in mammalian cells and amoebae is different, according to their different phenotypes. In mammalian cells active processes are governed by the transport, via molecular motors, on the microtubule network. In amoebae, which are highly motile cells free of microtubule network, the active processes are dominated by strong fluxes of cytoplasm driven by extension of pseudopodia, in random directions, leading to an amplitude of motion one order of magnitude higher than for mammalian cells. Figs 7, Refs 32.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tsai-Chin; Anderson, Rae
We use active microrheology coupled to single-molecule fluorescence imaging to elucidate the microscale dynamics of entangled DNA. DNA naturally exists in a wide range of lengths and topologies, and is often confined in cell nucleui, forming highly concentrated and entangled biopolymer networks. Thus, DNA is the model polymer for understanding entangled polymer dynamics as well as the crowded environment of cells. These networks display complex viscoelastic properties that are not well understood, especially at the molecular-level and in response to nonlinear perturbations. Specifically, how microscopic stresses and strains propagate through entangled networks, and what molecular deformations lead to the network stress responses are unknown. To answer these important questions, we optically drive a microsphere through entangled DNA, perturbing the system far from equilibrium, while measuring the resistive force the DNA exerts on the bead during and after bead motion. We simultaneously image single fluorescent-labeled DNA molecules throughout the network to directly link the microscale stress response to molecular deformations. We characterize the deformation of the network from the molecular-level to the mesoscale, and map the stress propagation throughout the network. We further study the impact of DNA length (11 - 115 kbp) and topology (linear vs ring DNA) on deformation and propagation dynamics, exploring key nonlinear features such as tube dilation and power-law relaxation.
Active multi-point microrheology of cytoskeletal networks
Paust, Tobias; Mertens, Lina Katinka; Martin, Ines; Beil, Michael; Walther, Paul; Schimmel, Thomas; Marti, Othmar
2016-01-01
Summary Active microrheology is a valuable tool to determine viscoelastic properties of polymer networks. Observing the response of the beads to the excitation of a reference leads to dynamic and morphological information of the material. In this work we present an expansion of the well-known active two-point microrheology. By measuring the response of multiple particles in a viscoelastic medium in response to the excitation of a reference particle, we are able to determine the force propagation in the polymer network. For this purpose a lock-in technique is established that allows for extraction of the periodical motion of embedded beads. To exert a sinusoidal motion onto the reference bead an optical tweezers setup in combination with a microscope is used to investigate the motion of the response beads. From the lock-in data the so called transfer tensor can be calculated, which is a direct measure for the ability of the network to transmit mechanical forces. We also take a closer look at the influence of noise on lock-in measurements and state some simple rules for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:27335739
Time-resolved microrheology of actively remodeling actomyosin networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Marina Soares e.; Stuhrmann, Björn; Betz, Timo; Koenderink, Gijsje H.
2014-07-01
Living cells constitute an extraordinary state of matter since they are inherently out of thermal equilibrium due to internal metabolic processes. Indeed, measurements of particle motion in the cytoplasm of animal cells have revealed clear signatures of nonthermal fluctuations superposed on passive thermal motion. However, it has been difficult to pinpoint the exact molecular origin of this activity. Here, we employ time-resolved microrheology based on particle tracking to measure nonequilibrium fluctuations produced by myosin motor proteins in a minimal model system composed of purified actin filaments and myosin motors. We show that the motors generate spatially heterogeneous contractile fluctuations, which become less frequent with time as a consequence of motor-driven network remodeling. We analyze the particle tracking data on different length scales, combining particle image velocimetry, an ensemble analysis of the particle trajectories, and finally a kymograph analysis of individual particle trajectories to quantify the length and time scales associated with active particle displacements. All analyses show clear signatures of nonequilibrium activity: the particles exhibit random motion with an enhanced amplitude compared to passive samples, and they exhibit sporadic contractile fluctuations with ballistic motion over large (up to 30 μm) distances. This nonequilibrium activity diminishes with sample age, even though the adenosine triphosphate level is held constant. We propose that network coarsening concentrates motors in large clusters and depletes them from the network, thus reducing the occurrence of contractile fluctuations. Our data provide valuable insight into the physical processes underlying stress generation within motor-driven actin networks and the analysis framework may prove useful for future microrheology studies in cells and model organisms.
Active microrheology of Brownian suspensions via Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Henry; Su, Yu; Gu, Kevin; Hoh, Nicholas; Zia, Roseanna
2015-11-01
The non-equilibrium rheological response of colloidal suspensions is studied via active microrheology utilizing Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics simulations. In our recent work, we derived the theory for micro-diffusivity and suspension stress in dilute suspensions of hydrodynamically interacting colloids. This work revealed that force-induced diffusion is anisotropic, with qualitative differences between diffusion along the line of the external force and that transverse to it, and connected these effects to the role of hydrodynamic, interparticle, and Brownian forces. This work also revealed that these forces play a similar qualitative role in the anisotropy of the stress and in the evolution of the non-equilibrium osmotic pressure. Here, we show that theoretical predictions hold for suspensions ranging from dilute to near maximum packing, and for a range of flow strengths from near-equilibrium to the pure-hydrodynamic limit.
Advances in the microrheology of complex fluids.
Waigh, Thomas Andrew
2016-07-01
New developments in the microrheology of complex fluids are considered. Firstly the requirements for a simple modern particle tracking microrheology experiment are introduced, the error analysis methods associated with it and the mathematical techniques required to calculate the linear viscoelasticity. Progress in microrheology instrumentation is then described with respect to detectors, light sources, colloidal probes, magnetic tweezers, optical tweezers, diffusing wave spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, elastic- and quasi-elastic scattering techniques, 3D tracking, single molecule methods, modern microscopy methods and microfluidics. New theoretical techniques are also reviewed such as Bayesian analysis, oversampling, inversion techniques, alternative statistical tools for tracks (angular correlations, first passage probabilities, the kurtosis, motor protein step segmentation etc), issues in micro/macro rheological agreement and two particle methodologies. Applications where microrheology has begun to make some impact are also considered including semi-flexible polymers, gels, microorganism biofilms, intracellular methods, high frequency viscoelasticity, comb polymers, active motile fluids, blood clots, colloids, granular materials, polymers, liquid crystals and foods. Two large emergent areas of microrheology, non-linear microrheology and surface microrheology are also discussed. PMID:27245584
Advances in the microrheology of complex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waigh, Thomas Andrew
2016-07-01
New developments in the microrheology of complex fluids are considered. Firstly the requirements for a simple modern particle tracking microrheology experiment are introduced, the error analysis methods associated with it and the mathematical techniques required to calculate the linear viscoelasticity. Progress in microrheology instrumentation is then described with respect to detectors, light sources, colloidal probes, magnetic tweezers, optical tweezers, diffusing wave spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, elastic- and quasi-elastic scattering techniques, 3D tracking, single molecule methods, modern microscopy methods and microfluidics. New theoretical techniques are also reviewed such as Bayesian analysis, oversampling, inversion techniques, alternative statistical tools for tracks (angular correlations, first passage probabilities, the kurtosis, motor protein step segmentation etc), issues in micro/macro rheological agreement and two particle methodologies. Applications where microrheology has begun to make some impact are also considered including semi-flexible polymers, gels, microorganism biofilms, intracellular methods, high frequency viscoelasticity, comb polymers, active motile fluids, blood clots, colloids, granular materials, polymers, liquid crystals and foods. Two large emergent areas of microrheology, non-linear microrheology and surface microrheology are also discussed.
Passive and active microrheology for cross-linked F-actin networks in vitro.
Lee, Hyungsuk; Ferrer, Jorge M; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lang, Matthew J; Kamm, Roger D
2010-04-01
Actin filament (F-actin) is one of the dominant structural constituents in the cytoskeleton. Orchestrated by various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), F-actin is assembled into higher-order structures such as bundles and networks that provide mechanical support for the cell and play important roles in numerous cellular processes. Although mechanical properties of F-actin networks have been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms for network elasticity are not fully understood, in part because different measurements probe different length and force scales. Here, we developed both passive and active microrheology techniques using optical tweezers to estimate the mechanical properties of F-actin networks at a length scale comparable to cells. For the passive approach we tracked the motion of a thermally fluctuating colloidal sphere to estimate the frequency-dependent complex shear modulus of the network. In the active approach, we used an optical trap to oscillate an embedded microsphere and monitored the response in order to obtain network viscoelasticity over a physiologically relevant force range. While both active and passive measurements exhibit similar results at low strain, the F-actin network subject to high strain exhibits non-linear behavior which is analogous to the strain-hardening observed in macroscale measurements. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy, we also characterize the microstructure of reconstituted F-actin networks in terms of filament length, mesh size and degree of bundling. Finally, we propose a model of network connectivity by investigating the effect of filament length on the mechanical properties and structure. PMID:19883801
Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.
Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson
2015-03-01
We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.
Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches.
Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson
2015-03-01
We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition. PMID:25871116
Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson
2015-03-01
We examine the mobility and velocity fluctuations of a driven particle moving through an active matter bath of self-mobile disks for varied density or area coverage and varied activity. We show that the driven particle mobility can exhibit nonmonotonic behavior that is correlated with distinct changes in the spatiotemporal structures that arise in the active media. We demonstrate that the probe particle velocity distributions exhibit specific features in the different dynamic regimes and identify an activity-induced uniform crystallization that occurs for moderate activity levels and is distinct from the previously observed higher activity cluster phase. The velocity distribution in the cluster phase has telegraph noise characteristics produced when the probe particle moves alternately through high-mobility areas that are in the gas state and low-mobility areas that are in the dense phase. For higher densities and large activities, the system enters what we characterize as an active jamming regime. Here the probe particle moves in intermittent jumps or avalanches that have power-law-distributed sizes that are similar to the avalanche distributions observed for nonactive disk systems near the jamming transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, R. R. R.; Mansel, B. W.; Kramer, A.; Kroy, K.; Williams, M. A. K.
2013-03-01
The same fundamental questions that have driven enquiry into cytoskeletal mechanics can be asked of the considerably less-studied, yet arguably just as important, biopolymer matrix in the plant cell wall. In this case, it is well-known that polysaccharides, rather than filamentous and tubular protein assemblies, play a major role in satisfying the mechanical requirements of a successful cell wall, but developing a clear structure-function understanding has been exacerbated by the familiar issue of biological complexity. Herein, in the spirit of the mesoscopic approaches that have proved so illuminating in the study of cytoskeletal networks, the linear microrheological and strain-stiffening responses of biopolymeric networks reconstituted from pectin, a crucial cell wall polysaccharide, are examined. These are found to be well-captured by the glassy worm-like chain (GWLC) model of self-assembled semi-flexible filaments. Strikingly, the nonlinear mechanical response of these pectin networks is found to be much more sensitive to temperature changes than their linear response, a property that is also observed in F-actin networks, and is well reproduced by the GWLC model. Additionally, microrheological measurements suggest that over long timescales (>10 s) internal stresses continue to redistribute facilitating low frequency motions of tracer particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neckernuss, T.; Mertens, L. K.; Martin, I.; Paust, T.; Beil, M.; Marti, O.
2016-02-01
Mechanical properties of cells are determined by the cytoskeleton and especially by intermediate filaments (IFs). To measure the contribution of IFs to the mechanics of the cytoskeleton, we determine the shear moduli of in vitro assembled IF networks consisting of keratin 8/18 and MgCl2, serving as a crosslinker. In this study we want to present a new method, a combination of active and passive microrheology, to characterize these networks. We also show the applicability of the new method and discuss new findings on the organization and force transmission in keratin networks gained by the new method. We trap and move embedded polystyrene particles with an optical tweezers setup in an oscillatory manner. The amplitude response of the trapped particle is measured and evaluated with a lock-in approach in order to suppress random motions. With this technique we determine the degree of isotropy of the assembled network and sense preferred directions due to inhomogeneities of the network. Furthermore, we show that we can deliberately create anisotropic networks by adjusting the assembly process and chamber geometry. To determine whether there are local network anisotropies in a globally isotropic network, we altered the evaluation method and included the motion of embedded particles in the vicinity of the trapped one. The correlations of the observed motions enable us to map local network anisotropies. Finally, we compare mechanical properties determined from passive with ones from active microrheology. We find the networks measured with the active technique to be approximately 20% more compliant than the ones from passive measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Henry; Zia, Roseanna
In our recently developed non-equilibrium Stokes-Einstein relation, we showed that, in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions, the stress in a suspension is given by a balance between fluctuation and dissipation. Here, we generalize our theory for systems of hydrodynamically interacting colloids, via active microrheology, where motion of a Brownian probe through the medium reveals rheological properties. The strength of probe forcing compared to the entropic restoring force defines a Peclet number, Pe. In the absence of hydrodynamics, the first normal stress difference and the osmotic pressure scale as Pe4 and Pe2 respectively when probe forcing is weak, and uniformly as Pe for strong probe forcing. As hydrodynamics become important, interparticle forces give way to lubrication interactions. Hydrodynamic coupling leads to a new low-Pe scaling of the first normal stress difference and the osmotic pressure as Pe2, and high-Pe scaling as Peδ, where 0.799 <= δ <= 1 as hydrodynamics vary from strong to weak. For the entire range of the strength of hydrodynamic interactions and probe forcing, the new phenomenological theory is shown to agree with standard micromechanical definitions of the stress. We further draw a connection between the stress and the energy storage in a suspension, and the entropic nature of such storage is identified.
The impact of probe size on measurements of diffusion in active microrheology.
Hoh, Nicholas J; Zia, Roseanna N
2016-08-21
We present a framework to elucidate the influence of polydispersity on flow-induced diffusion in active microrheology. A colloidal probe particle is driven through a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting background particles, where the probe may be larger or smaller than the bath particles. The thermodynamic size of the particles may be greater than their hydrodynamic size; the hydrodynamic sizes can be identical with thermodynamic sizes that differ, or vice versa, or a combination of both. The diffusive behavior is set entirely and dually by the proximity with which two particles can approach one another, and by the extent to which this minimum approach distance is occupied by the hydrodynamic size of the forced particle. We find that reducing the size of the probe reduces flow-induced diffusion when hydrodynamic interactions are weak but increases flow-induced diffusion when hydrodynamic interactions are strong-regardless of the strength of external forcing. This behavior owes its origins to a rich evolution of the dominance of hydrodynamic and entropic forces with changes in the relative hydrodynamic and thermodynamic sizes of the particles. PMID:27442485
Probing matrix and tumor mechanics with in situ calibrated optical trap based active microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staunton, Jack Rory; Vieira, Wilfred; Tanner, Kandice; Tissue Morphodynamics Unit Team
Aberrant extracellular matrix deposition and vascularization, concomitant with proliferation and phenotypic changes undergone by cancer cells, alter mechanical properties in the tumor microenvironment during cancer progression. Tumor mechanics conversely influence progression, and the identification of physical biomarkers promise improved diagnostic and prognostic power. Optical trap based active microrheology enables measurement of forces up to 0.5 mm within a sample, allowing interrogation of in vitro biomaterials, ex vivo tissue sections, and small organisms in vivo. We fabricated collagen I hydrogels exhibiting distinct structural properties by tuning polymerization temperature Tp, and measured their shear storage and loss moduli at frequencies 1-15k Hz at multiple amplitudes. Lower Tp gels, with larger pore size but thicker, longer fibers, were stiffer than higher Tp gels; decreasing strain increased loss moduli and decreased storage moduli at low frequencies. We subcutanously injected probes with metastatic murine melanoma cells into mice. The excised tumors displayed storage and loss moduli 40 Pa and 10 Pa at 1 Hz, increasing to 500 Pa and 1 kPa at 15 kHz, respectively.
KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG,MICHAEL; REINELT,DOUGLAS A.
1999-09-01
The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weigand, William; Messmore, Ashley; Anderson, Rae
The sea annelid, Chaetopterus Variopedatus, secretes a bioluminescent mucus that also exhibits complex viscoelastic properties. The constituents of the mucus are relatively unknown but it does play an important role in the development of the worms' parchment-like housing tubes. In order to determine how and why this mucus can exhibit material properties ranging from fluidity to rigidity we perform microrheology experiments. We determine the microscale viscoelastic properties by using optical tweezers to produce small oscillations in the mucus which allow us to determine both the linear storage and loss moduli (G',G'') along with the viscosity of the fluid. By varying the size of the microspheres (2-10 µm) and oscillation amplitude (.5-10 µm) we are able to determine the dominant intrinsic length scales of the molecular mesh comprising the mucus. By varying the oscillation frequency (1-15Hz) we determine the crossover frequency at which G' surpasses G'', to quantify the longest relaxation time of the mesh network. Initial results show a strong dependence on bead size which indicate that the dominant entanglement lengthscale of the mucus mesh is ~5 um. Microspheres of this size exhibit a wide variety of stress responses in different regions of the mucus demonstrating the substantial microscale heterogeneity of the mucus. We carry out measurements on a population of worms of varying size and age to determine mucus variability between worms.
Bio-Microrheology: A Frontier in Microrheology
Weihs, Daphne; Mason, Thomas G.; Teitell, Michael A.
2006-01-01
Cells continuously adapt to changing conditions through coordinated molecular and mechanical responses. This adaptation requires the transport of molecules and signaling through intracellular regions with differing material properties, such as variations in viscosity or elasticity. To determine the impact of regional variations on cell structure and physiology, an approach, termed bio-microrheology, or the study of deformation and flow of biological materials at small length scales has emerged. By tracking the thermal and driven motion of probe particles, organelles, or molecules, the local physical environment in distinct subcellular regions can be explored. On the surface or inside cells, tracking the motion of particles can reveal the rheological properties that influence cell features, such as shape and metastatic potential. Cellular microrheology promises to improve our concepts of regional and integrated properties, structures, and transport in live cells. Since bio-microrheology is an evolving methodology, many specific details, such as how to interpret complex combinations of thermally mediated and directed probe transport, remain to be fully explained. This work reviews the current state of the field and discusses the utility and challenges of this emerging approach. PMID:16963507
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uribe, Andres Cordoba
The mechanical properties of soft biological materials are essential to their physiological function and cannot easily be duplicated by synthetic materials. The study of the mechanical properties of biological materials has lead to the development of new rheological characterization techniques. In the technique called passive microbead rheology, the positional autocorrelation function of a micron-sized bead embedded in a viscoelastic fluid is used to infer the dynamic modulus of the fluid. Single particle microrheology is limited to fluids were the microstructure is much smaller than the size of the probe bead. To overcome this limitation in two-bead microrheology the cross-correlated thermal motion of pairs of tracer particles is used to determine the dynamic modulus. Here we present a time-domain data analysis methodology and generalized Brownian dynamics simulations to examine the effects of inertia, hydrodynamic interaction, compressibility and non-conservative forces in passive microrheology. A type of biological material that has proven specially challenging to characterize are active gels. They are formed by semiflexible polymer filaments driven by motor proteins that convert chemical energy from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to mechanical work and motion. Active gels perform essential functions in living tissue. Here we introduce a single-chain mean-field model to describe the mechanical properties of active gels. We model the semiflexible filaments as bead-spring chains and the molecular motors are accounted for by using a mean-field approach. The level of description of the model includes the end-to-end length and attachment state of the filaments, and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The model allows accounting for physics that are not available in models that have been postulated on coarser levels of description. Moreover it allows
Anisotropy and probe-medium interactions in the microrheology of nematic fluids.
Cordoba, Andres; Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin; de Pablo, Juan J.
2016-01-01
A theoretical formalism is presented to analyze and interpret microrheology experiments in anisotropic fluids with nematic order. The predictions of that approach are examined in the context of a simple coarse-grained molecular model which is simulated using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics calculations. The proposed formalism is used to study the effect of confinement, the type of anchoring at the probe-particle surface, and the strength of the nematic field on the rheological response functions obtained from probe-particle active microrheology. As expected, a stronger nematic field leads to increased anisotropy in the rheological response of the material. It is also found that the defect structures that arise around the probe particle, which are determined by the type of anchoring and the particle size, have a significant effect on the rheological response observed in microrheology simulations. Independent estimates of the bulk dynamic modulus of the model nematic fluid considered here are obtained from small-amplitude oscillatory shear simulations with Lees Edwards boundary conditions. The results of simulations indicate that the dynamic modulus extracted from particle-probe microrheology is different from that obtained in the absence of the particle, but that the differences decrease as the size of the defect also decreases. Importantly, the results of the nematic microrheology theory proposed here are in much closer agreement with simulations than those from earlier formalisms conceived for isotropic fluids. As such, it is anticipated that the theoretical framework advanced in this study could provide a useful tool for interpretation of microrheology experiments in systems such as liquid crystals and confined macromolecular solutions or gels.
Single- and dual-bead microrheology of semiflexiblefd virus solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Addas, Karim M.
this well-defined system of monodisperse virus solutions. The results are also compared with an active microrheology method. In the active method, an oscillatory magnetic force is applied to single micron-sized magnetic beads and the complex shear modulus is derived from the response of the bead. Measurements are also shown for a rotating disk macrorheology technique. The results from the three methods agree within experimental errors.
Passive cellular microrheology in developing fruit fly embryos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crews, Sarah; Ma, Xiaoyan; Lawrence, Stacey; Hutson, M. Shane
2012-02-01
The development of fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos involves spatial and temporal regulation of cellular mechanical properties. These properties can be probed in vivo using laser hole drilling experiments; however, this technique only infers relative forces. Conversion to absolute forces requires measurement of cellular viscoelastic properties. Here, we use passive microrheology of fluorescently labeled cell membranes to measure the viscoelastic properties of amnioserosa cells. These dynamic epithelial cells play an important mechanical role during two developmental stages: germ band retraction and dorsal closure. Passive microrheology in this system is confounded by active contractions in the cytoskeleton. Thus, the fruit fly embryos are transiently anesthetized with CO2, halting active cellular movements, leaving only passive Brownian motion. The power spectra of these fluctuations are well fit by a Lorentzian -- as expected for Brownian motion -- and allow us to extract cellular viscoelastic parameters at different developmental stages. These measured parameters inform previous hole-drilling experiments and provide inputs for quantitative computational models of fruit fly embryonic development.
One-particle microrheology at liquid-liquid interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian; Dai, Lenore L.
2006-08-01
The authors use Pickering emulsions as a model system to investigate the dynamics of charged microparticles at polydimethylsiloxane (oil)-water interfaces using confocal laser scanning microscopy. More importantly, they have explored the potential of developing one-particle microrheology at liquid-liquid interfaces. The complex, loss, and storage moduli of oil-water interfaces as a function of frequency measured from microrheology are compared with those of bulk oils measured from a conventional rheometer and developed bulk microrheology. The nature of the tracer particles plays an important role in one-particle microrheology at liquid-liquid interfaces.
New analysis method for passive microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishi, Kengo; Schmidt, Christoph; Mackintosh, Fred
Passive microrheology is an experimental technique used to measure the mechanical response of materials from the fluctuations of micron-sized beads embedded in the medium. Microrheology is well suited to study rheological properties of materials that are difficult to obtain in larger amounts and also of materials inside of single cells. In one common approach, one uses the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to obtain the imaginary part of the material response function from the power spectral density of bead displacement fluctuations, while the real part of the response function is calculated using a Kramers-Kronig integral. The high-frequency cut-off of this integral strongly affects the real part of the response function in the high frequency region. Here, we discuss how to obtain more accurate values of the real part of the response function by an alternative method using autocorrelation functions.
Python algorithms in particle tracking microrheology
2012-01-01
Background Particle tracking passive microrheology relates recorded trajectories of microbeads, embedded in soft samples, to the local mechanical properties of the sample. The method requires intensive numerical data processing and tools allowing control of the calculation errors. Results We report the development of a software package collecting functions and scripts written in Python for automated and manual data processing, to extract viscoelastic information about the sample using recorded particle trajectories. The resulting program package analyzes the fundamental diffusion characteristics of particle trajectories and calculates the frequency dependent complex shear modulus using methods published in the literature. In order to increase conversion accuracy, segmentwise, double step, range-adaptive fitting and dynamic sampling algorithms are introduced to interpolate the data in a splinelike manner. Conclusions The presented set of algorithms allows for flexible data processing for particle tracking microrheology. The package presents improved algorithms for mean square displacement estimation, controlling effects of frame loss during recording, and a novel numerical conversion method using segmentwise interpolation, decreasing the conversion error from about 100% to the order of 1%. PMID:23186362
Modeling of active and passive nonlinear metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colestock, Patrick L.; Reiten, Matthew T.; O'Hara, John F.
2012-11-01
We develop general results for nonlinear metamaterials based on simple circuit models that reflect the elementary nonlinear behavior of the medium. In particular, we consider both active and passive nonlinearities which can lead to gain, harmonic generation and a variety of nonlinear waves depending on circuit parameters and signal amplitude. We show that the medium can exhibit a phase transition to a synchronized state and derive conditions for the transformation based on a widely used multiple time scale approach that leads to the well-known Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. Further, we examine the variety of nonlinear waves that can exist in such systems, and we present numerical results for both active and passive metamaterial cases.
Two-point particle tracking microrheology of nematic complex fluids.
Gómez-González, Manuel; Del Álamo, Juan C
2016-06-29
Many biological and technological complex fluids exhibit tight microstructural alignment that confers them nematic mechanical properties. Among these we count liquid crystals and biopolymer networks, which are often available in microscopic amounts. However, current microrheological methods cannot measure the directional viscoelastic coefficients that appear in the constitutive relation of nematic complex fluids. This article presents directional two-point particle-tracking microrheology (D2PTM) - a novel microrheology technique to determine these coefficients. We establish the theoretical foundation for D2PTM by analyzing the motion of a probing microscopic particle embedded in a nematic complex fluid, and the mutual hydrodynamic interactions between pairs of distant particles. From this analysis, we generalize the formulation of two-point particle tracking microrheology for nematic complex fluids, and demonstrate that the new formulation provides sufficient information to fully characterize the anisotropic viscoelastic coefficients of such materials. We test D2PTM by simulating the Brownian motion of particles in nematic viscoelastic fluids with prescribed directional frequency-dependent shear moduli, showing that D2PTM accurately recovers the prescribed shear moduli. Furthermore, we experimentally validate D2PTM by applying it to a lyotropic nematic liquid crystal, and demonstrate that this new microrheology method provides results in agreement with dynamic light scattering measurements. Lastly, we illustrate the experimental application of the new technique to characterize nematic F-actin solutions. These experiments constitute the first microrheological measurement of the directional viscoelastic coefficients of an anisotropic soft material.
Microrheology close to an equilibrium phase transition
Reinhardt, J.; Scacchi, A.; Brader, J. M.
2014-04-14
We investigate the microstructural and microrheological response to a tracer particle of a two-dimensional colloidal suspension under thermodynamic conditions close to a liquid-gas phase boundary. On the liquid side of the binodal, increasing the velocity of the (repulsive) tracer leads to the development of a pronounced cavitation bubble, within which the concentration of colloidal particles is strongly depleted. The tendency of the liquid to cavitate is characterized by a dimensionless “colloidal cavitation” number. On the gas side of the binodal, a pulled (attractive) tracer leaves behind it an extended trail of colloidal liquid, arising from downstream advection of a wetting layer on its surface. For both situations the velocity dependent friction is calculated.
Thinning and thickening in active microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ting; Sperl, Matthias
2016-02-01
When pulling a probe particle in a many-particle system at a fixed velocity, the probe's effective friction, defined as the average external force over its velocity, γeff:=
Active microrheology in a colloidal glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, M.; Abade, G. C.; Puertas, A. M.; Fuchs, M.
2016-10-01
We study the dynamics of a probe particle driven by a constant force through a colloidal glass of hard spheres. This nonequilibrium and anisotropic problem is investigated using a new implementation of the mode-coupling approximation with multiple relaxation channels and Langevin dynamics simulations. A force threshold is found, below which the probe remains localized, while above it the probe acquires a finite velocity. We focus on the localized regime, comparing theory and simulations concerning the dynamics in the length scale of the cage and the properties of the transition to the delocalized regime, such as the critical power-law decay of the probe correlation function. Probe van Hove functions predicted by the theory show exponential tails reminiscent of an intermittent dynamics of the probe. This scenario is microscopically supported by simulations.
Thinning and thickening in active microrheology.
Wang, Ting; Sperl, Matthias
2016-02-01
When pulling a probe particle in a many-particle system at a fixed velocity, the probe's effective friction, defined as the average external force over its velocity, γ(eff):=〈F(ex)〉/u, first stays constant (linear response), then decreases (thinning), and, finally, increases again (thickening). We propose a three-time-scale picture to describe the thinning and thickening behavior. There are three distinct time scales for the bath particles: diffusion, damping, and single probe-bath collision. The dominating time scales are controlled by the pulling velocity and determine the behavior of the probe's friction. We test and confirm this description with a Langevin dynamics simulation. Microscopically, we find that for computing the effective friction, the Maxwellian distribution of bath particles' velocities fails in the regime of high Reynolds and Peclet numbers. This can be understood based on the microscopic mechanism of thickening obtained in the T=0 limit. The dynamic regimes defined by the ratio of different time scales can explain several observations of thinning and thickening in literature. PMID:26986376
Active microrheology of fluids inside developing zebrafish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taormina, Mike; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer
2014-03-01
Biological fluids are a source of diverse and interesting behavior for the soft matter physicist. Since their mechanical properties must be tuned to fulfill functional roles important to the development and health of living things, they often display complex behavior on length and time scales spanning many orders of magnitude. For microbes colonizing an animal host, for example, the mechanical properties of the host environment are of great importance, affecting mobility and hence the ability to establish a stable population. Indeed, some species possess the ability to affect the fluidity of their environment, both directly by chemically modifying it, and indirectly by influencing the host cells' secretion of mucus. Driving magnetically doped micron-scale probes which have been orally micro-gavaged into the intestinal bulb of a larval zebrafish allows the rheology of the mucosal layer within the fish to be measured over three decades of frequency, complementing ecological data on microbial colonization with physical information about the gut environment. Here, we describe the technique, provide the first measurement of mucosal viscosity in a developing animal, and explore the technique's applicability to other small-volume or spatially inhomogeneous fluid samples.
- and Two-Bead Microrheology in Semiflexible Biopolymer Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Christoph
2002-03-01
We have used one and two-particle microrheology, employing micron-sized embedded beads and laser interferometric displacement detection, to study the rheological properties of entangled solutions of semiflexible biopolymers. Microrheology has distinct advantages over conventional macrorheology, particularly in expanding the bandwidth of detection, in probing true linear response, and in making it possible to measure solvent draining compressional elastic modes. Experiments on the filamentous fd virus will be reported. Thermal fluctuations of the embedded probes were measured and the viscoelastic parameters of the embedding medium were derived. In two-particle microrheology the correlated motions of two identical particles separated by a varying distance in the medium are analyzed, which can avoid biased results due to surface depletion effects near the probes. Particular emphasis was placed on the comparison between the one- and two-particle results.
Intracellular Microrheology of Motile Amoeba proteus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, S.; Waigh, T.; Lu, J.
2008-04-01
The motility of motile Amoeba proteus was examined using the technique of passive particle tracking microrheology, with the aid of newly-developed particle tracking software, a fast digital camera and an optical microscope. We tracked large numbers of endogeneous particles in the amoebae, which displayed subdiffusive motion at short time scales, corresponding to thermal motion in a viscoelastic medium, and superdiffusive motion at long time scales due to the convection of the cytoplasm. Subdiffusive motion was characterised by a rheological scaling exponent of 3/4 in the cortex, indicative of the semiflexible dynamics of the actin fibres. We observed shear-thinning in the flowing endoplasm, where exponents increased with increasing flow rate; i.e. the endoplasm became more fluid-like. The rheology of the cortex is found to be isotropic, reflecting an isotropic actin gel. A clear difference was seen between cortical and endoplasmic layers in terms of both viscoelasticity and flow velocity, where the profile of the latter is close to a Poiseuille flow for a Newtonian fluid.
Microrheology using a custom-made AFM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Benzaquen, Michael; Steinberger, Audrey
In the past few years, a new method was developed to measure local properties of liquids (X. Xiong et al., Phys. Rev. E 80, 2009). This method consists of gluing a micron-sized glass fiber at the tip of an AFM cantilever and probing the liquid with it. In ENS Lyon, this method was perfected (C. Devailly et al., EPL, 106 5, 2014) with the help of an interferometer developped in the same laboratory (L. Bellon et al., Opt. Commun. 207 49, 2002 and P. Paolino et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 2013), which background noise can reach 10-14 m /√{ Hz } . This method allows us to measure a wide range of viscosities (1 mPa . s to 500 mPa . s) of transparent and opaque fluids using a small sample volume ( 5 mL). In this presentation, I will briefly describe the interferometer developped in ENS Lyon, then explain precisely the microrheology measurements and then compare the experimental results to a model developped by M. Benzaquen. This work is supported financially by the ANR project NANOFLUIDYN (Grant Number ANR-13-BS10-0009).
Two-particle microrheology at oil-water interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chih-yuan; Song, Yanmei; Dai, Lenore L.
2009-10-01
We have explored and validated two-particle (2P) microrheology at polydimethylsiloxane (oil)-water interfaces using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The loss and storage moduli of the oil-water interfaces as a function of frequency are quantified using different tracer particles. In contrast to one-particle interfacial microrheology in which the measured rheological results depend largely on the surface chemistry of tracer particles, the work here suggests that 2P tracking significantly minimizes the tracer particle effect. The viscous response dominates the oil-water interfaces and varies linearly with frequency, over the experimental range of the oil viscosity and frequency.
Tracer microrheology study of a hydrophobically modified comblike associative polymer.
Abdala, Ahmed A; Amin, Samiul; van Zanten, John H; Khan, Saad A
2015-04-01
The viscoelastic properties of associative polymers are important not only for their use as rheology modifiers but also to understand their complex structure in aqueous media. In this study, the dynamics of comblike hydrophobically modified alkali swellable associative (HASE) polymers are probed using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) based tracer microrheology. DWS-based tracer microrheology accurately probes the dynamics of HASE polymers, and the extracted microrheological moduli versus frequency profile obtained from this technique closely matches that obtained from rotational rheometry measurements. Quantitatively, however, the moduli extracted from DWS-based tracer microrheology measurements are slightly higher than those obtained using rotational rheometry. The creep compliance, elastic modulus, and relaxation time concentration scaling behavior exhibits a power-law dependence. The length scale associated with the elastic to glassy behavior change is obtained from the time-dependent diffusion coefficient. The Zimm-Rouse type scaling is recovered at high frequencies but shows a concentration effect switching from Zimm to more Rouse-like behavior at higher concentrations.
Microrheology and Particle Dynamics at Liquid-Liquid Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yanmei
The rheological properties at liquid-liquid interfaces are important in many industrial processes such as manufacturing foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and petroleum products. This dissertation focuses on the study of linear viscoelastic properties at liquid-liquid interfaces by tracking the thermal motion of particles confined at the interfaces. The technique of interfacial microrheology is first developed using one- and two-particle tracking, respectively. In one-particle interfacial microrheology, the rheological response at the interface is measured from the motion of individual particles. One-particle interfacial microrheology at polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oil-water interfaces depends strongly on the surface chemistry of different tracer particles. In contrast, by tracking the correlated motion of particle pairs, two-particle interfacial microrheology significantly minimizes the effects from tracer particle surface chemistry and particle size. Two-particle interfacial microrheology is further applied to study the linear viscoelastic properties of immiscible polymer-polymer interfaces. The interfacial loss and storage moduli at PDMS-polyethylene glycol (PEG) interfaces are measured over a wide frequency range. The zero-shear interfacial viscosity, estimated from the Cross model, falls between the bulk viscosities of two individual polymers. Surprisingly, the interfacial relaxation time is observed to be an order of magnitude larger than that of the PDMS bulk polymers. To explore the fundamental basis of interfacial nanorheology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to investigate the nanoparticle dynamics. The diffusion of single nanoparticles in pure water and low-viscosity PDMS oils is reasonably consistent with the prediction by the Stokes-Einstein equation. To demonstrate the potential of nanorheology based on the motion of nanoparticles, the shear moduli and viscosities of the bulk phases and interfaces are calculated from single
Microrheology of bacterial biofilms in vitro: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Rogers, S S; van der Walle, C; Waigh, T A
2008-12-01
The rheology of bacterial biofilms at the micron scale is an important step to understanding the communal lifecycles of bacteria that adhere to solid surfaces, as it measures how they mutually adhere and desorb. Improvements in particle-tracking software and imaging hardware have allowed us to successfully employ particle-tracking microrheology to measuring single-species bacterial biofilms, based on Staphlococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By tracking displacements of the cells at a range of timescales, we separate active and thermal contributions to the cell motion. The S. aureus biofilms in particular show power-law rheology, in common with other dense colloidal suspensions. By calculating the mean compliance of S. aureus biofilms, we observe them becoming less compliant during growth, and more compliant during starvation. The biofilms are rheologically inhomogeneous on the micron scale, as a result of the strength of initial adhesion to the flow cell surface, the arrangement of individual bacteria, and larger-scale structures such as flocs of P. aeruginosa. Our S. aureus biofilms became homogeneous as a function of height as they matured: the rheological environment experienced by a bacterium became independent of how far it lived from the flow cell surface. Particle-tracking microrheology provides a quantitative measure of the "strength" of a biofilm. It may therefore prove useful in identifying drug targets and characterizing the effect of specific molecular changes on the micron-scale rheology of biofilms.
Advances in active and nonlinear metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boardman, A. D.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Rapoport, Y. G.
2012-09-01
Metamaterial research is an extremely important global activity that promises to change our lives in many different ways. These include making objects invisible and the dramatic impact of metamaterials upon the energy and medical sectors of society. Behind all of the applications, however, lies the business of creating metamaterials that are not going to be crippled by the kind of loss that is naturally heralded by use of resonant responses in their construction. Under the general heading of active and tunable metamaterials, an elegant route to the inclusion of nonlinearity and waveguide complexity coupled to soliton behavior suggested by forms of transformation dynamics is presented. In addition, various discussions will be framed within a magnetooptical environment that deploys externally applied magnetic field orientations. Light can then be directed to achieve energy control and be deployed for a variety of outcomes. Quite apart from the fact that the manufacture of metamaterials is attracting such a lot of global attention, the ability to control light, for example, in these materials is also immensely interesting and will lead to a new dawn of integrated circuits and computers. Recognizing the role of nonlinearity raises the possibility that dramatic manufacturing and applications are on the horizon.
Hydrodynamics of soap films probed by two-particle microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Vikram; Weeks, Eric R.
2007-11-01
A soap film consists of a thin water layer that is separated from two bulk air phases above and below it by surfactant monolayers. The flow fields in the soap film created in response to a perturbation depend on coupling between these different phases, the exact nature of which is unknown. In order to determine this coupling, we use polystyrene spheres as tracer particles and track their diffusive motions in the soap film. The correlated Brownian motion of pairs of particles (two-particle microrheology) maps out the flow field, and provides a measure of the surface viscosity of the soap film as well. This measured surface viscosity agrees well with the value obtained from self diffusion of single particles (one-particle microrheology) in the film.
Parallel temperature-dependent microrheological measurements in a microfluidic chip.
Josephson, Lilian Lam; Galush, William J; Furst, Eric M
2016-07-01
Microfluidic stickers are used as a sample environment to measure the microrheology of monoclonal antibody (mAb) protein solutions. A Peltier-based microscope stage is implemented and validated, and is capable of controlling the sample temperature over the range 0.9-40 °C. The design accounts for heat transfer to and from the objective, controls the sample environment humidity to mitigate condensation, and provides adequate damping to reduce vibration from the cooling system. A concentrated sucrose solution is used as a standard sample to provide an in situ temperature measurement by the Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland relation. By combining microfluidic stickers and microrheology, 72 temperature-concentration viscosity measurements of mAb solutions can be made in 1 day, a significant increase in throughput over conventional rheometry. PMID:27375825
Gelation kinetics of gelatin using particle tracking microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama
2012-02-01
Previous studies with gelatin have observed four distinct stages during the physical gelation process [Normand et al. Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 1063]. In this presentation we report measurements of microrheology in an effort to examine the time evolution of the gel on short length scales and time scales. By tracking latex particles in gelatin solution at different temperatures we can follow the microrheological changes and kinetics of the gelation process. Using the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation viscoelastic properties of these quasi-static gel states the evolution of the storage and loss moduli, G' and G'', are examined as functions of both time and temperature. The data show that both G' and G'' exhibit power law scaling versus frequency with the same exponent. The temperature and concentration dependence of the frequency at which the system crosses over from viscous to elastic behavior will be presented.
Diffusive mixing of polymers investigated by Raman microspectroscopy and microrheology.
Jonás, A; De Luca, A C; Pesce, G; Rusciano, G; Sasso, A; Caserta, S; Guido, S; Marrucci, G
2010-09-01
Diffusive mixing in a model polymer blend of limited miscibility (i.e., the pair polydimethylsiloxane/polyisobutene) is investigated. The diffusion process is followed in the actual droplet-based microstructure of the polymer blend, as opposed to the ideal planar geometry used in previous studies (Brochard et al. Macromolecules 1983, 16, 1638; Composto et al. Nature 1987, 328, 234). In our experiments we combine Raman microspectroscopy and video particle-tracking microrheology. The first technique allows us to monitor local concentration of the two polymers with high spatial resolution both inside and outside a micrometer-size droplet of the dispersed phase. In addition, microrheology enables to follow how the local viscosity inside the droplet changes during the diffusion. The polymer viscosity inside the droplet is determined by video tracking the Brownian motion of a polystyrene bead microinjected into the droplet. The microspectroscopic and microrheological data are combined to estimate the concentration dependence of the monomer friction factor of the two species, which is a key parameter to calculate the interdiffusion coefficient D. Numerical calculations based on such concentration-dependent interdiffusion coefficient D and several alternative models of the polymer diffusion are compared to the experimental concentration profiles. A satisfactory agreement is found for the so-called "slow theory" (Brochard et al.). A phenomenological model improving the agreement of the model with the experimental data is also presented.
Studying microstructural dynamics of complex fluids with particle tracking microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breedveld, Victor
2004-11-01
Over the last decade, particle tracking microrheology has matured as a new tool for complex fluids research. The main advantages of microrheology over traditional macroscopic rheometry are: the required sample size is extremely small ( ˜ 1 microliter); local viscoelastic properties in a sample can be probed with high spatial resolution ( ˜1-10 micrometer); and the sample is not disturbed by moving rheometer parts. I will present two examples of recent work in my group that highlight how these characteristics can be exploited to acquire unique information about the microstructure of complex fluids. First, we have studied protein unfolding. Traditionally, protein unfolding is studied with spectroscopic techniques (circular dichroism, NMR, fluorescence). Although viscosity has been listed in textbooks as a suitable technique, few -if any- quantitative rheological studies of unfolding have been reported, mainly due to technical difficulties. With microrheology, we have been able to quantify the size of the folded and unfolded protein, as well as the Gibbs free energy of unfolding, for aqueous bovine serum albumine solutions upon addition of urea as a denaturant. The results are in excellent agreement with literature data. Secondly, we have developed new technology for studying the microstructural dynamics of solvent-responsive complex fluids. In macroscopic rheometry it is virtually impossible to change solvent composition and measure the rheological response of a sample. By integrating microfluidics and microrheology we have been able to overcome this barrier: due to the micrometer lengthscales in microfluidiv devices, diffusive timescales in a dialysis set-up become short enough to achieve rapid and reversible changes in sample composition, without affecting the concentration of macromolecular components. Our dialysis cell for microrheology is a unique tool for studying the dynamics of structural and rheological changes induced by solvent composition. I will
Szluha, Kornelia; Lazanyi, Kornelia; Furka, Andrea; Kiss, Ferenc; Szabo, Imre; Pintye, Eva; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert
2014-01-01
Despite of the studies on widespread biological effects of irradiation, surprisingly only little number of papers can be found dealing with its in vivo hemorheological impact. Furthermore, other studies suggested that low-dose irradiation might differ from high-dose in more than linear ways. On Balb/c Jackson female adult mice hematological and hemorheological impacts of total body irradiation were investigated 1 hour following 0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 Gy dose irradiation. In case of 0.01 Gy further groups were analyzed 30 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. According to the results, it seems that the dose-dependent changes of blood micro-rheological parameters are not linear. The irradiation dose of 0.01 Gy acted as a point of 'inflexion', because by this dose we found the most expressed changes in hematological parameters, as well as in red blood cell aggregation, deformability and osmoscan data. The time-dependent changes showed progressive decrease in pH, rise in lactate concentration, further decrease in erythrocyte aggregation index and deformability, with moderate shifting of the optimal osmolarity point and modulation in membrane stability. As conclusion, low-dose total body irradiation may cause micro-rheological changes, being non-linearly correlated with the irradiation dose.
Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Mengxin; Plum, Eric; Xu, Jingjun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2012-05-01
In 1950, a quarter of a century after his first-ever nonlinear optical experiment when intensity-dependent absorption was observed in uranium-doped glass, Sergey Vavilov predicted that birefringence, dichroism and polarization rotatory power should be dependent on light intensity. It required the invention of the laser to observe the barely detectable effect of light intensity on the polarization rotatory power of the optically active lithium iodate crystal, the phenomenon now known as the nonlinear optical activity, a high-intensity counterpart of the fundamental optical effect of polarization rotation in chiral media. Here we report that a plasmonic metamaterial exhibits nonlinear optical activity 30 million times stronger than lithium iodate crystals, thus transforming this fundamental phenomenon of polarization nonlinear optics from an esoteric phenomenon into a major effect of nonlinear plasmonics with potential for practical applications.
Resolving the Role of Actoymyosin Contractility in Cell Microrheology
Hale, Christopher M.; Sun, Sean X.; Wirtz, Denis
2009-01-01
Einstein's original description of Brownian motion established a direct relationship between thermally-excited random forces and the transport properties of a submicron particle in a viscous liquid. Recent work based on reconstituted actin filament networks suggests that nonthermal forces driven by the motor protein myosin II can induce large non-equilibrium fluctuations that dominate the motion of particles in cytoskeletal networks. Here, using high-resolution particle tracking, we find that thermal forces, not myosin-induced fluctuating forces, drive the motion of submicron particles embedded in the cytoskeleton of living cells. These results resolve the roles of myosin II and contractile actomyosin structures in the motion of nanoparticles lodged in the cytoplasm, reveal the biphasic mechanical architecture of adherent cells—stiff contractile stress fibers interdigitating in a network at the cell cortex and a soft actin meshwork in the body of the cell, validate the method of particle tracking-microrheology, and reconcile seemingly disparate atomic force microscopy (AFM) and particle-tracking microrheology measurements of living cells. PMID:19756147
Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael
2016-08-20
Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.
Surface adsorption and hopping cause probe-size-dependent microrheology of actin networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jun; Tang, Jay X.
2011-04-01
A network of filaments formed primarily by the abundant cytoskeletal protein actin gives animal cells their shape and elasticity. The rheological properties of reconstituted actin networks have been studied by tracking micron-sized probe beads embedded within the networks. We investigate how microrheology depends on surface properties of probe particles by varying the stickiness of their surface. For this purpose, we chose carboxylate polystyrene (PS) beads, silica beads, bovine serum albumin (BSA) -coated PS beads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) -grafted PS beads, which show descending stickiness to actin filaments, characterized by confocal imaging and microrheology. Probe size dependence of microrheology is observed for all four types of beads. For the slippery PEG beads, particle-tracking microrheology detects weaker networks using smaller beads, which tend to diffuse through the network by hopping from one confinement “cage” to another. This trend is reversed for the other three types of beads, for which microrheology measures stiffer networks for smaller beads due to physisorption of nearby filaments to the bead surface. We explain the probe size dependence with two simple models. We also evaluate depletion effect near nonadsorption bead surface using quantitative image analysis and discuss the possible impact of depletion on microrheology. Analysis of these effects is necessary in order to accurately define the actin network rheology both in vitro and in vivo.
The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport
Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej
2016-01-01
We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality. PMID:27640818
The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport.
Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej
2016-01-01
We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality. PMID:27640818
The Asymmetric Active Coupler: Stable Nonlinear Supermodes and Directed Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kominis, Yannis; Bountis, Tassos; Flach, Sergej
2016-09-01
We consider the asymmetric active coupler (AAC) consisting of two coupled dissimilar waveguides with gain and loss. We show that under generic conditions, not restricted by parity-time symmetry, there exist finite-power, constant-intensity nonlinear supermodes (NS), resulting from the balance between gain, loss, nonlinearity, coupling and dissimilarity. The system is shown to possess non-reciprocal dynamics enabling directed power transport functionality.
Colloidal suspensions of C-particles: Entanglement, percolation and microrheology.
Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut
2016-05-01
We explore structural and dynamical behavior of concentrated colloidal suspensions made up by C-shape particles using Brownian dynamics computer simulations and theory. In particular, we focus on the entanglement process between nearby particles for almost closed C-shapes with a small opening angle. Depending on the opening angle and the particle concentration, there is a percolation transition for the cluster of entangled particles which shows the classical scaling characteristics. In a broad density range below the percolation threshold, we find a stretched exponential function for the dynamical decorrelation of the entanglement process. Finally, we study a setup typical in microrheology by dragging a single tagged particle with constant speed through the suspension. We measure the cluster connected to and dragged with this tagged particle. In agreement with a phenomenological theory, the size of the dragged cluster depends on the dragging direction and increases markedly with the dragging speed.
1- and 2-particle Microrheology of Hyaluronic Acid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagan, Austin; Kearns, Sarah; Ross, David; Das, Moumita; Thurston, George; Franklin, Scott
2015-03-01
Hyaluronic acid (also called HA or Hyaluronan) is a high molecular weight polysaccaride ubiquitous in the extracellular matrix of soft tissue such as cartilage, skin, the eye's vitreous gel and synovial fluid. It has been shown to play an important role in mechanotransduction, cell migration and proliferation, and in tissue morphodynamics. We present a confocal microrheology study of hyaluronic acid of varying concentrations. The mean squared displacement (MSD) of sub-micron colloidal tracer particles is tracked in two dimensions and shows a transition from diffusive motion at low concentrations to small-time trapping by the protein network as the concentration increases. Correlations between particle motion can be used to determine an effective mean-squared displacement which deviates from the single-particle MSD as the fluid becomes less homogeneous. The real and effective mean-squared displacements are used to probe the local and space-averaged frequency dependent rheological properties of the fluid as the concentration changes.
Colloidal suspensions of C-particles: Entanglement, percolation and microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut
2016-05-01
We explore structural and dynamical behavior of concentrated colloidal suspensions made up by C-shape particles using Brownian dynamics computer simulations and theory. In particular, we focus on the entanglement process between nearby particles for almost closed C-shapes with a small opening angle. Depending on the opening angle and the particle concentration, there is a percolation transition for the cluster of entangled particles which shows the classical scaling characteristics. In a broad density range below the percolation threshold, we find a stretched exponential function for the dynamical decorrelation of the entanglement process. Finally, we study a setup typical in microrheology by dragging a single tagged particle with constant speed through the suspension. We measure the cluster connected to and dragged with this tagged particle. In agreement with a phenomenological theory, the size of the dragged cluster depends on the dragging direction and increases markedly with the dragging speed.
Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials
Zhu, Yu; Chai, Zhen; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong Gong, Qihuang
2015-03-02
An all-optical tunabe chirality is realized in a photonic metamaterial, the metamolecule of which consists of a nonlinear nano-Au:polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer sandwiched between two L-shaped gold nano-antennas twisted 90° with each other. The maximum circular dichroism reached 30%. Under excitation of a 40 kW/cm{sup 2} weak pump light, the peak in the circular dichroism shifts 45 nm in the short-wavelength direction. An ultrafast response time of 35 ps is maintained. This work not only opens up the possibility for the realization of ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable chirality but also offers a way to construct ultrahigh-speed on-chip biochemical sensors.
A Solar Cycle Dependence of Nonlinearity in Magnetospheric Activity
Johnson, Jay R; Wing, Simon
2005-03-08
The nonlinear dependencies inherent to the historical K(sub)p data stream (1932-2003) are examined using mutual information and cumulant based cost as discriminating statistics. The discriminating statistics are compared with surrogate data streams that are constructed using the corrected amplitude adjustment Fourier transform (CAAFT) method and capture the linear properties of the original K(sub)p data. Differences are regularly seen in the discriminating statistics a few years prior to solar minima, while no differences are apparent at the time of solar maximum. These results suggest that the dynamics of the magnetosphere tend to be more linear at solar maximum than at solar minimum. The strong nonlinear dependencies tend to peak on a timescale around 40-50 hours and are statistically significant up to one week. Because the solar wind driver variables, VB(sub)s and dynamical pressure exhibit a much shorter decorrelation time for nonlinearities, the results seem to indicate that the nonlinearity is related to internal magnetospheric dynamics. Moreover, the timescales for the nonlinearity seem to be on the same order as that for storm/ring current relaxation. We suggest that the strong solar wind driving that occurs around solar maximum dominates the magnetospheric dynamics suppressing the internal magnetospheric nonlinearity. On the other hand, in the descending phase of the solar cycle just prior to solar minimum, when magnetospheric activity is weaker, the dynamics exhibit a significant nonlinear internal magnetospheric response that may be related to increased solar wind speed.
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. [Threshold unstable MHD activity
Not Available
1992-01-01
Theoretical predictions were compared with available data from JET on the threshold unstable MHD activity in toroidal confinement devices. In particular, questions arising as to Hartmans number and the selection of a kinematic viscosity are discussed.
Impact of Dimensionality and Network Disruption on Microrheology of Cancer Cells in 3D Environments
Mak, Michael
2014-01-01
Dimensionality is a fundamental component that can have profound implications on the characteristics of physical systems. In cell biology, however, the majority of studies on cell physical properties, from rheology to force generation to migration, have been performed on 2D substrates, and it is not clear how a more realistic 3D environment influences cell properties. Here, we develop an integrated approach and demonstrate the combination of mitochondria-tracking microrheology, microfluidics, and Brownian dynamics simulations to explore the impact of dimensionality on intracellular mechanics and on the effects of intracellular disruption. Additionally, we consider both passive thermal and active motor-driven processes within the cell and demonstrate through modeling how active internal fluctuations are modulated via dimensionality. Our results demonstrate that metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) exhibit more solid-like internal motions in 3D compared to 2D, and actin network disruption via Cytochalasin D has a more pronounced effect on internal cell fluctuations in 2D. Our computational results and modeling show that motor-induced active stress fluctuations are enhanced in 2D, leading to increased local intracellular particle fluctuations and apparent fluid-like behavior. PMID:25412385
Field-dependent anisotropic microrheological and microstructural properties of dilute ferrofluids.
Yendeti, Balaji; Thirupathi, G; Vudaygiri, Ashok; Singh, R
2014-08-01
We have measured microrheological and microstructural properties of a superparamagnetic ferrofluid made of Mn0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4 (MZF) nanoparticles, using passive microrheology in a home-built inverted microscope. Thermal motion of a probe microsphere was measured for different values of an applied external magnetic field and analysed. The analysis shows anisotropy in magneto-viscous effect. Additional microrheological properties, such as storage modulus and loss modulus and their transition are also seen. We have also obtained microstructural properties such as elongational flow coefficient [Formula: see text] , relaxation time constant [Formula: see text] , coefficient of dissipative magnetization [Formula: see text] , etc., using the analysis given in Oliver Muller et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, S2623, (2006) and Stefan Mahle et al., Phys. Rev. E 77, 016305 (2008) over our measured viscosity data. Our values for the above parameters are in agreement with earlier theoretical calculations and macro-rheological experimental measurements. These theoretical calculations consider an ideal situation of zero-shear limit, which is best approximated only in the passive microrheology technique described here and a first time measurement of all these parameters with passive microrheology. PMID:25117500
Probing interfacial dynamics and mechanics using submerged particle microrheology. I. Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shlomovitz, Roie; Evans, Arthur A.; Boatwright, Thomas; Dennin, Michael; Levine, Alex J.
2014-07-01
Microrheology relies on tracking the thermal or driven motion of microscopic particles in a soft material. It is well suited to the study of materials that have no three-dimensional realization, which makes them difficult to study using a macroscopic rheometer. For this reason, microrheology is becoming an important rheological probe of Langmuir monolayers and membranes. Interfacial microrheology, however, has been difficult to reconcile quantitatively with more traditional macroscopic approaches. We suggest that uncertainties in accounting for the mechanical coupling of the tracer particle to the interface or membrane are responsible for these discrepancies. To resolve them, we propose a new non-contact approach to interfacial microrheology that uses particles submerged in the subphase a known distance below the interface. In this first of two papers, we present calculations of the response function (and thus the equilibrium fluctuation spectrum) of a spherical particle submerged below a viscoelastic surface that has a finite surface tension and/or bending modulus. In the second paper, we compare these results to submerged particle microrheology in a few example systems, showing quantitative agreement.
A Hybrid Nonlinear Control Scheme for Active Magnetic Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xia, F.; Albritton, N. G.; Hung, J. Y.; Nelms, R. M.
1996-01-01
A nonlinear control scheme for active magnetic bearings is presented in this work. Magnet winding currents are chosen as control inputs for the electromechanical dynamics, which are linearized using feedback linearization. Then, the desired magnet currents are enforced by sliding mode control design of the electromagnetic dynamics. The overall control scheme is described by a multiple loop block diagram; the approach also falls in the class of nonlinear controls that are collectively known as the 'integrator backstepping' method. Control system hardware and new switching power electronics for implementing the controller are described. Various experiments and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the concepts' potentials.
Fong, Erika J; Sharma, Yasha; Fallica, Brian; Tierney, Dylan B; Fortune, Sarah M; Zaman, Muhammad H
2013-04-01
Probing the physical properties of heterogeneous materials is essential to understand the structure, function and dynamics of complex fluids including cells, mucus, and polymer solutions. Particle tracking microrheology is a useful method to passively probe viscoelastic properties on micron length scales by tracking the thermal motion of beads embedded in the sample. However, errors associated with active motion have limited the implementation to dynamic systems. We present a simple method to decouple active and Brownian motion, enabling particle tracking to be applied to fluctuating heterogeneous systems. We use the movement perpendicular to the major axis of motion in time to calculate rheological properties. Through simulated data we demonstrate that this method removes directed motion and performs equally well when there is no directed motion, with an average percent error of <1%. We use this method to measure glycerol-water mixtures to show the capability to measure a range of materials. Finally, we use this technique to characterize the compliance of human sputum. We also investigate the effect of a liquefaction agent used to prepare sputum for diagnostic purposes. Our results suggest that the addition of high concentration sodium hydroxide increases sample heterogeneity by increasing the maximum observed creep compliance. PMID:23271563
Decoupling directed and passive motion in dynamic systems: particle tracking microrheology of sputum
Fong, Erika J.; Sharma, Yasha; Fallica, Brian; Tierney, Dylan B.; Fortune, Sarah M.; Zaman, Muhammad H.
2013-01-01
Probing the physical properties of heterogeneous materials is essential to understand the structure, function and dynamics of complex fluids including cells, mucus, and polymer solutions. Particle tracking microrheology is a useful method to passively probe viscoelastic properties on micron length scales by tracking the thermal motion of beads embedded in the sample. However, errors associated with active motion have limited the implementation to dynamic systems. We present a simple method to decouple active and Brownian motion, enabling particle tracking to be applied to fluctuating heterogeneous systems. We use the movement perpendicular to the major axis of motion in time to calculate rheological properties. Through simulated data we demonstrate that this method removes directed motion and performs equally well when there is no directed motion, with an average percent error of <1%. We use this method to measure glycerol-water mixtures to show the capability to measure a range of materials. Finally, we use this technique to characterize the compliance of human sputum. We also investigate the effect of a liquefaction agent used to prepare sputum for diagnostic purposes. Our results suggest that the addition of high concentration sodium hydroxide increases sample heterogeneity by increasing the maximum observed creep compliance. PMID:23271563
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papagiannopoulos, A.; Waigh, T. A.; Fluerasu, A.; Fernyhough, C.; Madsen, A.
2005-06-01
We demonstrate the technique of XPCS microrheology on opaque polymeric solutions (1-20% w/w) using colloidal silica probes. The short time decay of the intensity correlation function provides the mean square displacement (MSD) of the colloidal probes. The MSDs of the probes are subsequently transformed using the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation, allowing the linear viscoelastic spectra of a biopolymer (gellan) and a synthetic polyelectrolyte (polystyrene sulfonate, PSS) to be calculated over two decades of frequency. MSDs can be measured that are two orders of magnitude smaller than those possible with video particle tracking microrheology, with a sensitivity of ~10 nm s-1 for displacements of ~nms. The XPCS data for water, glycerol and PSS combs are in agreement with video particle tracking microrheology experiments performed at lower polymer concentrations.
Local collective motion analysis for multi-probe dynamic imaging and microrheology.
Khan, Manas; Mason, Thomas G
2016-08-01
Dynamical artifacts, such as mechanical drift, advection, and hydrodynamic flow, can adversely affect multi-probe dynamic imaging and passive particle-tracking microrheology experiments. Alternatively, active driving by molecular motors can cause interesting non-Brownian motion of probes in local regions. Existing drift-correction techniques, which require large ensembles of probes or fast temporal sampling, are inadequate for handling complex spatio-temporal drifts and non-Brownian motion of localized domains containing relatively few probes. Here, we report an analytical method based on local collective motion (LCM) analysis of as few as two probes for detecting the presence of non-Brownian motion and for accurately eliminating it to reveal the underlying Brownian motion. By calculating an ensemble-average, time-dependent, LCM mean square displacement (MSD) of two or more localized probes and comparing this MSD to constituent single-probe MSDs, we can identify temporal regimes during which either thermal or athermal motion dominates. Single-probe motion, when referenced relative to the moving frame attached to the multi-probe LCM trajectory, provides a true Brownian MSD after scaling by an appropriate correction factor that depends on the number of probes used in LCM analysis. We show that LCM analysis can be used to correct many different dynamical artifacts, including spatially varying drifts, gradient flows, cell motion, time-dependent drift, and temporally varying oscillatory advection, thereby offering a significant improvement over existing approaches. PMID:27269299
Local collective motion analysis for multi-probe dynamic imaging and microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Manas; Mason, Thomas G.
2016-08-01
Dynamical artifacts, such as mechanical drift, advection, and hydrodynamic flow, can adversely affect multi-probe dynamic imaging and passive particle-tracking microrheology experiments. Alternatively, active driving by molecular motors can cause interesting non-Brownian motion of probes in local regions. Existing drift-correction techniques, which require large ensembles of probes or fast temporal sampling, are inadequate for handling complex spatio-temporal drifts and non-Brownian motion of localized domains containing relatively few probes. Here, we report an analytical method based on local collective motion (LCM) analysis of as few as two probes for detecting the presence of non-Brownian motion and for accurately eliminating it to reveal the underlying Brownian motion. By calculating an ensemble-average, time-dependent, LCM mean square displacement (MSD) of two or more localized probes and comparing this MSD to constituent single-probe MSDs, we can identify temporal regimes during which either thermal or athermal motion dominates. Single-probe motion, when referenced relative to the moving frame attached to the multi-probe LCM trajectory, provides a true Brownian MSD after scaling by an appropriate correction factor that depends on the number of probes used in LCM analysis. We show that LCM analysis can be used to correct many different dynamical artifacts, including spatially varying drifts, gradient flows, cell motion, time-dependent drift, and temporally varying oscillatory advection, thereby offering a significant improvement over existing approaches.
Non-contact microrheology at the air-water interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boatwright, Thomas; Shlomovitz, Roie; Levine, Alex; Dennin, Michael
2012-02-01
Mechanical properties of biological interfaces, such as cell membranes, have the potential to be measured with optical tweezers. We report on an approach to measure air-water interfacial properties through microrheology of particles near, but not contacting, the surface. An inverted optical tweezer traps beads of micron size or greater in the bulk, and can then translate them perpendicular to the interface. Through the measurement of thermally driven fluctuations, the mobility of the particle is found to vary as a function of submerged depth and the boundary conditions at the interface. Near a rigid wall, the mobility is confirmed to decrease in a way consistent with Faxèn's law. Very close to the free air-water interface, the mobility changes with the opposite sign, increasing by about 30% at the surface, consistent with recent calculations by Shlomovitz and Levine. In addition, the presence of a Langmuir monolayer at the interface is found to significantly change the mobility of the particle close to the interface. With an accurate theory, it should be possible to infer the shear modulus of a monolayer from the fluctuations of the particle beneath the interface. Since particles are not embedded in the monolayer, this technique avoids impacting the system of study.
Tracking errors in 2D multiple particle tracking microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalczyk, Anne; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Willenbacher, Norbert
2015-01-01
Tracking errors due to particles moving in and out of the focal plane are a fundamental problem of multiple particle tracking microrheology. Here, we present a new approach to treat these errors so that a statistically significant number of particle trajectories with reasonable length are received, which is important for an unbiased analysis of multiple particle tracking data from inhomogeneous fluids. Starting from Crocker and Grier’s tracking algorithm, we identify particle displacements between subsequent images as artificial jumps; if this displacement deviates more than four standard deviations from the mean value, trajectories are terminated at such positions. In a further processing step, trajectories separated by a time gap Δ {τ\\text{max}} are merged based on an adaptive search radius criterion accounting for individual particle mobility. For a series of Newtonian fluids covering the viscosity range 6-1300 mPa s, this approach yields the correct viscosity but also results in a viscosity-independent number of trajectories equal to the average number of particles in an image with a minimum length covering at least two orders of magnitude in time. This allows for an unbiased characterization of heterogeneous fluids. For a Carbopol ETD 2050 solution we recover the expected broad variation of particle mobility. Consistent with the widely accepted structural model of highly swollen microgel particles suspended in a polymer solution, we find about 2/3 of the tracers are elastically trapped.
Developing an active artificial hair cell using nonlinear feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joyce, Bryan S.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2015-09-01
The hair cells in the mammalian cochlea convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals. These cells have inspired a variety of artificial hair cells (AHCs) to serve as biologically inspired sound, fluid flow, and acceleration sensors and could one day replace damaged hair cells in humans. Most of these AHCs rely on passive transduction of stimulus while it is known that the biological cochlea employs active processes to amplify sound-induced vibrations and improve sound detection. In this work, an active AHC mimics the active, nonlinear behavior of the cochlea. The AHC consists of a piezoelectric bimorph beam subjected to a base excitation. A feedback control law is used to reduce the linear damping of the beam and introduce a cubic damping term which gives the AHC the desired nonlinear behavior. Model and experimental results show the AHC amplifies the response due to small base accelerations, has a higher frequency sensitivity than the passive system, and exhibits a compressive nonlinearity like that of the mammalian cochlea. This bio-inspired accelerometer could lead to new sensors with lower thresholds of detection, improved frequency sensitivities, and wider dynamic ranges.
Particle-Tracking Microrheology Using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography.
Chu, Kengyeh K; Mojahed, Diana; Fernandez, Courtney M; Li, Yao; Liu, Linbo; Wilsterman, Eric J; Diephuis, Bradford; Birket, Susan E; Bowers, Hannah; Martin Solomon, G; Schuster, Benjamin S; Hanes, Justin; Rowe, Steven M; Tearney, Guillermo J
2016-09-01
Clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from an increase in the viscosity of the mucus secreted by epithelial cells that line the airways. Particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) is a widely accepted means of determining the viscoelastic properties of CF mucus, providing an improved understanding of this disease as well as an avenue to assess the efficacies of pharmacologic therapies aimed at decreasing mucus viscosity. Among its advantages, PTM allows the measurement of small volumes, which was recently utilized for an in situ study of CF mucus formed by airway cell cultures. Typically, particle tracks are obtained from fluorescence microscopy video images, although this limits one's ability to distinguish particles by depth in a heterogeneous environment. Here, by performing PTM with high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), we were able to characterize the viscoelastic properties of mucus, which enables simultaneous measurement of rheology with mucociliary transport parameters that we previously determined using μOCT. We obtained an accurate characterization of dextran solutions and observed a statistically significant difference in the viscosities of mucus secreted by normal and CF human airway cell cultures. We further characterized the effects of noise and imaging parameters on the sensitivity of μOCT-PTM by performing theoretical and numerical analyses, which show that our system can accurately quantify viscosities over the range that is characteristic of CF mucus. As a sensitive rheometry technique that requires very small fluid quantities, μOCT-PTM could also be generally applied to interrogate the viscosity of biological media such as blood or the vitreous humor of the eye in situ.
Particle-Tracking Microrheology Using Micro-Optical Coherence Tomography.
Chu, Kengyeh K; Mojahed, Diana; Fernandez, Courtney M; Li, Yao; Liu, Linbo; Wilsterman, Eric J; Diephuis, Bradford; Birket, Susan E; Bowers, Hannah; Martin Solomon, G; Schuster, Benjamin S; Hanes, Justin; Rowe, Steven M; Tearney, Guillermo J
2016-09-01
Clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from an increase in the viscosity of the mucus secreted by epithelial cells that line the airways. Particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) is a widely accepted means of determining the viscoelastic properties of CF mucus, providing an improved understanding of this disease as well as an avenue to assess the efficacies of pharmacologic therapies aimed at decreasing mucus viscosity. Among its advantages, PTM allows the measurement of small volumes, which was recently utilized for an in situ study of CF mucus formed by airway cell cultures. Typically, particle tracks are obtained from fluorescence microscopy video images, although this limits one's ability to distinguish particles by depth in a heterogeneous environment. Here, by performing PTM with high-resolution micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), we were able to characterize the viscoelastic properties of mucus, which enables simultaneous measurement of rheology with mucociliary transport parameters that we previously determined using μOCT. We obtained an accurate characterization of dextran solutions and observed a statistically significant difference in the viscosities of mucus secreted by normal and CF human airway cell cultures. We further characterized the effects of noise and imaging parameters on the sensitivity of μOCT-PTM by performing theoretical and numerical analyses, which show that our system can accurately quantify viscosities over the range that is characteristic of CF mucus. As a sensitive rheometry technique that requires very small fluid quantities, μOCT-PTM could also be generally applied to interrogate the viscosity of biological media such as blood or the vitreous humor of the eye in situ. PMID:27602733
Microrheology and micromechanics of actin-coated membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdieu, Laurent
2002-03-01
To study the interaction between cytoskeletal filaments and the plasma membrane, we designed composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments on the outer leaflet of giant unilamellar fluid vesicles. Their rich dynamics is studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers and by single particle tracking experiments. We first show that microrheology study can be carried out on such an individual microscopic object by measuring the thermally excited position fluctuations of a probed bead bound biochemically to the membrane. We propose a model that relates the power spectrum of these thermal fluctuations to the viscoelastic properties of the membrane. The presence of the actin filaments network first induces a finite 2D shear modulus of the order of 1 microN/m. Moreover, these membranes exhibit a clear viscoelastic behavior at high frequency: above a few tens of Hz, both the shear and the bending moduli exhibit the same frequency dependence, a power law of exponent 0.75. These results are consistent in the framework of our model with previous measurements on actin solutions. We show moreover that these complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell. For example, a buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5 picoNewton is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability. This instability is a striking example of the coupling between in-plane stretch and shear and out-of-plane bending, which takes place for curves shells when it becomes more favorable energetically to concentrate the in-plane stress due to the bending within a narrow ring, centered on the force application point.
Recognizing Human Activities Using Non-linear SVM Decision Tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Haiyong; Liu, Zhijing; Zhang, Hao
This paper presents a new method of human activity recognition, which is based on R transform and non-linear SVM Decision Tree (NSVMDT). For a key binary human silhouette, R transform is employed to represent low-level features. The advantage of the R transform lies in its low computational complexity and geometric invariance. We utilize NSVMDT to train and classify video sequences, and demonstrate the usability with many sequences. Compared with other methods, ours is superior because the descriptor is robust to frame loss in superior because the descriptor is robust to frame loss in activities recognition, simple representation, computational complexity and template generalization. Sufficient experiments have proved the efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.
2014-05-01
The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects
Nonlinear signatures of entangled polymer solutions in active microbead rheology
Cribb, J. A.; Vasquez, P. A.; Moore, P.; Norris, S.; Shah, S.; Forest, M. G.; Superfine, R.
2014-01-01
We present experimental data and numerical modeling of a nonlinear phenomenon in active magnetic microbead rheology that appears to be common to entangled polymer solutions (EPS). Dynamic experiments in a modest range of magnetic forces show: 1. a short-lived high viscosity plateau, followed by 2. a bead acceleration phase with a sharp drop in apparent viscosity, and 3. a terminal steady state that we show resides on the shear-thinning slope of the steady-state flow curve from cone and plate data. This latter feature implies a new protocol to access the nonlinear steady-state flow curve for many biological EPS only available in microliter-scale volumes. We solve the moment-closure form of the Rolie-Poly kinetic model for EPS hydrodynamics, together with a decoupling approximation that obviates the need for a full 3D flow solver, and show that the model qualitatively reproduces the dynamic experimental sequence above. In this way, we explain the phenomenon in terms of entangled polymer physics, and show how the nonlinear event (acceleration and termination on the shear-thinning response curve) is tunable by the interplay between molecular-scale mechanisms (relaxation via reptation and chain retraction) and magnetic force controls. The experimental conditions mimic movement of cilia tips, bacteria, and sperm in mucus barriers, implying a physiological relevance of the phenomenon, and compelling further development of the fully coupled, 3D flow-microstructure model to achieve quantitative accuracy. PMID:24526800
Geometric Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Active Fibre Composite Bimorphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kernaghan, Robert
Active fibre composite-actuated bimorphic actuators were studied in order to measure deflection performance. The deflection of the actuators was a function of the actuating electric potential applied to the active material as well as the magnitude of the axial preload applied to the bimorphic structure. This problem required the use of geometric nonlinear modeling techniques. Geometric nonlinear finite element analysis was undertaken to determine the deflection performance of Macro Fibre Composite (MFC)- and Hollow Active Fibre (HAFC)-actuated bimorphic structures. A physical prototype MFC-actuated bimorphic structure was manufactured in order to verify the results obtained by the finite element analysis. Theses analyses determined that the bimorphic actuators were capable of significant deflection. The analyses determined that the axial preload of the bimorphic actuators significantly amplified the deflection performance of the bimorphic actuators. The deflection performance of the bimorphic actuators suggest that they could be candidates to act as actuators for the morphing wing of a micro unmanned air vehicle.
Nonlinear active materials: an illustration of controllable phase matchability.
Lu, Hongcheng; Gautier, Romain; Donakowski, Martin D; Tran, T Thao; Edwards, Bryce W; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Liu, Zhengtang; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R
2013-08-14
For a crystal to exhibit nonlinear optical (NLO) activity such as second-harmonic generation (SHG), it must belong to a noncentrosymmetric (NCS) space group. Moreover, for these nonlinear optical (NLO) materials to be suitable for practical uses, the synthesized crystals should be phase-matchable (PM). Previous synthetic research into SHG-active crystals has centered on (i) how to create NCS compounds and/or (ii) how to obtain NCS compounds with high SHG efficiencies. With these tactics, one can synthesize a material with a high SHG efficiency, but the material could be unusable if the material was nonphase-matchable (non-PM). To probe the origin of phase matchability of NCS structures, we present two new chemically similar hybrid compounds within one composition space: (I) [Hdpa]2NbOF5·2H2O and (II) HdpaNbOF4 (dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamine). Both compounds are NCS and chemically similar, but (I) is non-PM while (II) is PM. Our results indicate--consistent with organic crystallography--the arrangement of the organic molecule within hybrid materials dictates whether the material is PM or non-PM.
A nonlinear model of the phasic dynamics of muscle activation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hannaford, Blake
1990-01-01
A phasic excitation-activation (PEXA) model is presented of the process of motoneuron excitation and the resultant activation and force development of a motor unit. The model input is an amount of depolarizing current (as when injected with an intracellular electrode), and the model output is muscle force. The model includes dynamics and nonlinearities similar to phenomena discovered experimentally by others: the firing rate response of motoneurons to steps of depolarizing current and the catch-like enhancement of force produced by overlapping motor neuron action potentials. The parameter values used in this model are derived from experimentally measured data and are expressed in physical units. Model predictions extend to published data beyond those used in generating the model parameter values.
A nonlinear dynamical analogue model of geomagnetic activity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimas, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Roberts, D. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Buechner, J.
1992-01-01
Consideration is given to the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction within the framework of deterministic nonlinear dynamics. An earlier dripping faucet analog model of the low-dimensional solar wind-magnetosphere system is reviewed, and a plasma physical counterpart to that model is constructed. A Faraday loop in the magnetotail is considered, and the relationship of electric potentials on the loop to changes in the magnetic flux threading the loop is developed. This approach leads to a model of geomagnetic activity which is similar to the earlier mechanical model but described in terms of the geometry and plasma contents of the magnetotail. The model is characterized as an elementary time-dependent global convection model. The convection evolves within a magnetotail shape that varies in a prescribed manner in response to the dynamical evolution of the convection. The result is a nonlinear model capable of exhibiting a transition from regular to chaotic loading and unloading. The model's behavior under steady loading and also some elementary forms of time-dependent loading is discussed.
Probe surface chemistry dependence and local polymer network structure in F-actin microrheology.
Chae, Byeong Seok; Furst, Eric M
2005-03-29
We investigate the dependence of F-actin microrheology on probe surface chemistry using diffusing wave spectroscopy. Polystyrene probe particles exhibit subdiffusive mean-squared displacements, where Deltar(2)(t) approximately t(0.77)(+/-)(0.03) consistent with previous experiments and theory. However, polystyrene probes preadsorbed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) interact weakly with the surrounding polymer network and exhibit a scaling exponent similar to pure diffusion Deltar(2)(t) approximately t, which decreases as particle size and actin concentration increases. Using models of particle diffusion in locally heterogeneous viscoelastic microenvironments, we find that the microrheological response of BSA-treated particles is consistent with the formation of a polymer-depleted shell surrounding the probes. The shell thickness scales with particle size but not polymer concentration. These results suggest that the depletion is caused by exclusion or orientation of actin filaments near probes due to their long length and rigidity.
Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.
2014-02-01
Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications.
Non-reciprocal and highly nonlinear active acoustic metamaterials.
Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A
2014-01-01
Unidirectional devices that pass acoustic energy in only one direction have numerous applications and, consequently, have recently received significant attention. However, for most practical applications that require unidirectionality at audio and low frequencies, subwavelength implementations capable of the necessary time-reversal symmetry breaking remain elusive. Here we describe a design approach based on metamaterial techniques that provides highly subwavelength and strongly non-reciprocal devices. We demonstrate this approach by designing and experimentally characterizing a non-reciprocal active acoustic metamaterial unit cell composed of a single piezoelectric membrane augmented by a nonlinear electronic circuit, and sandwiched between Helmholtz cavities tuned to different frequencies. The design is thinner than a tenth of a wavelength, yet it has an isolation factor of >10 dB. The design method generates relatively broadband unidirectional devices and is a good candidate for numerous acoustic applications. PMID:24572771
Inducing in situ, nonlinear soil response applying an active source
Johnson, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.; Pearce, F.; Lawrence, Z.; Menq, F.-Y.
2009-01-01
[1] It is well known that soil sites have a profound effect on ground motion during large earthquakes. The complex structure of soil deposits and the highly nonlinear constitutive behavior of soils largely control nonlinear site response at soil sites. Measurements of nonlinear soil response under natural conditions are critical to advancing our understanding of soil behavior during earthquakes. Many factors limit the use of earthquake observations to estimate nonlinear site response such that quantitative characterization of nonlinear behavior relies almost exclusively on laboratory experiments and modeling of wave propagation. Here we introduce a new method for in situ characterization of the nonlinear behavior of a natural soil formation using measurements obtained immediately adjacent to a large vibrator source. To our knowledge, we are the first group to propose and test such an approach. Employing a large, surface vibrator as a source, we measure the nonlinear behavior of the soil by incrementally increasing the source amplitude over a range of frequencies and monitoring changes in the output spectra. We apply a homodyne algorithm for measuring spectral amplitudes, which provides robust signal-to-noise ratios at the frequencies of interest. Spectral ratios are computed between the receivers and the source as well as receiver pairs located in an array adjacent to the source, providing the means to separate source and near-source nonlinearity from pervasive nonlinearity in the soil column. We find clear evidence of nonlinearity in significant decreases in the frequency of peak spectral ratios, corresponding to material softening with amplitude, observed across the array as the source amplitude is increased. The observed peak shifts are consistent with laboratory measurements of soil nonlinearity. Our results provide constraints for future numerical modeling studies of strong ground motion during earthquakes.
Adaptive RSOV filter using the FELMS algorithm for nonlinear active noise control systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Haiquan; Zeng, Xiangping; He, Zhengyou; Li, Tianrui
2013-01-01
This paper presents a recursive second-order Volterra (RSOV) filter to solve the problems of signal saturation and other nonlinear distortions that occur in nonlinear active noise control systems (NANC) used for actual applications. Since this nonlinear filter based on an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter structure can model higher than second-order and third-order nonlinearities for systems where the nonlinearities are harmonically related, the RSOV filter is more effective in NANC systems with either a linear secondary path (LSP) or a nonlinear secondary path (NSP). Simulation results clearly show that the RSOV adaptive filter using the multichannel structure filtered-error least mean square (FELMS) algorithm can further greatly reduce the computational burdens and is more suitable to eliminate nonlinear distortions in NANC systems than a SOV filter, a bilinear filter and a third-order Volterra (TOV) filter.
El-Hamidi, Hamid; Celli, Jonathan P.
2014-01-01
The mechanical microenvironment has been shown to act as a crucial regulator of tumor growth behavior and signaling, which is itself remodeled and modified as part of a set of complex, two-way mechanosensitive interactions. While the development of biologically-relevant 3D tumor models have facilitated mechanistic studies on the impact of matrix rheology on tumor growth, the inverse problem of mapping changes in the mechanical environment induced by tumors remains challenging. Here, we describe the implementation of particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) in conjunction with 3D models of pancreatic cancer as part of a robust and viable approach for longitudinally monitoring physical changes in the tumor microenvironment, in situ. The methodology described here integrates a system of preparing in vitro 3D models embedded in a model extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold of Type I collagen with fluorescently labeled probes uniformly distributed for position- and time-dependent microrheology measurements throughout the specimen. In vitro tumors are plated and probed in parallel conditions using multiwell imaging plates. Drawing on established methods, videos of tracer probe movements are transformed via the Generalized Stokes Einstein Relation (GSER) to report the complex frequency-dependent viscoelastic shear modulus, G*(ω). Because this approach is imaging-based, mechanical characterization is also mapped onto large transmitted-light spatial fields to simultaneously report qualitative changes in 3D tumor size and phenotype. Representative results showing contrasting mechanical response in sub-regions associated with localized invasion-induced matrix degradation as well as system calibration, validation data are presented. Undesirable outcomes from common experimental errors and troubleshooting of these issues are also presented. The 96-well 3D culture plating format implemented in this protocol is conducive to correlation of microrheology measurements with therapeutic
Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional Transition in Soap Films Demonstrated by Microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, V.; Weeks, Eric R.
2009-05-01
We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles of diameter d in soap films of varying thickness h with fluorescence microscopy. Diffusion constants are obtained both from one- and two-particle microrheological measurements of particle motion in these films. These diffusion constants are related to the surface viscosity of the interfaces comprising the soap films, by means of the Trapeznikov approximation and Saffman’s equation for diffusion in a 2D fluid. Unphysical values of the surface viscosity are found for thick soap films (h/d>7±3), indicating a transition from 2D to 3D behavior.
Magnetic wire-based sensors for the microrheology of complex fluids.
Chevry, L; Sampathkumar, N K; Cebers, A; Berret, J-F
2013-12-01
We propose a simple microrheology technique to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of complex fluids. The method is based on the use of magnetic wires of a few microns in length submitted to a rotational magnetic field. In this work, the method is implemented on a surfactant wormlike micellar solution that behaves as an ideal Maxwell fluid. With increasing frequency, the wires undergo a transition between a steady and a hindered rotation regime. The study shows that the average rotational velocity and the amplitudes of the oscillations obey scaling laws with well-defined exponents. From a comparison between model predictions and experiments, the rheological parameters of the fluid are determined. PMID:24483443
Multiple-particle tracking and two-point microrheology in cells.
Crocker, John C; Hoffman, Brenton D
2007-01-01
Mechanical stress and stiffness are increasingly recognized to play important roles in numerous cell biological processes, notably cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. Little definite is known, however, about how stress propagates through different cell structures or how it is converted to biochemical signals via mechanotransduction, due in large part to the difficulty of interpreting many cell mechanics experiments. A newly developed technique, two-point microrheology (TPM), can provide highly interpretable, quantitative measurements of cells' frequency-dependent shear moduli and spectra of their fluctuating intracellular stresses. TPM is a noninvasive method based on measuring the Brownian motion of large numbers of intracellular particles using multiple-particle tracking. While requiring only hardware available in many cell biology laboratories, a phase microscope and digital video camera, as a statistical technique, it also requires the automated analysis of many thousands of micrographs. Here we describe in detail the algorithms and software tools used for such large-scale multiple-particle tracking as well as common sources of error and the microscopy methods needed to minimize them. Moreover, we describe the physical principles behind TPM and other passive microrheological methods, their limitations, and typical results for cultured epithelial cells.
DLS microrheology at the onset of weak elasticity during thermal denaturation of BSA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nobbmann, Ulf; Rega, Carlos A.; Jankevics, Hanna; Amin, Samiul
2011-03-01
The ability to precisely detect the onset of protein aggregation to draw insights into microstructural characteristics plays a critical role in a variety of biotechnological applications such as therapeutic protein stability. Rheological techniques are very sensitive to evolution of an aggregating network but have been limited in biotechnology, due to large sample volume and moderately high viscosity requirements in traditional mechanical rheometry. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) overcomes these limitations as experiments can be carried out on very dilute samples and small volumes. We present a method based on optical microrheology to study the onset of bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregation to develop an understanding of the evolving network structure. The exponent of the tracer mean squared displacement power law fit and the elastic modulus G' emerge as two key parameters. The impact of probe chemistry and probe size on the extracted microrheological response is discussed. A Saluja et al., ``Ultrasonic rheology of a monoclonal antibody (IgG 2) solution: implication for physical stability of proteins in high concentration formulations'' J. of Pharm. Sci. (2007) 96, 3181-3195.
Microrheology and ROCK signaling of human endothelial cells embedded in a 3D matrix.
Panorchan, Porntula; Lee, Jerry S H; Kole, Thomas P; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis
2006-11-01
Cell function is profoundly affected by the geometry of the extracellular environment confining the cell. Whether and how cells plated on a two-dimensional matrix or embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix mechanically sense the dimensionality of their environment is mostly unknown, partly because individual cells in an extended matrix are inaccessible to conventional cell-mechanics probes. Here we develop a functional assay based on multiple particle tracking microrheology coupled with ballistic injection of nanoparticles to measure the local intracellular micromechanical properties of individual cells embedded inside a matrix. With our novel assay, we probe the mechanical properties of the cytoplasm of individual human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) embedded in a 3D peptide hydrogel in the presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that VEGF treatment, which enhances endothelial migration, increases the compliance and reduces the elasticity of the cytoplasm of HUVECs in a matrix. This VEGF-induced softening response of the cytoplasm is abrogated by specific Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibition. These results establish combined particle-tracking microrheology and ballistic injection as the first method able to probe the micromechanical properties and mechanical response to agonists and/or drug treatments of individual cells inside a matrix. These results suggest that ROCK plays an essential role in the regulation of the intracellular mechanical response to VEGF of endothelial cells in a 3D matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van den Ende, Dirk; Purnomo, Eko H.; Duits, Michel H. G.; Richtering, Walter; Mugele, Frieder
2010-01-01
Using particle tracking microrheology, we studied the glass transition in dense suspensions of thermosensitive microgel particles. These suspensions can be tuned reversibly between the glass state at low temperature and the liquid state at high temperature. In the glass state, the ensemble averaged mean squared displacements (MSDs) of added fluorescent tracer particles depend on the age of the suspension. We also determine the local viscoelastic moduli, G' and G″ , from the MSDs using the Generalized Stokes-Einstein Relation and compare them to the bulk moduli, measured using conventional rheometry. With particle tracking, one probes the viscoelastic moduli in a lower frequency range than with macrorheology, which makes it possible to determine the mean relaxation time that is inaccessible with macrorheology. In the glass state, the mean relaxation time increases linearly with the age of the sample and the short time particle displacement distributions are non-Gaussian, indicating inhomogeneity of the system. The observed difference between conventional and microrheology is explained quantitatively assuming that the tracer particles are surrounded by a viscoelastic liquid shell, different from the bulk.
Probing interfacial dynamics and mechanics using submerged particle microrheology. II. Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boatwright, Thomas; Dennin, Michael; Shlomovitz, Roie; Evans, Arthur A.; Levine, Alex J.
2014-07-01
A non-contact microrheological technique to probe the mechanics of the air/water interface is explored. Polystyrene spheres dissolved in water are trapped with an optical tweezer near the free surface of water, allowing the response functions of the particles to be measured as a function of the distance from the air/water interface. These measurements show that at the surface, the imaginary part of the response function increases by approximately 30% from the Stokes value measured in the bulk. As the particle is moved away from the surface via an optical trap, the response function returns to the bulk value. The method is tested by comparing the response function of particles near a rigid wall to the theory developed by Faxèn. A newly developed hydrodynamic theory is used to explain the results at the free interface through a calculation of the linear response function as a function of depth. These results show a range of sensitivity that can be utilized to study the microrheology of a Langmuir monolayer without distorting its structure.
Vibration control of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system by reinforcement learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucak, İ. Ö.; Öz, H. R.
2012-06-01
This article presents the investigation of performance of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system with a stochastic real-valued reinforcement learning control strategy. As an example, a model of a quarter car with a nonlinear suspension spring subjected to excitation from a road profile is considered. The excitation is realised by the roughness of the road. The quarter-car model to be considered here can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system. The experimental results indicate that the proposed active suspension system suppresses the vibrations greatly. A simulation of a nonlinear quarter-car active suspension system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and examine the performance of the learning control algorithm.
The use of non-linear analysis for differentiating the biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.
Anninos, P A; Anastasiadis, P; Kotini, A
1999-05-01
In this study we investigated the biomagnetic activity measured with the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in benign and malignant ovarian lesions using non-linear analysis. We used a single channel biomagnetometer SQUID in order to measure the magnetic field emitted from benign and malignant ovarian lesions. We can differentiate such biomagnetic activities using non-linear analysis. Using the application of non-linear analysis in the ovarian lesions together with the use of dimensional calculations we have observed a clear saturation value for the dimension of malignant ovarian lesions and non-saturation for benign ovarian lesions. The biomagnetic measurements with the SQUID and the application of non-linear analysis in benign and malignant ovarian lesions, is a promising procedure in assessing and differentiating ovarian tumours. PMID:15512296
Dual objective active suspension system based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, Vaijayanti S.; Shendge, P. D.; Phadke, S. B.
2016-09-01
This paper proposes an active suspension system to fulfil the dual objective of improving ride comfort while trying to keep the suspension deflection within the limits of the rattle space. The scheme is based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator which employs a nonlinear function of the suspension deflection. The scheme is analysed and validated by simulation and experimentation on a laboratory setup. The performance is compared with a passive suspension system for a variety of road profiles.
Exploiting the color of Brownian motion for high-frequency microrheology of Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-García, Pablo; Mor, Flavio M.; Forró, László; Jeney, Sylvia
2013-09-01
Einstein's stochastic description of the random movement of small objects in a fluid, i.e. Brownian motion, reveals to be quite different, when observed on short timescales. The limitations of Einstein's theory with respect to particle inertia and hydrodynamic memory yield to the apparition of a colored frequency-dependent component in the spectrum of the thermal forces, which is called "the color of Brownian motion". The knowledge of the characteristic timescales of the motion of a trapped microsphere motion in a Newtonian fluid allowed to develop a high-resolution calibration method for optical interferometry. Well-calibrated correlation quantities, such as the mean square displacement or the velocity autocorrelation function, permit to study the mechanical properties of fluids at high frequencies. These properties are estimated by microrheological calculations based on the theoretical relations between the complex mobility of the beads and the rheological properties of a complex fluid.
Noncontact microrheology at acoustic frequencies using frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy.
Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S
2010-08-01
We report an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method for assessing elastic and viscous properties of soft samples at acoustic frequencies under non-contact conditions. The method can be used to measure material properties via frequency modulation and is based on hydrodynamics theory of thin gaps we developed here. A cantilever with an attached microsphere is forced to oscillate tens of nanometers above a sample. The elastic modulus and viscosity of the sample are estimated by measuring the frequency-dependence of the phase lag between the oscillating microsphere and the driving piezo at various heights above the sample. This method features an effective area of pyramidal tips used in contact AFM but with only piconewton applied forces. Using this method, we analyzed polyacrylamide gels of different stiffness and assessed graded mechanical properties of guinea pig tectorial membrane. The technique enables the study of microrheology of biological tissues that produce or detect sound. PMID:20562866
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Jing; Jiang, Zuo; Li, Ya-Li; Li, Wu-Xin
2014-10-01
The problem of nonlinear vibration control for active vehicle suspension systems with actuator delay is considered. Through feedback linearization, the open-loop nonlinearity is eliminated by the feedback nonlinear term. Based on the finite spectrum assignment, the quarter-car suspension system with actuator delay is converted into an equivalent delay-free one. The nonlinear control includes a linear feedback term, a feedforward compensator, and a control memory term, which can be derived from a Riccati equation and a Sylvester equation, so that the effects produced by the road disturbances and the actuator delay are compensated, respectively. A predictor is designed to implement the predictive state in the designed control. Moreover, a reduced-order observer is constructed to solve its physical unrealisability problem. The stability proofs for the zero dynamics and the closed-loop system are provided. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness and the simplicity of the designed control.
Controlling Spatiotemporal Chaos in Active Dissipative-Dispersive Nonlinear Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Susana; Pradas, Marc; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Grigorios
2015-11-01
We present a novel generic methodology for the stabilization and control of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems exhibiting low-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The methodology is exemplified with the generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the simplest possible prototype that retains that fundamental elements of any nonlinear process involving wave evolution. The equation is applicable on a wide variety of systems including falling liquid films and plasma waves with dispersion due to finite banana width. We show that applying the appropriate choice of time-dependent feedback controls via blowing and suction, we are able to stabilize and/or control all stable or unstable solutions, including steady solutions, travelling waves and spatiotemporal chaos, but also use the controls obtained to stabilize the solutions to more general long wave models. We acknowledge financial support from Imperial College through a Roth PhD studentship, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK through Grants No. EP/H034587, EP/J009636, EP/K041134, EP/L020564 and EP/L024926 and European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.
Microrheology of single microtubule filaments and synthesized cytoskeletal networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Matthias; Rohrbach, Alexander
2015-03-01
The ability to sense and respond to external mechanical forces is crucial for cells in many processes such as cell growth and division. Common models on mechanotransduction rely on the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the cell periphery and their translocation by diffusion (passive) or molecular motors (active). These processes are rather slow (~ seconds) and it has been argued that the cytoskeleton itself might be able to transport a mechanical signal within microseconds via stress waves. Microtubules are the stiffest component of the cytoskeleton and thus ideal candidates for this purpose. We study the frequency dependent response of single microtubule filaments and small networks thereof in a bottom-up approach using several (N =2-10) time-multiplexed optical tweezers together with back focal plane interferometry. Small synthesized networks with a defined geometry are constructed using trapped Neutravidin beads as anchor points for biotinylated filaments. The network is then probed by a defined oscillation of one anchor (actor). The frequency dependent response of the remaining beads (sensors) is analyzed experimentally and modeled theoretically over a wide frequency range.
Nonlinear analysis of brain activity in magnetic influenced Parkinson patients.
Anninos, P A; Adamopoulos, A V; Kotini, A; Tsagas, N
2000-01-01
Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were obtained from the brain of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Superconductive Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). For each patient the magnetic activity was recorded from a total of 64 points of the skull (32 points from each temporal lobe) as defined by a recording reference system, which is based on the 10-20 Electrode Placement System. Some of the recorded points were observed to exhibit abnormal rhythmic activity, characterized by high amplitudes and low frequencies. External magnetic stimulation (EMS) with intensity 1-7.5pT, and frequency the alpha-rhythm of the patient (8-13 Hz) was applied in the left-right temporal, frontal-occipital and vertex (2 minutes over each of the above regions) and the brain magnetic activity was recorded again. The application of the EMS resulted in rapid attenuation of the MEG activity of PD patients. Furthermore, chaotic dynamic methods were used, in order to estimate the correlation dimension D of the reconstructed phase spaces. The estimated values of D, in conjunction with the results derived from the other data analysis methods, strongly support the existence of low dimension chaotic structures in the dynamics of cortical activity of PD patients. In addition, the increased values of D of the MEG after the application of EMS when compared with the corresponding ones obtained from the MEGs prior to the EMS, suggest that the neural dynamics are strongly influenced by the application of EMS. PMID:11154103
Linear and non-linear fluorescence imaging of neuronal activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Jonathan A. N.
Optical imaging of neuronal activity offers new possibilities for understanding brain physiology. The predominant methods in neuroscience for measuring electrical activity require electrodes inserted into the tissue. Such methods, however, provide limited spatial information and are invasive. Optical methods are less physically invasive and offer the possibility for simultaneously imaging the activity of many neurons. In this thesis one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy techniques were applied to several in vivo and in vitro mammalian preparations. Using one-photon absorption fluorescence microscopy and gradient index (GRIN) lens optics, cortical electrical activity in response to electric stimulation was resolved in three-dimensions at high-speed in the primary somatosensory cortex of the mouse in vivo using voltage-sensitive dyes. Imaging at depths up to 150 mum below the cortex surface, it was possible to resolve depth-dependent patterns of neuronal activity in response to cortical and thalamic electric stimulation. The patterns of activity were consistent with known cortical cellular architecture. In a qualitatively different set of experiments, one-photon fluorescence microscopy via voltage-sensitive dyes was successfully employed to image an in vitro preparation of the perfused rat brainstem during the process of respiratory rhythmogenesis. Imaging results yielded insights into the spatial organization of the central respiratory rhythm generation region in the ventrolateral medulla. A multifocal two-photon scanning microscope was constructed, and design and operation principles are described. Utilizing the novel device, anatomical and functional two-photon imaging via potentiometric dyes and calcium dyes is described, and the results of in vivo versus in vitro imaging are compared. Anatomical imaging results used either functional probe background fluorescence or green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Spectroscopic experiments measuring the two
Re-Mediating Classroom Activity with a Non-Linear, Multi-Display Presentation Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bligh, Brett; Coyle, Do
2013-01-01
This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to evaluate the use of a novel, multi-screen, non-linear presentation tool. The Thunder tool allows presenters to manipulate and annotate multiple digital slides and to concurrently display a selection of juxtaposed resources across a wall-sized projection area. Conventional, single screen presentation…
Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection
Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914
Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.
Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I
2016-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming.
Nonlinear-Based MEMS Sensors and Active Switches for Gas Detection.
Bouchaala, Adam; Jaber, Nizar; Yassine, Omar; Shekhah, Osama; Chernikova, Valeriya; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I
2016-01-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of a MOF thin film on electrostatically actuated microstructures to realize a switch triggered by gas and a sensing algorithm based on amplitude tracking. The devices are based on the nonlinear response of micromachined clamped-clamped beams. The microbeams are coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), namely HKUST-1, to achieve high sensitivity. The softening and hardening nonlinear behaviors of the microbeams are exploited to demonstrate the ideas. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm is developed to quantify the captured quantity of gas. Then, a MEMS switch triggered by gas using the nonlinear response of the microbeam is demonstrated. Noise analysis is conducted, which shows that the switch has high stability against thermal noise. The proposed switch is promising for delivering binary sensing information, and also can be used directly to activate useful functionalities, such as alarming. PMID:27231914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwab, Karin; Groh, Tobias; Schwab, Matthias; Witte, Herbert
2009-03-01
An approach combining time-continuous nonlinear stability analysis and a parametric bispectral method was introduced to better describe cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electroencephalogram (EEG). Signal models and data-driven investigations were performed to find optimal parameters of the nonlinear methods and to confirm the occurrence of nonlinear sections in the fetal EEG. The resulting measures were applied to the in utero electrocorticogram (ECoG) of fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation when organized sleep states were not developed and compared to previous results at 0.9 gestation. Cycling of the nonlinear stability of the fetal ECoG occurred already at this early gestational age, suggesting the presence of premature sleep states. This was accompanied by cycling of the time-variant biamplitude which reflected ECoG synchronization effects during premature sleep states associated with nonrapid eye movement sleep later in gestation. Thus, the combined nonlinear and time-variant approach was able to provide important insights into the properties of the immature fetal ECoG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Berney; Alonzo, Carlo A. C.; Xia, Lawrence; Speroni, Lucia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Soto, Ana M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Cronin-Golomb, Mark
2013-09-01
Biomechanics plays a central role in breast epithelial morphogenesis. In this study we have used 3D cultures in which normal breast epithelial cells are able to organize into rounded acini and tubular ducts, the main structures found in the breast tissue. We have identified fiber organization as a main determinant of ductal organization. While bulk rheological properties of the matrix seem to play a negligible role in determining the proportion of acini versus ducts, local changes may be pivotal in shape determination. As such, the ability to make microscale rheology measurements coupled with simultaneous optical imaging in 3D cultures can be critical to assess the biomechanical factors underlying epithelial morphogenesis. This paper describes the inclusion of optical tweezers based microrheology in a microscope that had been designed for nonlinear optical imaging of collagen networks in ECM. We propose two microrheology methods and show preliminary results using a gelatin hydrogel and collagen/Matrigel 3D cultures containing mammary gland epithelial cells.
Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.
1993-01-01
This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.
Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.
1992-01-01
Numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series are presented. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical invariants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), given a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.
Non-linear dynamics of the complement system activation.
Korotaevskiy, Andrey A; Hanin, Leonid G; Khanin, Mikhail A
2009-12-01
The complement system (CS) plays a prominent role in the immune defense. The goal of this work is to study the dynamics of activation of the classic and alternative CS pathways based on the method of mathematical modeling. The principal difficulty that hinders modeling effort is the absence of the measured values of kinetic constants of many biochemical reactions forming the CS. To surmount this difficulty, an optimization procedure consisting of constrained minimization of the total protein consumption by the CS was designed. The constraints made use of published data on the in vitro kinetics of elimination of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria by the CS. Special features of the problem at hand called for a significant modification of the general constrained optimization procedure to include a mathematical model of the bactericidal effect of the CS in the iterative setting. Determination of the unknown kinetic constants of biochemical reactions forming the CS led to a fully specified mathematical model of the dynamics of cell killing induced by the CS. On the basis of the model, effects of the initial concentrations of complements and their inhibitors on the bactericidal action of the CS were studied. Proteins playing a critical role in the regulation of the bactericidal action of the CS were identified. Results obtained in this work serve as an important stepping stone for the study of functioning of the CS as a whole as well as for developing methods for control of pathogenic processes. PMID:19854207
Active laser tweezers microrheometry of microbial biofilms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osterman, N.; Slapar, V.; Boric, M.; Stopar, D.; Babič, D.; Poberaj, I.
2010-08-01
Microbial biofilms are present on biotic and abiotic surfaces and have a significant impact on many fields in industry, health care and technology. Thus, a better understanding of processes that lead to development of biofilms and their chemical and mechanical properties is needed. In the following paper we report the results of active laser tweezers microrheology study of optically inhomogeneous extracellular matrix secreted by Visbrio sp. bacteria. One particle and two particle active microrheology were used in experiments. Both methods exhibited high enough sensitivity to detect viscosity changes at early stages of bacterial growth. We also showed that both methods can be used in mature samples where optical inhomogeneity becomes significant.
Nonlinear dynamics of the heartbeat I. The AV junction: Passive conduit or active oscillator?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Bruce J.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Rovner, Galina; Bhargava, Valmik
1985-10-01
Under physiologic conditions, the AV junction is traditionally regarded as a passive conduit for the conduction of impulses from the atria to the ventricles. An alternative view, namely that subsidiary pacemakers play an active role in normal electrophysiologic dynamics during sinus rhythm, has been suggested based on nonlinear models of cardiac oscillators. A central problem has been the development of a simple but explicit mathematical model for coupled nonlinear oscillators relevant both to stable and perturbed cardiac dynamics. We use equations describing an analog electrical circuit with an external d.c. voltage source ( V0) and two nonlinear oscillators with intrinsic frequencies in the ratio of 3:2, comparable to the SA node and AV junction rates. The oscillators are coupled by means of a resistor. 1:1 (SA:AV) phase-locking of the oscillators occurs over a critical range of V0. Externally driving the SA oscillator at increasing rates results in 3:2 AV Wenckebach periodicity and a 2:1 AV block. These findings appear with no assumptions about conduction time or refractoriness. This dynamical model is consistent with the new interpretation that normal sinus rhythm may represent 1:1 coupling of two or more active nonlinear oscillators and also accounts for the appearance of an AV block with critical changes in a single parameter such as the pacing rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saviz, M. R.
2015-11-01
In this paper a nonlinear approach to studying the vibration characteristic of laminated composite plate with surface-bonded piezoelectric layer/patch is formulated, based on the Green Lagrange type of strain-displacements relations, by incorporating higher-order terms arising from nonlinear relations of kinematics into mathematical formulations. The equations of motion are obtained through the energy method, based on Lagrange equations and by using higher-order shear deformation theories with von Karman-type nonlinearities, so that transverse shear strains vanish at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. An isoparametric finite element model is provided to model the nonlinear dynamics of the smart plate with piezoelectric layer/ patch. Different boundary conditions are investigated. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches are found using a genetic algorithm to maximize spatial controllability/observability and considering the effect of residual modes to reduce spillover effect. Active attenuation of vibration of laminated composite plate is achieved through an optimal control law with inequality constraint, which is related to the maximum and minimum values of allowable voltage in the piezoelectric elements. To keep the voltages of actuator pairs in an allowable limit, the Pontryagin’s minimum principle is implemented in a system with multi-inequality constraint of control inputs. The results are compared with similar ones, proving the accuracy of the model especially for the structures undergoing large deformations. The convergence is studied and nonlinear frequencies are obtained for different thickness ratios. The structural coupling between plate and piezoelectric actuators is analyzed. Some examples with new features are presented, indicating that the piezo-patches significantly improve the damping characteristics of the plate for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations.
Microrheological Study of the Time Dependent Gelation of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, D. T. N.; Hough, L. A.; Islam, M. F.; Yodh, A. G.
2006-03-01
Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed in water using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) form reversible gels because of the bonding between the individual nanotubes (L.A. Hough, M.F. Islam, P.A. Janmey and A. G. Yodh Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 168102 (2004)). We study the time dependence of this reversible gelation using particle tracking microrheology. We empirically collapse the mean square displacement onto a single master curve that extends over several decades in time using a time-cure superposition. The frequency scaling exhibited by the viscoelastic moduli obtained from the master curve is remarkably similar to that of semiflexible polymer networks. By comparing the results from a range of initial SWNT concentrations below and above the rigidity percolation threshold, we gain insight into the evolution of structure during gelation. This work has been partially supported by the NSF through Grants DMR 05-20020 (MRSEC) and DMR-0505048, and by NASA grant NAG8-2172.
Raikher, Yu L; Rusakov, V V
2005-12-01
We study magnetic response of an assembly of ferroparticles suspended in a viscoelastic matrix which is modeled by a Maxwell fluid with a unique stress relaxation time. The problem refers to the magnetic microrheology approach where deformational properties of a complex fluid are tested with the aid of embedded nanoparticle probes set to motion by an external ac magnetic field. A possibility is considered to simplify the description of the orientational kinetics of the system at the expense of neglecting inertia effects in particle rotary motion. It is shown that in this aspect a Maxwell matrix differs essentially from the Newtonian one. In the latter the inertialess approximation for the particles of the approximately 10nm size is valid practically unboundedly. For a viscoelastic matrix the inertialess approximation means an important restriction on the value of the stress relaxation time. Assuming weak nonequilibrium, the magneto-orientational relaxation times are found and low-frequency magnetic spectra of a viscoelastic suspension are determined in the presence of a constant (magnetizing) field. PMID:16485946
Micromechanical mapping of live cells by multiple-particle-tracking microrheology.
Tseng, Yiider; Kole, Thomas P; Wirtz, Denis
2002-01-01
This paper introduces the method of live-cell multiple-particle-tracking microrheology (MPTM), which quantifies the local mechanical properties of living cells by monitoring the Brownian motion of individual microinjected fluorescent particles. Particle tracking of carboxylated microspheres imbedded in the cytoplasm produce spatial distributions of cytoplasmic compliances and frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts are found to behave like a stiff elastic material when subjected to high rates of deformations and like a soft liquid at low rates of deformations. By analyzing the relative contributions of the subcellular compliances to the mean compliance, we find that the cytoplasm is much more mechanically heterogeneous than reconstituted actin filament networks. Carboxylated microspheres embedded in cytoplasm through endocytosis and amine-modified polystyrene microspheres, which are microinjected or endocytosed, often show directed motion and strong nonspecific interactions with cytoplasmic proteins, which prevents computation of local moduli from the microsphere displacements. Using MPTM, we investigate the mechanical function of alpha-actinin in non-muscle cells: alpha-actinin-microinjected cells are stiffer and yet mechanically more heterogeneous than control cells, in agreement with models of reconstituted cross-linked actin filament networks. MPTM is a new type of functional microscopy that can test the local, rate-dependent mechanical and ultrastructural properties of living cells. PMID:12496086
Di Cola, Emanuela; Waigh, Thomas A.; Trinick, John; Tskhovrebova, Larissa; Houmeida, Ahmed; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Dewhurst, Charles
2005-01-01
The persistence length of titin from rabbit skeletal muscles was measured using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, and neutron small angle scattering. Values of persistence length in the range 9–16 nm were found for titin-II, which corresponds to mainly physiologically inelastic A-band part of the protein, and for a proteolytic fragment with 100-nm contour length from the physiologically elastic I-band part. The ratio of the hydrodynamic radius to the static radius of gyration indicates that the proteins obey Gaussian statistics typical of a flexible polymer in a θ-solvent. Furthermore, measurements of the flexibility as a function of temperature demonstrate that titin-II and the I-band titin fragment experience a similar denaturation process; unfolding begins at 318 K and proceeds in two stages: an initial gradual 50% change in persistence length is followed by a sharp unwinding transition at 338 K. Complementary microrheology (video particle tracking) measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity in dilute solution behaves according to the Flory/Fox model, providing a value of the radius of gyration for titin-II (63 ± 1 nm) in agreement with static light scattering and small angle neutron scattering results. PMID:15792980
In Situ Mapping of the Mechanical Properties of Biofilms by Particle-tracking Microrheology.
Chew, Su C; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Yang, Liang
2015-01-01
Bacterial cells are able to form surface-attached biofilm communities known as biofilms by encasing themselves in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS serves as a physical and protective scaffold that houses the bacterial cells and consists of a variety of materials that includes proteins, exopolysaccharides and DNA. The composition of the EPS may change, which remodels the mechanic properties of the biofilm to further develop or support alternative biofilm structures, such as streamers, as a response to environmental cues. Despite this, there are little quantitative descriptions on how EPS components contribute to the mechanical properties and function of biofilms. Rheology, the study of the flow of matter, is of particular relevance to biofilms as many biofilms grow in flow conditions and are constantly exposed to shear stress. It also provides measurement and insight on the spreading of the biofilm on a surface. Here, particle-tracking microrheology is used to examine the viscoelasticity and effective crosslinking roles of different matrix components in various parts of the biofilm during development. This approach allows researchers to measure mechanic properties of biofilms at the micro-scale, which might provide useful information for controlling and engineering biofilms. PMID:26709625
Vibrational spectroscopic and non-linear optical activity studies on nicotinanilide : A DFT approach
Premkumar, S.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.
2015-06-24
The molecular structure of nicotinanilide was optimized by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set using Gaussian 09 program. The first order hyperpolarizability of the molecule was calculated, which exhibits the higher nonlinear optical activity. The natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction, which leads to the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecule. The Frontier molecular orbitals analysis of the molecule shows that the delocalization of electron density occurs within the molecule. The lower energy gap indicates that the hydrogen bond formation between the charged species. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program and the corresponding vibrational spectra were simulated. Hence, the nicotinanilide molecule can be a good candidate for second-order NLO material.
Non-linear dynamic modeling of an automobile hydraulic active suspension system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrad, R. Ben; Levitt, J. A.; Fassois, S. D.
1994-09-01
Motived by the strong need for realistically describing the dynamical behaviour of automotive systems through adequate mathematical models, a computer-stimulation-suitable non-linear quarter-car model of a hydraulic active suspension system is developed. Unlike previously available linear models characterised by idealised actuator and component behaviour, the developed model accounts for the dynamics of the main system components, including the suspension bushing, pump, accumulator, power and bypass valves, and hydraulic actuator, while also incorporating preliminary versions of the system controllers. Significant system characteristics, such as non-linear pressure-flow relationships, fluid compressibility, pump and valve non-linearities, leakages, as well as Coulomb friction, are also explicitly accounted for, and the underpinning assumptions are discussed. Simulation results obtained by exercising the model provide insight into the system behavior, illustrate the importance of the actuator/component dynamics and their associated non-linearities and reveal the inadequacy of the idealised linear models in capturing the system behaviour, demonstrate specific effects of valve leakage and fluid bulk modulus, are in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements, and stress the need for proper control law design and tuning. The developed model is particularly suitable for analysis, design, control law optimisation, and diagnostic strategies development.
Light, Sharee N; Coan, James A; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H Hill; Davidson, Richard J
2009-03-01
Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture second-by-second changes in ongoing emotion until now. The relationship between pleasure and second-by-second lateral frontal activity was examined with the use of hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 128 children ages 6-10 years. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded during "pop-out toy," a standardized task that elicits pleasure. The task consisted of 3 epochs: an anticipation period sandwiched between 2 play periods. The amount of pleasure expressed during the task predicted the pattern of nonlinear change in lateral frontal activity. Children who expressed increasing amounts of pleasure during the task exhibited increasing left lateral frontal activity during the task, whereas children who expressed contentment exhibited increasing right/decreasing left activity. These findings indicate that task-dependent changes in pleasure relate to dynamic, nonlinear changes in lateral frontal activity as the task unfolds. PMID:19271836
An enhanced nonlinear damping approach accounting for system constraints in active mass dampers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venanzi, Ilaria; Ierimonti, Laura; Ubertini, Filippo
2015-11-01
Active mass dampers are a viable solution for mitigating wind-induced vibrations in high-rise buildings and improve occupants' comfort. Such devices suffer particularly when they reach force saturation of the actuators and maximum extension of their stroke, which may occur in case of severe loading conditions (e.g. wind gust and earthquake). Exceeding actuators' physical limits can impair the control performance of the system or even lead to devices damage, with consequent need for repair or substitution of part of the control system. Controllers for active mass dampers should account for their technological limits. Prior work of the authors was devoted to stroke issues and led to the definition of a nonlinear damping approach, very easy to implement in practice. It consisted of a modified skyhook algorithm complemented with a nonlinear braking force to reverse the direction of the mass before reaching the stroke limit. This paper presents an enhanced version of this approach, also accounting for force saturation of the actuator and keeping the simplicity of implementation. This is achieved by modulating the control force by a nonlinear smooth function depending on the ratio between actuator's force and saturation limit. Results of a numerical investigation show that the proposed approach provides similar results to the method of the State Dependent Riccati Equation, a well-established technique for designing optimal controllers for constrained systems, yet very difficult to apply in practice.
Active control of highly efficient third-harmonic generation in ultrathin nonlinear metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Zibo; Li, Chong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-10-01
Active electric control of highly efficient third harmonic generation was realized in an ultrathin nonlinear metasurface by using a nanocomposite consisting of gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycrystalline strontium titanate as the electro-optic material. Owing to the nonlinearity enhancement associated with the slow light effect, quantum confinement effect, and field-reinforcement, a high conversion efficiency of 3 × 10-5 was obtained, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported efficiencies at comparable pump intensities. A modulation of 12% in the intensity of the third harmonic generation and a 30-nm shift in the transparency window center were achieved by varying the applied voltage from -30 V to zero. Our results pave the way toward the realization of multi-functional integrated photonic devices and chips based on metasurfaces.
Anterior cingulate activity modulates nonlinear decision weight function of uncertain prospects.
Paulus, Martin P; Frank, Lawrence R
2006-04-01
Prospect theory developed by Kahneman and Tversky has been among the most influential psychological models and explains many nonnormative decision-making phenomena, e.g. why people play the lottery or bet on long-shots. A Certainty Equivalent procedure was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural substrates that are important for nonlinear transformation of probabilities to decision weights. Differential activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during high versus low probability prospects correlated (r = 0.84, P < 0.01) with the degree of the nonlinearity of the transformation of probabilities to decision weights, which indicates that risk-seeking behavior for low probability prospects and risk-averse decision-making for mid to high probability prospects may be due to a lack of controlled processing by the anterior cingulate cortex.
Laser speckle micro-rheology for biomechanical evaluation of breast tumors (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjarian Kashany, Zeinab; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.
2016-03-01
The stiffness of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) is recognized as a key regulator of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Therefore technologies that quantify ECM stiffness with micro-scale scale resolution will likely provide important insights into neoplastic progression. Laser Speckle Micro-Rheology (LSM) is a novel optical tool for measuring tissue viscoelastic properties with micro-scale resolution. In LSM, speckle images are collected through an objective lens by a high-speed camera. Spatio-temporal correlation analysis of speckle frames yields the intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), for each pixel, and subsequently a 2D map of viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω) is reconstructed. Here, we investigate the utility of LSM for micro-mechanical evaluation of the ECM in human breast lesions. Specimens collected 18 women undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy were evaluated with LSM. Because collagen is the key protein associated with ECM stiffness, G*(ω) maps obtained from LSM were compared with collagen content measured by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Regions of low G*(ω), identified by LSM, corresponded to low-intensity SHG signal and adipose tissue. Likewise, regions with high G*(ω) in LSM images matched high intensity SHG signal caused by desmoplastic collagen accumulation. Quantitative regression analysis demonstrated a strong, statistically significant correlation between G*(ω) and SHG signal intensity (R=0.66 p< 0.01). These findings highlight the capability of LSM for quantifying the ECM micro-mechanics, potentially providing important insights into the biomechanical regulators of breast cancer progression.
Microrheological Characterization of Collagen Systems: From Molecular Solutions to Fibrillar Gels
Shayegan, Marjan; Forde, Nancy R.
2013-01-01
Collagen is the most abundant protein in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where its structural organization conveys mechanical information to cells. Using optical-tweezers-based microrheology, we investigated mechanical properties both of collagen molecules at a range of concentrations in acidic solution where fibrils cannot form and of gels of collagen fibrils formed at neutral pH, as well as the development of microscale mechanical heterogeneity during the self-assembly process. The frequency scaling of the complex shear modulus even at frequencies of ∼10 kHz was not able to resolve the flexibility of collagen molecules in acidic solution. In these solutions, molecular interactions cause significant transient elasticity, as we observed for 5 mg/ml solutions at frequencies above ∼200 Hz. We found the viscoelasticity of solutions of collagen molecules to be spatially homogeneous, in sharp contrast to the heterogeneity of self-assembled fibrillar collagen systems, whose elasticity varied by more than an order of magnitude and in power-law behavior at different locations within the sample. By probing changes in the complex shear modulus over 100-minute timescales as collagen self-assembled into fibrils, we conclude that microscale heterogeneity appears during early phases of fibrillar growth and continues to develop further during this growth phase. Experiments in which growing fibrils dislodge microspheres from an optical trap suggest that fibril growth is a force-generating process. These data contribute to understanding how heterogeneities develop during self-assembly, which in turn can help synthesis of new materials for cellular engineering. PMID:23936454
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soluble fiber ß-glucan is one of the key dietary material in healthy food products known for reducing serum cholesterol levels. The micro-structural heterogeneity and micro-rheology of high-viscosity barley ß-glucan solutions were investigated by the diffusion wave spectroscopy (DWS) technology. By ...
Multiphysics modeling of non-linear laser-matter interactions for optically active semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, Brent; Kanp, Jaroslaw
Development of photonic devices for sensors and communications devices has been significantly enhanced by computational modeling. We present a new computational method for modelling laser propagation in optically-active semiconductors within the paraxial wave approximation (PWA). Light propagation is modeled using the Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Material response enters through the non-linear polarization, which serves as the right-hand side of the FEM calculation. Maxwell's equations for classical light propagation within the PWA can be written solely in terms of the electric field, producing a wave equation that is a form of the advection-diffusion-reaction equations (ADREs). This allows adaptation of the computational machinery developed for solving ADREs in fluid dynamics to light-propagation modeling. The non-linear polarization is incorporated using a flexible framework to enable the use of multiple methods for carrier-carrier interactions (e.g. relaxation-time-based or Monte Carlo) to enter through the non-linear polarization, as appropriate to the material type. We demonstrate using a simple carrier-carrier model approximating the response of GaN. Supported by ARL Materials Enterprise.
Marchesi, Stefano; Tognola, Gabriella; Paglialonga, Alessia
2013-08-01
A new approach to study nonlinearity in cochlear active mechanisms, as evaluated in transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), is presented. TEOAEs are signals generated in the cochlea by a mix of linear and nonlinear mechanisms. This new approach was designed to complement the traditional TEOAE analysis performed by currently available systems used in objective hearing screening and assessment. Nonlinearity of TEOAEs was studied by means of the bispectrum, which is able to find out quadratic frequency couplings (QFCs) that occur when a frequency is not only generated by an independent cochlear source, but it is the result of the interaction among a number of cochlear sources. To fit with the technical constraints of currently available TEOAE systems, the bispectrum was estimated by the third-order scaled polyperiodogram. The proposed method was characterized with synthesized TEOAEs as a function of the main TEOAE parameters and then used to analyze TEOAEs recorded in normal hearing adults and full-term neonates. Results revealed the presence of QFCs in both adult and neonatal TEOAEs, with peculiar patterns and significantly different frequency content in the two groups: adults had QFCs mainly around 2 kHz and neonates had QFCs mainly in the range 3.5-4 kHz.
Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V
2015-12-01
The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (<20 episodes), intermediate (20-29 episodes), or high (>30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.
Linear and non-linear control techniques applied to actively lubricated journal bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicoletti, R.; Santos, I. F.
2003-03-01
The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can use the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can use the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurized oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and a non-linear controller, applied to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0-80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated, illustrating clearly one of its most promising applications.
A new active variable stiffness suspension system using a nonlinear energy sink-based controller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anubi, Olugbenga Moses; Crane, Carl D.
2013-10-01
This paper presents the active case of a variable stiffness suspension system. The central concept is based on a recently designed variable stiffness mechanism which consists of a horizontal control strut and a vertical strut. The horizontal strut is used to vary the load transfer ratio by actively controlling the location of the point of attachment of the vertical strut to the car body. The control algorithm, effected by a hydraulic actuator, uses the concept of nonlinear energy sink (NES) to effectively transfer the vibrational energy in the sprung mass to a control mass, thereby reducing the transfer of energy from road disturbance to the car body at a relatively lower cost compared to the traditional active suspension using the skyhook concept. The analyses and simulation results show that a better performance can be achieved by subjecting the point of attachment of a suspension system, to the chassis, to the influence of a horizontal NES system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bijlani, Bhavin J.
2011-07-01
This thesis explored the theory, design, fabrication and characterization of AlGaAs Bragg reflection waveguides (BRW) towards the goal of a platform for monolithic integration of active and optically nonlinear devices. Through integration of a diode laser and nonlinear phase-matched cavity, the possibility of on-chip nonlinear frequency generation was explored. Such integrated devices would be highly useful as a robust, alignment free, small footprint and electrically injected alternative to bulk optic systems. A theoretical framework for modal analysis of arbitrary 1-D photonic crystal defect waveguides is developed. This method relies on the transverse resonance condition. It is then demonstrated in the context of several types of Bragg reflection waveguides. The framework is then extended to phase-match second-order nonlinearities and incorporating quantum-wells for diode lasers. Experiments within a slab and ridge waveguide demonstrated phase-matched Type-I second harmonic generation at fundamental wavelength of 1587 and 1600 nm, respectively; a first for this type of waveguide. For the slab waveguide, conversion efficiency was 0.1 %/W. In the more strongly confined ridge waveguides, efficiency increased to 8.6 %/W owing to the increased intensity. The normalized conversion efficiency was estimated to be at 600 %/Wcm2. Diode lasers emitting at 980 nm in the BRW mode were also fabricated. Verification of the Bragg mode was performed through imaging the near- field of the mode. Propagation loss of this type of mode was measured directly for the first time at ≈ 14 cm-1. The lasers were found to be very insensitive with characteristic temperature at 215 K. Two designs incorporating both laser and phase-matched nonlinearity within the same cavity were fabricated, for degenerate and non-degenerate down-conversion. Though the lasers were sub-optimal, a parametric fluorescence signal was readily detected. Fluorescence power as high as 4 nW for the degenerate design
Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement
Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.
2014-01-01
A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896
Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Buchser, E.; Rutschmann, B.; Aminian, K.
2008-02-01
The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.
Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M. E-mail: carlos.raupp@iag.usp.br
2015-01-20
The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (∼11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from –35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.
Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Leal, L Gary; Squires, Todd M
2014-05-13
Oscillatory microdisk rheometry was applied to evaluate the evolution of the viscoelastic properties at the surface of a film of an aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) during drying. The drying rate was measured concurrently, based upon measurements of the variation of film thickness. A fully hydrolyzed PVA solution shows a constant drying rate, while a less hydrolyzed PVA solution exhibits a decreased drying rate in the latter part of the drying process, which occurred at the same time as an increase of the elastic modulus. We suggest that this difference in behavior is a consequence of the fact that both the configuration of the PVA molecule and the strength of interaction with water depend on the degree to which the PVA is hydrolyzed. The polymer concentration at the film surface can be estimated from the measured viscosity at the surface for the fully hydrolyzed PVA solution, and this result then can be compared with two theoretical calculations: one in which the polymer concentration is assumed to remain uniform throughout the film, and the other in which the polymer concentration distribution is determined via a one-dimensional diffusion model. This comparison suggests that the polymer is first concentrated locally near the surface but later in the drying process the distribution of polymer becomes increasingly uniform, possibly due to a spontaneously generated convective flow inside the film.
Non-linear modelling and control of semi-active suspensions with variable damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Huang; Long, Chen; Yuan, Chao-Chun; Jiang, Hao-Bin
2013-10-01
Electro-hydraulic dampers can provide variable damping force that is modulated by varying the command current; furthermore, they offer advantages such as lower power, rapid response, lower cost, and simple hardware. However, accurate characterisation of non-linear f-v properties in pre-yield and force saturation in post-yield is still required. Meanwhile, traditional linear or quarter vehicle models contain various non-linearities. The development of a multi-body dynamics model is very complex, and therefore, SIMPACK was used with suitable improvements for model development and numerical simulations. A semi-active suspension was built based on a belief-desire-intention (BDI)-agent model framework. Vehicle handling dynamics were analysed, and a co-simulation analysis was conducted in SIMPACK and MATLAB to evaluate the BDI-agent controller. The design effectively improved ride comfort, handling stability, and driving safety. A rapid control prototype was built based on dSPACE to conduct a real vehicle test. The test and simulation results were consistent, which verified the simulation.
Kim, Hojeong; Heckman, C. J.
2014-01-01
Neuromodulatory inputs from brainstem systems modulate the normal function of spinal motoneurons by altering the activation properties of persistent inward currents (PICs) in their dendrites. However, the effect of the PIC on firing outputs also depends on its location in the dendritic tree. To investigate the interaction between PIC neuromodulation and PIC location dependence, we used a two-compartment model that was biologically realistic in that it retains directional and frequency-dependent electrical coupling between the soma and the dendrites, as seen in multi-compartment models based on full anatomical reconstructions of motoneurons. Our two-compartment approach allowed us to systematically vary the coupling parameters between the soma and the dendrite to accurately reproduce the effect of location of the dendritic PIC on the generation of nonlinear (hysteretic) motoneuron firing patterns. Our results show that as a single parameter value for PIC activation was either increased or decreased by 20% from its default value, the solution space of the coupling parameter values for nonlinear firing outputs was drastically reduced by approximately 80%. As a result, the model tended to fire only in a linear mode at the majority of dendritic PIC sites. The same results were obtained when all parameters for the PIC activation simultaneously changed only by approximately ±10%. Our results suggest the democratization effect of neuromodulation: the neuromodulation by the brainstem systems may play a role in switching the motoneurons with PICs at different dendritic locations to a similar mode of firing by reducing the effect of the dendritic location of PICs on the firing behavior. PMID:25309410
Path planning on cellular nonlinear network using active wave computing technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeniçeri, Ramazan; Yalçın, Müstak E.
2009-05-01
This paper introduces a simple algorithm to solve robot path finding problem using active wave computing techniques. A two-dimensional Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network (CNN), consist of relaxation oscillators, has been used to generate active waves and to process the visual information. The network, which has been implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip, has the feature of being programmed, controlled and observed by a host computer. The arena of the robot is modelled as the medium of the active waves on the network. Active waves are employed to cover the whole medium with their own dynamics, by starting from an initial point. The proposed algorithm is achieved by observing the motion of the wave-front of the active waves. Host program first loads the arena model onto the active wave generator network and command to start the generation. Then periodically pulls the network image from the generator hardware to analyze evolution of the active waves. When the algorithm is completed, vectorial data image is generated. The path from any of the pixel on this image to the active wave generating pixel is drawn by the vectors on this image. The robot arena may be a complicated labyrinth or may have a simple geometry. But, the arena surface always must be flat. Our Autowave Generator CNN implementation which is settled on the Xilinx University Program Virtex-II Pro Development System is operated by a MATLAB program running on the host computer. As the active wave generator hardware has 16, 384 neurons, an arena with 128 × 128 pixels can be modeled and solved by the algorithm. The system also has a monitor and network image is depicted on the monitor simultaneously.
Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Purdom Marreiro, Catherine L; Luecken, Linda J
2014-05-01
Relations between early adversity and the neuroendocrine stress response are most often tested in a linear framework. Findings from studies of nonlinear relations between early stress and reactivity in childhood are suggestive, but curvilinear associations between childhood family stress and stress reactivity at later developmental stages remain unexplored. The current study examined curvilinear relations between childhood interparental conflict (IPC) and cortisol reactivity in young adulthood. Participants (n = 91; Mean age = 18.7, SD = .97; 59% White, 25% Hispanic) reported on the frequency and intensity of childhood exposure to IPC and salivary cortisol was sampled before and after a challenging interpersonal role-play task. Significant curvilinear relations were found such that higher total cortisol and cortisol reactivity during the task was observed among youth reporting lower and higher frequency of IPC, suggesting that moderate IPC exposure may be associated with lower cortisol activity at a later developmental stage.
Evaluation of nonlinear properties of epileptic activity using largest Lyapunov exponent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedeva, Tatiana M.; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Sysoev, Ilya V.
2016-04-01
Absence seizures are known to be highly non-linear large amplitude oscillations with a well pronounced main time scale. Whilst the appearance of the main frequency is usually considered as a transition from noisy complex dynamics of baseline EEG to more regular absence activity, the dynamical properties of this type of epileptiformic activity in genetic absence models was not studied precisely. Here, the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from intracranial EEGs of 10 WAG/Rij rats (genetic model of absence epilepsy) was performed. Fragments of 10 seizures and 10 episodes of on-going EEG each of 4 s length were used for each animal, 3 cortical and 2 thalamic channels were analysed. The method adapted for short noisy data was implemented. The positive values of the largest Lyapunov exponent were found as for baseline as for spike wave discharges (SWDs), with values for SWDs being significantly less than for on-going activity. Current findings may indicate that SWD is a chaotic process with a well pronounced main timescale rather than a periodic regime. Also, the absence activity was shown to be less chaotic than the baseline one.
Nonlinear optics and nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, C. H.
1990-08-01
The author was invited by the Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, in Taiwan to give six lectures on nonlinear optics. The participants included graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, research staff, and professors from several research organizations and universities. Extensive discussion followed each lecture. Since both the Photophysics Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences in Taiwan have been actively participating in nonlinear optics research, the discussions are very beneficial to ORNL programs. The author also visited several laboratories at IAMS to exchange research ideas on nonlinear optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald
2009-05-01
Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio
Semi-active control of stay cables using nonlinear friction damper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Huiping; Sun, Limin
2013-04-01
Stay cables of long span cable-stayed bridges are easy to vibrate under wind or wind/rain loads owning to their very low inherent damping. To install cable dampers near to the anchorages of cable has become a common practice for cable vibration control of cable-stayed bridge structures. The performance of passive linear viscous dampers has been widely studied. However, even the optimal passive device can only add a small amount of damping to the cable when attached a reasonable distance from the cable anchorage. This paper investigates the potential for improved damping using semiactive devices based on nonlinear frictional type of dampers. The equations of motion of a cable with a friction damper were derived using an assumed modes approach and the analytical solution for the motion equations was obtained. The results show that the friction damper evokes linearly decaying of free vibrations of the cable as long as the damper does not lock the cable. The equivalent modal damping ratio of cable with the friction damper is strongly amplitude dependent. Based on the characteristics of friction damper, the authors proposed a semi-active control strategy for cable control with dampers. According to the semi-active control law, the damper force has to be adjusted in proportion to the cable amplitude at damper position. The effectiveness of passive linear viscous dampers is reviewed. The response of a cable with passive and semi-active dampers is studied. The response with a semi-active damper is found to be dramatically reduced compared to the optimal passive linear viscous damper, thus demonstrating the potential benefits using a semi-active damper for absorbing cable vibratory energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2016-05-01
The conformational analysis was carried out for 6-aminonicotinamide (ANA) using potential energy surface scan method and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The theoretical vibrational frequencies were calculated for the optimized geometry using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. The Mulliken atomic charge values were calculated. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intermolecular charge transfer studies and the related molecular properties were calculated. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum was simulated for both in the gas phase and liquid phase (ethanol) and the л to л* electronic transition was predicted. The nonlinear optical (NLO) activity was studied by means of the first order hyperpolarizability value, which was 8.61 times greater than the urea and the natural bond orbital analysis was also performed to confirm the NLO activity of the molecule. Hence, the ANA molecule is a promising candidate for the NLO materials.
Shi, Ping; Yu, Hongliu
2014-04-01
Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xuefei; Fu, Yiming; Chen, Yang
2015-05-01
Based on the higher order shear deformation theory and the geometric nonlinear theory, the nonlinear motion equations, to which the effects of the positive and negative piezoelectric and the thermal are introduced by piezoelectric fiber metal laminated (FML) plates in an unsteady temperature, are established by Hamilton’s variational principle. Then, the control algorithm of negative-velocity feedback is applied to realize the vibration control of the piezoelectric FML plates. During the solving process, firstly, the formal functions of the displacements that fulfilled the boundary conditions are proposed. Then, heat conduction equations and nonlinear differential equations are dealt with using the differential quadrature (DQ) and Galerkin methods, respectively. On the basis of the previous processing, the time domain is dispersed by the Newmark-β method. Finally, the whole problem can be investigated by the iterative method. In the numerical examples, the influence of the applied voltage, the temperature loading and geometric parameters on the nonlinear dynamic response of the piezoelectric FML plates is analyzed. Meanwhile, the effect of feedback control gain and the position of the piezoelectric layer, the initial deflection and the external temperature on the active control effect of the piezoelectric layers has been studied. The model development and the research results can serve as a basis for nonlinear vibration analysis of the FML structures.
Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo
2004-09-01
In this work, growth-rate curves of the 2 f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) are analyzed in a population of 30 noise exposed subjects, including both normal-hearing and hearing impaired subjects. A particular embedded limit-cycle oscillator equation is used to model the cochlear resonant response at the cochlear places of the primary and secondary tone frequencies (f2 and 2 f1-f2). The parameters of the oscillator equation can be directly interpreted in terms of effectiveness of the cochlear feedback mechanisms associated with the active filter amplification. A two-sources paradigm is included in the model, in agreement with experimental evidence and with the assumptions of more detailed full cochlear models based on the transmission line formalism. According to this paradigm, DPOAEs are nonlinearly generated at the cochlear place that is resonant at frequency f2, and coherently reflected at the 2 f1-f2 place. The analysis shows that the model, which had been previously used to describe the relaxation dynamics of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), also correctly predicts the observed growth rate of the DPOAE response as a function of the primary tones amplitude. A significant difference is observed between normal and impaired ears. The comparison between the growth rate curves at different frequencies provides information about the dependence of cochlear tuning on frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawarathna, Dharmakirthi
The response of biological cells to an applied oscillating electric field contains both linear and nonlinear components (eg. induced harmonics). Such noninvasive measurements can be used to study active processes taking place inside the cells. The measurement of induced harmonics is the tool used for the study described here. A highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is used to detect the response at low frequencies, which greatly reduces electrode polarization effects. At high frequencies, a four- probe method is used. At low frequencies, harmonic generation by budding yeast cells in response to a sinusoidal electric field is reported, which is seen to be minimal when the field amplitude is less than a threshold value. Surprisingly, sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor of P-type ATPases and glucose, a substrate of P-type ATPase responsible for nonlinear response in yeast, reduces the threshold field amplitude, increasing harmonic generation at low amplitudes while reducing it at large amplitudes. We have thus proposed a model that explicitly introduces a threshold field, similar to those observed in density waves, where fields above threshold drive charge transport through an energy landscape with multiple wells, and in Coulomb blockade tunnel junctions, recently exploited to define the current standard. At high frequencies, the induced harmonics exhibit pronounced features that depend on the specific organism. Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae ) cells produce numerous harmonics. When the second or third harmonic amplitude is plotted vs. applied frequency, we observe two peaks, around 3 kHz and 12 kHz, which are suppressed by the respiratory inhibitor potassium cyanide. We then measured the response to oscillatory electric fields of intact bovine heart mitochondria, a reproducible second harmonic (at ˜3-4 kHz applied frequency) was detected. Further, with coupled mouse mitochondria, an ADP sensitive peak (˜ 12-15 kHz applied frequency) was
Nonlinear Structured Illumination Using a Fluorescent Protein Activating at the Readout Wavelength
Hou, Wenya; Kielhorn, Martin; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Heintzmann, Rainer
2016-01-01
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a wide-field technique in fluorescence microscopy that provides fast data acquisition and two-fold resolution improvement beyond the Abbe limit. We observed a further resolution improvement using the nonlinear emission response of a fluorescent protein. We demonstrated a two-beam nonlinear structured illumination microscope by introducing only a minor change into the system used for linear SIM (LSIM). To achieve the required nonlinear dependence in nonlinear SIM (NL-SIM) we exploited the photoswitching of the recently introduced fluorophore Kohinoor. It is particularly suitable due to its positive contrast photoswitching characteristics. Contrary to other reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins which only have high photostability in living cells, Kohinoor additionally showed little degradation in fixed cells over many switching cycles. PMID:27783656
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong
2014-05-01
This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.
Chen, Yin-Quan; Kuo, Chia-Yu; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Wu, Kelly; Su, Pin-Tzu; Huang, Chien-Shiou; Chiou, Arthur
2014-01-01
Cell division plays an important role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. It is managed by a complex sequence of cytoskeleton alteration that induces dividing cells to change their morphology to facilitate their division. The change in cytoskeleton structure is expected to affect the intracellular viscoelasticity, which may also contribute to cellular dynamic deformation during cell division. However, the intracellular viscoelasticity during cell division is not yet well understood. In this study, we injected 100-nm (diameter) carboxylated polystyrene beads into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells and applied video particle tracking microrheology to measure their intracellular viscoelasticity at different phases during cell division. The Brownian motion of the intracellular nanoprobes was analyzed to compute the viscoelasticity of HeLa cells in terms of the elastic modulus and viscous modulus as a function of frequency. Our experimental results indicate that during the course of cell division, both intracellular elasticity and viscosity increase in the transition from the metaphase to the anaphase, plausibly due to the remodeling of cytoskeleton and redistributions of molecular motors, but remain approximately the same from the anaphase to the telophase.
Yang, Yali; Valentine, Megan T
2013-01-01
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential in maintaining the shape, strength, and organization of cells. Its spatiotemporal organization is fundamental for numerous dynamic biological processes, and mechanical stress within the MT cytoskeleton provides an important signaling mechanism in mitosis and neural development. This raises important questions about the relationships between structure and mechanics in complex MT structures. In vitro, reconstituted cytoskeletal networks provide a minimal model of cell mechanics while also providing a testing ground for the fundamental polymer physics of stiff polymer gels. Here, we describe our development and implementation of a broad tool kit to study structure-mechanics relationships in reconstituted MT networks, including protocols for the assembly of entangled and cross-linked MT networks, fluorescence imaging, microstructure characterization, construction and calibration of magnetic tweezers devices, and mechanical data collection and analysis. In particular, we present the design and assembly of three neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)-based magnetic tweezers devices optimized for use with MT networks: (1) high-force magnetic tweezers devices that enable the application of nano-Newton forces and possible meso- to macroscale materials characterization; (2) ring-shaped NdFeB-based magnetic tweezers devices that enable oscillatory microrheology measurements; and (3) portable magnetic tweezers devices that enable direct visualization of microscale deformation in soft materials under applied force.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2015-06-01
The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.
2015-06-24
The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jia; Wang, Lun; Cai, Guobiao; Qi, Xiaoqiang
2015-06-01
Near space hypersonic vehicle model is nonlinear, multivariable and couples in the reentry process, which are challenging for the controller design. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional order proportion integral derivative (NFOPIλDμ) active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy based on a natural selection particle swarm (NSPSO) algorithm is proposed for the hypersonic vehicle flight control. The NFOPIλDμ ADRC method consists of a tracking-differentiator (TD), an NFOPIλDμ controller and an extended state observer (ESO). The NFOPIλDμ controller designed by combining an FOPIλDμ method and a nonlinear states error feedback control law (NLSEF) is to overcome concussion caused by the NLSEF and conversely compensate the insufficiency for relatively simple and rough signal processing caused by the FOPIλDμ method. The TD is applied to coordinate the contradiction between rapidity and overshoot. By attributing all uncertain factors to unknown disturbances, the ESO can achieve dynamic feedback compensation for these disturbances and thus reduce their effects. Simulation results show that the NFOPIλDμ ADRC method can make the hypersonic vehicle six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model track desired nominal signals accurately and fast, has good stability, dynamic properties and strong robustness against external environmental disturbances.
Liu, Sheng; Keeler, Gordon A.; Reno, John L.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal
2016-06-10
We demonstrate 2D and multilayer dielectric metamaterials made from III–V semiconductors using a monolithic fabrication process. The resulting structures could be used to recompress chirped femtosecond optical pulses and in a variety of other optical applications requiring low loss. Moreover, these III–V all-dielectric metamaterials could enable novel active applications such as efficient nonlinear frequency converters, light emitters, detectors, and modulators.
Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F.; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen
2016-07-01
Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit.
Chernavskaia, Olga; Heuke, Sandro; Vieth, Michael; Friedrich, Oliver; Schürmann, Sebastian; Atreya, Raja; Stallmach, Andreas; Neurath, Markus F; Waldner, Maximilian; Petersen, Iver; Schmitt, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Assessing disease activity is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In addition to endoscopic mucosal healing, histologic remission poses a promising end-point of IBD therapy. However, evaluating histological remission harbors the risk for complications due to the acquisition of biopsies and results in a delay of diagnosis because of tissue processing procedures. In this regard, non-linear multimodal imaging techniques might serve as an unparalleled technique that allows the real-time evaluation of microscopic IBD activity in the endoscopy unit. In this study, tissue sections were investigated using the non-linear multimodal microscopy combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon excited auto fluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). After the measurement a gold-standard assessment of histological indexes was carried out based on a conventional H&E stain. Subsequently, various geometry and intensity related features were extracted from the multimodal images. An optimized feature set was utilized to predict histological index levels based on a linear classifier. Based on the automated prediction, the diagnosis time interval is decreased. Therefore, non-linear multimodal imaging may provide a real-time diagnosis of IBD activity suited to assist clinical decision making within the endoscopy unit. PMID:27406831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chao; Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Qiang; Cheng, Li
2013-01-01
There has been increasing interest in using the nonlinear features of acousto-ultrasonic (AU) waves to detect damage onset (e.g., micro-fatigue cracks) due to their high sensitivity to damage with small dimensions. However, most existing approaches are able to infer the existence of fatigue damage qualitatively, but fail to further ascertain its location and severity. A damage characterization approach, in conjunction with the use of an active piezoelectric sensor network, was established, capable of evaluating fatigue cracks in a quantitative manner (including the co-presence of multiple fatigue cracks, and their individual locations and severities). Fundamental investigations, using both experiment and enhanced finite element analysis dedicated to the simulation of nonlinear AU waves, were carried out to link the accumulation of nonlinearities extracted from high-order AU waves to the characteristic parameters of a fatigue crack. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed, facilitating an intuitive presentation of identification results in images. The approach was verified experimentally by evaluating multi-fatigue cracks near rivet holes of a fatigued aluminum plate, showing satisfactory precision in characterizing real, barely visible fatigue cracks. Compared with existing methods, this approach innovatively (i) uses permanently integrated active sensor networks, conducive to automatic and online health monitoring; (ii) characterizes fatigue cracks at a quantitative level; (iii) allows detection of multiple fatigue cracks; and (iv) visualizes identification results in intuitive images.
Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong
2016-01-01
Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings. PMID:27462501
Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong
2016-01-01
Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dongwei
Recent research and development of adaptive materials, smart structures and structronic systems have opened a new era to aerospace and structural engineering. Effective control of these intelligent structures and systems using piezoelectric materials can enhance operation precision, accuracy and reliability. This research is to investigate the dynamics, vibration sensing and control of the geometrically nonlinear distributed piezothermoelastic structures subjected to the combined mechanical, electrical, and thermal excitations by the finite element method. Based on the layerwise constant shear angle theory, the curved hexahedral and triangular piezothermoelastic shell elements are proposed. The generic finite element formulations for vibration sensing and control analysis of nonlinear piezothermoelastic shell structures are derived based on the total Lagrangian virtual work principle. Dynamic system equations, equations of electric potential outputs, and feedback control forces are derived and discussed. The modified Newton-Raphson method is used for efficient dynamic analysis of the nonlinear piezothermoelastic structural systems. Different control algorithms are implemented. The feedback control forces generated from the distributed actuator can effectively enhance system damping and suppress system vibration via proper feedback control techniques. Comprehensive case studies are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the newly developed piezothermoelastic shell elements and to validate the finite element code. Dynamics and vibration sensing/control of nonlinear piezothermoelastic beam and plate systems are analyzed. Distributed piezoelectric films placed on the beam and plate structures respectively serving as sensor and actuators are discussed. The effect of geometric nonlinearity is to stiffen the beam and plate structures and the control effect becomes worse when geometric nonlinearity becomes significant. It shows that negative velocity control scheme is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Kaffas, Ahmed; Bekah, Devesh; Rui, Min; Kumaradas, J. Carl; Kolios, Michael C.
2013-02-01
Evidence suggests that compression and shear wave elastography are sensitive to the mechanical property changes occuring in dying cells following chemotherapy, and can hence be used to monitor cancer treatment response. A qualitative and quantitative understanding of the mechanical changes at the cellular level would allow to better infer how these changes affect macroscopic tissue mechanical properties and therefore allow the optimization of elastographic techniques (such as shear wave elastography) for the monitoring of cancer therapy. We used intracellular particle tracking microrheology (PTM) to investigate the mechanical property changes of cells exposed to paclitaxol, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. The average elastic and viscous moduli of the cytoplasm of treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells were calculated for frequency ranges between 0.2 and 100 rad s-1 (corresponding to 0.03 and 15.92 Hz, respectively). A significant increase in the complex shear modulus of the cell cytoplasm was detected at 12 h post treatment. At 24 h after drug exposure, the elastic and viscous moduli increased by a total of 191.3 Pa (>8000×) and 9 Pa (˜9×), respectively for low frequency shear modulus measurements (at 1 rad s-1). At higher frequencies (10 rad s-1), the elastic and viscous moduli increased by 188.5 Pa (˜60×) and 1.7 Pa (˜1.1×), respectively. Our work demonstrates that PTM can be used to measure changes in the mechanical properties of treated cells and that cell elasticity significantly increases by 24 h after chemotherapy exposure.
Micro-rheology on (polymer-grafted) colloids using optical tweezers.
Gutsche, C; Elmahdy, M M; Kegler, K; Semenov, I; Stangner, T; Otto, O; Ueberschär, O; Keyser, U F; Krueger, M; Rauscher, M; Weeber, R; Harting, J; Kim, Y W; Lobaskin, V; Netz, R R; Kremer, F
2011-05-11
Optical tweezers are experimental tools with extraordinary resolution in positioning (± 1 nm) a micron-sized colloid and in the measurement of forces (± 50 fN) acting on it-without any mechanical contact. This enables one to carry out a multitude of novel experiments in nano- and microfluidics, of which the following will be presented in this review: (i) forces within single pairs of colloids in media of varying concentration and valency of the surrounding ionic solution, (ii) measurements of the electrophoretic mobility of single colloids in different solvents (concentration, valency of the ionic solution and pH), (iii) similar experiments as in (i) with DNA-grafted colloids, (iv) the nonlinear response of single DNA-grafted colloids in shear flow and (v) the drag force on single colloids pulled through a polymer solution. The experiments will be described in detail and their analysis discussed.
Cortini, M.; Barton, C.C.
1993-01-01
The ground level in Pozzuoli, Italy, at the center of the Campi Flegrei caldera, has been monitored by tide gauges. Previous work suggests that the dynamics of the Campi Flegrei system, as reconstructed from the tide gauge record, is chaotic and low dimensional. According to this suggestion, in spite of the complexity of the system, at a time scale of days the ground motion is driven by a deterministic mechanism with few degrees of freedom; however, the interactions of the system may never be describable in full detail. New analysis of the tide gauge record using Nonlinear Forecasting, confirms low-dimensional chaos in the ground elevation record at Campi Flegrei and suggests that Nonlinear Forecasting could be a useful tool in volcanic surveillance. -from Authors
Gang, Noa; Persinger, Michael A
2011-12-01
There have been multiple claims that exposing water to a static magnetic field affects its properties which influence living systems. To test this hypothesis, planarian subsequent to dissection were maintained in spring water that had been previously exposed for only one day to one of three (16, 160, or 1,600 G) intensity static magnetic fields or to a reference condition. Although there was no significant difference in regeneration rates over the subsequent seven-day period, there was a statistically significant nonlinear effect for planarian mobility and diffusion rates. Both mobility rates and diffusion velocity of a liquid within the water that had been exposed to the 16 G field was about twice that for water exposed to the other intensities. These results imply that nonlinear biophysical effects may emerge under specific conditions of intensity ranges for particular volumes of water.
Nonlinear wave structures on NO+ions in active plasma-jet space experiment ``North-Star''.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovaleva, Irina; Gavrilov, Boris; Zetzer, Julius; Pfaff, Robert; Poklad, Yuriy; Erlandson, Robert
Ionospheric density irregularities cause scintillations of GPS signals. Their nature and generation mechanisms are subject of many investigations. Model of nonlinear gradient-drift ion-cyclotron structures is proposed in [1,2]. In accordance with the model density humps or holes are formed by one ion species of ionosphere plasma and accompanied by short-wave-length oscillations on their trailing edge. The nonlinear structures are excited on transversal to geomagnetic field concentration gradient of ion species. Experimental registrations of the irregularities do not sufficiently attend to this properties. Experimental data of active ionospheric experiment “North Star” (plasma-jet space experiment)[3] are revised in relaxation phase of plasma-jet injections. The mentioned above nonlinear structures on NO+ ion species are identified. The generation mechanism is considered. [1]Kovaleva I.Kh.//Phys plasmas, 19, 102905, doi: 10.1063/1.4763561,2012 [2]Kovaleva I.Kh.//Plasma Phys Reports 39, 3, pp226-235, 2013 [3]Erlandson R.E.,MengC.I., Y.,Zetzer J,I.//J. Spacecraft and rockets V.41, N.4,pp481-482
Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasthofer, Thomas
1996-01-01
The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.
Xu, Duoxia; Aihemaiti, Zulipiya; Cao, Yanping; Teng, Chao; Li, Xiuting
2016-07-01
The impact of chitosan (CTS) on the physicochemical stability, microrheological property and microstructure of whey protein isolate (WPI)-flaxseed gum (FG) stabilized lutein emulsions at pH 3.0 was studied. A layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition method was used to prepare multilayered lutein emulsions. Droplet size, zeta-potential, instability index, microstructure and microrheological behavior of lutein emulsions were measured. The influences of interfacial layer, metal chelator and free radical scavenger on the chemical stability of lutein emulsions were also investigated. It was found that multilayer emulsions had better physical stability showing the pronounced effect of 1wt% CTS. The mean square displacement analysis demonstrated that CTS led to increases of macroscopic viscosity and elasticity index for WPI-FG stabilized lutein emulsions due to CTS embedding in the network. CTS also helped to chemically stabilize the lutein emulsions against degradation. The combination of interfacial membrane and prooxidative metal chelator or free radical scavenger was an effective method to control lutein degradation. PMID:26920280
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentine, Megan; Yang, Yali; Bai, Mo; Klug, William; Levine, Alex
2013-03-01
We determine the viscoelastic responses of reconstituted networks of microtubules that have been strongly bonded by labile crosslinkers using a magnetic tweezers device to apply localized forces. At short time scales, the networks respond nonlinearly to applied force, with stiffening at small forces, followed by a reduction in the stiffening response at high forces, which we attribute to the force-induced unbinding of crosslinks. At long time scales, force-induced bond unbinding leads to local network rearrangement and significant bead creep. Interestingly, for rigidly crosslinked networks, the material retains its elastic modulus even under conditions of significant plastic flow, suggesting that crosslinker breakage is balanced by the formation of new bonds. To better understand this effect, we developed a finite element model of such a stiff filament network with crosslinkers obeying force-dependent Bell model unbinding dynamics. The coexistence of dissipation, due to bond breakage, and the elastic recovery of the network is possible because each filament has many crosslinkers. Recovery can occur as long as a sufficient number of the original crosslinkers are preserved under the loading period. When these remaining original crosslinkers are broken, plastic flow results.
Yang, Yali; Bai, Mo; Klug, William S.; Levine, Alex J.
2012-01-01
We determine the time- and force-dependent viscoelastic responses of reconstituted networks of microtubules that have been strongly crosslinked by biotin-streptavidin bonds. To measure the microscale viscoelasticity of such networks, we use a magnetic tweezers device to apply localized forces. At short time scales, the networks respond nonlinearly to applied force, with stiffening at small forces, followed by a reduction in the stiffening response at high forces, which we attribute to the force-induced unbinding of crosslinks. At long time scales, force-induced bond unbinding leads to local network rearrangement and significant bead creep. Interestingly, the network retains its elastic modulus even under conditions of significant plastic flow, suggesting that crosslinker breakage is balanced by the formation of new bonds. To better understand this effect, we developed a finite element model of such a stiff filament network with labile crosslinkers obeying force-dependent Bell model unbinding dynamics. The coexistence of dissipation, due to bond breakage, and the elastic recovery of the network is possible because each filament has many crosslinkers. Recovery can occur as long as a sufficient number of the original crosslinkers are preserved under the loading period. When these remaining original crosslinkers are broken, plastic flow results. PMID:23577042
Sadat Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed; Khajeh, Khosro
2005-12-16
Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known k {sub i} values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was used, the highest of positive charge on the molecules was recognized to be in close relation with their inhibition activity, while the electric charge on atom N1 of adenosine was found to be a poor descriptor. Consequently, the previously developed equation was improved and the newly formed one could predict the class of 91.66% of compounds correctly. Also optimized 2-3-1 and 3-4-1 neural networks could increase this rate to 95.83%.
CONTROL OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICS BY ACTIVE AND PASSIVE METHODS FOR THE NSLS-II INSERTION DEVICES
Bengtsson J.; Chubar, O.; Kitegi, C.; Tanabe, T.
2012-05-20
Nonlinear effects from insertion devices are potentially a limiting factor for the electron beam quality of modern ring-based light sources, i.e., the on and off-dynamical aperture, leading to reduced injection efficiency and beam lifetime. These effects can be modelled by e.g. kick maps ({approx}1/{gamma}{sup 2}) and controlled by e.g. first-order thin or thick magnetic kicks introduced by 'magic fingers,' 'L-shims,' or 'current strips'. However, due to physical or technological constraints, these corrections are typically only partial. Therefore, a precise model is needed to correctly minimize the residual nonlinear effects for the entire system. We outline a systematic method for integrated design and rapid prototyping based on evaluation of the 3D magnetic field and control of the local trajectory with RADIA, and particle tracking with Tracy-3 for validation. The optimal geometry for the compensating magnetic fields is determined from the results of these simulations using a combination of linear algebra and genetic optimization.
Hauge, Erik R; Berle, Jan Øystein; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Holsten, Fred; Fasmer, Ole Bernt
2011-01-28
The purpose of this study has been to describe motor activity data obtained by using wrist-worn actigraphs in patients with schizophrenia and major depression by the use of linear and non-linear methods of analysis. Different time frames were investigated, i.e., activity counts measured every minute for up to five hours and activity counts made hourly for up to two weeks. The results show that motor activity was lower in the schizophrenic patients and in patients with major depression, compared to controls. Using one minute intervals the depressed patients had a higher standard deviation (SD) compared to both the schizophrenic patients and the controls. The ratio between the root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) and SD was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls. The Fourier analysis of the activity counts measured every minute showed that the relation between variance in the low and the high frequency range was lower in the schizophrenic patients compared to the controls. The sample entropy was higher in the schizophrenic patients compared to controls in the time series from the activity counts made every minute. The main conclusions of the study are that schizophrenic and depressive patients have distinctly different profiles of motor activity and that the results differ according to period length analysed.
Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results. PMID:26071703
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut
2015-06-01
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
Papoutsi, Athanasia; Sidiropoulou, Kyriaki; Poirazi, Panayiota
2014-01-01
Technological advances have unraveled the existence of small clusters of co-active neurons in the neocortex. The functional implications of these microcircuits are in large part unexplored. Using a heavily constrained biophysical model of a L5 PFC microcircuit, we recently showed that these structures act as tunable modules of persistent activity, the cellular correlate of working memory. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that underlie persistent activity emergence (ON) and termination (OFF) and search for the minimum network size required for expressing these states within physiological regimes. We show that (a) NMDA-mediated dendritic spikes gate the induction of persistent firing in the microcircuit. (b) The minimum network size required for persistent activity induction is inversely proportional to the synaptic drive of each excitatory neuron. (c) Relaxation of connectivity and synaptic delay constraints eliminates the gating effect of NMDA spikes, albeit at a cost of much larger networks. (d) Persistent activity termination by increased inhibition depends on the strength of the synaptic input and is negatively modulated by dADP. (e) Slow synaptic mechanisms and network activity contain predictive information regarding the ability of a given stimulus to turn ON and/or OFF persistent firing in the microcircuit model. Overall, this study zooms out from dendrites to cell assemblies and suggests a tight interaction between dendritic non-linearities and network properties (size/connectivity) that may facilitate the short-memory function of the PFC. PMID:25077940
Burger, Divan Aristo; Schall, Robert
2015-01-01
Trials of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of tuberculosis (TB) treatments assess the decline, during the first few days to weeks of treatment, in colony forming unit (CFU) count of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with smear-microscopy-positive pulmonary TB. Profiles over time of CFU data have conventionally been modeled using linear, bilinear, or bi-exponential regression. We propose a new biphasic nonlinear regression model for CFU data that comprises linear and bilinear regression models as special cases and is more flexible than bi-exponential regression models. A Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) regression model is fitted jointly to the data of all patients from a trial, and statistical inference about the mean EBA of TB treatments is based on the Bayesian NLME regression model. The posterior predictive distribution of relevant slope parameters of the Bayesian NLME regression model provides insight into the nature of the EBA of TB treatments; specifically, the posterior predictive distribution allows one to judge whether treatments are associated with monolinear or bilinear decline of log(CFU) count, and whether CFU count initially decreases fast, followed by a slower rate of decrease, or vice versa. PMID:25322214
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, Alexander S.; Yemelyanov, Ruslan Yu.; Gerasimov, Mark Yu.; Itskov, Vadim V.
2016-06-01
The paper deals with a new multi-element processor platform assigned for modelling the behaviour of interacting dynamical systems, i.e., active wireless network. Experimentally, this ensemble is implemented in an active network, the active nodes of which include direct chaotic transceivers and special actuator boards containing microcontrollers for modelling the dynamical systems and an information display unit (colored LEDs). The modelling technique and experimental results are described and analyzed.
Planells, Miquel; Pizzotti, Maddalena; Nichol, Gary S; Tessore, Francesca; Robertson, Neil
2014-11-14
Tricyanofuran (TCF) derivatives attached to both anthracene and pyrene moieties were synthesised and characterised by optical, electrochemical and computational techniques. Both compounds exhibited similar absorption profile as well as electrochemical behaviour, however the pyrene derivative showed 20-fold higher non-linear optical activity measured by the EFISH technique. This huge difference has been assigned to (i) a lower molar absorption and (ii) a higher torsion angle for the anthracene derivative, confirmed by both experimental X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Furthermore, we note that the μβ1.907 value of -1700 × 10(-48) esu recorded for the pyrene derivative in CHCl3/pyridine is remarkable for a NLO chromophore lacking a classical push-pull structure. PMID:25264846
Passive microrheology of normal and cancer cells after ML7 treatment by atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyapunova, Elena; Nikituk, Alexander; Bayandin, Yuriy; Naimark, Oleg; Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred
2016-08-01
Mechanical properties of living cancer and normal thyroidal cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell mechanics was compared before and after treatment with ML7, which is known to reduce myosin activity and induce softening of cell structures. We recorded force curves with extended dwell time of 6 seconds in contact at maximum forces from 500 pN to 1 nN. Data were analyzed within different frameworks: Hertz fit was applied in order to evaluate differences in Young's moduli among cell types and conditions, while the fluctuations of the cantilever in contact with cells were analyzed with both conventional algorithms (probability density function and power spectral density) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We found that cancer cells were softer than normal cells and ML7 had a substantial softening effect on normal cells, but only a marginal one on cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that all recorded signals for normal and cancer cells were monofractal with small differences between their scaling parameters. Finally, the applicability of wavelet-based methods of data analysis for the discrimination of different cell types is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, Robert; Robertson-Anderson, Rae; Anderson Research Team
Actin is a ubiquitous structural protein in the cytoskeleton that gives cells shape and rigidity, and plays important roles in mechanical processes such as cell motility and division. Actin's diverse roles stem from its ability to polymerize into semiflexible filaments that are less than one persistence length (17 µm) in length, and form entangled networks that display unique viscoelastic properties. We previously found that entangled actin networks propagate microscale forces over several persistence lengths (>60 m) and takes minutes to relax. DNA, oppositely, has thousands of persistence lengths (50 nm) per chain, exhibits minimal force propagation, and takes only seconds to re-equilibrate. To directly determine the role of flexibility in mechanical response and force propagation of entangled networks, we use optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to investigate blends of actin and DNA. We use optically driven microspheres to perturb the network far from equilibrium and measure the force the network creates in response to the induced force. We simultaneously track partially labeled actin filaments during the perturbation and subsequent relaxation period. We characterize filament deformation and show explicitly how induced microscale forces propagate through the network.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.
2009-01-01
Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…
Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Ayuk, Eugene Lekem; Igbojekwe, Benardeth Ujunwa; Unaegbu, Marcellus
2016-01-01
The global increase in oxidative stress related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases caused by overwhelming level of free radicals in the body has encouraged the search for new antioxidant agents. Based on the ability of newly synthesized phenothiazine derivatives (6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one and 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one) to oxidize H2O2, a known free radical to sulfoxide, this study assessed the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The synthesized phenothiazine derivatives exhibited reducing power potential to convert Fe3+ to Fe2+ and high ability to scavenge H2O2 free radical in vitro. These activities were comparable to ascorbic acid, a standard antioxidant. The catalase activity significantly increased (p < 0.05) in groups 1 and 2 animals that received the phenothiazine derivatives compared to the controls (groups 3 and 4) suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to scavenge H2O2 in vivo. The malondialdehyde level in groups 1 and 2 animals was lower than that in group 3 that received the reference compound (ascorbic acid) and group 4 that received the solvent suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to prevent lipid membrane damage. AST and bilirubin levels were higher in group 2 animals which received 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one compared to group 3, the positive control. The results suggest that phenothiazine derivatives, especially 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one, possess antioxidant activity though 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one was slightly toxic. This activity may be due to the presence of electron donors such as sulfur as well as the richness of hydrogen in the additional benzene rings for substitution. Further study is needed to identify tolerable doses for possible therapeutic purposes. PMID:27127652
Novel method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with nonlinear optically active side groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strohriegl, Peter; Mueller, Harry; Nuyken, Oskar
1993-01-01
Because of their excellent optical properties, a variety of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores has been prepared and investigated by different research groups. The method normally used for the synthesis of these polymers is the free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylates with NLO-active side groups. However, the NLO- chromophores, usually large conjugated molecules with an electron donor and an electron acceptor substituent, often contain a number of functional groups, e.g., nitro- or azo groups. These may act as retarders or inhibitors in a free radical polymerization. So in many cases the yields are not quantitative and the molecular weights are quite low. We present an alternative method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores, the polymeranalogous esterification of poly(methacryloyl chloride). In a first step, reactive prepolymers are prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacryloyl chloride (MAC1) or by copolymerization of MAC1 with methyl methacrylate (MMA). These prepolymers are esterified using NLO-active side groups with a hydroxy-terminated spacer. Well defined, high molecular weight polymethacrylates with high dye contents can be prepared by this method. A copolymer with 19 mole% of azochromophores exhibits an electro-optical coefficient of 9 pm/V at 1300 mm after poling, whereas 19 pm/V (1500 nm) were measured for a polymer with 90 mole% of NLO active azobenzene side groups. In addition, the novel method provides easy access to some novel copolymers with both NLO-active azobenzene units and photocrosslinkable cinnamoyl groups.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2016-05-01
The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-amino-3-chloro-5-trifluoromethylpyridine using potential energy surface (PES) scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The theoretical vibrational frequencies were calculated for the optimized geometry using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program package. The Mulliken atomic charge values were calculated. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intermolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness of the molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical (NLO) activity was studied and the first order hyperpolarizability value was computed, which was 3.48 times greater than the urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was also performed to confirm the NLO activity of the molecule. Hence, the ACTP molecule is a promising candidate for NLO materials.
Detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals based on time-frequency and non-linear analysis.
Gajic, Dragoljub; Djurovic, Zeljko; Gligorijevic, Jovan; Di Gennaro, Stefano; Savic-Gajic, Ivana
2015-01-01
We present a new technique for detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. After preprocessing of EEG signals we extract representative features in time, frequency and time-frequency domain as well as using non-linear analysis. The features are extracted in a few frequency sub-bands of clinical interest since these sub-bands showed much better discriminatory characteristics compared with the whole frequency band. Then we optimally reduce the dimension of feature space to two using scatter matrices. A decision about the presence of epileptiform activity in EEG signals is made by quadratic classifiers designed in the reduced two-dimensional feature space. The accuracy of the technique was tested on three sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded at the University Hospital Bonn: surface EEG signals from healthy volunteers, intracranial EEG signals from the epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within the seizure focus and intracranial EEG signals of epileptic seizures also from within the seizure focus. An overall detection accuracy of 98.7% was achieved.
Detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals based on time-frequency and non-linear analysis
Gajic, Dragoljub; Djurovic, Zeljko; Gligorijevic, Jovan; Di Gennaro, Stefano; Savic-Gajic, Ivana
2015-01-01
We present a new technique for detection of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. After preprocessing of EEG signals we extract representative features in time, frequency and time-frequency domain as well as using non-linear analysis. The features are extracted in a few frequency sub-bands of clinical interest since these sub-bands showed much better discriminatory characteristics compared with the whole frequency band. Then we optimally reduce the dimension of feature space to two using scatter matrices. A decision about the presence of epileptiform activity in EEG signals is made by quadratic classifiers designed in the reduced two-dimensional feature space. The accuracy of the technique was tested on three sets of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded at the University Hospital Bonn: surface EEG signals from healthy volunteers, intracranial EEG signals from the epilepsy patients during the seizure free interval from within the seizure focus and intracranial EEG signals of epileptic seizures also from within the seizure focus. An overall detection accuracy of 98.7% was achieved. PMID:25852534
Kunz, Petra Y.; Fent, Karl
2009-01-01
Numerous estrogenic compounds are present in aquatic environments, but currently it is not well understood how compounds that differ in maxima and slope of their individual dose-response curves contribute to the overall mixture effect. In order to better understand such interactions we investigated 3 commonly used UV filters, for their estrogenic mixture activity and analysed their joint effects by using the concentration addition (CA) concept. Thereby, we extended the method of isoboles for analysis of 3 compounds that differ in maxima and slopes of their dose-response curves. 3-Benzylidene camphor (3BC), benzophenone-1 (BP1) and benzophenone-2 (BP2) are estrogenic in fish and act as pure- or partial estrogen receptor {alpha} agonists. First we exposed juvenile fathead minnows for 14 days to six concentrations of each UV filter alone to determine vitellogenin (VTG) induction curves, calculate equi-effective mixture concentrations and predict mixture effects. For 3BC, BP1 and BP2 significant VTG-induction occurred at 420, 2668, and 4715 {mu}g/L, respectively. BP2 displayed a full dose-response curve, whereas 3BC and BP1 showed submaximal activity of 70 and 78%, respectively. Second, we exposed fish to 6 equi-effective mixtures (EC-NOEC, EC1, EC5, EC10, EC20, EC30) of these UV filters. Significant VTG-induction occurred at EC5 and higher. Submaximal activity of 67% as compared to the control EE2 (100 ng/L) was reached. The curves for the observed and predicted mixture activity agreed for mixture levels (EC10 to EC30), however, at EC-NOEC, EC1 and EC5, lower activity was observed than predicted by CA. Detailed isobolographic analysis indicate additivity at EC10 to EC30, and antagonism at low levels (EC-NOEC to EC5). Our data show for the first time, that for compounds with differences in maxima and slope, considerably more mixture combinations are additive than previously thought. This should be taken into account for hazard and risk assessment of UV filters and
Nonlinear activity of acoustically driven gas bubble near a rigid boundary
Maksimov, Alexey
2015-10-28
The presence of a boundary can produce considerable changes in the oscillation amplitude of the bubble and its scattered echo. The present study fills a gap in the literature, in that it is concerned theoretically with the bubble activity at relatively small distances from the rigid boundary. It was shown that the bi-spherical coordinates provide separation of variables and are more suitable for analysis of the dynamics of these constrained bubbles. Explicit formulas have been derived which describe the dependence of the bubble emission near a rigid wall on its size and the separation distance between the bubble and the boundary. As applications, time reversal technique for gas leakage detection and radiation forces that are induced by an acoustic wave on a constrained bubble were analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.
2016-08-01
The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.
Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M
2016-08-16
The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events. PMID:27482096
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.
Field, Robert D; van der Werf, Guido R; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M
2016-08-16
The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for 2 mo. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have nonlinear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4 mm/d of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will reoccur during future droughts, usually associated with El Niño events.
Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.
Cesar, Claudio L.
2001-08-01
A new technique for generating an error signal for locking a second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement cavity is presented. The calculations are developed within a linear system framework treated with a Laplace transform. The error-signal generation is based on FM sidebands, but it differs from the Pound--Drever--Hall technique by performing the modulation on the (assumed) electro-optic active nonlinear crystal in the cavity. This new technique for generating the error signal has some advantages over the former one in that (i) the shape of the error signal is independent of the relative phase of the rf signal between the photodiode and the local oscillator; (ii) it provides a handy, high-bandwidth actuator to improve the cavity lock, which can improve the average SHG power; and (iii) it decreases cost and complexity by not requiring an external electro-optical modulator. The specific case of SHG in KNbO{sub 3} is treated as an example of the feasibility of the technique. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potirakis, Stelios M.; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Kopanas, John; Antonopoulos, George; Balasis, Georgios; Kontoes, Charalampos; Nomicos, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos
2016-08-01
The preparation process of two recent earthquakes (EQs) that occurred in Cephalonia (Kefalonia), Greece, ((38.22° N, 20.53° E), 26 January 2014, Mw = 6.0, depth ˜ 20 km) and ((38.25° N, 20.39° E), 3 February 2014, Mw = 5.9, depth ˜ 10 km), respectively, is studied in terms of the critical dynamics revealed in observables of the involved non-linear processes. Specifically, we show, by means of the method of critical fluctuations (MCF), that signatures of critical, as well as tricritical, dynamics were embedded in the fracture-induced electromagnetic emissions (EMEs) recorded by two stations in locations near the epicentres of these two EQs. It is worth noting that both the MHz EMEs recorded by the telemetric stations on the island of Cephalonia and the neighbouring island of Zante (Zakynthos) reached a simultaneously critical condition a few days before the occurrence of each earthquake. The critical characteristics embedded in the EME signals were further verified using the natural time (NT) method. Moreover, we show, in terms of the NT method, that the foreshock seismic activity also presented critical characteristics before each event. Importantly, the revealed critical process seems to be focused on the area corresponding to the western Cephalonia zone, following the seismotectonic and hazard zoning of the Ionian Islands area near Cephalonia.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rupert, J. K.; Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.
2005-01-01
In the late 1980s, microgravity researchers began to voice their concern that umbilical-transmitted energy could significantly degrade the acceleration environment of microgravity space science experiments onboard manned spacecraft. Since umbilicals are necessary for many experiments, control designers began to seek ways to compensate for these "indirect" disturbances. Hampton, et al., used the Kane s method to develop a model of the active rack isolation system (ARIS) that includes (1) actuator control forces, (2) direct disturbance forces, and (3) indirect, actuator-transmitted disturbances. Their model does not, however, include the indirect, umbilical-transmitted disturbances. Since the umbilical stiffnesses are not negligible, these indirect disturbances must be included in the model. Until the umbilicals have been appropriately included, the model will be incomplete. This Technical Memorandum presents a nonlinear model of ARIS with umbilicals included. Model verification was achieved by utilizing two commercial-off-the-shelf software tools. Various forces and moments were applied to the model to yield simulated responses of the system. Plots of the simulation results show how various critical points on an ARIS-outfitted international standard payload rack behave under the application of direct disturbances, indirect disturbances, and control forces. Simulations also show system response to a variety of initial conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maestrello, Lucio
1993-01-01
This paper is on the control of nonlinear-nonstationary vibration of an aircraft-type frame-stringer structure and the acoustic radiation resulting from high levels of excitation by a nearby supersonic model jet exhaust. The objective of the control is to reduce the acoustic fatigue and the interior noise in a high-speed aircraft. Control of the structural response is achieved by actively forcing the structure with an actuator at the shock oscillation frequency whose amplitude is locked into a self-control cycle. This controller follows the amplitude modulation that results from the rotation and counter-rotation of the jet column. Results show that the peak level of the power in the structural response due to shock impingement is reduced by a factor of 63, corresponding to a power level reduction of 18 dB. As a result, new broadband components emerge with at least four harmonics contributing to the broadening of the response spectrum. At accelerating and decelerating supersonic speeds, the exhaust from the jet induces higher transient loading on the nearby flexible structure due to the occurrence of multiple shocks from the jet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maestrello, Lucio
1993-10-01
This paper is on the control of nonlinear-nonstationary vibration of an aircraft-type frame-stringer structure and the acoustic radiation resulting from high levels of excitation by a nearby supersonic model jet exhaust. The objective of the control is to reduce the acoustic fatigue and the interior noise in a high-speed aircraft. Control of the structural response is achieved by actively forcing the structure with an actuator at the shock oscillation frequency whose amplitude is locked into a self-control cycle. This controller follows the amplitude modulation that results from the rotation and counter-rotation of the jet column. Results show that the peak level of the power in the structural response due to shock impingement is reduced by a factor of 63, corresponding to a power level reduction of 18 dB. As a result, new broadband components emerge with at least four harmonics contributing to the broadening of the response spectrum. At accelerating and decelerating supersonic speeds, the exhaust from the jet induces higher transient loading on the nearby flexible structure due to the occurrence of multiple shocks from the jet.
Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Kyani, Anahita
2007-05-01
This paper introduces the genetic algorithm-kernel partial least square (GA-KPLS), as a novel nonlinear feature selection method. This technique combines genetic algorithms (GAs) as powerful optimization methods with KPLS as a robust nonlinear statistical method for variable selection. This feature selection method is combined with artificial neural network to develop a nonlinear QSAR model for predicting activities of a series of substituted aromatic sulfonamides as carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) inhibitors. Eight simple one- and two-dimensional descriptors were selected by GA-KPLS and considered as inputs for developing artificial neural networks (ANNs). These parameters represent the role of acceptor-donor pair, hydrogen bonding, hydrosolubility and lipophilicity of the active sites and also the size of the inhibitors on inhibitor-isozyme interaction. The accuracy of 8-4-1 networks was illustrated by validation techniques of leave-one-out (LOO) and leave-multiple-out (LMO) cross-validations and Y-randomization. Superiority of this method (GA-KPLS-ANN) over the linear one (MLR) in a previous work and also the GA-PLS-ANN in which a linear feature selection method has been used indicates that the GA-KPLS approach is a powerful method for the variable selection in nonlinear systems. PMID:17316919
Nonlinear ordinary difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, T. K.
1979-01-01
Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soman, M.; Stefanov, K.; Weatherill, D.; Holland, A.; Gow, J.; Leese, M.
2015-02-01
The Jovian system is the subject of study for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), an ESA mission which is planned to launch in 2022. The scientific payload is designed for both characterisation of the magnetosphere and radiation environment local to the spacecraft, as well as remote characterisation of Jupiter and its satellites. A key instrument on JUICE is the high resolution and wide angle camera, JANUS, whose main science goals include detailed characterisation and study phases of three of the Galilean satellites, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, as well as studies of other moons, the ring system, and irregular satellites. The CIS115 is a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor from e2v technologies selected for the JANUS camera. It is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS imaging sensor process, with an imaging area of 2000 × 1504 pixels, each 7 μ m square. A 4T pixel architecture allows for efficient correlated double sampling, improving the readout noise to better than 8 electrons rms, whilst the sensor is operated in a rolling shutter mode, sampling at up to 10 Mpixel/s at each of the four parallel outputs.A primary parameter to characterise for an imaging device is the relationship that converts the sensor's voltage output back to the corresponding number of electrons that were detected in a pixel, known as the Charge to Voltage Factor (CVF). In modern CMOS sensors with small feature sizes, the CVF is known to be non-linear with signal level, therefore a signal-dependent measurement of the CIS115's CVF has been undertaken and is presented here. The CVF is well modelled as a quadratic function leading to a measurement of the maximum charge handling capacity of the CIS115 to be 3.4 × 104 electrons. If the CIS115's response is assumed linear, its CVF is 21.1 electrons per mV (1/47.5 μ V per electron).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, S.; Hayashi, K.; Kusano, K.
2016-02-01
We analyze a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure and its stability in large solar active region (AR) 12192, using the 3D coronal magnetic field constructed under a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation. In particular, we focus on the magnetic structure that produced an X3.1-class flare, which is one of the X-class flares observed in AR 12192. According to our analysis, the AR contains a multiple-flux-tube system, e.g., a large flux tube, with footpoints that are anchored to the large bipole field, under which other tubes exist close to a polarity inversion line (PIL). These various flux tubes of different sizes and shapes coexist there. In particular, the latter are embedded along the PIL, which produces a favorable shape for the tether-cutting reconnection and is related to the X-class solar flare. We further found that most of magnetic twists are not released even after the flare, which is consistent with the fact that no observational evidence for major eruptions was found. On the other hand, the upper part of the flux tube is beyond a critical decay index, essential for the excitation of torus instability before the flare, even though no coronal mass ejections were observed. We discuss the stability of the complicated flux tube system and suggest the reason for the existence of the stable flux tube. In addition, we further point out a possibility for tracing the shape of flare ribbons, on the basis of a detailed structural analysis of the NLFFF before a flare.
Schneider, Adam D
2016-01-01
In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model's phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914
Schneider, Adam D.
2016-01-01
In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model’s phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914
Blanchard, Solenna; Saillet, Sandrine; Ivanov, Anton; Benquet, Pascal; Bénar, Christian-George; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Wendling, Fabrice
2016-01-01
Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler…) recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable) variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel) with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in the
Blanchard, Solenna; Saillet, Sandrine; Ivanov, Anton; Benquet, Pascal; Bénar, Christian-George; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib; Wendling, Fabrice
2016-01-01
Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) response and neuronal activity is of significant importance because CBF increase is essential to the health of neurons, for instance through oxygen supply. This relationship can be investigated by analyzing multimodal (fMRI, PET, laser Doppler…) recordings. However, the important number of intermediate (non-observable) variables involved in the underlying neurovascular coupling makes the discovery of mechanisms all the more difficult from the sole multimodal data. We present a new computational model developed at the population scale (voxel) with physiologically relevant but simple equations to facilitate the interpretation of regional multimodal recordings. This model links neuronal activity to regional CBF dynamics through neuro-glio-vascular coupling. This coupling involves a population of glial cells called astrocytes via their role in neurotransmitter (glutamate and GABA) recycling and their impact on neighboring vessels. In epilepsy, neuronal networks generate epileptiform discharges, leading to variations in astrocytic and CBF dynamics. In this study, we took advantage of these large variations in neuronal activity magnitude to test the capacity of our model to reproduce experimental data. We compared simulations from our model with isolated epileptiform events, which were obtained in vivo by simultaneous local field potential and laser Doppler recordings in rats after local bicuculline injection. We showed a predominant neuronal contribution for low level discharges and a significant astrocytic contribution for higher level discharges. Besides, neuronal contribution to CBF was linear while astrocytic contribution was nonlinear. Results thus indicate that the relationship between neuronal activity and CBF magnitudes can be nonlinear for isolated events and that this nonlinearity is due to astrocytic activity, highlighting the importance of astrocytes in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq
2015-03-01
Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.
In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio
2012-12-01
The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Khoury, O.; Kim, C.; Shafieezadeh, A.; Hur, J. E.; Heo, G. H.
2015-06-01
This study performs a series of numerical simulations and shake-table experiments to design and assess the performance of a nonlinear clipped feedback control algorithm based on optimal polynomial control (OPC) to mitigate the response of a two-span bridge equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper. As an extended conventional linear quadratic regulator, OPC provides more flexibility in the control design and further enhances system performance. The challenges encountered in this case are (1) the linearization of the nonlinear behavior of various components and (2) the selection of the weighting matrices in the objective function of OPC. The first challenge is addressed by using stochastic linearization which replaces the nonlinear portion of the system behavior with an equivalent linear time-invariant model considering the stochasticity in the excitation. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is employed to find optimal weighting matrices for the control design. The input current to the MR damper installed between adjacent spans is determined using a clipped stochastic optimal polynomial control algorithm. The performance of the controlled system is assessed through a set of shake-table experiments for far-field and near-field ground motions. The proposed method showed considerable improvements over passive cases especially for the far-field ground motion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.
1987-01-01
Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…
Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M
2007-01-01
Background and purpose: Biophase equilibration must be considered to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlations of opioids. The objective was to characterise in a quantitative manner the non-linear distribution kinetics of morphine in brain. Experimental approach: Male rats received a 10-min infusion of 4 mg kg−1 of morphine, combined with a continuous infusion of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, or 40 mg kg−1 morphine alone. Unbound extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations obtained by intracerebral microdialysis and total blood concentrations were analysed using a population modelling approach. Key results: Blood pharmacokinetics of morphine was best described with a three-compartment model and was not influenced by GF120918. Non-linear distribution kinetics in brain ECF was observed with increasing dose. A one compartment distribution model was developed, with separate expressions for passive diffusion, active saturable influx and active efflux by Pgp. The passive diffusion rate constant was 0.0014 min−1. The active efflux rate constant decreased from 0.0195 min−1 to 0.0113 min−1 in the presence of GF120918. The active influx was insensitive to GF120918 and had a maximum transport (Nmax/Vecf) of 0.66 ng min−1 ml−1 and was saturated at low concentrations of morphine (C50=9.9 ng ml−1). Conclusions and implications: Brain distribution of morphine is determined by three factors: limited passive diffusion; active efflux, reduced by 42% by Pgp inhibition; low capacity active uptake. This implies blood concentration-dependency and sensitivity to drug-drug interactions. These factors should be taken into account in further investigations on PK-PD correlations of morphine. PMID:17471182
Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it
2015-03-15
In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.
Minati, Ludovico; Chiesa, Pietro; Tabarelli, Davide; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Jovicich, Jorge
2015-03-01
In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D2), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.
Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin
2014-12-01
In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (P<0.01). The ARVs were higher while the %REC and %DET were lower in presence of muscle soreness compared with before exercise (P<0.05). The study provides new key information on linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel MMG recordings of the wrist extensor muscles following eccentric exercise that results in muscle soreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravanakumar, G.; Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.
2015-06-01
Single crystal of guanidinium L-monohydrogen tartrate (GuHT) was grown by slow evaporation technique and was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction to confirm its crystal structure. UV-vis spectral study reveal that the GuHT crystal is optically transparent and its band gap was estimated from the transmittance data. The laser induced surface damage threshold study was carried out for the grown crystal using Nd:YAG laser. The second harmonic generation (SHG) nonlinearity of the grown crystalline sample was measured by Kurtz and Perry powder technique. The optimized molecular geometry, first order hyperpolarizability, dipole moment and polarizability of GuHT were obtained by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level of basis set. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound was computed. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap explains the charge transfer interactions that take place within the molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apanasevich, Pavel A.; Zaporozhchenko, R. G.; Orlovich, V. A.; Chekhlov, O. V.; Kot, G. G.
1989-05-01
An experimental investigation was made of the energy and time characteristics of the Stokes radiation pulses as a function of the mismatch of a Stokes resonator relative to a laser resonator at different hydrogen pressures. An optimal dependence of the energy and duration of the Stokes pulses on the mismatch was observed. A theoretical analysis was made allowing for the phase relationships. This explained the optimum by the transient nature of stimulated Raman scattering, exhaustion of the pump radiation, and nonlinear phase modulation which appeared during energy exchange. A study was made of the time characteristics of the Stokes radiation when a change occurred in the dephasing time of induced molecular vibrations when a buffer gas (helium) was added to hydrogen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bultink, Cornelis Christiaan; Rol, M. A.; Fu, X.; Dikken, B. C. S.; de Sterke, J. C.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Bruno, A.; Bertels, K. L. M.; Dicarlo, L.
Reliable quantum parity measurements are essential for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In quantum processors based on circuit QED, the fidelity and speed of multi-round quantum parity checks using an ancillary qubit can be compromised by photons remaining in the readout resonator post measurement, leading to ancilla dephasing and gate errors. The challenge of quickly depleting photons is biggest when maximizing the single-shot readout fidelity involves strong pulses turning the resonators non-linear. We experimentally demonstrate the numerical optimization of counter pulses for fast photon depletion in this non-analytic regime. We compare two methods, one using digital feedback and another running open loop. We assess both methods by minimizing the average number of rounds to ancilla measurement error. We acknowledge funding from the EU FP7 project SCALEQIT, FOM, and an ERC Synergy Grant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuk, Kelvin Shing-Tak
Wide bandgap silicon-carbide (SiC) and gallium-nitride (GaN) FETs are the premier microwave solid-state power technology and are presently being deployed in a variety of commercial applications. However, performance-degrading self-heating and charge-trapping effects create new challenges for characterization and modeling of these devices. Accurate nonlinear models capable of predicting these effects are necessary to maximally exploit the benefits of this emerging, high power density technology. An empirical modeling methodology for the SiC MESFET and GaN HEMT using high power dynamic IV measurements to exploit and characterize self-heating and charge-trapping is applied over a vast range of electrothermal operating conditions. Nonlinear diode modeling and multibias, small-signal techniques are performed to create complete nonlinear models for SiC and GaN FETs, which are capable of predicting DC, pulsed, small- and large-signal RF behavior over a wide range of bias and frequency. The presented models are valid for drain currents beyond 2A, drain voltages greater than 50V and up to 10W at RF. These harmonically-accurate models permit the new application of CAD-based active frequency multiplier design for wide bandgap devices. Frequency doublers and triplers are demonstrated in SiC MESFET and GaN HEMT technology, producing some of the highest power, single-transistor microwave frequency multipliers to date. This work reports SiC- and GaN-based C-band frequency doublers with >5W output power and a GaN-based X-band frequency tripler with 1W output power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrie, G. J. D.; Canou, A.; Amari, T.
2011-12-01
Between 24 March 2008 and 2 April 2008, the three active regions (ARs) NOAA 10987, 10988 and 10989 were observed daily by the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) Vector Spectro-Magnetograph (VSM) while they traversed the solar disk. We use these measurements and the nonlinear force-free magnetic field code XTRAPOL to reconstruct the coronal magnetic field for each active region and compare model field lines with images from the Solar Terrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) and Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) telescopes. Synoptic maps made from continuous, round-the-clock Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) magnetograms provide information on the global photospheric field and potential-field source-surface models based on these maps describe the global coronal field during the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) and its neighboring rotations. Features of the modeled global field, such as the coronal holes and streamer-belt locations, are discussed in comparison with extreme ultra-violet and coronagraph observations from STEREO. The global field is found to be far from a minimum, dipolar state. From the nonlinear models we compute physical quantities for the active regions such as the photospheric magnetic and electric current fluxes, the free magnetic energy and the relative helicity for each region each day where observations permit. The interconnectivity of the three regions is addressed in the context of the potential-field source-surface model. Using local and global quantities derived from the models, we briefly discuss the different observed activity levels of the regions.
Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C
2010-07-14
Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuchi, Yutaka; Hirata, Kouji; Ikeoka, Hiroshi
We demonstrate an ultra-wideband wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked short-cavity laser employing a 151-cm-long bismuth-based highly nonlinear erbium-doped fiber (Bi-HNL-EDF). A wavelength tuning range of 87 nm from 1533 nm to 1620 nm can be achieved because the Bi-HNL-EDF has an ultra-wide gain bandwidth. High nonlinearity of the Bi-HNL-EDF also collaborates with spectral filtering by an optical bandpass filter to suppress the supermode noise quite effectively. Total length of the fiber ring cavity is as short as 16 m. Thus, stable and clean 5.6-6.1 ps pulses with a repetition rate of 10 GHz are successfully obtained over the wavelength tuning range almost completely covering both the conventional wavelength band (1530-1565 nm) and the longer wavelength band (1565-1625 nm). The bismuth-based short-cavity fiber laser also shows good performance in the back-to-back bit-error-rate measurements, and maintains bit-error-free mode-locking operation throughout the entire wavelength tuning range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jun-ben; Mamat, Mamatrishat; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua
2016-07-01
In this research work, Ag-containing quaternary-chalcogenide compounds KAg2TS4 (T=P, Sb) (I-II) and RbAg2SbS4 (III) have been studied by means of Density Functional Theory as potential IR nonlinear optical materials. The origin of wide band gap, different optical anisotropy and large SHG response is explained via a combination of density of states, electronic density difference and bond population analysis. It is indicated that the different covalent interaction behavior of P-S and Sb-S bonds dominates the band gap and birefringence. Specifically, the Ag-containing chalcogenide compound KAg2PS4 possesses wide band gap and SHG response comparable with that of AgGaS2. By exploring the origin of the band gap and NLO response for compounds KAg2TS4 (T=P, Sb), we found the determination factor to the properties is different, especially the roles of Ag-d orbitals and bonding behavior of P-S or Sb-S. Thus, the compounds KAg2TS4 (T=P, Sb) and RbAg2SbS4 can be used in infrared (IR) region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Özsen, İffet; Alyar, Hamit; Alyar, Saliha; Özbek, Neslihan
2016-09-01
Schiff bases; 1,8-bis(thiophene-2-carboxaldimine)-p-menthane (L1) and 1,8-bis(furan-2-carboxaldimine)-p-menthane (L2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1Hsbnd 13C NMR, UV-vis, FT-IR and LC-MS methods. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for L1 and L2 were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The vibrational band assignments, nonlinear optical (NLO) activities, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and absorption spectrum have been investigated by the same basis set. Schiff base-copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and structurally characterized with spectroscopic methods, magnetic and conductivity measurements. The spectroscopic data suggest that Schiff base ligands coordinate through azomethine-N and thiophene-S/furan-O donors (as SNNS and ONNO chelating systems) to give a tetragonal geometry around the copper(II) ions. Schiff bases and Cu(II) complexes have been screened for their biological activities on different species of pathogenic bacteria, those are, Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtitilus, Yersinia enterotica, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pseudomonas by using microdilution technique (MIC values in mM). Biological activity results show that Cu(II) complexes have higher activities than parent ligands and metal chelation may affect significantly the antibacterial behavior of the organic ligands.
Plotnikov, M B; Vasil'ev, A S; Aliev, O I; Zibareva, L N
2015-09-01
Hyperviscosity syndrome was described in Brattleboro rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of Brattleboro rats using, as a test system for the study of agents with hemorheological activity. Under conditions of this model of high blood viscosity syndrome in Brattleboro rats, Lychnis chalcedonica L. extract (150 mg/kg) administered intragastrically for 10 days exhibited hemorheological activity by modulating macro- (plasma viscosity, fibrinogen concentration) and microrheological (erythrocyte aggregation and deformability parameters. Hence, Brattleboro rats are an adequate model of hyperviscosity syndrome that can be used for search and testing of substances with hemorheological activity. PMID:26463056
Wang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Li; Ma, Na-Na; Zhu, Chang-Li; Qiu, Yong-Qing
2015-06-01
The electron donor-acceptor complexes, which undergo intramolecular charge transfer under external stimulus, are an emerging class of materials showing important application in nonlinear optics. Synthesizing ferrocene/fullerene complexes through face-to-face fusion would enjoy the merits of both ferrocene and fullerene due to their strong donor-acceptor interactions. Four ferrocene/fullerene hybrid complexes with the gradual extension of fullerene cage size, including CpFe(C60H5), CpFe(C66H5), CpFe(C70H5), and CpFe(C80H5) (Cp is cyclopentadienyl), have been investigated by density functional theory. These hybrid molecules give eclipsed and staggered isomers. The main reason that the eclipsed isomer is stable is that the eclipsed structure possesses large CpFefullerene bonding energy. The CpFefullerene interaction is smaller than that of CpFefullerene, which must come from two different interfaces. The presence of covalent bond character between CpFe and fullerene is supported by the localized orbital locator, deformation of electron density distribution and energy decomposition analysis. Significantly, the absorption bands and first hyperpolarizabilities of these hybrid complexes are strongly sensitive to the fullerene cage size, which is ascribed to a change in the charge transfer pattern, especially for CpFe(C80H5), which displays reverse π → π* charge transfer from bottom to top cage, leading to notable hyperpolarizability. Investigation of the structure-property relationship at the molecular level can benefit the design and preparation of such hybrid complexes in chemistry and materials science.
New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Dexuan
1996-01-01
The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics
Not Available
1994-01-01
Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday`s law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm`s law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Premkumar, S.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Rekha, T. N.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin
2016-05-01
The substitution effects on the first order hyperpolarizability value of (X-methylphenyl)-5-nitro-6-amino-3-pyridinecarboxmide (X-MPNAPC),{X=2,3,4,5,6}molecule was calculated with the aid of density functional theory calculations. The optimized molecular structure of urea and (X-methylphenyl)-5-nitro-6-amino-3-pyridinecarboxmide (X-MPNAPC), {X=2,3,4,5,6} were predicted by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set. The higher first order hyperpolarizability values were obtained for all molecules compared with the urea, which confirm that the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecules. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis was carried out and their related molecular properties were calculated. The higher first order hyperpolarizability value was obtained for 4-MPNAPC molecule compared with other molecules, which indicates that the lower energy gap and extended π-conjugated bridge between the donor and acceptor group leads to the higher NLO activity of the molecule. Hence, this present investigation paves the way for designing the new organic NLO materials.
Gassin, Pierre-Marie; Girard, Luc; Martin-Gassin, Gaelle; Brusselle, Damien; Jonchère, Alban; Diat, Olivier; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Bauduin, Pierre
2015-03-01
Because of their amphiphilic structure, surfactants adsorb at the water-air interface with their hydrophobic tails pointing out of the water and their polar heads plunging into the liquid phase. Unlike classical surfactants, metallabisdicarbollides (MCs) do not have a well-defined amphiphilic structure. They are nanometer-sized inorganic anions with an ellipsoidal shape composed of two carborane semicages sandwiching a metal ion. However, MCs have been shown to share many properties with surfactants, such as self-assembly in water (formation of micelles and vesicles), formation of lamellar lyotropic phases, and surface activity. By combining second harmonic generation and surface tension measurement, we show here that cobaltabis(dicarbollide) anion {[(C2B9H11)2Co](-) also named [COSAN](-)} with H(+) as a counterion, the most representative metallacarborane, adsorbs vertically at the water surface with its long axis normal to the surface. This vertical molecular orientation facilitates the formation of intermolecular and nonconventional dihydrogen bonds such as the B-H(δ-)···(δ+)H-C bond that has recently been proven to be at the origin of the self-assembly of MCs in water. Therefore, it appears here that lateral dihydrogen bonds are also involved in the surface activity of MCs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beech, G. S.; Hampton, R. D.; Rupert, J. K.
2004-01-01
Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels that are unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's active rack isolation system (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) An isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic; i.e., mathematical, model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. This Technical Memorandum documents the validation of that high-fidelity dynamic model of ARIS. The verification of this dynamics model was achieved by utilizing two commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software tools: Deneb's ENVISION(registered trademark), and Online Dynamics Autolev(trademark). ENVISION is a robotics software package developed for the automotive industry that employs three-dimensional computer-aided design models to facilitate both forward and inverse kinematics analyses. Autolev is a DOS-based interpreter designed, in general, to solve vector-based mathematical problems and specifically to solve dynamics problems using Kane's method. The simplification of this model was achieved using the small-angle theorem for the joint angle of the ARIS actuators. This simplification has a profound effect on the overall complexity of the closed-form solution while yielding a closed-form solution easily employed using COTS control hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Öner, Nazmiye; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2014-12-01
The effective psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) known as the near-death molecule have encouraged the imagination of many research disciplines for several decades. Although there is no theoretical study, a number of paper composed by experimental techniques have been reported for DMT molecule. In this study, the molecular modeling of DMT was carried out using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations showed that the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO is low, demonstrating that DMT is a biologically active molecule. Large hyperconjugation interaction energies imply that molecular charge transfer occurs in DMT. Moreover, NLO analysis indicates that DMT can be used an effective NLO material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falzone, Tobias; Blair, Savanna; Robertson-Anderson, Rae
2015-03-01
The semiflexible biopolymer actin, a ubiquitous component of nearly all biological organisms, plays an important role in many mechanically-driven processes such as muscle contraction, cancer invasion and cell motility. As such, entangled actin networks, which possess unique and complex viscoelastic properties, have been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. However, due to this viscoelastic complexity, much is still unknown regarding the correlation of the applied stress on actin networks to the induced filament strain at the molecular and micro scale. Here, we use simultaneous optical trapping and fluorescence microscopy to characterize the link between applied microscopic forces and strain propagation as a function of strain rate and concentration. Specifically, we track fiduciary markers on entangled actin filaments before, during and after actively driving embedded microspheres through the network. These measurements provide much needed insight into the molecular-level dynamics connecting stress and strain in semiflexible polymer networks.
Öner, Nazmiye; Tamer, Ömer; Avcı, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf
2014-12-10
The effective psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) known as the near-death molecule have encouraged the imagination of many research disciplines for several decades. Although there is no theoretical study, a number of paper composed by experimental techniques have been reported for DMT molecule. In this study, the molecular modeling of DMT was carried out using B3LYP and HSEh1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations showed that the energy gap between HOMO and LUMO is low, demonstrating that DMT is a biologically active molecule. Large hyperconjugation interaction energies imply that molecular charge transfer occurs in DMT. Moreover, NLO analysis indicates that DMT can be used an effective NLO material.
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics
Not Available
1992-11-01
Theoretical predictions were compared with available data from JET on the threshold unstable MHD activity in toroidal confinement devices. In particular, questions arising as to Hartmans number and the selection of a kinematic viscosity are discussed.
Vibrational Control of a Nonlinear Elastic Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, P. L.; Maestrello, L.
1998-01-01
The paper is concerned with the stabilization of the nonlinear panel oscillation by an active control. The control is actuated by a combination of additive and parametric vibrational forces. A general method of vibrational control is presented for stabilizing panel vibration satisfying a nonlinear beam equation. To obtain analytical results, a perturbation technique is used in the case of weak nonlinearity. Possible application to other types of problems is briefly discussed.
Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy; Saravanan, Anbalagan; Anish Kumar, Kodyingil; Yashwanth, Ramesh; Visvesh, Sridharan
2016-08-01
In the present study, a novel activated carbon was prepared from low-cost eucalyptus seeds, which was utilised for the effectively removal of toxic zinc from the water/wastewater. The prepared adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic characterisation studies. Adsorption process was experimentally performed for optimising the influencing factors such as adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, initial zinc concentration, and temperature for the maximum removal of zinc from aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm of zinc removal was ensued Freundlich model, and the kinetic model ensued pseudo-second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for zinc removal was evaluated as 80.37 mg/g. The results of the thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption process was exothermic, thermodynamically feasible and impulsive process. Finally, a batch adsorber was planned to remove zinc from known volume and known concentration of wastewater using best obeyed model such as Freundlich. The experimental details showed the newly prepared material can be effectively utilised as a cheap material for the adsorption of toxic metal ions from the contaminated water. PMID:27463796
Litvinov, I S
2015-01-01
The analysis for probable reasons of CD4+ T-cell activation non-linear dependence on [Ca2+]o in HPB in vitro is the general aim of current work. At the beginning we pursued the analysis of receptor-dependent (the mixture of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD3 and CD28 molecules) and receptor-independent (phorbol-myristate-acetate and ionomycin mixture) means to activate T cells in vitro with different [Ca2+]o in HPB. The key role of intracellular T-cell signaling systems in activated T cells in their non-similar sensitivity to calcium ions in the blood was shown. The analysis of differentiation next stages of CD4+ T-cell activation in vitro relatively [Ca2+]o in PHB demonstrates the key role of the earliest induction stages in non-similar sensitivity to calcium ions in CD4+ T-cell activation in vitro. According to the pursued analysis; the non-similar sensitivity of CD4+ T-cell in vitro to activation is in no-way connected with pace differences on the primary stages of activation process. The comparison of CD4+ memory T cells with their naive T-cell precursors in the cell activation process in hypocalcemia conditions was made in the separate experimental series. The 1st maximum consists in average of 85% CD4+CD45R0high CD69+ memory T cells. Naive CD4+CD45RAlowCD69+ T cells constitute the remainder 15%. The 2nd maximum almost completely consists of CD4+CD45R0+CD69+ memory T cells. The ratio between CD4+CD69+ T cell maximums depends on donor ages and represents linear dependence with R = -0.981. The most probable candidate on the role of CD4+ T cell, being capable of activation in hypocalcemia conditions, are memory T lymphocytes, being resistant to ionomycin action (I R) subset. To check this assumption the mononuclear cells and their IR-fraction were prepared from donor PB. Then the mononuclear cells and their IR-fraction were activated by mAbs mixture at different [EGTA] values. For IR-fraction, enriched with CD4+CD45RA-CD45R0+ memory T cells, slightly seen 1st
Xu, Huajun; Yang, Dan; Liu, Fenggang; Fu, Mingkai; Bo, Shuhui; Liu, Xinhou; Cao, Yuan
2015-11-28
In this work, we investigated the enhancement of the electro-optic response by introducing electron-rich heteroatoms as additional donors into the donor or bridge of a conventional second-order nonlinear optical chromophore. A series of chromophores C2-C4 based on the same tricyanofuran acceptor (TCF) but with different heteroatoms in the alkylamino phenyl donor (C2 or C3) or thiophene bridge (C4) have been synthesized and systematically investigated. Density functional theory calculations suggested that chromophores C2-C4 had a smaller energy gap and larger first-order hyperpolarizability (β) than traditional chromophore C1 due to the additional heteroatoms. Single crystal structure analyses and optimized configurations indicate that the rationally introduced heteroatom group would bring larger β and weaker intermolecular interactions which were beneficial for translating molecular β into macro-electro-optic activity in electric field poled films. The electro-optic coefficient of poled films containing 25 wt% of these new chromophores doped in amorphous poly-carbonate afforded values of 83 and 91 pm V(-1) at 1310 nm for chromophores C3 and C4, respectively, which are two times higher than that of the traditional chromophore C1 (39 pm V(-1)). High r33 values indicated that introducing heteroatoms to the donor and bridge of a conventional molecular structure can efficiently improve the electron-donating ability, which improves the β. The long-chain on the donor or bridge part, acting as the isolation group, may reduce inter-molecular electrostatic interactions, thus enhancing the macroscopic EO activity. These results, together with good solubility and compatibility with the polymer, show the new chromophore's potential application in electro-optic devices. PMID:26477670
Xu, Huajun; Yang, Dan; Liu, Fenggang; Fu, Mingkai; Bo, Shuhui; Liu, Xinhou; Cao, Yuan
2015-11-28
In this work, we investigated the enhancement of the electro-optic response by introducing electron-rich heteroatoms as additional donors into the donor or bridge of a conventional second-order nonlinear optical chromophore. A series of chromophores C2-C4 based on the same tricyanofuran acceptor (TCF) but with different heteroatoms in the alkylamino phenyl donor (C2 or C3) or thiophene bridge (C4) have been synthesized and systematically investigated. Density functional theory calculations suggested that chromophores C2-C4 had a smaller energy gap and larger first-order hyperpolarizability (β) than traditional chromophore C1 due to the additional heteroatoms. Single crystal structure analyses and optimized configurations indicate that the rationally introduced heteroatom group would bring larger β and weaker intermolecular interactions which were beneficial for translating molecular β into macro-electro-optic activity in electric field poled films. The electro-optic coefficient of poled films containing 25 wt% of these new chromophores doped in amorphous poly-carbonate afforded values of 83 and 91 pm V(-1) at 1310 nm for chromophores C3 and C4, respectively, which are two times higher than that of the traditional chromophore C1 (39 pm V(-1)). High r33 values indicated that introducing heteroatoms to the donor and bridge of a conventional molecular structure can efficiently improve the electron-donating ability, which improves the β. The long-chain on the donor or bridge part, acting as the isolation group, may reduce inter-molecular electrostatic interactions, thus enhancing the macroscopic EO activity. These results, together with good solubility and compatibility with the polymer, show the new chromophore's potential application in electro-optic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander
At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at
Detecting nonlinear oscillations in broadband signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vejmelka, Martin; Paluš, Milan
2009-03-01
A framework for detecting nonlinear oscillatory activity in broadband time series is presented. First, a narrow-band oscillatory mode is extracted from a broadband background. Second, it is tested whether the extracted mode is significantly different from linearly filtered noise, modeled as a linear stochastic process possibly passed through a static nonlinear transformation. If a nonlinear oscillatory mode is positively detected, it can be further analyzed using nonlinear approaches such as phase synchronization analysis. For linear processes standard approaches, such as the coherence analysis, are more appropriate. The method is illustrated in a numerical example and applied to analyze experimentally obtained human electroencephalogram time series from a sleeping subject.
Gauge fields, nonlinear realizations, supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, E. A.
2016-07-01
This is a brief survey of the all-years research activity in the Sector "Supersymmetry" (the former Markov Group) at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The focus is on the issues related to gauge fields, spontaneously broken symmetries in the nonlinear realizations approach, and diverse aspects of supersymmetry.
Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.
Tomlin, R.
1990-01-27
A nonlinear oscillator design was imported from Cornell modified, and built for the purpose of simulating the chaotic states of a forced pendulum. Similar circuits have been investigated in the recent nonlinear explosion.
Nonlinear traveling wave solution for the MJO skeleton model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Stechmann, S. N.
2014-12-01
Recently, a minimal dynamical model is presented for capturing MJO's fundamental features. The model is a nonlinear oscillator model for the MJO skeleton and it involves interactions between convection, moisture and circulation. I will present the exact nonlinear traveling wave solutions for the model based on its energy conservation. The exact nonlinear solution provides for an explicit comparison of features between linear and nonlinear waves such as dispersion relations and traveling wave speeds. Moreover, the nonlinear solutions, compared with the linear ones, produce a narrow region of active convection and a wider region of suppressed convection. These predictions offer nonlinear MJO features that could potentially be targets of observational investigations.
Movement Enhances the Nonlinearity of Hippocampal Theta
Sheremet, Alex; Burke, Sara N.
2016-01-01
The nonlinear, metastable dynamics of the brain are essential for large-scale integration of smaller components and for the rapid organization of neurons in support of behavior. Therefore, understanding the nonlinearity of the brain is paramount for understanding the relationship between brain dynamics and behavior. Explicit quantitative descriptions of the properties and consequences of nonlinear neural networks, however, are rare. Because the local field potential (LFP) reflects the total activity across a population of neurons, nonlinearites of the nervous system should be quantifiable by examining oscillatory structure. We used high-order spectral analysis of LFP recorded from the dorsal and intermediate regions of the rat hippocampus to show that the nonlinear character of the hippocampal theta rhythm is directly related to movement speed of the animal. In the time domain, nonlinearity is expressed as the development of skewness and asymmetry in the theta shape. In the spectral domain, nonlinear dynamics manifest as the development of a chain of harmonics statistically phase coupled to the theta oscillation. This evolution was modulated across hippocampal regions, being stronger in the dorsal CA1 relative to more intermediate areas. The intensity and timing of the spiking activity of pyramidal cells and interneurons was strongly correlated to theta nonlinearity. Because theta is known to propagate from dorsal to ventral regions of the hippocampus, these data suggest that the nonlinear character of theta decreases as it travels and supports a hypothesis that activity dissipates along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe the first explicit quantification regarding how behavior enhances the nonlinearity of the nervous system. Our findings demonstrate uniquely how theta changes with increasing speed due to the altered underlying neuronal dynamics and open new directions of research on the relationship between single
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sander, W. A., III
1973-01-01
Dc to dc static power conditioning systems on unmanned spacecraft have as their inputs highly fluctuating dc voltages which they condition to regulated dc voltages. These input voltages may be less than or greater than the desired regulated voltages. The design of two circuits which address specific problems in the design of these power conditioning systems and a nonlinear analysis of one of the circuits are discussed. The first circuit design is for a nondissipative active ripple filter which uses an operational amplifier to amplify and cancel the sensed ripple voltage. A dc to dc converter operating at a switching frequency of 1 MHz is the second circuit discussed. A nonlinear analysis of the type of dc to dc converter utilized in designing the 1 MHz converter is included.
Nonlinear dynamics enabled systems design and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacarbonara, Walter
2012-08-01
There is a growing interest towards design of high-performance structures and devices by seeking ways to exploit advantageously different nonlinearities at different scales rather than constraining operations to avoid nonlinear phenomena. Tools of robust nonlinear modeling and analysis are shown to be turned into design tools for achieving high levels of vibration control authority and synthesis of engineered systems and materials. A brief overview of methods and results on active resonance cancellation and passive nonlinear hysteretic vibration absorbers is illustrated. Recent results on the diffused hysteresis exhibited at the nano-microscale in nanocomposites due to the powerful nonlinear stick-slip mechanism exhibited by carbon nanotubes dispersed in a hosting matrix are discussed. The optimization of the main microstructural parameters is shown to lead to unprecedented levels of damping capacity in next-generation nanostructured materials tailored for wide-band vibrational energy dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hausmann, B. J. M.; Bulu, I.; Venkataraman, V.; Deotare, P.; Lončar, M.
2014-05-01
Despite progress towards integrated diamond photonics, studies of optical nonlinearities in diamond have been limited to Raman scattering in bulk samples. Diamond nonlinear photonics, however, could enable efficient, in situ frequency conversion of single photons emitted by diamond's colour centres, as well as stable and high-power frequency microcombs operating at new wavelengths. Both of these applications depend crucially on efficient four-wave mixing processes enabled by diamond's third-order nonlinearity. Here, we have realized a diamond nonlinear photonics platform by demonstrating optical parametric oscillation via four-wave mixing using single-crystal ultrahigh-quality-factor (1 × 106) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths. Threshold powers as low as 20 mW are measured, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive index due to the third-order nonlinearity in diamond at telecom wavelengths.
Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, W. B.
1985-01-01
The special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics are examined. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot firing ground testing. Deadband, side force and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as asympotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies. Numerical solutions are included for comparison with the analysis. Also, nonlinear frequency-response tables are made for a typical range of values.
Stationary nonlinear Airy beams
Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.
2011-08-15
We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.
Nonlinear analysis of drought dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, M.
2015-12-01
Drought is an extreme natural hazard and becomes a severe problem in the world. It arises as a result of interactions between climate input and human activity, displaying the nonlinearity and complexity. Nonlinear time series analyses open a way to study the underlying dynamic characteristics of drought, and then provide the forward knowledge to understanding the physical mechanism of drought event. The rationale behind this idea is that information about the representation of nonlinear properties could be used as an additional quality indicator. To that end, the correlation dimension method, a powerful nonlinear time series analysis method based on the chaos theory, has been suggested to assess the intrinsic dimensionality or degree of freedom of time series according to Takens (1981). It can provide an assessment of the dominant processes that is required to map the observed dynamics. In this study, daily discharge and hourly groundwater level data of 63 catchments in Germany and China were investigated with correlation dimension method. The results indicated that the correlation dimension values of studied discharge exhibited none clear spatial patterns, but showed significant correlations with the spatial heterogeneity within the catchments. In contrast, the correlation dimension values of groundwater level displayed spatial patterns due to the different aquifer conditions (confined or unconfined). High correlation dimension values indicate partly confined conditions. In addition, Hurst analysis was involved to qualify the persistence of drought. It seems that drought mechanisms can be learnt from the data themselves in an inverse manner.
Nonlinear connectivity by Granger causality.
Marinazzo, Daniele; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu; Stramaglia, Sebastiano
2011-09-15
The communication among neuronal populations, reflected by transient synchronous activity, is the mechanism underlying the information processing in the brain. Although it is widely assumed that the interactions among those populations (i.e. functional connectivity) are highly nonlinear, the amount of nonlinear information transmission and its functional roles are not clear. The state of the art to understand the communication between brain systems are dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Granger causality. While DCM models nonlinear couplings, Granger causality, which constitutes a major tool to reveal effective connectivity, and is widely used to analyze EEG/MEG data as well as fMRI signals, is usually applied in its linear version. In order to capture nonlinear interactions between even short and noisy time series, a few approaches have been proposed. We review them and focus on a recently proposed flexible approach has been recently proposed, consisting in the kernel version of Granger causality. We show the application of the proposed approach on EEG signals and fMRI data.
Organic nonlinear optical materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Umegaki, S.
1987-01-01
Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.
Nonlinear optics at interfaces
Chen, C.K.
1980-12-01
Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.
Nonlinear Optics and Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)
2007-01-01
Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.
Nonlinearly realized extended supergravity
Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.; Takahashi, Ryo
2010-10-01
We provide a nonlinear realization of supergravity with an arbitrary number of supersymmetries by means of coset construction. The number of gravitino degrees of freedom counts the number of supersymmetries, which will possibly be probed in future experiments. We also consider Goldstino embedding in the construction to discuss the relation to nonlinear realizations with rigid supersymmetries.
Friction and nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.
2016-07-01
The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, David W.
1994-01-01
The principal investigator, together with two post-doctoral fellows, several graduate students, and colleagues, has applied the modern mathematical theory of nonlinear waves to problems in nonlinear optics. Projects included the interaction of laser light with nematic liquid crystals, propagation through random nonlinear media, cross polarization instabilities and optical shocks for propagation along nonlinear optical fibers, and the dynamics of bistable optical switches coupled through both diffusion and diffraction. In the first project the extremely strong nonlinear response of a CW laser beam in a nematic liquid crystal medium produced striking undulation and filamentation of the CW beam which was observed experimentally and explained theoretically. In the second project the interaction of randomness with nonlinearity was investigated, as well as an effective randomness due to the simultaneous presence of many nonlinear instabilities. In the polarization problems theoretical hyperbolic structure (instabilities and homoclinic orbits) in the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equations was identified and used to explain cross polarization instabilities in both the focusing and defocusing cases, as well as to describe optical shocking phenomena. For the coupled bistable optical switches, a numerical code was carefully developed in two spatial and one temporal dimensions. The code was used to study the decay of temporal transients to 'on-off' steady states in a geometry which includes forward and backward longitudinal propagation, together with one dimensional transverse coupling of both electromagnetic diffraction and carrier diffusion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.
1992-01-01
The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.
Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.
Wise, Frank
2013-03-01
Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. R.; Whitney, Paul
1987-01-01
A technique for identifying nonlinear systems was introduced, beginning with a single input-single output system. Assuming the system is initially at rest, the first kernel (first convolution integral in the continuous case or first convolution sum in the discrete case) was calculated. A controllable and observable linear realization was then obtained in a particular canonical form. The actual nonlinear system was probed with an appropriate input (or inputs) and the output (or outputs) determined. For the linear system, the input was computed that produces the same output. In the difference between the inputs to the nonlinear and linear systems, basic information was found about the nonlinear system. There is an interesting class of nonlinear systems for which this type of identification scheme should prove to be accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, K.; Chinone, N.; Cho, Y.
2015-09-01
Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) and super-higher-order (SHO-) SNDM were used for dopant profiling analysis of a cross-section of the p-i-n structure of an amorphous silicon solar cell. The p-i-n and zigzag structures of each layer boundary were visualized as carrier polarity and density images on 10-20 nm scale through a SNDM measurement. A capacitance-voltage curve was obtained at each pixel in the scan area through a SHO-SNDM measurement. The obtained SNDM and SHO-SNDM data suggest that the i-layer was not completely intrinsic, but was very-low-density p-type.
Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovitch, Oded
2005-08-01
The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.
Schroer, Carsten F. E.; Heuer, Andreas
2015-12-14
In active microrheology, the mechanical properties of a material are tested by adding probe particles which are pulled by an external force. In case of supercooled liquids, strong forcing leads to a thinning of the host material which becomes more pronounced as the system approaches the glass transition. In this work, we provide a quantitative theoretical description of this thinning behavior based on the properties of the Potential Energy Landscape (PEL) of a model glass-former. A key role plays the trap-like nature of the PEL. We find that the mechanical properties in the strongly driven system behave the same as in a quiescent system at an enhanced temperature, giving rise to a well-characterized effective temperature. Furthermore, this effective temperature turns out to be independent of the chosen observable and individually shows up in the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the system. Based on this underlying theoretical understanding, we can estimate its dependence on temperature and force by the PEL-properties of the quiescent system. We furthermore critically discuss the relevance of effective temperatures obtained by scaling relations for the description of out-of-equilibrium situations.
Bénichou, O; Illien, P; Oshanin, G; Sarracino, A; Voituriez, R
2016-03-01
We study analytically the dynamics and the microstructural changes of a host medium caused by a driven tracer particle moving in a confined, quiescent molecular crowding environment. Imitating typical settings of active microrheology experiments, we consider here a minimal model comprising a geometrically confined lattice system (a two-dimensional striplike or a three-dimensional capillary-like system) populated by two types of hard-core particles with stochastic dynamics (a tracer particle driven by a constant external force and bath particles moving completely at random). Resorting to a decoupling scheme, which permits us to go beyond the linear-response approximation (Stokes regime) for arbitrary densities of the lattice gas particles, we determine the force-velocity relation for the tracer particle and the stationary density profiles of the host medium particles around it. These results are validated a posteriori by extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters. Our theoretical analysis reveals two striking features: (a) We show that, under certain conditions, the terminal velocity of the driven tracer particle is a nonmonotonic function of the force, so in some parameter range the differential mobility becomes negative, and (b) the biased particle drives the whole system into a nonequilibrium steady state with a stationary particle density profile past the tracer, which decays exponentially, in sharp contrast with the behavior observed for unbounded lattices, where an algebraic decay is known to take place. PMID:27078313
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroer, Carsten F. E.; Heuer, Andreas
2015-12-01
In active microrheology, the mechanical properties of a material are tested by adding probe particles which are pulled by an external force. In case of supercooled liquids, strong forcing leads to a thinning of the host material which becomes more pronounced as the system approaches the glass transition. In this work, we provide a quantitative theoretical description of this thinning behavior based on the properties of the Potential Energy Landscape (PEL) of a model glass-former. A key role plays the trap-like nature of the PEL. We find that the mechanical properties in the strongly driven system behave the same as in a quiescent system at an enhanced temperature, giving rise to a well-characterized effective temperature. Furthermore, this effective temperature turns out to be independent of the chosen observable and individually shows up in the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the system. Based on this underlying theoretical understanding, we can estimate its dependence on temperature and force by the PEL-properties of the quiescent system. We furthermore critically discuss the relevance of effective temperatures obtained by scaling relations for the description of out-of-equilibrium situations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bénichou, O.; Illien, P.; Oshanin, G.; Sarracino, A.; Voituriez, R.
2016-03-01
We study analytically the dynamics and the microstructural changes of a host medium caused by a driven tracer particle moving in a confined, quiescent molecular crowding environment. Imitating typical settings of active microrheology experiments, we consider here a minimal model comprising a geometrically confined lattice system (a two-dimensional striplike or a three-dimensional capillary-like system) populated by two types of hard-core particles with stochastic dynamics (a tracer particle driven by a constant external force and bath particles moving completely at random). Resorting to a decoupling scheme, which permits us to go beyond the linear-response approximation (Stokes regime) for arbitrary densities of the lattice gas particles, we determine the force-velocity relation for the tracer particle and the stationary density profiles of the host medium particles around it. These results are validated a posteriori by extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters. Our theoretical analysis reveals two striking features: (a) We show that, under certain conditions, the terminal velocity of the driven tracer particle is a nonmonotonic function of the force, so in some parameter range the differential mobility becomes negative, and (b) the biased particle drives the whole system into a nonequilibrium steady state with a stationary particle density profile past the tracer, which decays exponentially, in sharp contrast with the behavior observed for unbounded lattices, where an algebraic decay is known to take place.
Zweig, George
2016-05-01
An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.
Zweig, George
2016-05-01
An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis. PMID:27250151
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, George
1997-01-01
The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyer, George; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordination, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.
Nonlinear time reversal of classical waves: experiment and model.
Frazier, Matthew; Taddese, Biniyam; Xiao, Bo; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M
2013-12-01
We consider time reversal of electromagnetic waves in a closed, wave-chaotic system containing a discrete, passive, harmonic-generating nonlinearity. An experimental system is constructed as a time-reversal mirror, in which excitations generated by the nonlinearity are gathered, time-reversed, transmitted, and directed exclusively to the location of the nonlinearity. Here we show that such nonlinear objects can be purely passive (as opposed to the active nonlinearities used in previous work), and we develop a higher data rate exclusive communication system based on nonlinear time reversal. A model of the experimental system is developed, using a star-graph network of transmission lines, with one of the lines terminated by a model diode. The model simulates time reversal of linear and nonlinear signals, demonstrates features seen in the experimental system, and supports our interpretation of the experimental results.
Martin, G; McGarel, S
2001-01-01
A mill is a mechanical device that grinds mined or processed material into small particles. The process is known to display significant deadtime, and, more notably, severe nonlinear behavior. Over the past 25 years attempts at continuous mill control have met varying degrees of failure, mainly due to model mismatch caused by changes in the mill process gains. This paper describes an on-line control application on a closed-circuit cement mill that uses nonlinear model predictive control technology. The nonlinear gains for the control model are calculated on-line from a neural network model of the process.
Multipole nonlinearity of metamaterials
Petschulat, J.; Chipouline, A.; Tuennermann, A.; Pertsch, T.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Lederer, F.
2009-12-15
We report on the linear and nonlinear optical response of metamaterials evoked by first- and second-order multipoles. The analytical ground on which our approach is based permits for new insights into the functionality of metamaterials. For the sake of clarity we focus here on a key geometry, namely, the split-ring resonator, although the introduced formalism can be applied to arbitrary structures. We derive the equations that describe linear and nonlinear light propagation where special emphasis is put on second-harmonic generation. This contribution basically aims at stretching versatile and existing concepts to describe light propagation in nonlinear media toward the realm of metamaterials.
Quaternion-valued nonlinear adaptive filtering.
Ujang, Bukhari Che; Took, Clive Cheong; Mandic, Danilo P
2011-08-01
A class of nonlinear quaternion-valued adaptive filtering algorithms is proposed based on locally analytic nonlinear activation functions. To circumvent the stringent standard analyticity conditions which are prohibitive to the development of nonlinear adaptive quaternion-valued estimation models, we use the fact that stochastic gradient learning algorithms require only local analyticity at the operating point in the estimation space. It is shown that the quaternion-valued exponential function is locally analytic, and, since local analyticity extends to polynomials, products, and ratios, we show that a class of transcendental nonlinear functions can serve as activation functions in nonlinear and neural adaptive models. This provides a unifying framework for the derivation of gradient-based learning algorithms in the quaternion domain, and the derived algorithms are shown to have the same generic form as their real- and complex-valued counterparts. To make such models second-order optimal for the generality of quaternion signals (both circular and noncircular), we use recent developments in augmented quaternion statistics to introduce widely linear versions of the proposed nonlinear adaptive quaternion valued filters. This allows full exploitation of second-order information in the data, contained both in the covariance and pseudocovariances to cater rigorously for second-order noncircularity (improperness), and the corresponding power mismatch in the signal components. Simulations over a range of circular and noncircular synthetic processes and a real world 3-D noncircular wind signal support the approach. PMID:21712159
Quaternion-valued nonlinear adaptive filtering.
Ujang, Bukhari Che; Took, Clive Cheong; Mandic, Danilo P
2011-08-01
A class of nonlinear quaternion-valued adaptive filtering algorithms is proposed based on locally analytic nonlinear activation functions. To circumvent the stringent standard analyticity conditions which are prohibitive to the development of nonlinear adaptive quaternion-valued estimation models, we use the fact that stochastic gradient learning algorithms require only local analyticity at the operating point in the estimation space. It is shown that the quaternion-valued exponential function is locally analytic, and, since local analyticity extends to polynomials, products, and ratios, we show that a class of transcendental nonlinear functions can serve as activation functions in nonlinear and neural adaptive models. This provides a unifying framework for the derivation of gradient-based learning algorithms in the quaternion domain, and the derived algorithms are shown to have the same generic form as their real- and complex-valued counterparts. To make such models second-order optimal for the generality of quaternion signals (both circular and noncircular), we use recent developments in augmented quaternion statistics to introduce widely linear versions of the proposed nonlinear adaptive quaternion valued filters. This allows full exploitation of second-order information in the data, contained both in the covariance and pseudocovariances to cater rigorously for second-order noncircularity (improperness), and the corresponding power mismatch in the signal components. Simulations over a range of circular and noncircular synthetic processes and a real world 3-D noncircular wind signal support the approach.
Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics.
Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean P; Brongersma, Mark L; Cai, Wenshan
2014-08-11
Metamaterials have not only enabled unprecedented flexibility in producing unconventional optical properties that are not found in nature, they have also provided exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with high-order properties correlated to linear behaviour. Two particularly compelling directions are active metamaterials, whose optical properties can be purposely tailored by external stimuli in a reversible manner, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light waves. Here, by exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically controlled nonlinear optical processes from a metamaterial. Both second harmonic generation and optical rectification, enhanced by the resonance behaviour in the metamaterial absorber, are modulated externally with applied voltage signals. Our results reveal an opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electro-optic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities.
Colombo, Alessia; Dragonetti, Claudia; Marinotto, Daniele; Righetto, Stefania; Griffini, Gianmarco; Turri, Stefano; Akdas-Kilig, Huriye; Fillaut, Jean-Luc; Amar, Anissa; Boucekkine, Abdou; Katan, Claudine
2016-07-01
This work reports on the design, synthesis and photo-physical properties of two ruthenium σ-alkynyl complexes. It is shown that, despite similar optical absorption features recorded in solution, the introduction of a benzaldehyde moiety leads to an improved non-linear optical (NLO) response as measured by Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic (EFISH) generation and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) at 1.907 μm, both related to the second order hyperpolarizability. These structure-property relationships are rationalized based on few state modelling. Complex is subsequently processed to afford composite films that demonstrate a χ(2) of 1.4 pm V(-1), quite remarkable given the ease of film processing implemented in this work. PMID:27315336
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leslie, Thomas M.
1993-01-01
A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film
Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F
2016-07-01
In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F
2016-07-01
In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK. PMID:27018144
Nonlinear optomechanical pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conti, Claudio; Boyd, Robert
2014-03-01
A transparent material exhibits ultrafast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, such as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, and optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems such as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma or the Casimir effect. Here, we show that an ultrafast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Nonlinear structural analysis techniques for engine structures and components are addressed. The finite element method and boundary element method are discussed in terms of stress and structural analyses of shells, plates, and laminates.
Library for Nonlinear Optimization
2001-10-09
OPT++ is a C++ object-oriented library for nonlinear optimization. This incorporates an improved implementation of an existing capability and two new algorithmic capabilities based on existing journal articles and freely available software.
Nonlinear Dynamics in Cardiology
Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.
2013-01-01
The dynamics of many cardiac arrhythmias, as well as the nature of transitions between different heart rhythms, have long been considered evidence of nonlinear phenomena playing a direct role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. In most types of cardiac disease, the pathology develops slowly and gradually, often over many years. In contrast, arrhythmias often occur suddenly. In nonlinear systems, sudden changes in qualitative dynamics can, counter-intuitively, result from a gradual change in a system parameter –this is known as a bifurcation. Here, we review how nonlinearities in cardiac electrophysiology influence normal and abnormal rhythms and how bifurcations change the dynamics. In particular, we focus on the many recent developments in computational modeling at the cellular level focused on intracellular calcium dynamics. We discuss two areas where recent experimental and modeling work have suggested the importance of nonlinearities in calcium dynamics: repolarization alternans and pacemaker cell automaticity. PMID:22524390
Nonlinear Refractive Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vikram, Chandra S.; Witherow, William K.
2001-01-01
Using nonlinear refractive properties of a salt-water solution at two wavelengths, numerical analysis has been performed to extract temperature and concentration from interferometric fringe data. The theoretical study, using a commercially available equation solving software, starts with critical fringe counting needs and the role of nonlinear refractive properties in such measurements. Finally, methodology of the analysis, codes, fringe counting accuracy needs, etc. is described in detail.
Nonlinear systems in medicine.
Higgins, John P.
2002-01-01
Many achievements in medicine have come from applying linear theory to problems. Most current methods of data analysis use linear models, which are based on proportionality between two variables and/or relationships described by linear differential equations. However, nonlinear behavior commonly occurs within human systems due to their complex dynamic nature; this cannot be described adequately by linear models. Nonlinear thinking has grown among physiologists and physicians over the past century, and non-linear system theories are beginning to be applied to assist in interpreting, explaining, and predicting biological phenomena. Chaos theory describes elements manifesting behavior that is extremely sensitive to initial conditions, does not repeat itself and yet is deterministic. Complexity theory goes one step beyond chaos and is attempting to explain complex behavior that emerges within dynamic nonlinear systems. Nonlinear modeling still has not been able to explain all of the complexity present in human systems, and further models still need to be refined and developed. However, nonlinear modeling is helping to explain some system behaviors that linear systems cannot and thus will augment our understanding of the nature of complex dynamic systems within the human body in health and in disease states. PMID:14580107
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Açıkyıldız, Metin; Gürses, Ahmet; Güneş, Kübra; Yalvaç, Duygu
2015-11-01
The present study was designed to compare the linear and non-linear methods used to check the compliance of the experimental data corresponding to the isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson) and kinetics equations (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order). In this context, adsorption experiments were carried out to remove an anionic dye, Remazol Brillant Yellow 3GL (RBY), from its aqueous solutions using a commercial activated carbon as a sorbent. The effects of contact time, initial RBY concentration, and temperature onto adsorbed amount were investigated. The amount of dye adsorbed increased with increased adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 240 min. The amount of dye adsorbed enhanced with increased temperature, suggesting that the adsorption process is endothermic. The experimental data was analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm equations in order to predict adsorption isotherm. It was determined that the isotherm data were fitted to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo second-order kinetic model. According to the kinetic and isotherm data, it was found that the determination coefficients obtained from linear method were higher than those obtained from non-linear method.
Nonlinear fitness landscape of a molecular pathway.
Perfeito, Lilia; Ghozzi, Stéphane; Berg, Johannes; Schnetz, Karin; Lässig, Michael
2011-07-01
Genes are regulated because their expression involves a fitness cost to the organism. The production of proteins by transcription and translation is a well-known cost factor, but the enzymatic activity of the proteins produced can also reduce fitness, depending on the internal state and the environment of the cell. Here, we map the fitness costs of a key metabolic network, the lactose utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. We measure the growth of several regulatory lac operon mutants in different environments inducing expression of the lac genes. We find a strikingly nonlinear fitness landscape, which depends on the production rate and on the activity rate of the lac proteins. A simple fitness model of the lac pathway, based on elementary biophysical processes, predicts the growth rate of all observed strains. The nonlinearity of fitness is explained by a feedback loop: production and activity of the lac proteins reduce growth, but growth also affects the density of these molecules. This nonlinearity has important consequences for molecular function and evolution. It generates a cliff in the fitness landscape, beyond which populations cannot maintain growth. In viable populations, there is an expression barrier of the lac genes, which cannot be exceeded in any stationary growth process. Furthermore, the nonlinearity determines how the fitness of operon mutants depends on the inducer environment. We argue that fitness nonlinearities, expression barriers, and gene-environment interactions are generic features of fitness landscapes for metabolic pathways, and we discuss their implications for the evolution of regulation. PMID:21814515
Recent advances in nonlinear passive vibration isolators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibrahim, R. A.
2008-07-01
The theory of nonlinear vibration isolation has witnessed significant developments due to pressing demands for the protection of structural installations, nuclear reactors, mechanical components, and sensitive instruments from earthquake ground motion, shocks, and impact loads. In view of these demands, engineers and physicists have developed different types of nonlinear vibration isolators. This article presents a comprehensive assessment of recent developments of nonlinear isolators in the absence of active control means. It does not deal with other means of linear or nonlinear vibration absorbers. It begins with the basic concept and features of nonlinear isolators and inherent nonlinear phenomena. Specific types of nonlinear isolators are then discussed, including ultra-low-frequency isolators. For vertical vibration isolation, the treatment of the Euler spring isolator is based on the post-buckling dynamic characteristics of the column elastica and axial stiffness. Exact and approximate analyses of axial stiffness of the post-buckled Euler beam are outlined. Different techniques of reducing the resonant frequency of the isolator are described. Another group is based on the Gospodnetic-Frisch-Fay beam, which is free to slide on two supports. The restoring force of this beam resembles to a great extent the restoring roll moment of biased ships. The base isolation of buildings, bridges, and liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motion is then described. Base isolation utilizes friction elements, laminated-rubber bearings, and the friction pendulum. Nonlinear viscoelastic and composite material springs, and smart material elements are described in terms of material mechanical characteristics and the dependence of their transmissibility on temperature and excitation amplitude. The article is closed by conclusions, which highlight resolved and unresolved problems and recommendations for future research directions.
Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging
Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.
2015-11-23
Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.
Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.
2015-11-01
Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.
Akoev, I G; Pashovkina, M S; Dolgacheva, L P; Semenova, T P; Kalmykov, V L
2002-01-01
The dependence of activities of actomyosin ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartataminotranspherase, monoaminoxidase and that of affective rat behavior on frequency of modulation of microwaves (0.8-10 microW/cm2) was explored at short-time actions. Series of nonlinear phenomenons, inexplicable from positions of the energy approaches are revealed, The working hypothesis explaining opportunity of high performance of weak and super-weak microwaves and other revealed phenomena by resonance interaction of such electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation with paramagnetic molecules of biological tissues was proposed. This resonance interaction activate free radicals and initiate auto-supporting and auto-intensifying of chain chemical reactions. The spontaneous autocatalytic oxidation of catecholamines enlarges a common pool of free radicals, capable to participate in such enhanced generating. The protective role of monoaminoxidase is postulated. Monoaminoxidase is basically located on an outer surface of mitochondrias and it is deaminating monoamines. The deaminating prevents penetration of catecholamines inside of mitochondrias and their quinoid oxidation there with formation of free-radical semi-quinons, capable to destroy system of ATP synthesis. These inferences are obliquely confirmed by the experimentally revealed correlation between activity of monoaminoxidase and integrative activity of the rat brain. PMID:12125273
Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.
Nonlinear coupling in the human motor system
Chen, C.C.; Kilner, J.M.; Friston, K.J.; Kiebel, S. J.; Jolly, R.K.; Ward, N. S.
2010-01-01
The synchronous discharge of neuronal assemblies is thought to facilitate communication between areas within distributed networks in the human brain. This oscillatory activity is especially interesting, given the pathological modulation of specific frequencies in diseases affecting the motor system. Many studies investigating oscillatory activity have focussed on same frequency, or linear, coupling between areas of a network. In this study, our aim was to establish a functional architecture in the human motor system responsible for induced responses as measured in normal subjects with magnetoencephalography. Specifically, we looked for evidence for additional nonlinear (between-frequency) coupling among neuronal sources and, in particular, whether nonlinearities were found predominantly in connections within areas (intrinsic), between areas (extrinsic) or both. We modelled the event-related modulation of spectral responses during a simple hand-grip using dynamic casual modelling. We compared models with and without nonlinear connections under conditions of symmetric and asymmetric interhemispheric connectivity. Bayesian model comparison suggested that the task-dependent motor network was asymmetric during right hand movements. Furthermore, it revealed very strong evidence for nonlinear coupling between sources in this distributed network, but interactions among frequencies within a source appeared linear in nature. Our results provide empirical evidence for nonlinear coupling among distributed neuronal sources in the motor system and that these play an important role in modulating spectral responses under normal conditions. PMID:20573886
Broadly tunable quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear metamaterials
Rose, Alec; Smith, David R.
2011-07-15
The ability to tune the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) frequency is a highly desirable though lacking feature of many nonlinear devices. To this end, we consider QPM in a special class of active nonlinear metamaterials (MMs), whose properties can be controlled postfabrication. By application of a tunable, periodic perturbation in the linear susceptibility (magnetic or electric) of a MM, a single nonlinear device can be constructed to operate over an exceedingly broad bandwidth. We propose a nonlinear MM for QPM second-order harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies, predicted to have a tunable bandwidth of over 100%.
Engineered nonlinear lattices.
Clausen, C B; Christiansen, P L; Torner, L; Gaididei, Y B
1999-11-01
We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear discrete equation. The proposed structure therefore provides an experimental setting for exploring discrete effects in a controlled manner. In particular, we show propagation of breathers that are eventually trapped by discreteness. When the stripes are wide the beams evolve in a structure we term a quasilattice, which interpolates between a lattice system and a continuous system. PMID:11970457
Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, Ellwood
1985-01-01
The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.
Nonlinear trajectory navigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sang H.
Trajectory navigation entails the solution of many different problems that arise due to uncertain knowledge of the spacecraft state, including orbit prediction, correction maneuver design, and trajectory estimation. In practice, these problems are usually solved based on an assumption that linear dynamical models sufficiently approximate the local trajectory dynamics and their associated statistics. However, astrodynamics problems are nonlinear in general and linear spacecraft dynamics models can fail to characterize the true trajectory dynamics when the system is subject to a highly unstable environment or when mapped over a long time period. This limits the performance of traditional navigation techniques and can make it difficult to perform precision analysis or robust navigation. This dissertation presents an alternate method for spacecraft trajectory navigation based on a nonlinear local trajectory model and their statistics in an analytic framework. For a given reference trajectory, we first solve for the higher order Taylor series terms that describe the localized nonlinear motion and develop an analytic expression for the relative solution flow. We then discuss the nonlinear dynamical mapping of a spacecraft's probability density function by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for a deterministic system. From this result we derive an analytic method for orbit uncertainty propagation which can replicate Monte-Carlo simulations with the benefit of added flexibility in initial orbit statistics. Using this approach, we introduce the concept of the statistically correct trajectory where we directly incorporate statistical information about an orbit state into the trajectory design process. As an extension of this concept, we define a nonlinear statistical targeting method where we solve for a correction maneuver which intercepts the desired target on average. Then we apply our results to a Bayesian filtering problem to obtain a general filtering algorithm for
Lee, Paul H
2016-01-01
Healthy adults are advised to perform at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity weekly, but this advice is based on studies using self-reports of questionable validity. This study examined the dose-response relationship of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality using segmented Cox regression to empirically determine the break-points of the dose-response relationship. Data from 7006 adult participants aged 18 or above in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 were included in the analysis and linked with death certificate data using a probabilistic matching approach in the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer over the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Each minute with accelerometer count <100; 1952-5724; and ≥5725 were classified as sedentary, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Segmented Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of time spent in sedentary behaviors, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Data were analyzed in 2016. During 47,119 person-year of follow-up, 608 deaths occurred. Each additional hour per day of sedentary behaviors was associated with a HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) among participants who spend at least 10.9 h per day on sedentary behaviors, and each additional minute per day spent on moderate-intensity physical activity was associated with a HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91, 0.96) among participants with daily moderate-intensity physical activity ≤14.1 min. Associations of moderate physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality were independent of each other. To conclude, evidence from this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram
2010-05-01
An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.
Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics
Davis, M.J.
1993-12-01
Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.
Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura
2016-10-01
With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.
Callen, J. D.
2002-11-04
The primary efforts this year have focused on exploring the nonlinear evolution of localized interchange instabilities, some extensions of neoclassical tearing mode theory, and developing a model for the dynamic electrical conductivity in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field. In addition, we have vigorously participated in the computationally-focused NIMROD and CEMM projects.
Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses
Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal
2010-06-15
We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.
Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof
2016-03-01
The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.
Teaching the Nonlinear Pendulum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, T. F.; And Others
1994-01-01
Emphasizes two aspects for a calculus-based physics course: applying calculus and numerical integral methods to determine the theoretical period of a pendulum with nonlinear motion, and achieving theoretical and experimental results by using "MathCad" software and a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) system. (MVL)
Nonlinear Theory and Breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Frank
2007-01-01
The main points of recent theoretical and computational studies on boundary-layer transition and turbulence are to be highlighted. The work is based on high Reynolds numbers and attention is drawn to nonlinear interactions, breakdowns and scales. The research focuses in particular on truly nonlinear theories, i.e. those for which the mean-flow profile is completely altered from its original state. There appear to be three such theories dealing with unsteady nonlinear pressure-displacement interactions (I), with vortex/wave interactions (II), and with Euler-scale flows (III). Specific recent findings noted for these three, and in quantitative agreement with experiments, are the following. Nonlinear finite-time break-ups occur in I, leading to sublayer eruption and vortex formation; here the theory agrees with experiments (Nishioka) regarding the first spike. II gives rise to finite-distance blowup of displacement thickness, then interaction and break-up as above; this theory agrees with experiments (Klebanoff, Nishioka) on the formation of three-dimensional streets. III leads to the prediction of turbulent boundary-layer micro-scale, displacement-and stress-sublayer-thicknesses.
Polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paley, Mark S.
1993-01-01
One very promising class of organic compounds for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications are polydiacetylenes, which are novel in that they are highly conjugated polymers which can also be crystalline. Polydiacetylenes offer several advantages over other organic materials: because of their highly conjugated electronic structures, they are capable of possessing large optical nonlinearities with fast response times; because they are crystalline, they can be highly ordered, which is essential for optimizing their NLO properties; and, last, because they are polymeric, they can be formed as thin films, which are useful for device fabrication. We have actively been carrying out ground-based research on several compounds of interest.
Hebbian Crosstalk Prevents Nonlinear Unsupervised Learning
Cox, Kingsley J. A.; Adams, Paul R.
2008-01-01
Learning is thought to occur by localized, activity-induced changes in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. Recent work has shown that induction of change at one connection can affect changes at others (“crosstalk”). We studied the role of such crosstalk in nonlinear Hebbian learning using a neural network implementation of independent components analysis. We find that there is a sudden qualitative change in the performance of the network at a threshold crosstalk level, and discuss the implications of this for nonlinear learning from higher-order correlations in the neocortex. PMID:19826612
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. Final report
Montgomery, D.C.
1998-11-01
This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant`s lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the
Phase retrieval using nonlinear diversity.
Lu, Chien-Hung; Barsi, Christopher; Williams, Matthew O; Kutz, J Nathan; Fleischer, Jason W
2013-04-01
We extend the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to phase retrieval in a nonlinear system. Using a tunable photorefractive crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the noninterferometric technique by reconstructing an unknown phase object from optical intensity measurements taken at different nonlinear strengths.
Biomolecular Imaging with Coherent Nonlinear Vibrational Microscopy
Chung, Chao-Yu; Boik, John; Potma, Eric O.
2014-01-01
Optical imaging with spectroscopic vibrational contrast is a label-free solution for visualizing, identifying, and quantifying a wide range of biomolecular compounds in biological materials. Both linear and nonlinear vibrational microscopy techniques derive their imaging contrast from infrared active or Raman allowed molecular transitions, which provide a rich palette for interrogating chemical and structural details of the sample. Yet nonlinear optical methods, which include both second-order sum-frequency generation (SFG) and third-order coherent Raman scattering (CRS) techniques, offer several improved imaging capabilities over their linear precursors. Nonlinear vibrational microscopy features unprecedented vibrational imaging speeds, provides strategies for higher spatial resolution, and gives access to additional molecular parameters. These advances have turned vibrational microscopy into a premier tool for chemically dissecting live cells and tissues. This review discusses the molecular contrast of SFG and CRS microscopy and highlights several of the advanced imaging capabilities that have impacted biological and biomedical research. PMID:23245525
Nonlinear acceleration of SN transport calculations
Fichtl, Erin D; Warsa, James S; Calef, Matthew T
2010-12-20
The use of nonlinear iterative methods, Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) in particular, for solving eigenvalue problems in transport applications has recently become an active subject of research. While JFNK has been shown to be effective for k-eigenvalue problems, there are a number of input parameters that impact computational efficiency, making it difficult to implement efficiently in a production code using a single set of default parameters. We show that different selections for the forcing parameter in particular can lead to large variations in the amount of computational work for a given problem. In contrast, we present a nonlinear subspace method that sits outside and effectively accelerates nonlinear iterations of a given form and requires only a single input parameter, the subspace size. It is shown to consistently and significantly reduce the amount of computational work when applied to fixed-point iteration, and this combination of methods is shown to be more efficient than JFNK for our application.
2011-01-01
The effect of exogenous, highly diluted formaldehyde on the rate of demethylation/re-methylation of veratric acid by the bacteria Rhodococcus erythropolis was studied using electrophoretic and microscopic techniques. The activity of 4-O-demethylase, responsible for accumulation of vanillic acid, and the levels of veratric and vanillic acids were determined using capillary electrophoresis. Formaldehyde was serially diluted at 1:100 ratios, and the total number of iterations was 20. After incubation of the successive dilutions of formaldehyde with the bacteria, demethylase activity oscillated in a sinusoidal manner. It was established using capillary electrophoresis that methylation of vanillic acid to veratric acid occurred at a double rate, as shown by the doubled fluctuation in the concentration of veratrate. There were also changes in the NADH oxidase activity, which is associated with methylation processes. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of numerous enlarged vacuoles in bacterial cells during the accumulation of large amounts of vanillic acid, and their disappearance together with a decrease in 4-O-demethylase activity. The presented results give evidence for the ability of living cells to detect the presence of submolecular concentrations of biological effectors in their environment and provide a basis for a scientific explanation of the law of hormesis and the therapeutic effect of homeopathic dilutions. PMID:22104369
Nonlinear microscopy for material characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Reed Alan
Making use of femtosecond laser sources, nonlinear microscopy provides access to previously unstudied aspects of materials. By probing third order nonlinear optical signals determined by the nonlinear susceptibility chi (3), which is present in all materials, we gain insight not available by conventional linear or electron microscopy. Third-harmonic (TH) microscopy is applied to supplement laser-induced damage studies of dielectric oxide thin film optical coatings. We present high contrast (S/N> 100 : 1) TH imaging of ≈17 nm nanoindentations, individual 10 nm gold nanoparticles, nascent scandia and hafnia films, and laser induced material modification both above and below damage threshold conditions in hafnia thin-films. These results imply that TH imaging is potentially sensitive to laser-induced strain as well as to nanoscale defects or contamination in oxide films. Compared to other sensitive imaging techniques such as Nomarski and dark field, TH imaging exhibits dramatically increased sensitivity to typical material modifications undergone during the formation of optical damage as evidenced by a dynamic range ≈106 : 1. Four-wave mixing (FWM) microscopy is employed to investigate delay dependent FWM signals and their implied characteristic resonant response times in multiple solvents. Mathematical modeling of resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) and stimulated parametric emission (SPE) processes supplement the FWM studies and suggest a resonant CARS process that accounts for ≈95% of the total visible FWM signal which probes a characteristic material response time ≈100 fs. This signal enhancement likely indicates the net effects of probing several Raman active C-H stretch bands near 2950 cm-1. This FWM technique may be applied to characterize the dominant resonant response of the sample under study. Furthermore this technique presents the newfound capability to provide estimates of characteristic
Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada
2009-01-01
A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…
Optical limiter based on two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belabbas, Amirouche; Lazoul, Mohamed
2016-04-01
The aim behind this work is to investigate the capabilities of nonlinear photonic crystals to achieve ultra-fast optical limiters based on third order nonlinear effects. The purpose is to combine the actions of nonlinear effects with the properties of photonic crystals in order to activate the photonic band according to the magnitude of the nonlinear effects, themselves a function of incident laser power. We are interested in designing an optical limiter based nonlinear photonic crystal operating around 1064 nm and its second harmonic at 532 nm. Indeed, a very powerful solid-state laser that can blind or destroy optical sensors and is widely available and easy to handle. In this work, we perform design and optimization by numerical simulations to determine the better structure for the nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve compact and efficient integrated optical limiter. The approach consists to analyze the band structures in Kerr-nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals as a function of the optical intensity. We confirm that these bands are dynamically red-shifted with regard to the bands observed in linear photonic crystals or in the case of weak nonlinear effects. The implemented approach will help to understand such phenomena as intensitydriven optical limiting with Kerr-nonlinear photonic crystals.
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography.
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam
2016-01-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency-the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam
2016-08-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.
Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.
Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav
2015-01-12
International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.
Nonlinear metamaterials for holography
Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora
2016-01-01
A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581
Nonlinear differential equations
Dresner, L.
1988-01-01
This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.
Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics
Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Huabing
2014-10-20
Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.
Nonlinear chiral transport phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Ishii, Takeaki; Pu, Shi; Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-06-01
We study the nonlinear responses of relativistic chiral matter to the external fields such as the electric field E , gradients of temperature and chemical potential, ∇T and ∇μ . Using the kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections under the relaxation time approximation, we compute the transport coefficients of possible new electric currents that are forbidden in usual chirally symmetric matter but are allowed in chirally asymmetric matter by parity. In particular, we find a new type of electric current proportional to ∇μ ×E due to the interplay between the effects of the Berry curvature and collisions. We also derive an analog of the "Wiedemann-Franz" law specific for anomalous nonlinear transport in relativistic chiral matter.
Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C.; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio
2016-07-01
We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass (≃10-12 m2/W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The nonlinear coefficient can be increased to values in the range of 10-10 m2/W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.
Leitão, J C; Miotto, J M; Gerlach, M; Altmann, E G
2016-07-01
One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼x (β) ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)-(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764
2016-01-01
One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764
Ultrafast Thermal Nonlinearity
Khurgin, Jacob B.; Sun, Greg; Chen, Wei Ting; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Tsai, Din Ping
2015-01-01
Third order nonlinear optical phenomena explored in the last half century have been predicted to find wide range of applications in many walks of life, such as all-optical switching, routing, and others, yet this promise has not been fulfilled primarily because the strength of nonlinear effects is too low when they are to occur on the picosecond scale required in today’s signal processing applications. The strongest of the third-order nonlinearities, engendered by thermal effects, is considered to be too slow for the above applications. In this work we show that when optical fields are concentrated into the volumes on the scale of few tens of nanometers, the speed of the thermo-optical effects approaches picosecond scale. Such a sub-diffraction limit concentration of field can be accomplished with the use of plasmonic effects in metal nanoparticles impregnating the thermo-optic dielectric (e.g. amorphous Si) and leads to phase shifts sufficient for all optical switching on ultrafast scale. PMID:26644322
Duck, F
2010-01-01
The propagation of acoustic waves is a fundamentally non-linear process, and only waves with infinitesimally small amplitudes may be described by linear expressions. In practice, all ultrasound propagation is associated with a progressive distortion in the acoustic waveform and the generation of frequency harmonics. At the frequencies and amplitudes used for medical diagnostic scanning, the waveform distortion can result in the formation of acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy, and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation, such as water, amniotic fluid, or urine. Attenuation by soft tissues limits but does not extinguish these non-linear effects. Harmonics may be used to create tissue harmonic images. These offer improvements over conventional B-mode images in spatial resolution and, more significantly, in the suppression of acoustic clutter and side-lobe artefacts. The quantity B/A has promise as a parameter for tissue characterization, but methods for imaging B/A have shown only limited success. Standard methods for the prediction of tissue in-situ exposure from acoustic measurements in water, whether for regulatory purposes, for safety assessment, or for planning therapeutic regimes, may be in error because of unaccounted non-linear losses. Biological effects mechanisms are altered by finite-amplitude effects. PMID:20349813
Nonlinearity without superluminality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, Adrian
2005-07-01
Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signaling. As Czachor, Gisin, and Polchinski pointed out, this is not generally true of general nonlinear modifications of the Schrödinger equation. Excluding superluminal signaling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no-superluminal-signaling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by nonrelativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which display the values of localized pure states need not allow superluminal signaling, provided that the devices display the values of the states of entangled subsystems as defined in a nonstandard, although natural, way. It follows that any locally defined nonlinear evolution of pure states can be made consistent with Minkowski causality.
Nonlinearity without superluminality
Kent, Adrian
2005-07-15
Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signaling. As Czachor, Gisin, and Polchinski pointed out, this is not generally true of general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signaling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no-superluminal-signaling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by nonrelativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which display the values of localized pure states need not allow superluminal signaling, provided that the devices display the values of the states of entangled subsystems as defined in a nonstandard, although natural, way. It follows that any locally defined nonlinear evolution of pure states can be made consistent with Minkowski causality.
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations
Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.
1983-03-01
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.
Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.
Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A
2014-10-20
We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics. PMID:25401574
Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)
1980-01-01
Nonlinear analysis of building structures and numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations and Newton's method are discussed. Other topics include: nonlinear interaction problems; solution procedures for nonlinear problems; crash dynamics and advanced nonlinear applications; material characterization, contact problems, and inelastic response; and formulation aspects and special software for nonlinear analysis.
Identification of nonlinear boundary effects using nonlinear normal modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadian, Hamid; Zamani, Arash
2009-08-01
Local nonlinear effects due to micro-slip/slap introduced in boundaries of structures have dominant influence on their lower modal model. This paper studies these effects by experimentally observing the behavior of a clamped-free beam structure with local nonlinearities due to micro-slip at the clamped end. The structure is excited near one of its resonance frequencies and recorded responses are employed to identify the nonlinear effects at the boundary. The nonlinear response of structure is defined using an amplitude-dependent nonlinear normal mode identified from measured responses. A new method for reconstructing nonlinear normal mode is represented in this paper by relating the nonlinear normal mode to the clamped end displacement-dependent stiffness parameters using an eigensensitivity analysis. Solution of obtained equations results equivalent stiffness models at different vibration amplitudes and the corresponding nonlinear normal mode is identified. The approach results nonlinear modes with efficient capabilities in predicting dynamical behavior of the structure at different loading conditions. To evaluate the efficiency of the identified model, the structure is excited at higher excitation load levels than those employed in identification procedures and the observed responses are compared with the predictions of the model at the corresponding input force levels. The predictions are in good agreement with the observed behavior indicating success of identification procedure in capturing the physical merits involve in the boundary local nonlinearities.
Two-bead microrheology: Modeling protocols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenegger, Christel; Forest, M. Gregory
2008-09-01
Microbead rheology maps the fluctuations of beads immersed in soft matter to viscoelastic properties of the surrounding medium. In this paper, we present modeling extensions of the seminal results of Mason and Weitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1250 (1995)] for a single bead and of Crocker [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 888 (2000)] and Levine and Lubensky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1774 (2000)] for two beads. We formulate the linear response analysis for two beads so that the model equations retain the local diffusive properties of each bead (through the memory kernel of the shell or depletion zone surrounding each bead) and the nonlocal dynamic moduli of the medium separating the beads (through the memory kernel that transmits fluctuations of one bead to the other). We then derive a 3×3 invertible system of equations relating: an isolated bead’s autocorrelations, the autocorrelations and cross-correlations of two coupled beads; and the shell radius surrounding each bead, the memory kernels of the shell, and of the medium between the two beads.
Probing interactions between collagen proteins via microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shayegan, Marjan; Forde, Nancy R.
2012-10-01
Collagen is the major structural protein of our connective tissues. It provides integrity and mechanical strength through its hierarchical organization. Defects in collagen can lead to serious connective tissue diseases. Collagen is also widely used as a biomaterial. Given that mechanical properties are related to the structure of materials, the main goal of our research is to understand how molecular structure correlates with microscale mechanical properties of collagen solutions and networks. We use optical tweezers to trap and monitor thermal fluctuations of an embedded probe particle, from which viscoelastic properties of the solution are extracted. We find that elasticity becomes comparable to viscous behavior at collagen concentrations of 5mg/ml. Furthermore, by simultaneously neutralizing pH and adding salt, we observe changes in viscosity and elasticity of the solution over time. We attribute this to the self-assembly process of collagen molecules into fibrils with different mechanical properties. Self-assembly of collagen under these conditions is verified by turbidity measurements as well as electron microscopy. By comparing results from these local studies of viscoelasticity, we can detect spatial heterogeneity of fibril formation throughout the solution.
Microrheology of Biopolymer-Membrane Complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; Mackintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.
2000-07-01
We create tailored microstructures, consisting of complexes of lipid membranes with self-assembled biopolymer shells, to study the fundamental properties and interactions of these basic components of living cells. We measure the mechanical response of these artificial structures at the micrometer scale, using optical tweezers and single-particle tracking. These systems exhibit rich dynamics that illustrate the viscoelastic character of the quasi-two-dimensional biopolymer network. We present a theoretical model relating the rheological properties of these membranes to the observed dynamics.
Microrheology of biopolymer-membrane complexes.
Helfer, E; Harlepp, S; Bourdieu, L; Robert, J; MacKintosh, F C; Chatenay, D
2000-07-10
We create tailored microstructures, consisting of complexes of lipid membranes with self-assembled biopolymer shells, to study the fundamental properties and interactions of these basic components of living cells. We measure the mechanical response of these artificial structures at the micrometer scale, using optical tweezers and single-particle tracking. These systems exhibit rich dynamics that illustrate the viscoelastic character of the quasi-two-dimensional biopolymer network. We present a theoretical model relating the rheological properties of these membranes to the observed dynamics.
Frequency domain nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legare, Francois
2016-05-01
The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics from gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, James; Kraus, Per
2009-04-01
We apply the recently established connection between nonlinear fluid dynamics and AdS gravity to the case of the dyonic black brane in AdS4. This yields the equations of fluid dynamics for a 2+1 dimensional charged fluid in a background magnetic field. We construct the gravity solution to second order in the derivative expansion. From this we find the fluid dynamical stress tensor and charge current to second and third order in derivatives respectively, along with values for the associated transport coefficients.
Optical correlator tracking nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, Don A.; Kirsch, James C.; Johnson, John L.
1987-01-01
A limitation observed in the tracking ability of optical correlators is reported. It is shown by calculations that an inherent nonlinearity exists in many optical correlator configurations, with the problem manifesting itself in a mismatch of the input scene with the position of the correlation signal. Results indicate that some care must be given to the selection of components and their configuration in constructing an optical correlator which exhibits true translational invariance. An input test scene is shown along with the correlation spot and cross hairs from a contrast detector; the offset is apparent.
Nonlinear methods for communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1992-08-01
An innovative communication system has been developed. This system has the potential for improved secure communication for covert operations. By modulating data on the chaotic signal used to synchronize two nonlinear systems, they have created a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) communications system. The researchers derived the equations which govern the system, made models of the system, and performed numerical simulations to test these models. The theoretical and numerical studies of this system have been validated by experiment. A recent design improvement has led to a system that synchronizes at 0 db Signal-to-Noise. This development holds the promise of a Low Probability of Detection (LPD) system.
Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza
2013-07-10
In this paper, the Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media has been further developed when nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction appear simultaneously. To this end, the nonlinear photoinduced phase shift between the impinging and outgoing Gaussian beams from a nonlocal nonlinear sample has been generalized. It is shown that this kind of phase shift will reduce correctly to its known counterpart for the case of pure refractive nonlinearity. Using this generalized form of phase shift, the basic formulas for closed- and open-aperture beam transmittances in the far field have been provided, and a simple procedure for interpreting the Z-scan results has been proposed. In this procedure, by separately performing open- and closed-aperture Z-scan experiments and using the represented relations for the far-field transmittances, one can measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear index of refraction as well as the order of nonlocality. Theoretically, it is shown that when the absorptive nonlinearity is present in addition to the refractive nonlinearity, the sample nonlocal response can noticeably suppress the peak and enhance the valley of the Z-scan closed-aperture transmittance curves, which is due to the nonlocal action's ability to change the beam transverse dimensions.
Nonlinear dynamics of neural delayed feedback
Longtin, A.
1990-01-01
Neural delayed feedback is a property shared by many circuits in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The evolution of the neural activity in these circuits depends on their present state as well as on their past states, due to finite propagation time of neural activity along the feedback loop. These systems are often seen to undergo a change from a quiescent state characterized by low level fluctuations to an oscillatory state. We discuss the problem of analyzing this transition using techniques from nonlinear dynamics and stochastic processes. Our main goal is to characterize the nonlinearities which enable autonomous oscillations to occur and to uncover the properties of the noise sources these circuits interact with. The concepts are illustrated on the human pupil light reflex (PLR) which has been studied both theoretically and experimentally using this approach. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Nonlinear refraction in vitreous humor.
Rockwell, B A; Roach, W P; Rogers, M E; Mayo, M W; Toth, C A; Cain, C P; Noojin, G D
1993-11-01
We extend the application of the z-scan technique to determine the nonlinear refractive index (n(2)) for human and rabbit vitreous humor, water, and physiological saline. In these measurements there were nonlinear contributions to the measured signal from the aqueous samples and the quartz cell that held the sample. Measurements were made with 60-ps pulses at 532 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive properties of biological material. PMID:19829406
Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging.
Potter, J N; Croxford, A J; Wilcox, P D
2014-10-01
This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.
Nonlinear dynamics of cilia and flagella.
Hilfinger, Andreas; Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Jülicher, Frank
2009-05-01
Cilia and flagella are hairlike extensions of eukaryotic cells which generate oscillatory beat patterns that can propel micro-organisms and create fluid flows near cellular surfaces. The evolutionary highly conserved core of cilia and flagella consists of a cylindrical arrangement of nine microtubule doublets, called the axoneme. The axoneme is an actively bending structure whose motility results from the action of dynein motor proteins cross-linking microtubule doublets and generating stresses that induce bending deformations. The periodic beat patterns are the result of a mechanical feedback that leads to self-organized bending waves along the axoneme. Using a theoretical framework to describe planar beating motion, we derive a nonlinear wave equation that describes the fundamental Fourier mode of the axonemal beat. We study the role of nonlinearities and investigate how the amplitude of oscillations increases in the vicinity of an oscillatory instability. We furthermore present numerical solutions of the nonlinear wave equation for different boundary conditions. We find that the nonlinear waves are well approximated by the linearly unstable modes for amplitudes of beat patterns similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:19518491
Nonlinear dynamics of cilia and flagella
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilfinger, Andreas; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Jülicher, Frank
2009-05-01
Cilia and flagella are hairlike extensions of eukaryotic cells which generate oscillatory beat patterns that can propel micro-organisms and create fluid flows near cellular surfaces. The evolutionary highly conserved core of cilia and flagella consists of a cylindrical arrangement of nine microtubule doublets, called the axoneme. The axoneme is an actively bending structure whose motility results from the action of dynein motor proteins cross-linking microtubule doublets and generating stresses that induce bending deformations. The periodic beat patterns are the result of a mechanical feedback that leads to self-organized bending waves along the axoneme. Using a theoretical framework to describe planar beating motion, we derive a nonlinear wave equation that describes the fundamental Fourier mode of the axonemal beat. We study the role of nonlinearities and investigate how the amplitude of oscillations increases in the vicinity of an oscillatory instability. We furthermore present numerical solutions of the nonlinear wave equation for different boundary conditions. We find that the nonlinear waves are well approximated by the linearly unstable modes for amplitudes of beat patterns similar to those observed experimentally.
Fractal dimension and nonlinear dynamical processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCarty, Robert C.; Lindley, John P.
1993-11-01
Mandelbrot, Falconer and others have demonstrated the existence of dimensionally invariant geometrical properties of non-linear dynamical processes known as fractals. Barnsley defines fractal geometry as an extension of classical geometry. Such an extension, however, is not mathematically trivial Of specific interest to those engaged in signal processing is the potential use of fractal geometry to facilitate the analysis of non-linear signal processes often referred to as non-linear time series. Fractal geometry has been used in the modeling of non- linear time series represented by radar signals in the presence of ground clutter or interference generated by spatially distributed reflections around the target or a radar system. It was recognized by Mandelbrot that the fractal geometries represented by man-made objects had different dimensions than the geometries of the familiar objects that abound in nature such as leaves, clouds, ferns, trees, etc. The invariant dimensional property of non-linear processes suggests that in the case of acoustic signals (active or passive) generated within a dispersive medium such as the ocean environment, there exists much rich structure that will aid in the detection and classification of various objects, man-made or natural, within the medium.
Nonlinear optical studies of surfaces
Shen, Y.R.
1994-07-01
The possibly of using nonlinear optical processes for surface studies has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG), in particular, have been well accepted as viable surface probes. They have many advantages over the conventional techniques. By nature, they are highly surface-specific and has a submonolayer sensitivity. As coherent optical processes, they are capable of in-situ probing of surfaces in hostile environment as well as applicable to all interfaces accessible by light. With ultrafast pump laser pulses, they can be employed to study surface dynamic processes with a subpicosecond time resolution. These advantages have opened the door to many exciting research opportunities in surface science and technology. This paper gives a brief overview of this fast-growing new area of research. Optical SHG from a surface was first studied theoretically and experimentally in the sixties. Even the submonolayer surface sensitivity of the process was noticed fairly early. The success was, however, limited because of difficulties in controlling the experimental conditions. It was not until the early 1980`s that the potential of the process for surface analysis was duly recognized. The first surface study by SHG was actually motivated by the then active search for an understanding of the intriguing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It had been suspected that the enhancement in SERS mainly came from the local-field enhancement due to local plasmon resonances and pointing rod effect on rough metal surfaces. In our view, Raman scattering is a two-photon process and is therefore a nonlinear optical effect.
T. MILONNI; G. CSANAK; ET AL
1999-07-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objectives were to explore theoretically various aspects of nonlinear atom optics effects in cold-atom waves and traps. During the project a major development occurred the observation, by as many as a dozen experimental groups, of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold-atom traps. This stimulated us to focus our attention on those aspects of nonlinear atom optics relating to BEC, in addition to continuing our work on a nonequilibrium formalism for dealing with the interaction of an electromagnetic field with multi-level atomic systems, allowing for macroscopic coherence effects such as BEC. Studies of several problems in BEC physics have been completed or are near completion, including the suggested use of external electric fields to modify the nature of the interatomic interaction in cold-atom traps; properties of two-phase condensates; and molecular loss processes associated with BEC experiments involving a so-called Feshbach resonance.
Improved nonlinear prediction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi
2014-06-01
The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.
Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang
2005-01-01
This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.
1998-12-31
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.
Nonlinear ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging.
Odstrcil, M; Baksh, P; Gawith, C; Vrcelj, R; Frey, J G; Brocklesby, W S
2016-09-01
Ptychographic Coherent diffractive imaging (PCDI) is a significant advance in imaging allowing the measurement of the full electric field at a sample without use of any imaging optics. So far it has been confined solely to imaging of linear optical responses. In this paper we show that because of the coherence-preserving nature of nonlinear optical interactions, PCDI can be generalised to nonlinear optical imaging. We demonstrate second harmonic generation PCDI, directly revealing phase information about the nonlinear coefficients, and showing the general applicability of PCDI to nonlinear interactions. PMID:27607631
Nonlinear dynamics of additive pulse modelocked lasers
Sucha, G.; Bolton, S.R.; Chemla, D.S.
1995-04-01
Nonlinear dynamics have been studied in a number of modelocked laser systems, primarily in actively modelocked systems. However, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of passively modelocked laser systems. With the recent revolutionary advances in femtosecond modelocked laser technology, the understanding of instabilities and dynamics in passively modelocked lasers is an important issue. Here, the authors present experimental and numerical studies of the dynamics of an additive-pulse modelocked (APM) color-center laser.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Nonlinear photonic crystals: III. Cubic nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babin, Anatoli; Figotin, Alexander
2003-10-01
Weakly nonlinear interactions between wavepackets in a lossless periodic dielectric medium are studied based on the classical Maxwell equations with a cubic nonlinearity. We consider nonlinear processes such that: (i) the amplitude of the wave component due to the nonlinearity does not exceed the amplitude of its linear component; (ii) the spatial range of a probing wavepacket is much smaller than the dimension of the medium sample, and it is not too small compared with the dimension of the primitive cell. These nonlinear processes are naturally described in terms of the cubic interaction phase function based on the dispersion relations of the underlying linear periodic medium. It turns out that only a few quadruplets of modes have significant nonlinear interactions. They are singled out by a system of selection rules including the group velocity, frequency and phase matching conditions. It turns out that the intrinsic symmetries of the cubic interaction phase stemming from assumed inversion symmetry of the dispersion relations play a significant role in the cubic nonlinear interactions. We also study canonical forms of the cubic interaction phase leading to a complete quantitative classification of all possible significant cubic interactions. The classification is ultimately based on a universal system of indices reflecting the intensity of nonlinear interactions.
Dislocation nonlinearity and nonlinear wave processes in polycrystals with dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, V. E.
2016-09-01
Based on the modification of the linear part of the Granato-Lücke dislocation theory of absorption, the equation of state of polycrystalline solids with dissipative and reactive nonlinearity has been derived. The nonlinear effects of the interaction and self-action of longitudinal elastic waves in such media have been theoretically studied.
Nonlinearity in structural and electronic materials
Bishop, A.R.; Beardmore, K.M.; Ben-Naim, E.
1997-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project strengthens a nonlinear technology base relevant to a variety of problems arising in condensed matter and materials science, and applies this technology to those problems. In this way the controlled synthesis of, and experiments on, novel electronic and structural materials provide an important focus for nonlinear science, while nonlinear techniques help advance the understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of microstructure and dynamics in complex materials. This research is primarily focused on four topics: (1) materials microstructure: growth and evolution, and porous media; (2) textures in elastic/martensitic materials; (3) electro- and photo-active polymers; and (4) ultrafast photophysics in complex electronic materials. Accomplishments included the following: organization of a ``Nonlinear Materials`` seminar series and international conferences including ``Fracture, Friction and Deformation,`` ``Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions,`` and ``Landscape Paradigms in Physics and Biology``; invited talks at international conference on ``Synthetic Metals,`` ``Quantum Phase Transitions,`` ``1996 CECAM Euroconference,`` and the 1995 Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society; large-scale simulations and microscopic modeling of nonlinear coherent energy storage at crack tips and sliding interfaces; large-scale simulation and microscopic elasticity theory for precursor microstructure and dynamics at solid-solid diffusionless phase transformations; large-scale simulation of self-assembling organic thin films on inorganic substrates; analysis and simulation of smoothing of rough atomic surfaces; and modeling and analysis of flux pattern formation in equilibrium and nonequilibrium Josephson junction arrays and layered superconductors.
QCL-based nonlinear sensing of independent targets dynamics.
Mezzapesa, F P; Columbo, L L; Dabbicco, M; Brambilla, M; Scamarcio, G
2014-03-10
We demonstrate a common-path interferometer to measure the independent displacement of multiple targets through nonlinear frequency mixing in a quantum-cascade laser (QCL). The sensing system exploits the unique stability of QCLs under strong optical feedback to access the intrinsic nonlinearity of the active medium. The experimental results using an external dual cavity are in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations based on the Lang-Kobayashi equations.
Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy
Yue, Shuhua; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin
2013-01-01
Because each nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging modality is sensitive to specific molecules or structures, multimodal NLO imaging capitalizes the potential of NLO microscopy for studies of complex biological tissues. The coupling of multiphoton fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has allowed investigation of a broad range of biological questions concerning lipid metabolism, cancer development, cardiovascular disease, and skin biology. Moreover, recent research shows the great potential of using CARS microscope as a platform to develop more advanced NLO modalities such as electronic-resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and pump-probe microscopy. This article reviews the various approaches developed for realization of multimodal NLO imaging as well as developments of new NLO modalities on a CARS microscope. Applications to various aspects of biological and biomedical research are discussed. PMID:24353747
Nonlinear integrable ion traps
Nagaitsev, S.; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge
2011-10-01
Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.
Spherically symmetric nonlinear structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calzetta, Esteban A.; Kandus, Alejandra
1997-02-01
We present an analytical method to extract observational predictions about the nonlinear evolution of perturbations in a Tolman universe. We assume no a priori profile for them. We solve perturbatively a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for a timelike geodesic and obtain the null one as a limiting case in two situations: for an observer located in the center of symmetry and for a noncentered one. In the first case we find expressions to evaluate the density contrast and the number count and luminosity distance versus redshift relationships up to second order in the perturbations. In the second situation we calculate the CMBR anisotropies at large angular scales produced by the density contrast and by the asymmetry of the observer's location, up to first order in the perturbations. We develop our argument in such a way that the formulas are valid for any shape of the primordial spectrum.
Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos
2016-04-01
Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these
Adaptive nonlinear flight control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor
1998-08-01
Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator
Linearization of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belendez, A.; Alvarez, M. L.; Fernandez, E.; Pascual, I.
2009-01-01
A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for…
Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis
Mayergoyz, I.D.
1996-12-31
Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.
Passive linearization of nonlinear resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habib, G.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.
2016-07-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the addition of properly tuned nonlinearities to a nonlinear system can increase the range over which a specific resonance responds linearly. Specifically, we seek to enforce two important properties of linear systems, namely, the force-displacement proportionality and the invariance of resonance frequencies. Numerical simulations and experiments are used to validate the theoretical findings.
Solving Nonlinear Coupled Differential Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitchell, L.; David, J.
1986-01-01
Harmonic balance method developed to obtain approximate steady-state solutions for nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. Method usable with transfer matrices commonly used to analyze shaft systems. Solution to nonlinear equation, with periodic forcing function represented as sum of series similar to Fourier series but with form of terms suggested by equation itself.
Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley
2011-01-01
We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.
Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobias, S. M.
1997-01-01
Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.
Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)
2005-01-01
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutin, A. M.; Johnson, P. A.
2005-04-01
This paper presents the second part of the review of Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) in NDE, and describe two different methods of nonlinear NDE that provide not only damage detection but location as well. Nonlinear Wave Modulation Spectroscopy is based on the application of an ultrasonic probe signal modulated by a low frequency vibration. Damage location can be obtained by application of Impulse Modulation Techniques that exploit the modulation of a short pulse reflected from a damage feature (e.g. crack) by low frequency vibration. Nonlinear Time Reversed Acoustic methods provide the means to focus acoustic energy to any point in a solid. In combination, we are applying the focusing properties of TRA and the nonlinear properties of cracks to locate them.
BRST Structure of Nonlinear Superalgebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; Lavrov, P. M.; Radchenko, O. V.; Sugamoto, A.
In this paper we analyze the structure of the BRST charge of nonlinear superalgebras. We consider quadratic nonlinear superalgebras where a commutator (in terms of (super-)Poisson brackets) of the generators is a quadratic polynomial of the generators. We find the explicit form of the BRST charge up to cubic order in Faddeev-Popov ghost fields for arbitrary quadratic nonlinear superalgebras. We point out the existence of constraints on structure constants of the superalgebra when the nilpotent BRST charge is quadratic in Faddeev-Popov ghost fields. The general results are illustrated by simple examples of superalgebras.
Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.
2016-04-01
We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.
Dissipative nonlinear dynamics in holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Pallab; Ghosh, Archisman
2014-02-01
We look at the response of a nonlinearly coupled scalar field in an asymptotically AdS black brane geometry and find a behavior very similar to that of known dissipative nonlinear systems like the chaotic pendulum. Transition to chaos proceeds through a series of period-doubling bifurcations. The presence of dissipation, crucial to this behavior, arises naturally in a black hole background from the ingoing conditions imposed at the horizon. AdS/CFT translates our solution to a chaotic response of O, the operator dual to the scalar field. Our setup can also be used to study quenchlike behavior in strongly coupled nonlinear systems.
Nonlinear Frequency Compression
Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas
2013-01-01
Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261
Nonlinear vibrational microscopy
Holtom, Gary R.; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Zumbusch, Andreas
2000-01-01
The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.
Ohnuma, S.
1984-03-01
Two approximations are made, one essential and the other not so essential but convenient to keep the analytical treatment manageable: (1) Only one nonlinear resonance is considered at a time so that the treatment is best suited when the tune is close to one resonance only. To improve this approximation, one must go to the next order which involves a canonical transformation of dynamical variables. Analytical treatment of more than one resonance is not possible for general cases. (2) In the formalism using the action-angle variables, the Hamiltonian can have terms which are independent of the angle variables. These terms are called phase-independent terms or shear terms. The tune is then a function of the oscillation amplitudes. In the lowest-order treatment, the (4N)-pole components but not the (4N + 2)-pole components contribute to this dependence. In deriving the resonance width analytically, one ignores these terms in the Hamiltonian for the sake of simplicity. If these are retained, one needs at least three extra parameters and the analytical treatment becomes rather unwieldy.
Nonlinear damping model for flexible structures. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Weijian
1990-01-01
The study of nonlinear damping problem of flexible structures is addressed. Both passive and active damping, both finite dimensional and infinite dimensional models are studied. In the first part, the spectral density and the correlation function of a single DOF nonlinear damping model is investigated. A formula for the spectral density is established with O(Gamma(sub 2)) accuracy based upon Fokker-Planck technique and perturbation. The spectral density depends upon certain first order statistics which could be obtained if the stationary density is known. A method is proposed to find the approximate stationary density explicitly. In the second part, the spectral density of a multi-DOF nonlinear damping model is investigated. In the third part, energy type nonlinear damping model in an infinite dimensional setting is studied.
Visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging by sensitivity maps.
Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Lund, Torben Ellegaard; Hansen, Lars Kai
2011-04-01
There is significant current interest in decoding mental states from neuroimages. In this context kernel methods, e.g., support vector machines (SVM) are frequently adopted to learn statistical relations between patterns of brain activation and experimental conditions. In this paper we focus on visualization of such nonlinear kernel models. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity map as a technique for generation of global summary maps of kernel classification models. We illustrate the performance of the sensitivity map on functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data based on visual stimuli. We show that the performance of linear models is reduced for certain scan labelings/categorizations in this data set, while the nonlinear models provide more flexibility. We show that the sensitivity map can be used to visualize nonlinear versions of kernel logistic regression, the kernel Fisher discriminant, and the SVM, and conclude that the sensitivity map is a versatile and computationally efficient tool for visualization of nonlinear kernel models in neuroimaging.
Strong nonlinear current–voltage behaviour in iron oxyborate
Song, Yuanjun; Xu, Yingying; Song, Yujun; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Rongming
2014-11-15
Strong nonlinear resistance has been found in the charge ordered ferroelectric iron oxyborate (Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3}) with a high dielectric constant and giant converse magnetoelectric effect. In low temperature range the I-V nonlinearity increases quickly with decreasing temperature. Transport measurements on polycrystalline and single crystal Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} indicate that the nonlinearity is not induced by grain boundaries. The nonlinear I-V behavior is intrinsically correlated with the charge order phase melting in Fe{sub 2}OBO{sub 3} by detailed in-situ TEM investigations. These results provide an insight into structure-activity relationship of resistance switching effects at atomic and electric scales, which is essential for its potential application as varistors and storage media.
Unsupervised Discovery of Nonlinear Structure Using Contrastive Backpropagation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinton, Geoffrey; Osindero, Simon; Welling, Max; Teh, Yee-Whye
2006-01-01
We describe a way of modeling high-dimensional data vectors by using an unsupervised, nonlinear, multilayer neural network in which the activity of each neuron-like unit makes an additive contribution to a global energy score that indicates how surprised the network is by the data vector. The connection weights that determine how the activity of…
PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo
2010-10-01
Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed
Nonlinear algebra and Bogoliubov's recursion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, A. Yu.; Serbyn, M. N.
2008-02-01
We give many examples of applying Bogoliubov’s forest formula to iterative solutions of various nonlinear equations. The same formula describes an extremely wide class of objects, from an ordinary quadratic equation to renormalization in quantum field theory.
Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation
Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie
2013-04-23
Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.
Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of polycarbonate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caplan, E. S.; Brinson, H. F.
1982-01-01
Uniaxial tensile creep and recovery data from polycarbonate at six temperatures and six stress levels are analyzed for nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive modeling. A theory to account for combined effects of two or more accelerating factors is presented.
Nonlinear interaction between single photons.
Guerreiro, T; Martin, A; Sanguinetti, B; Pelc, J S; Langrock, C; Fejer, M M; Gisin, N; Zbinden, H; Sangouard, N; Thew, R T
2014-10-24
Harnessing nonlinearities strong enough to allow single photons to interact with one another is not only a fascinating challenge but also central to numerous advanced applications in quantum information science. Here we report the nonlinear interaction between two single photons. Each photon is generated in independent parametric down-conversion sources. They are subsequently combined in a nonlinear waveguide where they are converted into a single photon of higher energy by the process of sum-frequency generation. Our approach results in the direct generation of photon triplets. More generally, it highlights the potential for quantum nonlinear optics with integrated devices and, as the photons are at telecom wavelengths, it opens the way towards novel applications in quantum communication such as device-independent quantum key distribution.
Interaction Terms in Nonlinear Models
Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Norton, Edward C; Dowd, Bryan
2012-01-01
Objectives To explain the use of interaction terms in nonlinear models. Study Design We discuss the motivation for including interaction terms in multivariate analyses. We then explain how the straightforward interpretation of interaction terms in linear models changes in nonlinear models, using graphs and equations. We extend the basic results from logit and probit to difference-in-differences models, models with higher powers of explanatory variables, other nonlinear models (including log transformation and ordered models), and panel data models. Empirical Application We show how to calculate and interpret interaction effects using a publicly available Stata data set with a binary outcome. Stata 11 has added several features which make those calculations easier. LIMDEP code also is provided. Conclusions It is important to understand why interaction terms are included in nonlinear models in order to be clear about their substantive interpretation. PMID:22091735
Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins
Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu
2016-01-01
Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities. PMID:27708342
Nonlinear backbone torsional pair correlations in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Shiyang; Tian, Pu
2016-10-01
Protein allostery requires dynamical structural correlations. Physical origin of which, however, remain elusive despite intensive studies during last two and half decades. Based on analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories for ten proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that nonlinear backbone torsional pair (BTP) correlations, which are mainly spatially long-ranged and are dominantly executed by loop residues, exist extensively in most analyzed proteins. Examination of torsional motion for correlated BTPs suggested that such nonlinear correlations are mainly associated aharmonic torsional state transitions and in some cases strongly anisotropic local torsional motion of participating torsions, and occur on widely different and relatively longer time scales. In contrast, correlations between backbone torsions in stable α helices and β strands are mainly linear and spatially short-ranged, and are more likely to associate with harmonic local torsional motion. Further analysis revealed that the direct cause of nonlinear contributions are heterogeneous linear correlations. These findings implicate a general search strategy for novel allosteric modulation sites of protein activities.
Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cleveland, Robin O.
2015-10-01
Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.
Studies of Nonlinear Problems. I
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Fermi, E.; Pasta, J.; Ulam, S.
1955-05-01
A one-dimensional dynamical system of 64 particles with forces between neighbors containing nonlinear terms has been studied on the Los Alamos computer MANIAC I. The nonlinear terms considered are quadratic, cubic, and broken linear types. The results are analyzed into Fourier components and plotted as a function of time. The results show very little, if any, tendency toward equipartition of energy among the degrees of freedom.
Nonlinear scattering in gold nanospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Po-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Chu, Shi-Wei
2016-03-01
Nonlinearity enhanced by noble metallic nanoparticles provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered a new nonlinear phenomenon on the scattering of metallic nanoparticles by continuous-wave (CW) lasers at the intensity around MW/cm2 and applied to super-resolution microscopy that allowed spatial resolution of plasmonic nanostructures down to λ/8. However, its mechanism is still unknown. In this work, we elaborate the mechanism behind the nonlinear scattering of gold nanospheres. There are four possible candidates: intraband transition, interband transition, hot electron, and hot lattice. Each of them has a corresponding nonlinear refractive index (n2), which is related to temporal dependence of its light-matter interaction. We first measure the intensity dependence of nonlinear scattering to extract the effective n2 value. We find out it has the closest n2 value to hot lattice, which causes either the shift or weakening of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). To further verify the mechanism, the nanospheres are heated up with both a hot plate and a CW laser, and the variation of single-particle SPR scattering spectra are measured. In both cases, more than 50% reduction of scattering is observed, when temperature rises a few tens of degrees or when illumination intensity reaches the order of 1MW/cm2. Thus, we conclude the spectra variation by the two different heating source, as well as the nonlinear scattering are all due to hot lattice, and subsequent permittivity change with temperature. The innovative concept of hot lattice plasmonics not only opens up a new dimension for nonlinear plasmonics, but also predicts the potential of similar nonlinearity in other materials as long as their permittivity changes with temperature.
Mobius Strip underlying Nonlinear Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopaz, Edaurdo; Satija, Indubala
2004-03-01
Geometrical and topolgocial aspects of phase space orbits of driven nonlinear oscillators are shown to share many features with the circuits on the mobius strips. Most important characteristic shared by nonlinear oscillators and the mobius strip is the first order geometrical phase transition characterized in terms of local variable torsion and the global variable the geometrical phase . These geometrical transitions are geometrical resonances and lead to geometrical localization that underlie not only limit cycles but also the strange attractors.
Dynamics of Cochlear Nonlinearity.
Cooper, Nigel P; van der Heijden, Marcel
2016-01-01
Dynamic aspects of cochlear mechanical compression were studied by recording basilar membrane (BM) vibrations evoked by tone pairs ("beat stimuli") in the 11-19 kHz region of the gerbil cochlea. The frequencies of the stimulus components were varied to produce a range of "beat rates" at or near the characteristic frequency (CF) of the BM site under study, and the amplitudes of the components were balanced to produce near perfect periodic cancellations, visible as sharp notches in the envelope of the BM response. We found a compressive relation between instantaneous stimulus intensity and BM response magnitude that was strongest at low beat rates (e.g., 10-100 Hz). At higher beat rates, the amount of compression reduced progressively (i.e. the responses became linearized), and the rising and falling flanks of the response envelope showed increasing amounts of hysteresis; the rising flank becoming steeper than the falling flank. This hysteresis indicates that cochlear mechanical compression is not instantaneous, and is suggestive of a gain control mechanism having finite attack and release times. In gain control terms, the linearization that occurs at higher beat rates occurs because the instantaneous gain becomes smoothened, or low-pass filtered, with respect to the magnitude fluctuations in the stimulus. In terms of peripheral processing, the linearization corresponds to an enhanced coding, or decompression, of rapid amplitude modulations. These findings are relevant both to those who wish to understand the underlying mechanisms and those who need a realistic model of nonlinear processing by the auditory periphery. PMID:27080667
OPEN PROBLEM: Some nonlinear challenges in biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David
2008-08-01
Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'.
BOOK REVIEW: Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafranov, V.
1998-08-01
Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics by Dieter Biskamp is a thorough introduction to the physics of the most impressive non-linear phenomena that occur in conducting magnetoplasmas. The basic systems, in which non-trivial dynamic processes are observed, accompanied by changes of geometry of the magnetic field and the effects of energy transformation (magnetic energy into kinetic energy or the opposite effect in magnetic dynamos), are the plasma magnetic confinement systems for nuclear fusion and space plasmas, mainly the solar plasma. A significant number of the examples of the dynamic processes considered are taken from laboratory plasmas, for which an experimental check of the theory is possible. Therefore, though the book is intended for researchers and students interested in both laboratory, including nuclear fusion, and astrophysical plasmas, it is most probably closer to the first category of reader. In the Introduction the author notes that unlike the hydrodynamics of non-conducting fluids, where the phenomena caused by rapid fluid motions are the most interesting, for plasmas in a strong magnetic field the quasi-static configurations inside which the local dynamic processes occur are often the most important. Therefore, the reader will also find in this book rather traditional material on the theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in magnetic fields. In addition, it is notable that, as opposed to a linear theory, the non-linear theory, as a rule, cannot give quite definite explanations or predictions of phenomena, and consequently there are in the book many results obtained by consideration of numerical models with the use of supercomputers. The treatment of non-linear dynamics is preceded by Chapters 2 to 4, in which the basics of MHD theory are presented with an emphasis on the role of integral invariants of the magnetic helicity type, a derivation of the reduced MHD equations is given, together with examples of the exact solutions of the equilibrium
Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen; Lin, Ran; Zhang, Tong-Yi
2012-07-01
A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Artificial muscle using nonlinear elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratna, Banahalli
2002-03-01
Anisotropic freestanding films or fibers of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When a large change in the order parameter occurs, as at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. The crosslinked network imposes a symmetry-breaking field on the nematic and drives the nematic-isotropic transition towards a critical point with the application of external stress. Isostrain studies on these nonlinear elastomers, show that there are large deviations from ideal classical rubber elasticity and the contributions from total internal energy to the elastic restoring force cannot be ignored. The liquid crystal elastomers exhibiting anisoptopic contraction/extension coupled with a graded strain response to an applied external stimulus provide an excellent framework for mimicking muscular action. Liquid crystal elastomers by their very chemical nature have a number of ‘handles’ such as the liquid crystalline phase range, density of crosslinking, flexibility of the backbone, coupling between the backbone and the mesogen and the coupling between the mesogen and the external stimulus, that can be tuned to optimize the mechanical properties. We have demonstrated actuation in nematic elastomers under thermal and optical stimuli. We have been able to dope the elastomers with dyes to make them optically active. We have also doped them with carbon nanotubes in order to increase the thermal and electrical conductivity of the elastomer.
Nonlinear analysis of pupillary dynamics.
Onorati, Francesco; Mainardi, Luca Tommaso; Sirca, Fabiola; Russo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Riccardo
2016-02-01
Pupil size reflects autonomic response to different environmental and behavioral stimuli, and its dynamics have been linked to other autonomic correlates such as cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The aim of this study is to assess the nonlinear characteristics of pupil size of 25 normal subjects who participated in a psychophysiological experimental protocol with four experimental conditions, namely “baseline”, “anger”, “joy”, and “sadness”. Nonlinear measures, such as sample entropy, correlation dimension, and largest Lyapunov exponent, were computed on reconstructed signals of spontaneous fluctuations of pupil dilation. Nonparametric statistical tests were performed on surrogate data to verify that the nonlinear measures are an intrinsic characteristic of the signals. We then developed and applied a piecewise linear regression model to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Two joinpoints and three scaling intervals were identified: slope α0, at slow time scales, represents a persistent nonstationary long-range correlation, whereas α1 and α2, at middle and fast time scales, respectively, represent long-range power-law correlations, similarly to DFA applied to heart rate variability signals. Of the computed complexity measures, α0 showed statistically significant differences among experimental conditions (p<0.001). Our results suggest that (a) pupil size at constant light condition is characterized by nonlinear dynamics, (b) three well-defined and distinct long-memory processes exist at different time scales, and (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics. PMID:26351899
Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, G. T.; Tobak, M.
1984-01-01
A comprehensive framework is proposed for the description and analysis of nonlinear problems in flight dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the aerodynamic component as the major source of nonlinearities in the flight dynamic system. Four aerodynamic flows are examined to illustrate the richness and regularity of the flow structures and the nature of the flow structures and the nature of the resulting nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments. A framework to facilitate the study of the aerodynamic system is proposed having parallel observational and mathematical components. The observational component, structure is described in the language of topology. Changes in flow structure are described via bifurcation theory. Chaos or turbulence is related to the analogous chaotic behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems characterized by the existence of strange attractors having fractal dimensionality. Scales of the flow are considered in the light of ideas from group theory. Several one and two degree of freedom dynamical systems with various mathematical models of the nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments are examined to illustrate the resulting types of dynamical behavior. The mathematical ideas that proved useful in the description of fluid flows are shown to be similarly useful in the description of flight dynamic behavior.
Nonlinear variations in axisymmetric accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Soumyajit; Sengupta, Anindya; Ray, Arnab K.
2014-05-01
We subject the stationary solutions of inviscid and axially symmetric rotational accretion to a time-dependent radial perturbation, which includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. We bring out the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system by requiring the perturbation to be a standing wave under the second order of nonlinearity. We perform a dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system to reveal a saddle point in real time, whose implication is that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency traveling wave and carry out a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis, treating nonlinearity iteratively as a very feeble effect. Under this approach, both the amplitude and the energy flux of the perturbation exhibit growth, with the acoustic horizon segregating the regions of stability and instability.
Constraint identification and algorithm stabilization for degenerate nonlinear programs.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2003-01-01
In the vicinity of a solution of a nonlinear programming problem at which both strict complementarity and linear independence of the active constraints may fail to hold, we describe a technique for distinguishing weakly active from strongly active constraints. We show that this information can be used to modify the sequential quadratic programming algorithm so that it exhibits superlinear convergence to the solution under assumptions weaker than those made in previous analyses.
Nonlinear acoustics - History and outlook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rott, N.
1980-08-01
A historical review of the development of nonlinear acoustics before the epoch beginning with Riemann is presented followed by a review of the more recent developments of the last 20 years, including a cinematical view of nonlinear acoustic waves. The review emphasizes the works of Poisson and his equations and solutions of particle and wave velocity as well as Stoke's theory of sound. Attention is given to the developments of the last two decades through an examination of Lagrange and Chester problems, such as the transition of Euler coordinates into Lagrange coordinates and equations. The nonlinear theory of resonance is discussed by describing a closed tube resonance problem where periodic excitation through a piston characterizes wave movements.
Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analyzer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee
2014-03-01
Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments, through the use of decoherence spectroscopy. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013). Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: NIST, Boulder, CO.
Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin
Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-05-18
As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.
Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity
Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.
2011-06-10
In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.
Quantum-Enhanced Sensing Based on Time Reversal of Nonlinear Dynamics.
Linnemann, D; Strobel, H; Muessel, W; Schulz, J; Lewis-Swan, R J; Kheruntsyan, K V; Oberthaler, M K
2016-07-01
We experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear detection scheme exploiting time-reversal dynamics that disentangles continuous variable entangled states for feasible readout. Spin-exchange dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates is used as the nonlinear mechanism which not only generates entangled states but can also be time reversed by controlled phase imprinting. For demonstration of a quantum-enhanced measurement we construct an active atom SU(1,1) interferometer, where entangled state preparation and nonlinear readout both consist of parametric amplification. This scheme is capable of exhausting the quantum resource by detecting solely mean atom numbers. Controlled nonlinear transformations widen the spectrum of useful entangled states for applied quantum technologies. PMID:27419565
Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.
Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu
2016-07-01
We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.
Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Do, Tuan Q.
2016-05-01
Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.
Prediction of nonlinear soil effects
Hartzell, S.; Bonilla, L.F.; Williams, R.A.
2004-01-01
Mathematical models of soil nonlinearity in common use and recently developed nonlinear codes compared to investigate the range of their predictions. We consider equivalent linear formulations with and without frequency-dependent moduli and damping ratios and nonlinear formulations for total and effective stress. Average velocity profiles to 150 m depth with midrange National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classifications (B, BC, C, D, and E) in the top 30 m are used to compare the response of a wide range of site conditions from rock to soft soil. Nonlinear soil models are compared using the amplification spectrum, calculated as the ratio of surface ground motion to the input motion at the base of the velocity profile. Peak input motions from 0.1g to 0.9g are considered. For site class B, no significant differences exist between the models considered in this article. For site classes BC and C, differences are small at low input motions (0.1g to 0.2g), but become significant at higher input levels. For site classes D and E the overdamping of frequencies above about 4 Hz by the equivalent linear solution with frequency-independent parameters is apparent for the entire range of input motions considered. The equivalent linear formulation with frequency-dependent moduli and damping ratios under damps relative to the nonlinear models considered for site class C with larger input motions and most input levels for site classes D and E. At larger input motions the underdamping for site classes D and E is not as severe as the overdamping with the frequency-independent formulation, but there are still significant differences in the time domain. A nonlinear formulation is recommended for site classes D and E and for site classes BC and C with input motions greater than a few tenths of the acceleration of gravity. The type of nonlinear formulation to use is driven by considerations of the importance of water content and the availability of laboratory soils data. Our
Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors.
Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu
2016-07-01
We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required. PMID:27447507
Time series with tailored nonlinearities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Räth, C.; Laut, I.
2015-10-01
It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.
Nonlinear optical properties and supercontinuum spectrum of titania-modified carbon quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulchin, Yu N.; Mayor, A. Yu; Proschenko, D. Yu; Postnova, I. V.; Shchipunov, Yu A.
2016-04-01
We have studied the nonlinear optical properties and supercontinuum spectrum of solutions of carbon quantum dots prepared by a hydrothermal process from chitin and then coated with titania. The titania coating has been shown to have an activating effect on the carbon quantum dots, enhancing supercontinuum generation in the blue-violet spectral region and enabling their nonlinear optical characteristics to be varied.
Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Slope Restricted Nonlinearities
Du, Jiajia
2014-01-01
The problem of absolute stability of Lur'e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results. PMID:24592160
PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo
2010-10-01
Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed
Passive dynamic controllers for non-linear mechanical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Wu, Shih-Chin; Phan, Minh; Longman, Richard W.
1992-01-01
The objective is to develop active model-independent controllers for slewing and vibration control of nonlinear multibody flexible systems, including flexible robots. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: passive stabilization; work-energy rate principle; Liapunov theory; displacement feedback; dynamic controller; displacement and acceleration feedback; velocity feedback; displacement feedback; physical interaction; a 6-DOF robot; and simulation results.
Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.
Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel
2014-01-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.
Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turlier, Herve; Fedosov, Dmitry; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cecile; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Gompper, Gerhard; Betz, Timo
2015-03-01
Red blood cell membrane flickering stimulated an abundant biological, biophysical and biochemical literature over the past 50 years. While the phenomenon has been interpreted as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane, recent results suggest the involvement of metabolic processes. However, to date there is no direct and conclusive evidence that an active force drives membrane flickering. By comparing membrane undulations and active microrheology measurements on single human erythrocytes, we show that flickering is partly driven by an active metabolic process, as it does not satisfy the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation on timescales slower than 100ms. Analytical and numerical models of the red blood cell reproduce experimental results. The analytical model assumes that membrane activity results from reversible binding of the elastic spectrin network to the lipid bilayer and predicts active fluctuations to increase with local curvature and extensional prestress in the cytoskeleton. Our mean-field calculation shows that the strength and kinetics of the binding activity regulates thereupon both passive and active mechanical properties of the red blood cell. Numerical simulations explore other possible origins of active forces on the membrane and predict coherent timescales for the molecular underlying metabolic processes.
Nonlinear models for estimating GSFC travel requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buffalano, C.; Hagan, F. J.
1974-01-01
A methodology is presented for estimating travel requirements for a particular period of time. Travel models were generated using nonlinear regression analysis techniques on a data base of FY-72 and FY-73 information from 79 GSFC projects. Although the subject matter relates to GSFX activities, the type of analysis used and the manner of selecting the relevant variables would be of interest to other NASA centers, government agencies, private corporations and, in general, any organization with a significant travel budget. Models were developed for each of six types of activity: flight projects (in-house and out-of-house), experiments on non-GSFC projects, international projects, ART/SRT, data analysis, advanced studies, tracking and data, and indirects.
Linear and Nonlinear Rheology of Living Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kollmannsberger, Philip; Fabry, Ben
2011-08-01
Living cells are an active soft material with fascinating mechanical properties. Under mechanical loading, cells exhibit creep and stress relaxation behavior that follows a power-law response rather than a classical exponential response. Such a response puts cells in the context of soft colloidal glasses and other disordered metastable materials that share the same properties. In cells, however, both the power-law exponent and stiffness are related to the contractile prestress in the cytoskeleton. In addition, cells are made of a highly nonlinear material that stiffens and fluidizes under mechanical stress. They show active and adaptive mechanical behavior such as contraction and remodeling that sets them apart from any other nonliving material. Strikingly, all these observations can be linked by simple relationships with the power-law exponent as the only organizing parameter. Current theoretical models capture specific facets of cell mechanical behavior, but a comprehensive understanding is still emerging.
Duffing's Equation and Nonlinear Resonance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of nonlinear resonance (sometimes called the "jump phenomenon") is examined and second-order van der Pol plane analysis is employed to indicate that this phenomenon is not a feature of the equation, but rather the result of accumulated round-off error, truncation error and algorithm error that distorts the true bounded solution onto…
Nonlinear bubble dynamics of cavitation.
An, Yu
2012-01-01
For cavitation clouds generated in a standing sound wave driven by an ultrasonic horn, the nonlinear acoustic wave equation governing cavitation dynamics is numerically solved together with the bubble motion equation under an approximation. This conceptual calculation can qualitatively reproduce the observed characteristics of cavitation.
Nonlinear eigenvalue problems in smectics
Marchenko, V. I. Podolyak, E. R.
2010-01-15
The asymptotic forms of strains in a smectic around the linear distributions of multipole force are determined. The law of a decrease in strains is specified by the indices, which are eigenvalues of nonlinear equations describing the angular dependence of the strains.
Multilevel algorithms for nonlinear optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.
1994-01-01
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) gives rise to nonlinear optimization problems characterized by a large number of constraints that naturally occur in blocks. We propose a class of multilevel optimization methods motivated by the structure and number of constraints and by the expense of the derivative computations for MDO. The algorithms are an extension to the nonlinear programming problem of the successful class of local Brown-Brent algorithms for nonlinear equations. Our extensions allow the user to partition constraints into arbitrary blocks to fit the application, and they separately process each block and the objective function, restricted to certain subspaces. The methods use trust regions as a globalization strategy, and they have been shown to be globally convergent under reasonable assumptions. The multilevel algorithms can be applied to all classes of MDO formulations. Multilevel algorithms for solving nonlinear systems of equations are a special case of the multilevel optimization methods. In this case, they can be viewed as a trust-region globalization of the Brown-Brent class.
Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications
Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.
1993-12-31
New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.
Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.
2015-11-01
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
Treatment of material creep and nonlinearities in flexible mulitbody dynamics
Xie, M.; Amirouche, F.M.L.
1994-01-01
This paper addresses the modeling of the generalized active forces resulting from deformable bodies when subjected to high temperature conditions, elastic-plastic deformations, creep effects, and material nonlinearities. The effects of elastic-plastic deformations are studied making use of the nonlinear stress-strain relationship and the geometrical stiffness concepts. Creep conditions resulting from high temperature are studied through several proposed models. Materials nonlinearities for isotropic and composites are accounted for by their tangential elasticity matrix. A general procedure used in the study of multibody systems dynamics with elastic-plastic bodies depicting the characteristics mentioned is developed. This includes an explicit formulation of the equations of motion using Kane`s equations, finite element method, continuum mechanics, and modal coordinate reduction techniques. A numerical simulation of a flexible robotic arm with a prescribed angular velocity subject to high temperature conditions is analyzed. The effects of creep are discussed.
Optomechanical Enhancement of Doubly Resonant 2D Optical Nonlinearity.
Yi, Fei; Ren, Mingliang; Reed, Jason C; Zhu, Hai; Hou, Jiechang; Naylor, Carl H; Johnson, A T Charlie; Agarwal, Ritesh; Cubukcu, Ertugrul
2016-03-01
Emerging two-dimensional semiconductor materials possess a giant second order nonlinear response due to excitonic effects while the monolayer thickness of such active materials limits their use in practical nonlinear devices. Here, we report 3300 times optomechanical enhancement of second harmonic generation from a MoS2 monolayer in a doubly resonant on-chip optical cavity. We achieve this by engineering the nonlinear light-matter interaction in a microelectro-mechanical system enabled optical frequency doubling device based on an electrostatically tunable Fabry-Perot microresonator. Our versatile optomechanical approach will pave the way for next generation efficient on-chip tunable light sources, sensors, and systems based on molecularly thin materials. PMID:26854706
Optomechanical Enhancement of Doubly Resonant 2D Optical Nonlinearity.
Yi, Fei; Ren, Mingliang; Reed, Jason C; Zhu, Hai; Hou, Jiechang; Naylor, Carl H; Johnson, A T Charlie; Agarwal, Ritesh; Cubukcu, Ertugrul
2016-03-01
Emerging two-dimensional semiconductor materials possess a giant second order nonlinear response due to excitonic effects while the monolayer thickness of such active materials limits their use in practical nonlinear devices. Here, we report 3300 times optomechanical enhancement of second harmonic generation from a MoS2 monolayer in a doubly resonant on-chip optical cavity. We achieve this by engineering the nonlinear light-matter interaction in a microelectro-mechanical system enabled optical frequency doubling device based on an electrostatically tunable Fabry-Perot microresonator. Our versatile optomechanical approach will pave the way for next generation efficient on-chip tunable light sources, sensors, and systems based on molecularly thin materials.
Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report
Tataronis, J. A.
2004-06-01
This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.
Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turlier, H.; Fedosov, D. A.; Audoly, B.; Auth, T.; Gov, N. S.; Sykes, C.; Joanny, J.-F.; Gompper, G.; Betz, T.
2016-05-01
Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are seen to flicker under optical microscopy, a phenomenon initially described as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane. But recent studies have suggested the involvement of non-equilibrium processes, without definitively ruling out equilibrium interpretations. Using active and passive microrheology to directly compare the membrane response and fluctuations on single erythrocytes, we report here a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, which is a direct demonstration of the non-equilibrium nature of flickering. With an analytical model of the composite erythrocyte membrane and realistic stochastic simulations, we show that several molecular mechanisms may explain the active fluctuations, and we predict their kinetics. We demonstrate that tangential metabolic activity in the network formed by spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein, can generate curvature-mediated active membrane motions. We also show that other active membrane processes represented by direct normal force dipoles may explain the observed membrane activity. Our findings provide solid experimental and theoretical frameworks for future investigations of the origin and function of active motion in cells.
Solitary waves in the nonlinear Dirac equation with arbitrary nonlinearity.
Cooper, Fred; Khare, Avinash; Mihaila, Bogdan; Saxena, Avadh
2010-09-01
We consider the nonlinear Dirac equations (NLDE's) in 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self interaction g{2}/k+1(ΨΨ){k+1} , as well as a vector-vector self interaction g{2}/k+1(Ψγ{μ}ΨΨγ{μ}Ψ){1/2(k+1)} . We find the exact analytic form for solitary waves for arbitrary k and find that they are a generalization of the exact solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and reduce to these solutions in a well defined nonrelativistic limit. We perform the nonrelativistic reduction and find the 1/2m correction to the NLSE, valid when |ω-m|<2m , where ω is the frequency of the solitary wave in the rest frame. We discuss the stability and blowup of solitary waves assuming the modified NLSE is valid and find that they should be stable for k<2 . PMID:21230200
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, Larry W.
2015-04-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esposito, L. W.
2015-10-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Results of driven N-body systems by Stuart Robbins: Even unforced rings show large variations; Forcing triggers aggregation; Some limit cycles and phase lags seen, but not always as predicted by predator-prey model. Summary of Halo Results: A predatorprey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw'. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon
Nonlinear electron oscillations in a warm plasma
Sarkar, Anwesa; Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2013-12-15
A class of nonstationary solutions for the nonlinear electron oscillations of a warm plasma are presented using a Lagrangian fluid description. The solution illustrates the nonlinear steepening of an initial Gaussian electron density disturbance and also shows collapse behavior in time. The obtained solution may indicate a class of nonlinear transient structures in an unmagnetized warm plasma.
Unsymmetrical squaraines for nonlinear optical materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Chen, Chin-Ti (Inventor); Cheng, Lap-Tak (Inventor)
1996-01-01
Compositions for use in non-linear optical devices. The compositions have first molecular electronic hyperpolarizability (.beta.) either positive or negative in sign and therefore display second order non-linear optical properties when incorporated into non-linear optical devices.
From linear mechanics to nonlinear mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loeb, Julian
1955-01-01
Consideration is given to the techniques used in telecommunication where a nonlinear system (the modulator) results in a linear transposition of a signal. It is then shown that a similar method permits linearization of electromechanical devices or nonlinear mechanical devices. A sweep function plays the same role as the carrier wave in radio-electricity. The linearizations of certain nonlinear functionals are presented.
Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.
2007-01-01
The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, G.
1982-01-01
A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.
Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M.
2013-10-01
Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.
Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.
2009-06-01
Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.
Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation.
Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M
2013-10-14
Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.
Inverting magnetic meridian data using nonlinear optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connors, Martin; Rostoker, Gordon
2015-09-01
A nonlinear optimization algorithm coupled with a model of auroral current systems allows derivation of physical parameters from data and is the basis of a new inversion technique. We refer to this technique as automated forward modeling (AFM), with the variant used here being automated meridian modeling (AMM). AFM is applicable on scales from regional to global, yielding simple and easily understood output, and using only magnetic data with no assumptions about electrodynamic parameters. We have found the most useful output parameters to be the total current and the boundaries of the auroral electrojet on a meridian densely populated with magnetometers, as derived by AMM. Here, we describe application of AFM nonlinear optimization to magnetic data and then describe the use of AMM to study substorms with magnetic data from ground meridian chains as input. AMM inversion results are compared to optical data, results from other inversion methods, and field-aligned current data from AMPERE. AMM yields physical parameters meaningful in describing local electrodynamics and is suitable for ongoing monitoring of activity. The relation of AMM model parameters to equivalent currents is discussed, and the two are found to compare well if the field-aligned currents are far from the inversion meridian.
Exact solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ernst, Matthieu H.
1984-03-01
A review is given of research activities since 1976 on the nonlinear Boltzmann equation and related equations of Boltzmann type, in which several rediscoveries have been made and several conjectures have been disproved. Subjects are (i) the BKW solution of the Boltzmann equation for Maxwell molecules, first discovered by Krupp in 1967, and the Krook-Wu conjecture concerning the universal significance of the BKW solution for the large (v, t) behavior of the velocity distribution function f (v, t); (ii) moment equations and polynomial expansions of f (v, t); (iii) model Boltzmann equation for a spatially uniform system of very hard particles, that can be solved in closed form for general initial conditions; (iv) for Maxwell and non-Maxwell-type molecules there exist solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation with algebraic decrease at υ→∞; connections with nonuniqueness and violation of conservation laws; (v) conjectured super- H-theorem and the BKW solution; (vi) exactly soluble one-dimensional Boltzmann equation with spatial dependence.
Solution spectrum of nonlinear diffusion equations
Ulmer, W.
1992-08-01
The stationary version of the nonlinear diffusion equation -{partial_derivative}c/{partial_derivative}t+D{Delta}c=A{sub 1}c-A{sub 2}c{sup 2} can be solved with the ansatz c={summation}{sub p=1}{sup {infinity}} A{sub p}(cosh kx){sup -p}, inducing a band structure with regard to the ratio {lambda}{sub 1}/{lambda}{sub 2}. The resulting solution manifold can be related to an equilibrium of fluxes of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The modification of this ansatz yielding the expansion c={summation}{sub p,q=1}{sup infinity}A{sub pa}(cosh kx){sup -p}[(cosh {alpha}t){sup -q-1} sinh {alpha}t+b(cosh {alpha}t){sup -q}] represents a solution spectrum of the time-dependent nonlinear equations, and the stationary version can be found from the asymptotic behaviour of the expansion. The solutions can be associated with reactive processes such as active transport phenomena and control circuit problems is discussed. There are also applications to cellular kinetics of clonogenic cell assays and spheriods. 33 refs., 1 tab.
Topics in complex nonlinear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Linghang
In the dissertation, I include two topics of my research in nonlinear dynamic systems. In the first topic, we use numerical optimization techniques to investigate the behavior of the success rates for two- and three-qubit entangling gates, first for perfect fidelity, and then extended to imperfect gates. We find that as the perfect fidelity condition is relaxed, the maximum attainable success rates increase in a predictable fashion depending on the size of the system, and we compare that rate of increase for several gates. Finally, we propose an experiment to test our imperfect LOQC gates using number-resolving photon detectors. We suggest a relatively simple physical apparatus capable of producing CZ gates with controllable fidelity less than 1 and success rates higher than the current theoretical maximum (S=2/27) for perfect fidelity. These experimental setups are within the reach of many experimental groups and would provide an interesting experiment in photonic quantum computing. In the second topic, we quantitatively study nonlinear effects on the evolution of surface gravity waves on the ocean, to explore systematically the effects of various input parameters on the probability of rogue wave formation. The fourth-order current-modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation (CNLS4) is employed to describe the wave evolution. First, we show that when the average wave steepness is small and nonlinear wave effects are subleading, the wave height distribution is well explained by a single "freak index" parameter, which describes the strength of (linear) wave scattering by random currents relative to the angular spread of the incoming random sea. When the average steepness is large, the wave height distribution takes a very similar functional form, but the key variables determining the probability distribution are the steepness, and the angular and frequency spread of the incoming waves. Then, we obtain quantitative predictions for the wave height distribution as a
Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.
2009-08-01
List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.
Condition assessment of nonlinear processes
Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.
2002-01-01
There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.
Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.
2008-11-05
Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).
Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms
Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M.
1996-12-31
Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.
Solitons and nonlinear wave equations
Dodd, Roger K.; Eilbeck, J. Chris; Gibbon, John D.; Morris, Hedley C.
1982-01-01
A discussion of the theory and applications of classical solitons is presented with a brief treatment of quantum mechanical effects which occur in particle physics and quantum field theory. The subjects addressed include: solitary waves and solitons, scattering transforms, the Schroedinger equation and the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the inverse method for the isospectral Schroedinger equation and the general solution of the solvable nonlinear equations. Also considered are: isolation of the Korteweg-de Vries equation in some physical examples, the Zakharov-Shabat/AKNS inverse method, kinks and the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and wave resonance interactions, amplitude equations in unstable systems, and numerical studies of solitons. 45 references.
Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byer, Robert L.
1991-01-01
The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.
Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.
1988-01-01
Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.
A nonlinear SIR with stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trisilowati, Darti, I.; Fitri, S.
2014-02-01
The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of a nonlinear susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) epidemic model with vaccination. We analyze the stability of the model by linearizing the model around the equilibrium point. Then, diphtheria data from East Java province is fitted to the model. From these estimated parameters, we investigate which parameters that play important role in the epidemic model. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results and the behavior of the model.
Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmire, Elsa
2015-03-01
In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.
Linear superposition in nonlinear equations.
Khare, Avinash; Sukhatme, Uday
2002-06-17
Several nonlinear systems such as the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV equations and lambda phi(4) theory possess periodic traveling wave solutions involving Jacobi elliptic functions. We show that suitable linear combinations of these known periodic solutions yield many additional solutions with different periods and velocities. This linear superposition procedure works by virtue of some remarkable new identities involving elliptic functions. PMID:12059300
Nonlinear transient simulation of transformers
Pierrat, L.; Tran-Quoc, T. |; Montmeat, A.
1995-12-31
In this paper, a nonlinear model of transformer which takes into account both the saturation and the hysteresis is proposed. In order to simulate transient phenomena in transformers, a system of equations is presented. The digital simulation of the energization and de-energization of a three-phase distribution transformer is studied. Ferroresonant phenomena in iron core transformers supplied through capacitive links are presented. Finally, the influence of MOV arresters on overvoltage reduction is investigated.
Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves
Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia
2009-07-15
The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.
Nonlinear input-output systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng
1987-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.
Nonlinear microscopy of collagen fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strupler, M.; Pena, A.-M.; Hernest, M.; Tharaux, P.-L.; Fabre, A.; Marchal-Somme, J.; Crestani, B.; Débarre, D.; Martin, J.-L.; Beaurepaire, E.; Schanne-Klein, M.-C.
2007-02-01
We used intrinsic Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) by fibrillar collagen to visualize the three-dimensional architecture of collagen fibrosis at the micrometer scale using laser scanning nonlinear microscopy. We showed that SHG signals are highly specific to fibrillar collagen and provide a sensitive probe of the micrometer-scale structural organization of collagen in tissues. Moreover, recording simultaneously other nonlinear optical signals in a multimodal setup, we visualized the tissue morphology using Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) signals from endogenous chromophores such as NADH or elastin. We then compared different methods to determine accurate indexes of collagen fibrosis using nonlinear microscopy, given that most collagen fibrils are smaller than the microscope resolution and that second harmonic generation is a coherent process. In order to define a robust method to process our three-dimensional images, we either calculated the fraction of the images occupied by a significant SHG signal, or averaged SHG signal intensities. We showed that these scores provide an estimation of the extension of renal and pulmonary fibrosis in murine models, and that they clearly sort out the fibrotic mice.
Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analayzer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee
2014-05-01
Qubits are excellent probes of their environment. When operating in the linear regime, they can be used as linear spectrum analyzers of the noise processes surrounding them. These methods fail for strong non-Gaussian noise where the qubit response is no longer linear. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for strongly coupled environments. Our non-perturbative analytic model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We developed a noise characterization scheme adapted to this non-linearity. We then applied it using a single trapped 88Sr+ ion as the a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. With this method, we attained a ten fold improvement over the standard Fourier limit. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs. Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013), Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: National Institute of Standards and Tehcnology, Boulder, CO.
Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.
Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten
2012-11-19
It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rincon, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.
2015-02-01
Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early non-linear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasi-linearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to non-linear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, δB/B ∝ t2/3. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of non-linear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to δB/B = O(1).
Challenges in nonlinear gravitational clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padmanabhan, Thanu
2006-04-01
This article addresses some issues related to the statistical description of gravitating systems in an expanding backgrounds. In particular, I describe (a) how the nonlinear mode-mode coupling transfers power from one scale to another in the Fourier space if the initial power spectrum is sharply peaked at a given scale and (b) what are the asymptotic characteristics of gravitational clustering that are independent of the initial conditions. The analysis uses a new approach based on an integro-differential equation for the evolution of the gravitational potential in the Fourier space. I show how this equation allows one to understand several aspects of nonlinear gravitational clustering and provides insight in to the transfer of power from one scale to another through nonlinear mode coupling. Numerical simulations as well as analytic work shows that power transfer leads to a universal power spectrum at late times, somewhat reminiscent of the existence of Kolmogorov spectrum in fluid turbulence. To cite this article: T. Padmanabhan, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).
Optical nonlinearities in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayats, Anatoly V.
2016-04-01
Metals exhibit strong and fast nonlinearities making metallic, plasmonic, structures very promising for ultrafast all-optical applications at low light intensities. Combining metallic nanostructures in metamaterials provides additional functionalities via prospect of precise engineering of spectral response and dispersion. From this point of view, hyperbolic metamaterials, in particular those based on plasmonic nanorod arrays, provide wealth of exciting possibilities in nonlinear optics offering designed linear and nonlinear properties, polarization control, spontaneous emission control and many others. Experiments and modeling have already demonstrated very strong Kerr-nonlinear response and its ultrafast recovery due to the nonlocal nature of the plasmonic mode of the metamaterial, so that small changes in the permittivity of the metallic component under the excitation modify the nonlocal response that in turn leads to strong changes of the metamaterial transmission. In this talk, we will discuss experimental studies and numerical modeling of second- and third-order nonlinear optical processes in hyperbolic metamaterials based on metallic nanorods and other plasmonic systems where coupling between the resonances plays important role in defining nonlinear response. Second-harmonic generation and ultrafast Kerr-type nonlinearity originating from metallic component of the metamaterial will be considered, including nonlinear magneto-optical effects. Nonlinear optical response of stand-alone as well as integrated metamaterial components will be presented. Some of the examples to be discussed include nonlinear polarization control, nonlinear metamaterial integrated in silicon photonic circuitry and second-harmonic generation, including magneto-optical effects.
spin pumping occurred under nonlinear spin precession
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Xue, Desheng
Spin pumping occurs when a pure-spin current is injected into a normal metal thin layer by an adjacent ferromagnetic metal layer undergoing ferromagnetic resonance, which can be understood as the inverse effect of spin torque, and gives access to the physics of magnetization dynamics and damping. An interesting question is that whether spin pumping occurring under nonlinear spin dynamics would differ from linear case. It is known that nonlinear spin dynamics differ distinctly from linear response, a variety of amplitude dependent nonlinear effect would present. It has been found that for spin precession angle above a few degrees, nonlinear damping term would present and dominated the dynamic energy/spin-moment dissipation. Since spin pumping are closely related to the damping process, it is interesting to ask whether the nonlinear damping term could be involved in spin pumping process. We studied the spin pumping effect occurring under nonlinear spin precession. A device which is a Pt/YIG microstrip coupled with coplanar waveguide was used. High power excitation resulted in spin precession entering in a nonlinear regime. Foldover resonance lineshape and nonlinear damping have been observed. Based on those nonlinear effects, we determined the values of the precession cone angles, and the maximum cone angle can reach a values as high as 21.5 degrees. We found that even in nonlinear regime, spin pumping is still linear, which means the nonlinear damping and foldover would not affect spin pumping process.
Global methods for nonlinear complementarity problems
More, J.J.
1994-04-01
Global methods for nonlinear complementarity problems formulate the problem as a system of nonsmooth nonlinear equations approach, or use continuation to trace a path defined by a smooth system of nonlinear equations. We formulate the nonlinear complementarity problem as a bound-constrained nonlinear least squares problem. Algorithms based on this formulation are applicable to general nonlinear complementarity problems, can be started from any nonnegative starting point, and each iteration only requires the solution of systems of linear equations. Convergence to a solution of the nonlinear complementarity problem is guaranteed under reasonable regularity assumptions. The converge rate is Q-linear, Q-superlinear, or Q-quadratic, depending on the tolerances used to solve the subproblems.
Earth solids and dynamic nonlinear elasticity
Johnson, P.A. |; Abeele, K.E.A. Van Den
1997-05-01
The authors` intention is to describe several manifestations of nonlinear behavior in rock. Nonlinear response may manifest itself in a variety of manners, including a nonlinear stress-strain relation, nonlinear attenuation, harmonic generation, resonant peak shift and slow dynamics, all of which are related. The authors have ample evidence that the responsible mechanism for nonlinear response [to first order] is the presence of compliant features and the influence of fluid. They define compliant features as those features that are the weakest in the rock, e.g., grain-to-grain contacts, low aspect ratio cracks, joints, etc. In addition, there may be other mechanisms responsible as yet unidentified. In the following, the authors emphasize the robust nature of observations by illustrating several experimental examples. They do not review the related theoretical framework. Finally, they do not present nonlinear parameters derived from these experiments as the purpose in this paper is to illustrate rather than quantify nonlinear response.
Detecting and disentangling nonlinear structure from solar flux time series
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.
1992-01-01
Interest in solar activity has grown in the past two decades for many reasons. Most importantly for flight dynamics, solar activity changes the atmospheric density, which has important implications for spacecraft trajectory and lifetime prediction. Building upon the previously developed Rayleigh-Benard nonlinear dynamic solar model, which exhibits many dynamic behaviors observed in the Sun, this work introduces new chaotic solar forecasting techniques. Our attempt to use recently developed nonlinear chaotic techniques to model and forecast solar activity has uncovered highly entangled dynamics. Numerical techniques for decoupling additive and multiplicative white noise from deterministic dynamics and examines falloff of the power spectra at high frequencies as a possible means of distinguishing deterministic chaos from noise than spectrally white or colored are presented. The power spectral techniques presented are less cumbersome than current methods for identifying deterministic chaos, which require more computationally intensive calculations, such as those involving Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.
Dynamics of elastic nonlinear rotating composite beams with embedded actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorashi, Mehrdaad
2009-08-01
A comprehensive study of the nonlinear dynamics of composite beams is presented. The study consists of static and dynamic solutions with and without active elements. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Numerical solutions for the steady state and transient responses have been obtained. It is shown that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. The effect of perturbing the steady state solution has also been calculated and the results are shown to be compatible with those of the accelerating beam analysis. Next, the coupled flap-lag rigid body dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and subjected to aerodynamic forces is formulated. The solution to this rigid-body problem is then used, together with the finite difference method, in order to produce the nonlinear elasto-dynamic solution of an accelerating articulated beam. Next, the static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded Anisotropic Piezo-composite Actuators (APA) are presented. The effect of activating actuators at various directions on the steady state force and moments generated in a rotating composite beam has been presented. With similar results for the transient response, this analysis can be used in controlling the response of adaptive rotating beams.
Substrate heterogeneity causes the nonlinear kinetics of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis.
Zhang, S; Wolfgang, D E; Wilson, D B
1999-01-01
Nonlinear kinetics are commonly observed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. This nonlinearity could be explained by any or all of the following three factors: enzyme inactivation, product inhibition, or substrate heterogeneity. In this study, four different approaches were applied to test the above hypotheses using two Thermomonospora fusca endocellulases, E2 and E5. The lack of stimulation of cellulase activity by beta-glucosidase rules out the possibility of product inhibition as a cause of the observed nonlinearity. The results from the other three approaches all provide strong evidence against enzyme inactivation and strong evidence for substrate heterogeneity as the cause of the nonlinear kinetics. The most direct evidence for substrate heterogeneity is that pretreatment of swollen cellulose with either E2cd or E5cd gave a product that was hydrolyzed at a much (3- to 4-fold) slower rate than untreated swollen cellulose even though the initial treatment degraded only 15-18% of the substrate. Furthermore, the activation energy of E2 catalyzed hydrolysis of swollen cellulose increased from 10 kcal/mol for the initial rate to 29 kcal/mol for hydrolysis after 24% digestion.
Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.
2013-01-01
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.
Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc: chronic hypertension model.
Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna
2016-05-01
The total baroreflex arc is the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP). Its linear dynamic functioning has been shown to be preserved in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). However, the system is known to exhibit nonlinear dynamic behaviors. The aim of this study was to establish nonlinear dynamic models of the total arc (and its subsystems) in hypertensive rats and to compare these models with previously published models for normotensive rats. Hypertensive rats were studied under anesthesia. The vagal and aortic depressor nerves were sectioned. The carotid sinus regions were isolated and attached to a servo-controlled piston pump. AP and sympathetic nerve activity were measured while CSP was controlled via the pump using Gaussian white noise stimulation. Second-order, nonlinear dynamics models were developed by application of nonparametric system identification to a portion of the measurements. The models of the total arc predicted AP 21-43% better (P < 0.005) than conventional linear dynamic models in response to a new portion of the CSP measurement. The linear and nonlinear terms of these validated models were compared with the corresponding terms of an analogous model for normotensive rats. The nonlinear gains for the hypertensive rats were significantly larger than those for the normotensive rats [-0.38 ± 0.04 (unitless) vs. -0.22 ± 0.03, P < 0.01], whereas the linear gains were similar. Hence, nonlinear dynamic functioning of the sympathetically mediated total arc may enhance baroreflex buffering of AP increases more in SHR than normotensive rats. PMID:26791831
Evaluation of nonlinearity and validity of nonlinear modeling for complex time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Tomoya; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Suzuki, Masuo
2007-10-01
Even if an original time series exhibits nonlinearity, it is not always effective to approximate the time series by a nonlinear model because such nonlinear models have high complexity from the viewpoint of information criteria. Therefore, we propose two measures to evaluate both the nonlinearity of a time series and validity of nonlinear modeling applied to it by nonlinear predictability and information criteria. Through numerical simulations, we confirm that the proposed measures effectively detect the nonlinearity of an observed time series and evaluate the validity of the nonlinear model. The measures are also robust against observational noises. We also analyze some real time series: the difference of the number of chickenpox and measles patients, the number of sunspots, five Japanese vowels, and the chaotic laser. We can confirm that the nonlinear model is effective for the Japanese vowel /a/, the difference of the number of measles patients, and the chaotic laser.
Nonlinear buffer layers relevant for reduced nonlinear effects in HTS microwave devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seron, D.
2008-02-01
Microwave devices made of a High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) exhibit a nonlinear response as the microwave power increases. The HTS nonlinearities generate a nonlinear inductance Ld(irf) and a nonlinear resistance Rd(irf) in a device. Ld(irf) and Rd(irf) are responsible for an increase of the device loss, a small frequency dispersion as well as the generation of spurious signals like Intermodulation Distortion (IMD). Nevertheless, the HTS nonlinearities in a microwave device can be reduced using a nonlinear dielectric like a ParaElectric Material (PEM). This assumption has recently been demonstrated theoretically. In a microwave device made of a HTS and a PEM, the nonlinear contribution to the capacitance Cd(vrf) from the PEM acts oppositely to the nonlinear contribution to Ld(irf). This may cancel the effect of the HTS inductive nonlinearities. The PEM also produces a nonlinear conductance Gd(vrf) in a device. All these nonlinear terms contribute to the IMD output power and the nonlinear quality factor (Q0) of a resonant passive microwave device. In this paper, the dependence of the different nonlinear contributions on frequency and applied dc bias voltage (Vdc) is investigated. The relevance to employ PEM in order to reduce the nonlinearities in HTS microwave devices is discussed.
Optical similaritons in a tapered graded-index nonlinear-fiber amplifier with an external source
Raju, Thokala Soloman; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2011-09-15
We analytically explore a wide class of optical similariton solutions to the nonlinear Schroedinger equation appropriately modified to model beam propagation in a tapered, graded-index nonlinear-fiber amplifier with an external source. Under certain physical conditions, we reduce the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations to a single-wave equation that aptly describes similariton propagation through asymmetric twin-core fiber amplifiers. The asymmetric twin-core fiber is composed of two adjoining, closely spaced, single-mode fibers in which the active one is a tapered, graded-index nonlinear-fiber and the passive one is a step-index fiber. We obtain these self-similar waves for different choices of tapered index profile, using a Moebius transformation. Our procedure is applicable for both self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinearities.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Nonlinear Processes in Vibroseismic Monitoring
Khairetdinov, M. S.; Voskoboynikova, G. M.
2008-06-24
In this paper, on the basis of numerical calculations and results of processing of the data of field experiments, quantitative estimates of the spectral broadening of the initial sounding seismic oscillations are presented. The estimates were obtained as a result of vibroseismic sounding of fractured dilatancy media typical for seismically and volcanically dangerous zones. The authors' idea about the applicability of the parameters of wave field nonlinearity in the form of possible prognostic characteristics of the earthquake-volcano source development process is justified.
Beams on nonlinear elastic foundation
Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette
2014-12-10
In order to determination vertical deflections and rail bending moments the Winkler model (1867) is often used. This linear model neglects several conditions. For example, by using experimental results, it has been observed that there is a substantial increase in the maximum rail deflection and rail bending moment when considering the nonlinearity of the track support system. A deeper mathematical analysis of the models is necessary in order to obtain better methods for more accurate numerical solutions in the determination of deflections and rail bending moments. This paper is intended to be a small step in this direction.
Nonlinear dynamics of cell orientation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safran, S. A.; de, Rumi
2009-12-01
The nonlinear dependence of cellular orientation on an external, time-varying stress field determines the distribution of orientations in the presence of noise and the characteristic time, τc , for the cell to reach its steady-state orientation. The short, local cytoskeletal relaxation time distinguishes between high-frequency (nearly perpendicular) and low-frequency (random or parallel) orientations. However, τc is determined by the much longer, orientational relaxation time. This behavior is related to experiments for which we predict the angle and characteristic time as a function of frequency.