Science.gov

Sample records for active nuclear wastes

  1. Nuclear waste isolation activities report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Included are: a report from the Deputy Assistant Secretary, a summary of recent events, new literature, a list of upcoming waste management meetings, and background information on DOE`s radwaste management programs. (DLC)

  2. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  3. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  4. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  5. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  6. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grambow, Bernd

    2008-12-01

    When disposing nuclear waste in clay formations it is expected that the most radiotoxic elements like Pu, Np or Am move only a few centimetres to meters before they decay. Only a few radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere and contribute to their long-term exposure risks, mainly anionic species like I129, Cl36, Se79 and in some cases C14 and Tc99, whatever the scenario considered. The recent OECD/NEA cosponsored international MOFAP workshop focussed on transport and chemical behaviour of these less toxic radionuclides. New research themes have been addressed, such as how to make use of molecular level information for the understanding of the problem of migration at large distances. Diffusion studies need to face mineralogical heterogeneities over tens to hundreds of meters. Diffusion rates are very low since the clay rock pores are so small (few nm) that electrostatic repulsion limits the space available for anion diffusion (anion exclusion). The large volume of traversed rock will provide so many retention sites that despite weak retention, even certain of these "mobile" nuclides may show significant retardation. However, the question how to measure reliably very low retention parameters has been posed. An important issue is whether redox states or organic/inorganic speciation change from their initial state at the moment of release from the waste during long term contact with surfaces, hydrogen saturated environments, etc.

  7. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Grambow, Bernd

    2008-12-12

    When disposing nuclear waste in clay formations it is expected that the most radiotoxic elements like Pu, Np or Am move only a few centimetres to meters before they decay. Only a few radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere and contribute to their long-term exposure risks, mainly anionic species like I129, Cl36, Se79 and in some cases C14 and Tc99, whatever the scenario considered. The recent OECD/NEA cosponsored international MOFAP workshop focussed on transport and chemical behaviour of these less toxic radionuclides. New research themes have been addressed, such as how to make use of molecular level information for the understanding of the problem of migration at large distances. Diffusion studies need to face mineralogical heterogeneities over tens to hundreds of meters. Diffusion rates are very low since the clay rock pores are so small (few nm) that electrostatic repulsion limits the space available for anion diffusion (anion exclusion). The large volume of traversed rock will provide so many retention sites that despite weak retention, even certain of these "mobile" nuclides may show significant retardation. However, the question how to measure reliably very low retention parameters has been posed. An important issue is whether redox states or organic/inorganic speciation change from their initial state at the moment of release from the waste during long term contact with surfaces, hydrogen saturated environments, etc.

  8. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  9. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  10. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  13. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., [sup 108m]Ag, [sup 93]Mo, [sup 36]Cl, [sup 10]Be, [sup 113m]Cd, [sup 121m]Sn, [sup 126]Sn, [sup 93m]Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., [sup 14]C, [sup 129]I, and [sup 99]Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 10}Be, {sup 113m}Cd, {sup 121m}Sn, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 93m}Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., {sup 14}C, {sup 129}I, and {sup 99}Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC`s understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments.

  15. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  17. Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C. )

    1990-06-08

    Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Nuclear waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikalla, T. D.; Powell, J. A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  19. Molecular hydrogen: An abundant energy source for bacterial activity in nuclear waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, M.; Bildstein, O.; Esnault, L.; Jullien, M.; Sellier, R.

    A thorough understanding of the energy sources used by microbial systems in the deep terrestrial subsurface is essential since the extreme conditions for life in deep biospheres may serve as a model for possible life in a nuclear waste repository. In this respect, H 2 is known as one of the most energetic substrates for deep terrestrial subsurface environments. This hydrogen is produced from abiotic and biotic processes but its concentration in natural systems is usually maintained at very low levels due to hydrogen-consuming bacteria. A significant amount of H 2 gas will be produced within deep nuclear waste repositories, essentially from the corrosion of metallic components. This will consequently improve the conditions for microbial activity in this specific environment. This paper discusses different study cases with experimental results to illustrate the fact that microorganisms are able to use hydrogen for redox processes (reduction of O 2, NO3-, Fe III) in several waste disposal conditions. Consequences of microbial activity include: alteration of groundwater chemistry and shift in geochemical equilibria, gas production or consumption, biocorrosion, and potential modifications of confinement properties. In order to quantify the impact of hydrogen bacteria, the next step will be to determine the kinetic rate of the reactions in realistic conditions.

  20. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Rogers, A.Z.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethrope, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  2. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  3. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  4. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  5. Decanting of Neutralized H-Canyon Unirradiated Nuclear Material High Activity Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAELG.

    2004-08-05

    An option to dispose of the High Activity Waste (HAW) stream from the processing of unirradiated materials directly to Saltstone is being evaluated to conserve High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm space and to reduce the future production of HLW glass logs. To meet the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), decanting the supernate from precipitated solids was proposed to reduce mercury and radionuclide levels in the waste. Only the caustic supernate will then be sent to Saltstone. Verification that the Saltstone WAC will be met has involved a series of laboratory studies using surrogate and actual HAW solutions from H-Canyon. The initial experiment involved addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to a surrogate HAW test solution and subsequent decanting of the supernate away from the precipitated solids. The chemical composition of the surrogate solution was based on a composition defined from analyses of actual HAW solutions generated during dissolution of unirradiated nuclear materials in H-Canyon [1]. Results from testing the surrogate HAW solution were reported in Reference [2]. Information obtained from the surrogate test solution study was used to define additional experiments on actual HAW solutions obtained from H-Canyon. These experiments were conducted with samples from three different batches of HAW solutions. The first and third HAW samples (HAW No.1 and HAW No.3 solutions) contained the centrifuge filter cake material from a gelatin strike that is periodically added to the waste stream. The second HAW sample (HAW No.2 solution) did not contain filter cake material. Monosodium titanate (MST) was added to the HAW No.2 and HAW No.3 solutions after addition of NaOH was complete and before the settling step. The addition of MST was to improve the decontamination of alpha and beta emitters (primarily plutonium and strontium) from the supernate. The addition of excess NaOH and the addition of MST were expected to result in sufficient alpha and beta

  6. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  7. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  8. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Waste, Unit 1. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 1 of the four-part series Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to help students establish the relevance of the topic of nuclear waste to their everyday lives and activities. Particular attention is…

  9. Nuclear waste's last stand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    It's hard to imagine a more unwelcome neighbor than nuclear waste. But something has to be done with the spent fuel now piling up at nuclear plants in the United States. While a handful of Indian tribes and other communities have shown interest in hosting a temporary storage site, the outcry from their neighbors and politicians may squash their plans. Now, a decade after the federal government began the search for a permanent repository, it still can't find even a temporary destination. Here's look at the problem and its consequences.

  10. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application.

  11. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (< 0.7) and the lack of space, respectively. The most probable zones of microbial activity, those likely to develop sustainable biofilms are within the interface zones. A major restriction

  12. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  13. Underground nuclear waste containments

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.

    1995-11-01

    In the United States, about a hundred million gallons of high-level nuclear waste are stored in underground containments. Basically, these containments are of two different designs: single-shell and double-shell structures. The single-shell structures consist of reinforced concrete cylindrical walls seated on circular mats and enclosed on top with torispherical domes or circular flat roofs. The walls and the basemats are lined with carbon steel. The double-shell structures provide another layer of protection and constitute a completely enclosed steel containment within the single-shell structure leaving an annular space between the two walls. Single-shell containments are of earlier vintage and were built in the period 1945-1965. Double-shell structures were built through the 1960s and 1970s. Experience gained in building and operating the single-shell containments was used in enhancing the design and construction of the double-shell structures. Currently, there are about 250 underground single-shell and double-shell structures containing the high-level waste with an inventory of about 800 million curies. During their service lives, especially in early stages, these structures were subjected to thermal excursions of varying extents; also, they have aged in the chemical environment. Furthermore, in their remaining service lives, the structures may be subjected to loads for which they were not designed, such as larger earthquakes or chemical explosions. As a result, the demonstration of safety of these underground nuclear containments poses a challenge to structural engineers, which increases with time. Regardless of current plans for gradual retrieval of the waste and subsequent solidification for disposal, many of these structures are expected to continue to contain the waste through the next 20-40 years. In order to verify their structural capabilities in fulfilling this mission, several studies were recently performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  14. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Role and Activities Related to U.S. Department of Energy Incidental Waste Determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, A.H.; Esh, D.W.; Ridge, A.C.

    2006-07-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste (HLW) determinations. Under the NDAA, NRC performs consultative technical reviews of DOE's waste determinations and monitors DOE's disposal actions for such waste, but the NRC does not have regulatory authority over DOE's waste disposal activities. The NDAA provides the criteria that must be met to determine that waste is not HLW. The criteria require that the waste does not need to be disposed of in a geologic repository, that highly radioactive radionuclides be removed to the maximum extent practical, and that the performance objectives of 10 CFR 61, Subpart C, be met. The performance objectives contain criteria for protection of the public, protection of inadvertent intruders, protection of workers, and stability of the disposal site after closure. This paper describes NRC's approach to implementing its responsibilities under the NDAA, as well as similar activities being performed for sites not covered by the NDAA. (authors)

  15. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  16. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application. PMID:22134026

  17. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-25

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  18. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  19. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  20. Glasses for nuclear waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M.I.; Batyukhnova, O.G.

    2007-07-01

    Vitrification of nuclear wastes is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting waste form. Vitrification is a mature technology and has been used for high level nuclear waste (HLW) immobilisation for more than 40 years in France, Germany and Belgium, Russia, UK, Japan and the USA. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material (GCM). Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes, moreover in addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel GCM are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. The spectrum of wastes which are currently vitrified increases from HLW to low and intermediate wastes (LILW) such as legacy wastes in Hanford, USA and nuclear power plant operational wastes in Russia and Korea. (authors)

  1. Nuclear waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several recent congressional and executive proposals address the political problem posed by nuclear wastes. The proposals are divided into three categories on the basis of the degree of authority granted to state officials in siting decisions: those granting states a veto power, those providing for consultation with state officials during planning, and those leaving plenary authority in the hands of the Federal goverment. Legislative proposals are discussed under these categories. The most-balanced approach provides a formal role for state officials without granting the states an absolute veto. This solution provides a political outlet for local concern and ensures a wider range of views. It also avoids the problem, inherent in the state veto, of sacrificing the national interest in selecting the safest possible disposal site. 69 references.

  2. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  3. Recent Developments in Nuclear Waste Management in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    King, F.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes recent developments in the field of nuclear waste management in Canada with a focus on management of nuclear fuel waste. Of particular significance is the April 2001 tabling in the Canadian House of Commons of Bill C-27, An Act respecting the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. At the time of finalizing this paper (January 15, 2002), Bill C-27 is in Third Reading in the House of Commons and is expected to move to the Senate in February. The Nuclear Fuel Waste Act is expected to come into force later in 2002. This Act requires the three nuclear utilities in Canada owning nuclear fuel waste to form a waste management organization and deposit funds into a segregated fund for nuclear fuel waste long-term management. The waste management organization is then required to perform a study of long-term management approaches for nuclear fuel waste and submit the study to the federal government within three years. The federal government will select an approach for implementation by the waste management organization. The paper discusses the activities that the nuclear fuel waste owners currently have underway to prepare for the formation of the waste management organization. As background, the paper reviews the status of interim storage of nuclear fuel waste in Canada, and describes previous initiatives related to the development of a national strategy for nuclear fuel waste long-term management.

  4. Nuclear waste solidification

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  5. Evaluation of microbial activity for long-term performance assessments of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Wang, Yifeng

    2005-06-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments and play a major role in the biogeochemical recycling of various elements. In this paper, we have developed a general approach for a systematic evaluation of microbial impact on the long-term performance of the repository. We have demonstrated that data on microbial population alone are not sufficient for the evaluation of microbial impact on repository performance and a sensible approach for such evaluation must be based on the consideration of environmental constraints on microbial reaction pathways. We have applied our approach to both the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). We have demonstrated that the effect of microbial activity on the near-field chemistry in the Yucca Mountain repository is negligible because of limited nutrient supply and harsh environmental conditions created by waste emplacement. Whereas for the WIPP, we have shown that, due to the presence of a large quantity of organic materials and nutrients in the wastes, a significant microbial activity can potentially be stimulated and its impact on repository performance can be evaluated with carefully designed incubation experiments coupled with performance assessment calculations. The impact of microbial gas generation on disposal room chemistry in the WIPP can be mitigated by introducing MgO as a backfill material.

  6. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

  7. Geopolitics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1991-02-22

    More debate has begun over questions related to the safety of high-level waste disposal at the Yucca Mountain site in the Nevada desert. An engineering geologists, Jerry Szymanski, one of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) own staffers in Las Vegas, has proposed that the $15-billion repository would sit on top of an intensely active structure that, if altered by an earthquake, would send a slug of ground water up from deep within the mountain into the waste storage area. This theory has already been slammed in two formal reviews and has virtually no support among geologists. However, enough doubt has been raised that much more geological testing will be necessary to prove or disprove Szymanski`s theory. Nevada state officials are also using all methods to thwart or block the project. The question of the origin of a series of calcium carbonate and opal veins exposed in an exploratory pit, trench 14, near the top of the mountain is also far from answered. The DOE and US Geological Survey may have to collect much more information on the quantity, size, and location of carbonate sites in the area at a high financial outlay to the US government before a complete case on the origin of the material in trench 14 can be made.

  8. Reconstruction of the activity of point sources for the accurate characterization of nuclear waste drums by segmented gamma scanning.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This work improves the reliability and accuracy in the reconstruction of the total isotope activity content in heterogeneous nuclear waste drums containing point sources. The method is based on χ(2)-fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution measured during a drum rotation in segmented gamma scanning. A new description of the analytical calculation of the angular count rate distribution is introduced based on a more precise model of the collimated detector. The new description is validated and compared to the old description using MCNP5 simulations of angular dependent count rate distributions of Co-60 and Cs-137 point sources. It is shown that the new model describes the angular dependent count rate distribution significantly more accurate compared to the old model. Hence, the reconstruction of the activity is more accurate and the errors are considerably reduced that lead to more reliable results. Furthermore, the results are compared to the conventional reconstruction method assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution.

  9. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored. This report summarizes the progress achieved after only seven months of work on a three-year project.'

  10. EMSP project summary (Project ID: 60077): Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Rearden, B.T.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypical analysis capabilities that can be used by nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, this project has been investigating the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses. It is also investigating the use of a new deterministic code that allows for specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model geometric details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  11. Grappling with nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) being constructed in the bedded salt formations near Carlsbad, N.M., is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic wastes generated by U.S. defense programs. Both contact- and remote-handled transuranic wastes will be handled at WIPP; this article is only concerned with the latter, which is placed in horizontal boreholes. Since all deposited transuranic waste must be retrievable during the initial five-year operating period, the boreholes have steel sleeves that withstand salt lithostatic pressure to ease retrieval. If retrieval is not required during this demonstration period, waste deposited later does not have to be retrievable. The horizontal emplacement and retrieval equipment was designed and fabricated especially for the waste packages. The equipment had to meet many design, operational, and safety requirements. In addition to the structural sturdiness and power to support, position, and align massive loads (up to 35 tonnes) with a high degree of precision, it needs a sophisticated control system that permits foolproof operation in only one unique sequence.

  12. Public reactions to nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, R.E.; Kraft, M.E.; Rosa, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    For many scientists, engineers, and regulators, the public controversy over siting a repository for high-level nuclear wastes exemplifies the clash between rational scientific judgment and irrational public attitudes. Even many who are more sympathetic to public concerns about risk and management believe the controversy is exacerbated by incompatibilities between good science and public participation in regulatory decision-making. Understanding the incompatibilities, however, is crucial to managing science and technology in a democratic society and provides an important motivation to study the relationship between public opinion and nuclear waste policy. In this book, Dunlap and his colleagues present a solid base of empirical research on the subject, and the strength of the collection is the careful unraveling of social factors and context to explain the overwhelmingly negative public view of nuclear waste and its management.

  13. Salvaging of nuclear waste by nuclear-optical converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A. V.; Shirokov, R. V.

    2007-06-01

    In modern conditions of power consumption growing in Russia, apparently, it is difficult to find alternative to further development of nuclear power engineering. The negative party of nuclear power engineering is the spent fuel of nuclear reactors (radioactive waste). The gaseous and fluid radioactive waste furbished of highly active impurity, dumps in atmosphere or pools. The highly active fluid radioactive waste stores by the way of saline concentrates in special tanks in surface layers of ground, above the level of groundwaters. A firm radioactive waste bury in pods from a stainless steel in underground workings, salt deposits, at the bottom of oceans. However this problem can be esteemed in a positive direction, as irradiation is a hard radiation, which one can be used as a power source in nuclear - optical converters with further conversion of optical radiation into the electric power with the help of photoelectric converters. Thus waste at all do not demand special processing and exposure in temporary storehouses. And the electricity can be worked out in a constant mode within many years practically without gang of a stimulus source, if a level of a residual radioactivity and the half-lives of component are high enough.

  14. The Public and Nuclear Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinberg, Dorothy

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the public's negative attitude towards nuclear energy development. Explains the perceptions for the nuclear waste disposal problem, and the concern for the protection of the environment. (GA)

  15. The Geopolitics of Nuclear Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1991-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the potential storage of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is discussed. Arguments about the stability of the site and the groundwater situation are summarized. The role of the U.S. Department of Energy and other political considerations are described. (CW)

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkas, Dmytro

    2011-10-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A NUCLEAR POWERED ELECTRICAL GENERATING STATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  18. Geochemical assessment of nuclear waste isolation. Report of activities during fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The status of the following investigations is reported: canister/overpack-backfill chemical interactions and mechanisms; backfill and near-field host rock chemical interactions mechanisms; far-field host rock geochemical interactions; verification and improvement of predictive algorithms for radionuclide migration; and geologic systems as analogues for long-term radioactive waste isolation.

  19. Nuclear wastes and public trust

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Slovic, P. |

    1993-06-01

    Citing public fear and mistrust, strong opposition to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, and less-than-exemplary performance by the Department of Energy (DOE), two private researchers believe present high-level radioactive waste-disposal plans may have to be scrapped. Government and the nuclear industry may have to start over. Policy makers should seek to develop new relationships with communities and states where suitable disposal sites exist. These relationships may require that citizen groups and local institutions be given unprecedented authority in locating and operating such facilities. Contrary to popular impressions, there is still time to take a new approach. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission says present on-site storage arrangements offer a safe alternative for 100 years or more. The sense of immediate crisis and cries for immediate solutions should be calmed and a more considered strategy brought to the public debate. For starters, the researchers propose that the problems of defense waste be separated from the problems of commercial waste. They also suggest that DOE be assigned responsibility for defense waste and a new agency be created to handle high-level commercial waste.

  20. Intergenerational issues regarding nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons raise substantial public concern in many countries. While new support for nuclear power can be found in arguments concerning greenhouse gases and global warming, the long-term existence of radioactive waste has led to requirements for 10,000-year isolation. Some of the support for such requirements is based on intergenerational equity arguments. This, however, places a very high value on lives far in the future. An alternative is to use discounting, as is applied to other resource applications. Nuclear weapons, even though being dismantled by the major nations, are growing in number due to the increase in the number of countries possessing these weapons of mass destruction. This is an unfortunate legacy for future generations. PMID:11314726

  1. Nuclear waste policy and politics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.J.

    1989-12-31

    The nation`s nuclear waste problem began in 1955 but did not draw widespread public attention until the early 1970s. It was then that the old Atomic Energy commission got in trouble by prematurely designating a site in Lyons, Kansas, as its first nuclear waste repository. This and several other false starts, coupled with the growing environmental and anti-nuclear movements, thrust the issue to the forefront of national consciousness. in the meantime, growing quantities of waste were accumulating at nuclear power plants across the country, creating mounting pressure for action. Congress acted in 1982 and again in 1987. Its 1987 decision was decisive: stop the nationwide search for a disposal site, and focus all efforts on Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Despite the clear Congressional mandate, the program is again bogged down in controversy, internal conflicts, and bureaucracy. Its future depends on a solution to these problems. And the solution involves charting some new and innovative paths around political and technical mine fields.

  2. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  3. Nuclear waste: A cancer cure?

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In a marriage of strange bedfellows, scientists at one of the country`s most contaminated nuclear waste sites are collaborating with medical researchers to turn nuclear waste into an experimental therapy for cancer. Patients with Hodgkin`s disease and brain, ovarian, and breast cancers may be able to receive the new radiatio-based treatments in the next five to ten years. Recently, scientists at the Hanford site found a way to chemically extract a pure form of the radioisotope yttrium-90 from strontium-90, a by-product of plutonium production. Yttrium-90 is being tested in clinical trials at medical centers around the country as a treatment for various types of cancers, and the initial results are encouraging. The advantage of yttrium-90 over other radioisotopes is its short half-life.

  4. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  5. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-30

    of time it takes for one-half of the material to undergo radioactive decay.) In general, the ideal material would need to be durable for approximately 10 half-lives to allow the activity to decay to negligible levels. However, the potential health effects of each radionuclide vary depending on what type of radiation is emitted, the energy of that emission, and the susceptibility for the human body to accumulate and concentrate that particular element. Consequently, actual standards tend to be based on limiting the dose (energy deposited per unit mass) that is introduced into the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the responsibility to establish standards for nuclear waste disposal to protect the health and safety of the public. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed the EPA to establish radiation protection standards for the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for nuclear wastes. The standards for Yucca Mountain were promulgated in 2008, and limit the dose to 15 millirem per year for the first 10,000 years, and 100 milirem per year between 10,000 years and 1 million years (40 CFR Part 197; http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/2008factsheet.html). So, the challenge is two-fold: (1) develop a material (a waste form) that is capable of immobilizing the waste over geologic time scales, and (2) develop a process to convert the radioactive sludge in the tanks into this durable waste form material. Glass: Hard, durable, inert, and with infinite chemical versatility Molten glass is a powerful solvent liquid, which can be designed to dissolve almost anything. When solidified, it can be one of the most chemically inert substances known to man. Nature's most famous analogue to glass is obsidian, a vitreous product of volcanic activity; formations over 17 million years old have been found. Archaeologists have found man-made glass specimens that are five thousand years old.

  6. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  7. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. As a result, this advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  8. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. PMID:25956646

  9. Nuclear Waste Management Program summary document, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, Sheldon

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document outlines the operational and research and development (R and D) activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Management (NEW) under the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document focuses on the current and planned activities in waste management for FY 1981. This Program Summary Document (PSD) was prepared in order to explain the Federal nuclear waste management and spent fuel storage programs to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public, the private sector, and the research community. The national energy policy as it applies to waste management and spent fuel storage is presented first. The program strategy, structure, budget, management approach, and public participation programs are then identified. The next section describes program activities and outlines their status. Finally, the applicability of departmental policies to NEW programs is summarized, including field and regional activities, commercialization plans, and environmental and socioeconomic implications of waste management activities, and international programs. This Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document is meant to serve as a guide to the progress of R and D and other energy technology programs in radioactive waste management. The R and D objective is to provide the Nation with acceptable solutions to short- and long-term management problems for all forms of radioactive waste and spent fuel.

  10. Bubblers Speed Nuclear Waste Processing at SRS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    At the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding has supported installation of bubbler technology and related enhancements in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The improvements will accelerate the processing of radioactive waste into a safe, stable form for storage and permit expedited closure of underground waste tanks holding 37 million gallons of liquid nuclear waste.

  11. Bubblers Speed Nuclear Waste Processing at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-14

    At the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding has supported installation of bubbler technology and related enhancements in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The improvements will accelerate the processing of radioactive waste into a safe, stable form for storage and permit expedited closure of underground waste tanks holding 37 million gallons of liquid nuclear waste.

  12. Behavior of nuclear waste elements during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite in an active geothermal system: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N.C.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-12-31

    The behavior of a group of nuclear waste elements (U, Th, Sr, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, and Sm) during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite is investigated through detailed geochemical analyses of whole rocks, glass and mineral separates, and thermal waters. Significant mobility of U, Sr, Sb, Cs, and Ba is found, and the role of sorption processes in their observed behavior is identified. Th, Zr, and Sm are relatively immobile, except on a microscopic scale. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  13. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  14. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  15. Nuclear waste storage: A legislative issue

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Following an intense legislative battle, the Minnesota Legislature reaches consensus on a plan to authorize limited dry cask storage of nuclear waste at Northern States Power`s Prairie Island nuclear plant.

  16. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  17. Nuclear waste`s human dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, K.; Colglazier, E.W.; White, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    The United States has pinned its hopes for a permanent underground repository for its high-level nuclear wastes on Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Nevertheless, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) site research efforts have failed {open_quotes}to adequately consider human behavior and emotions,{close_quotes} write Kai Erikson of Yale University, E. William Colglazier of the National Academy of Sciences, and Gilbert F. White of the University of Colorado. The authors maintain that it is impossible to predict changes in geology, seismology, and hydrology that may affect the Yucca Mountain area over the next 1,000 years. Predicting human behavior in that time frame remains even more daunting, they insist. They admit that {open_quotes}DOE...has been given the impossible assignment to take tens of thousands of metric tons of the most hazardous materials ever created and, in the face of growing opposition, entomb them so that they will do little harm for thousands of years.{close_quotes} The researchers suggest that the government seek a secure, retrievable storage arrangement while it continues its search for safer long-term options.

  18. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  19. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography.

  20. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    The economical viability of nuclear waste cleanup e orts could, in some cases, be put at risk due to the difficulties faced in handling unknown and complex feedstocks. Plasma filtering, which operates on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical techniques for the processing of such wastes. In this context, the economic feasibility of plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment before ultimate disposal is analyzed. Results indicate similar costs for chemical and plasma solid-waste pretreatment per unit mass of waste, but suggest significant savings potential as a result of a superior waste mass minimization. This performance improvement is observed over a large range of waste chemical compositions, representative of legacy waste's heterogeneity. Although smaller, additional savings arise from the absence of a secondary liquid waste stream, as typically produced by chemical techniques.

  1. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    DOE PAGES

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    The economical viability of nuclear waste cleanup e orts could, in some cases, be put at risk due to the difficulties faced in handling unknown and complex feedstocks. Plasma filtering, which operates on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical techniques for the processing of such wastes. In this context, the economic feasibility of plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment before ultimate disposal is analyzed. Results indicate similar costs for chemical and plasma solid-waste pretreatment per unit mass of waste, but suggest significant savings potential as a result of a superior waste mass minimization. This performance improvement is observed overmore » a large range of waste chemical compositions, representative of legacy waste's heterogeneity. Although smaller, additional savings arise from the absence of a secondary liquid waste stream, as typically produced by chemical techniques.« less

  2. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  3. Molecular glasses for nuclear waste encapsulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, R.C.

    1982-09-28

    A molecular glass based upon a phosphate of aluminum, or other trivalent metal, provides significant improvement over prior art glasses for encapsulation of high level radioactive nuclear waste. When containing a controlled amount of those elemental oxides found in a typical nuclear waste, the waste-glass would not devitrify under conditions which produced devitrification in the non-nuclear-waste-containing glass, exhibited hydrolysis losses lower by an order of magnitude, had high solvency power for those elemental oxides, exhibited little tendency for internal crystallite formation, and possessed other desirable physical characteristics, all in direct antithesis to the properties of the best prior-known glasses used for this application.

  4. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  5. Nuclear waste: Quarterly report on DOE`s nuclear waste program as of March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-12-31

    As part of the Department of Energy`s implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE`s failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin an orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million of the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  6. OCRWM International Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.; Levich, R.; Strahl, J.

    2002-02-27

    With the implementation of nuclear power as a major energy source, the United States is increasingly faced with the challenges of safely managing its inventory of spent nuclear materials. In 2002, with 438 nuclear power facilities generating electrical energy in 31 nations around the world, the management of radioactive material including spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, is an international concern. Most of the world's nuclear nations maintain radioactive waste management programs and have generally accepted deep geologic repositories as the long-term solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Similarly, the United States is evaluating the feasibility of deep geologic disposal at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which has responsibility for managing the disposition of spent nuclear fuel produced by commercial nuclear power facilities along with U.S. government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much of the world class science conducted through the OCRWM program was enhanced through collaboration with other nations and international organizations focused on resolving issues associated with the disposition of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

  7. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  8. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Nuclear waste storage in Gabon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The geological record of Oklo, Republic of Gabon, may provide clues to the best and safest methods of storing radioactive waste products. A group of isotope geochemists from the Los Alamos National Laboratory has begun a field and laboratory study of natural geologic nuclear reactors in equatorial Africa to assess the distribution of radioactive products in the ground. The project requires a good deal of study, and the early results must be considered preliminary; nonetheless, they are very promising. T. Benjamin of Los Alamos reported recently at a meeting of the Geological Society of Washington that radionuclides did not appear to migrate great distances from several of the natural reactors at the Oklo deposit.

  10. State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office narrative report, January 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) is the State of Nevada agency designated by State law to monitor and oversee US Department of Energy (DOE) activities relative to the possible siting, construction, operation and closure of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and to carry out the State of Nevada`s responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During the reporting period the NWPO continued to work toward the five objectives designed to implement the Agency`s oversight responsibilities: (1) Assure that the health and safety of Nevada`s citizens are adequately protected with regard to any federal high-level radioactive waste program within the State; (2) Take the responsibilities and perform the duties of the State of Nevada as described in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987; (3) Advise the Governor, the State Commission on Nuclear Projects and the Nevada State Legislature on matters concerning the potential disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the State; (4) Work closely and consult with affected local governments and State agencies; (5) Monitor and evaluate federal planning and activities regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal. Plan and conduct independent State studies regarding the proposed repository.

  11. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. Nuclear archeology in a bottle: evidence of pre-Trinity U.S. weapons activities from a waste burial site.

    PubMed

    Schwantes, Jon M; Douglas, Matthew; Bonde, Steven E; Briggs, James D; Farmer, Orville T; Greenwood, Lawrence R; Lepel, Elwood A; Orton, Christopher R; Wacker, John F; Luksic, Andrzej T

    2009-02-15

    During World War II, the Hanford Site in Washington became the location for U.S. plutonium production. In 2004, a bottle containing a sample of plutonium was recovered from a Hanford waste trench. Here, state-of-the-art instrumental analyses, reactor model simulations, and investigative science techniques were used to provide insights as to the origin of this unknown sample, a process collectively termed as nuclear archeology. Isotopic age dating conducted on the sample in 2007 indicated the sample was separated from the spent fuel 61.6 +/- 4.5 years earlier. The isotope (22)Na, a detectable product of a secondary nuclear reaction, proved useful as a powerful tool for nuclear forensic analysis as (1) an easily detectable signifier of the presence of alpha emitting actinides, (2) an indicator of sample splitting, and (3) a measure of the time since sample splitting. Analytical results of minor actinide isotopes and reactor model simulations confirmed the material originated from the X-10 reactor in Oak Ridge, TN. Corroborated by historical documents, we concluded this sample was part of the first batch of Pu separated at T-Plant, Hanford, the world's first industrial-scale reprocessing facility, on December 9, 1944. This sample represents the oldest known collection of man-made (239)Pu in the world.

  13. Environmental assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of commercial low level nuclear waste across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This environmental assessment investigates the potential environmental and safety effects which could result from the land transport of low level radioactive wastes across the Savannah River Plant. Chem-Nuclear Systems operates a low level radioactive waste burial facility adjacent to the Savannah River Plant and is seeking permission from the DOE to transport the waste across Savannah River Plant.

  14. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 3, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly that is also radioactive and required disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volume 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  15. Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 2, Calculated activity profiles of spent nuclear fuel assembly hardware for pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.M.; Luksic, A.T.; Lotz, T.L.; Schutz, M.E.

    1989-06-01

    Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report present a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from Laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1.

  16. Crystallization behavior of nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Rusin, J.M.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Wald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Several waste form options have been or are being developed for the immobilization of high-level wastes. The final selection of a waste form must take into consideration both waste form product as well as process factors. Crystallization behavior has an important role in nuclear waste form technology. For glass or vitreous waste forms, crystallization is generally controlled to a minimum by appropriate glass formulation and heat treatment schedules. With glass ceramic waste forms, crystallization is essential to convert glass products to highly crystalline waste forms with a minimum residual glass content. In the case of ceramic waste forms, additives and controlled sintering schedules are used to contain the radionuclides in specific tailored crystalline phases.

  17. Nuclear Archeology in a Bottle: Evidence of Pre-Trinity U.S. Weapons Activities from a Waste Burial Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Bonde, Steven E.; Briggs, David; Farmer, Orville T.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Wacker, John F.; Luksic, Andrzej T.

    2009-02-15

    During World War II, the Hanford Site in Washington was chosen for plutonium production. In 2004, a bottle containing a sample of plutonium was recovered from a Hanford waste trench. Isotopic age dating indicated the sample was separated from the fuel pellet 64 ±2.8 years earlier. Detectable products of secondary nuclear reactions, such as 22Na, proved useful as 1) a detectable analog for alpha emitting actinides, 2) an indicator of sample splitting, and 3) a measure of the time since sample splitting. The sample origin was identified as the X-10 reactor, Oak Ridge, TN. Corroborated by historical documents, we concluded this sample was part of the first batch of Pu separated at T-Plant, Hanford, the world’s first industrial-scale reprocessing facility, on December 9, 1944.

  18. Nuclear waste disposal: The technical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, K.D.

    1997-06-01

    Public safety and billions of taxpayer dollars are at stake in the efforts to solve formidable technical problems associated with the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and defense waste.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. 10 CFR 1.18 - Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. 1.18 Section 1.18... Panels, Boards, and Committees § 1.18 Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) provides advice to the Commission on all aspects of nuclear waste management,...

  20. Solid wastes from nuclear power production.

    PubMed Central

    Soule, H F

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity in nuclear power effluents is negligible compared to that in retained wastes to be disposed of as solids. Two basic waste categories are those for which shallow disposal is accepted and those for which more extreme isolation is desired. The latter includes "high level" wastes and others contaminated with radionuclides with the unusual combined properties of long radioactive half-life and high specific radiotoxicity. The favored method for extreme isolation is emplacement in a deep stable geologic formation. Necessary technologies for waste treatment and disposal are considered available. The present program to implement these technologies is discussed, including the waste management significance of current policy on spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Recent difficulties with shallow disposal of waste are summarized. PMID:738244

  1. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S&ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriat e distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S&ER analyses.

  2. A federalist strategy for nuclear waste management.

    PubMed

    Lee, K N

    1980-05-16

    The federal government plans to rely on a policy of "consultation and concurrence" with state governments in developing nuclear waste repositories. The weaknesses of the concurrence approach are analyzed, and an alternative institutional framework for locating a waste repository is proposed: a siting jury that provides representation for state and local interests, while maintaining a high level of technical review. The proposal could be tested in the siting of away-from-reactor storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Nuclear waste: distant and expensive mirage

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-15

    The situation in the U.S. regarding the disposal of nuclear waste is briefly summarized. Current estimates are that the site will not begin operation before 2020, and that the cost will be $96 billion, which includes construction, waste transport, operation through 2133, and closure of the facility. The Department of Energy is also considering whether more disposal sites might be needed.

  4. Nuclear Waste Primer: A Handbook for Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Isabelle P.; Wiltshire, Susan D.

    This publication was developed with the intention of offering the nonexpert a concise, balanced introduction to nuclear waste. It outlines the dimensions of the problem, discussing the types and quantities of waste. Included are the sources, types, and hazards of radiation, and some of the history, major legislation, and current status of both…

  5. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  6. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  7. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  8. Doing the impossible: Recycling nuclear waste

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A Science Channel feature explores how Argonne techniques could be used to safely reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power—the most plentiful carbon-neutral energy source. Read more at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/ArgonneNow/Fall_2009/nuclear.html

  9. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    SciTech Connect

    William j. Weber; Lumin Wang; Jonathan Icenhower

    2004-07-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials.

  10. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400/sup 0/C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs.

  11. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  12. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  13. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trask, Newell J.

    As a result of the Reagan administration's commitment to nuclear energy as a significant future energy source and of attempts by the 97th Congress to grapple with legislative aspects of the problem, increased attention has focused recently on the problem of safely disposing of nuclear waste. These proceedings of the Third Symposium on Nuclear Waste Management of the Materials Research Society provide insight into the status of investigations on the subject as of late 1980. As with volumes 1 and 2 of this series, the 77 contributions are all short progress reports of ongoing research with the emphasis fittingly on materials science. Readers who wish extensive background material on the problems of nuclear-waste management and disposal, details of specific sites, or overviews of the programs of research in this country and abroad will have to look elsewhere.

  14. Nuclear Waste--Physics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahearne, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Managing and disposing of radioactive waste are major policy and financial issues in the United States and many other countries. Low-level waste sites, once thought to be possible in many states, remain fixed at the few sites that have been operating for decades. High-level waste remains at former nuclear weapons facilities and at nuclear power plants, and the DOE estimates a repository is unlikely before 2010, at the earliest. Physics and chemistry issues relate to criticality, plutonium loading in glass, leach rates, and diffusion. The public policy issues concern non-proliferation, states' rights, stakeholder participation, and nuclear power. Cleaning up the legacy of cold war driven nuclear weapons production is estimated to cost at least $250 billion and take three-quarters of a century. Some possible steps towards resolution of these issues will be described.

  15. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  16. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  17. Application of single ion activity coefficients to determine solvent extraction mechanism for components of high level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    The TRUEX solvent extraction process is being developed to remove and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from high-level and TRU radioactive wastes currently stored at US Department of Energy sites. Phosphoric acid is one of the chemical species of concern at the Hanford site where bismuth phosphate was used to recover plutonium. The mechanism of phosphoric acid extraction with TRUEX-NPH solvent at 25{degrees}C was determined by phosphoric acid distribution ratios, which were measured by using phosphoric acid radiotracer and a variety of aqueous phases containing different concentrations of nitric acid and nitrate ions. A model was developed for predicting phosphoric acid distribution ratios as a function of the thermodynamic activities of nitrate ion and hydrogen ion. The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to calculate these activities based on the Bromley method. The derived model supports CMPO and TBP extraction of a phosphoric acid-nitric acid complex and a CMPO-phosphoric acid complex in TRUEX-NPH solvent.

  18. Microstructural characterization of nuclear-waste ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J.; Clarke, D.R.

    1982-09-22

    Characterization of nuclear waste ceramics requires techniques possessing high spatial and x-ray resolution. XRD, SEM, electron microprobe, TEM and analytical EM techniques are applied to ceramic formulations designed to immobilize both commercial and defense-related reactor wastes. These materials are used to address the strengths and limitations of the techniques above. An iterative approach combining all these techniques is suggested. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  19. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  20. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized.

  1. Corrosion Engineers and Nuclear Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-07-13

    More and more articles appear in the press daily about the renaissance of nuclear energy. Even many former opponents of nuclear energy are now convinced that nuclear energy is more environmentally friendly than burning fossil fuels. Nuclear energy does not release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and therefore does not contribute to the global warming problem. But nuclear energy produces spent fuel or nuclear waste. Spent fuel is radioactive and requires thousands of years of isolation from plants, animals and humans. Every country currently studying the option for disposing of high-level nuclear waste has selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. It is postulated that by the very nature of these geological sites, they will contain the waste for long time, limiting the spread of radionuclides, for example, through water flow. The release of radionuclides to the environment can also be delayed by the construction of engineered barrier systems between the waste and the geologic formation. Corrosion engineers are participating in the design and the performance prediction of the engineered barriers. The principal engineered component in this multibarrier approach is the container for the waste. Beyond the metallic containers, other engineered barriers could be added to attenuate the impact of the emplacement environment on the containers. The containers will probably be concentric double walled vessels of dissimilar metals. Each vessel would have a specific function. For example, the inner container may be designed to shield radiation and provide structural support to facilitate the safe handling and emplacement operations. This inner container may be over-packed with a corrosion-resistant outer layer. The design of the different containers for nuclear waste would vary according to the nature of the geologic formation at the site of the repository. The most common host rocks for nuclear waste repositories in the world

  2. Waste handling activities in glovebox dismantling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio; Yoshino, Masanori; Hirano, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The Glovebox Dismantling Facility is a facility to decontaminate and size-reduce after-service gloveboxes in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The wastes generated from these dismantling activities are simultaneously handled and packaged into drums in a bag-out manner. For future waste treatment and disposal, these wastes are separated into material categories. In this paper, we present the basic steps and analyzed data for the waste handling activities. The data were collected from dismantling activities for three gloveboxes (Grinding Pellet Glovebox, Visual Inspection Glovebox, Outer-diameter Screening Glovebox) conducted from 2001-2004. We also describe both current and near-future improvements. (authors)

  3. Systems approach to nuclear waste glass development

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1986-01-01

    Development of a host solid for the immobilization of nuclear waste has focused on various vitreous wasteforms. The systems approach requires that parameters affecting product performance and processing be considered simultaneously. Application of the systems approach indicates that borosilicate glasses are, overall, the most suitable glasses for the immobilization of nuclear waste. Phosphate glasses are highly durable; but the glass melts are highly corrosive and the glasses have poor thermal stability and low solubility for many waste components. High-silica glasses have good chemical durability, thermal stability, and mechanical stability, but the associated high melting temperatures increase volatilization of hazardous species in the waste. Borosilicate glasses are chemically durable and are stable both thermally and mechanically. The borosilicate melts are generally less corrosive than commercial glasses, and the melt temperature miimizes excessive volatility of hazardous species. Optimization of borosilicate waste glass formulations has led to their acceptance as the reference nuclear wasteform in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan.

  4. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  5. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  6. Safety management of nuclear waste in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Echavarri, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, Spain has been consolidating a nuclear program that in the last 3 years has provided between 35 and 40% of the electricity consumed in that country. This program includes nine operating reactor units, eight of them based on US technology and one from Germany, a total of 7,356 MW(electric). There is also a 480-MW(electric) French gas-cooled reactor whose operation recently ceased and which will be decommissioned in the coming years. Spanish industry has participated significantly in this program, and material produced locally has reached 85% of the total. Once the construction program has been completed and operation is proceeding normally, the capacity factor will be {approximately} 80%. It will be very important to complete the nuclear program with the establishment of conditions for safe management and disposal of the nuclear waste generated during the years in which these reactors are in operation and for subsequent decommissioning. To establish the guidelines for the disposal of nuclear waste, the Spanish government approved in october 1987, with a revision in January 1989, the General Plan of Radioactive Wastes proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy and prepared by the national company for radioactive waste management, ENRESA.

  7. Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclear Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    JAEA is conducting research and development on an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), aiming at reduction of burden for high-level radioactive wastes. To tackle technical challenges on ADS, JAEA is planning to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility as the Phase-2 program of J-PARC. Moreover, JAEA is considering the collaboration with the MYRRHA project proposed by Belgian Nuclear Research Center.

  8. Incineration of nuclear waste by accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, J.; Fioni, G.; Leray, S.

    1998-10-01

    An important international effort is devoted to find a suitable solution to incinerate radioactive nuclear waste issued from conventional power plants and from nuclear disarmament. Practically all innovative projects consist of a sub critical system driven by an external neutron source obtained by spallation induced by a high intensity proton accelerator irradiating a heavy target. New nuclear data measurements are necessary for the realization of these systems, in particular a good knowledge of the spallation process and of the neutron cross sections for transuranic elements are essential.

  9. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  10. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors.

  11. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  12. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  13. Nuclear waste management: the need for immediate legislative reform

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, J.L.; Masters, L.S.

    1980-02-01

    The process of nuclear energy production is reviewed, and the prospects for technological solutions to the existing nuclear waste disposal problem are examined. The existing regulatory framework and its deficiencies in dealing with nuclear waste are discussed. Regardless of future decisions regarding the use of nuclear power, an environmentally wise and politically acceptable nuclear waste management program must be developed and implemented immediately. (101 references)

  14. Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding Evaluation Activities on a Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F; Punshon, C; Dorsch, T; Fielding, P; Richard, D; Yang, N; Hill, M; DeWald, A; Rebak, R; Day, S; Wong, L; Torres, S; McGregor, M; Hackel, L; Chen, H-L; Rankin, J

    2003-09-11

    The current waste package design for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA, employs gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in fabricating the waste packages. While GTAW is widely used in industry for many applications, it requires multiple weld passes. By comparison, single-pass welding methods inherently use lower heat input than multi-pass welding methods which results in lower levels of weld distortion and also narrower regions of residual stresses at the weld TWI Ltd. has developed a Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) welding process which allows EB welding in a reduced pressure environment ({le} 1 mbar). As it is a single-pass welding technique, use of RPEB welding could (1) achieve a comparable or better materials performance and (2) lead to potential cost savings in the waste package manufacturing as compared to GTAW. Results will be presented on the initial evaluation of the RPEB welding on a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (a candidate alloy for the Yucca Mountain waste packages) in the areas of (a) design and manufacturing simplifications, (b) material performance and (c) weld reliability.

  15. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, James; Wright, Judith

    2012-07-01

    well it performs on its own for millions of years with little engineering assistance from humans. It is critical that the states most affected by this issue (WA, SC, ID, TN, NM and perhaps others) develop an independent multi-state agreement in order for a successful program to move forward. Federal approval would follow. Unknown to most, the United States has a successful operating deep permanent geologic nuclear repository for high and low activity waste, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its success results from several factors, including an optimal geologic and physio-graphic setting, a strong scientific basis, early regional community support, frequent interactions among stakeholders at all stages of the process, long-term commitment from the upper management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over several administrations, strong New Mexico State involvement and oversight, and constant environmental monitoring from before nuclear waste was first emplaced in the WIPP underground (in 1999) to the present. WIPP is located in the massive bedded salts of the Salado Formation, whose geological, physical, chemical, redox, thermal, and creep-closure properties make it an ideal formation for long-term disposal, long-term in this case being greater than 200 million years. These properties also mean minimal engineering requirements as the rock does most of the work of isolating the waste. WIPP has been operating for twelve years, and as of this writing, has disposed of over 80,000 m{sup 3} of nuclear weapons waste, called transuranic or TRU waste (>100 nCurie/g but <23 Curie/1000 cm{sup 3}) including some high activity waste from reprocessing of spent fuel from old weapons reactors. All nuclear waste of any type from any source can be disposed in this formation better, safer and cheaper than in any other geologic formation. At the same time, it is critical that we complete the Yucca Mountain license application review so as not to

  16. Plasma techniques for reprocessing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, E.R.; Lucoff, D.M.; Omberg, R.P.; Walter, A.E.

    1993-06-01

    A newly emerging plasma-based system, currently under development for material dissociation and mass separation applications in the area of high-level radioactive waste treatment, may have possible applications as a central processing unit for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Because this system has no moving parts and obtains separations by electromagnetic techniques, it offers a distinct advantage over chemically based separation techniques, in that the total waste volume does not increase. The basic concepts underlying the operation of this plasma-based system are discussed, along with the demonstrated and expected capabilities of this system. Possible fuel reprocessing configurations using this plasma-based technology are also mentioned.

  17. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  18. State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office narrative report, January 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) is the State of Nevada agency designated by State law to monitor and oversee US Department of Energy (DOE) activities relative to the possible siting, construction, operation and closure of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and to carry out the State of Nevada`s responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During the reporting period the NWPO continued to work toward the five objectives designed to implement the Agency`s oversight responsibilities. (1) Assure that the health and safety of Nevada`s citizens are adequately protected with regard to any federal high-level radioactive waste program within the State. (2) Take the responsibilities and perform the duties of the State of Nevada as described in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. (3) Advise the Governor, the State Commission on Nuclear Projects and the Nevada State Legislature on matters concerning the potential disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the State. (4) Work closely and consult with affected local governments and State agencies. (5) Monitor and evaluate federal planning and activities regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal. Plan and conduct independent State studies regarding the proposed repository.

  19. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.; Tang, Ming; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin; Su, Dong; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2014-11-01

    Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction-oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs-Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  20. International nuclear waste management fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahms, C W; Patridge, M D; Widrig, J E

    1995-11-01

    The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    SciTech Connect

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  2. A review and overview of nuclear waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1984-12-31

    An understanding of the status and issues in the management of radioactive wastes is based on technical information on radioactivity, radiation, biological hazard of radiation exposure, radiation standards, and methods of protection. The fission process gives rise to radioactive fission products and neutron bombardment gives activation products. Radioactive wastes are classified according to source: defense, commercial, industrial, and institutional; and according to physical features: uranium mill tailings, high-level, transuranic, and low-level. The nuclear fuel cycle, which contributes a large fraction of annual radioactive waste, starts with uranium ore, includes nuclear reactor use for electrical power generation, and ends with ultimate disposal of residues. The relation of spent fuel storage and reprocessing is governed by technical, economic, and political considerations. Waste has been successfully solidified in glass and other forms and choices of the containers for the waste form are available. Methods of disposal of high-level waste that have been investigated are transmutation by neutron bombardment, shipment to Antartica, deep-hole insertion, subseabed placement, transfer by rocket to an orbit in space, and disposal in a mined cavity. The latter is the favored method. The choices of host geological media are salt, basalt, tuff, and granite.

  3. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    SciTech Connect

    Michalske, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  4. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  5. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Filippi, Arthur M.; Sprecace, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  6. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  7. Preselection of Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys as potential canister materials for vitrified high active nuclear waste by electrochemical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bort, H.; Wolf, I.; Leistikow, S.

    1987-07-01

    Several Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys (Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Sanicro 28, Incoloy 825, Inconel 690) were tested by electrochemical methods to characterize their corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions at various temperatures and pH-values in respect to their application as canister materials for final radioactive waste storage. Especially, Hastelloy C4 was tested by potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostic measurements. As electrolytes H 2SO 4 solutions were used, as parameters temperature, chloride content and pH-value were varied. All tested alloys showed a clearly limited resistance against pitting corrosion phenomena; under severe conditions even crevice corrosion phenomena were observed. The best corrosion behavior, however, is shown by Hastelloy C4, which has the lowest passivation current density of all tested alloys and the largest potential region with protection against local corrosion phenomena.

  8. Nuclear waste; Can we contain it

    SciTech Connect

    King, F.; Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that the safe disposal of nuclear waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels. The disposal of such wastes deep in stable geological formations has been extensively researched since the late 1970s and is now the preferred option internationally. In all of the proposed disposal concepts, the natural barrier of the geological formation is supplemented by a series of engineered barriers each of which retards the transport of radionuclides to the environment. The geological formations being considered usually fall into one of three general categories: crystalline rock (Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States); salt deposits (United States, Germany); and sedimentary deposits, such as clay or seabed sediments (Belgium, United Kingdom, United States), illustrates the Canadian disposal concept based on disposal in igneous rock in the Canadian Shield. The waste will consist of either used fuel bundles or immobilized reprocessed material. In the multibarrier approach the principal engineered component, and the only absolute barrier, is a metallic container enclosing the waste. The required period of containment will influence the choice of material and the thickness of the container.

  9. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-09-21

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management.

  10. Nuclear waste programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Finn, P.A.; Gerding, T.J.; Hoh, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1991-March 1992. In these programs, studies are underway on the performance of waste glass and spent fuel in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories

  11. Nuclear Waste Programs semiannual progress report, April--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1992. In these programs, studies are underway on the performance of waste glass and spent fuel in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  12. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  13. A program to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.; Meike, A.

    1996-02-20

    In this paper we discuss aspects of a comprehensive program to identify and bound potential effects of microorganisms on long-term nuclear waste containment, using as examples, studies conducted within the Yucca Mountain Project. A comprehensive program has been formulated which cuts across standard disciplinary lines to address the specific concerns of microbial activity in a radioactive waste repository. Collectively, this program provides bounding parameters of microbial activities that modify the ambient geochemistry and hydrology, modify corrosion rates, and transport and transform radionuclides under conditions expected to be encountered after geological waste emplacement. This program is intended to provide microbial reaction rates and bounding conditions in a form that can be integrated into existing chemical and hydrological models. The inclusion of microbial effects will allow those models to more accurately assess long term repository integrity.

  14. 10 CFR 1.18 - Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. 1.18 Section 1.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Panels, Boards, and Committees § 1.18 Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. The Advisory Committee...

  15. 10 CFR 1.18 - Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. 1.18 Section 1.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Panels, Boards, and Committees § 1.18 Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. The Advisory Committee...

  16. 10 CFR 1.18 - Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. 1.18 Section 1.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Panels, Boards, and Committees § 1.18 Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. The Advisory Committee...

  17. 10 CFR 1.18 - Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. 1.18 Section 1.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Panels, Boards, and Committees § 1.18 Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. The Advisory Committee...

  18. Ventilation planning for a prospective nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, K.G. Jr.

    1987-12-31

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to provide for the development of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. This development will be managed by the United States Department of Energy. In 1986, the President selected three areas for site characterization to determine their suitability for the development of an underground repository; those sites were: (1) A site in volcanic tuff located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, (2) a site in bedded salt located in Deaf Smith County in Texas, and (3) a site in basalt located in Hanford, Washington. At present conceptual repository designs are being developed for each site. A key element of a repository design is the underground ventilation system required to support construction, nuclear waste emplacement, and potential waste retrieval. This paper describes the preliminary ventilation systems designed for the repository in tuff. The concept provides separate ventilation systems for the construction and waste emplacement activities. The paper further describes the means by which acceptable environmental conditions will be re-established to allow re-entry into previously closed rooms for the purpose of inspection, maintenance or retrieval.

  19. Review of concrete biodeterioration in relation to nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Turick, Charles E; Berry, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste in concrete structures is a means of containing wastes and related radionuclides generated from nuclear operations in many countries. Previous efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that are used to contain radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete structures used to store or dispose of radioactive waste. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources such as components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The microbial contribution to degradation of the concrete structures containing radioactive waste is a constant possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Parameters to focus on for modeling activities and possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation are discussed and include key conditions that drive microbial activity on concrete surfaces.

  20. Review of concrete biodeterioration in relation to nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Turick, Charles E; Berry, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste in concrete structures is a means of containing wastes and related radionuclides generated from nuclear operations in many countries. Previous efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that are used to contain radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete structures used to store or dispose of radioactive waste. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources such as components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The microbial contribution to degradation of the concrete structures containing radioactive waste is a constant possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Parameters to focus on for modeling activities and possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation are discussed and include key conditions that drive microbial activity on concrete surfaces. PMID:26397745

  1. Alternative Approaches to Recycling Nuclear Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannum, William H.

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear power exists, and as the demand for non-fossil electricity generation increases, many more nuclear plants are being planned and built. The result is growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel containing plutonium that -- in principle, at least -- can be used to make nuclear explosives. There are countries and organizations that are believed to want nuclear weapons, posing a knotty proliferation problem that calls for realistic control of nuclear materials. Phasing out nuclear power and sequestering all dangerous materials in guarded storage or in geological formations would not be a realistic approach. Plutonium from commercial spent fuel is very hard to make into a weapon. However, a rogue nation could operate a power plant so as to produce plutonium with weapons-quality isotopics, and then chemically purify it. IAEA safeguards are designed to discourage this, but the only enforcement is referral to the United Nations General Assembly. The traditional reprocessing method, PUREX, produces plutonium that has the chemical purity needed for weapons. However, there are alternative approaches that produce only highly radioactive blends of fissionable materials and fission products. Recycle offers a market for spent nuclear fuel, promoting more rigorous accounting of these materials. Unlike PUREX, the new technologies permit the recycle and consumption of essentially all of the high-hazard transuranics, and will reduce the required isolation time for the waste to less than 500 years. Facilities for recovering recyclable materials from LWR spent fuel will be large and expensive. Only a very few such plants will be needed, leading to appropriate concentration of safeguards measures. Plants for recycling the spent fuel from fast burner reactors can be collocated with the power plants and share the safeguards.

  2. Calculation of activities of ions in molten salts with potential application to the pyroprocessing of nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Salanne, Mathieu; Simon, Christian; Turq, Pierre; Madden, Paul A

    2008-01-31

    The ability to separate fission products by electrodeposition from molten salts depends, in part, on differences between the interactions of the different fission product cations with the ions present in the molten salt "solvent". These differences may be expressed as ratios of activity coefficients, which depend on the identity of the solvent and other factors. Here, we demonstrate the ability to calculate these activity coefficient ratios using molecular dynamics simulations with sufficient precision to guide the choice of suitable solvent systems in practical applications. We use polarizable ion interaction potentials which have previously been shown to give excellent agreement with structural, transport, and spectroscopic information of the molten salts, and the activity coefficients calculated in this work agree well with experimental data. The activity coefficients are shown to vary systematically with cation size for a set of trivalent cations.

  3. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  4. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada.

  5. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  6. Congress Examines Nuclear Waste Disposal Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    During an 8 February U.S. congressional hearing to examine how to move forward on dealing with spent nuclear fuel and to review other recommendations of the recently released final report of the White House-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), Yucca Mountain was the 65,000-ton gorilla in the room. BRC's charge was to conduct a comprehensive review of policies to manage the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new strategy for dealing with the 65,000 tons of spent nuclear fuel currently stored at 75 sites around the country and the 2000 tons of new spent fuel being produced each year. However, BRC specifically did not evaluate Yucca Mountain. A 26 January letter from BRC to U.S. secretary of energy Steven Chu states, "You directed that the Commission was not to serve as a siting body. Accordingly, we have not evaluated Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or disposal of high-level waste nor have we taken a position on the administration's request to withdraw the Yucca Mountain license application."

  7. Predicting the Lifetimes of Nuclear Waste Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    As for many aspects of the disposal of nuclear waste, the greatest challenge we have in the study of container materials is the prediction of the long-term performance over periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Various methods have been used for predicting the lifetime of containers for the disposal of high-level waste or spent fuel in deep geological repositories. Both mechanical and corrosion-related failure mechanisms need to be considered, although until recently the interactions of mechanical and corrosion degradation modes have not been considered in detail. Failure from mechanical degradation modes has tended to be treated through suitable container design. In comparison, the inevitable loss of container integrity due to corrosion has been treated by developing specific corrosion models. The most important aspect, however, is to be able to justify the long-term predictions by demonstrating a mechanistic understanding of the various degradation modes.

  8. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  9. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  10. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  11. Nevada may lose nuclear waste funds

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1988-06-24

    The people of Nevada are concerned that a cut in DOE funding for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will result in cuts in the state monitoring program, e.g. dropping a seismic monitoring network and a sophisticated drilling program. Economic and social impact studies will be curtailed. Even though a provision to curtail local research forbids duplication of DOE`s work and would limit the ability of Nevada to go out and collect its own data, Nevada State University at Las Vegas would receive a nice plum, a top-of-the-line supercomputer known as the ETA-10 costing almost $30 million financed by DOE.

  12. Thermochemical data for nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.

    1984-05-01

    Thermochemical data for nuclear waste disposal are compiled. The resulting data base consists of enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of formation, and Debye-Huckel coefficients of selected substances for about 25 elements. Values of the data are combined with intrinsic equilibrium constants at 25/sup 0/C and zero ionic strength to calculate equilibrium quotients to 350/sup 0/C and 3 ionic strength. PuSO/sub 4//sup 2 +/, UOH/sup 3 +/ and UO/sub 2/CO/sub 3/(aq) are given as examples.

  13. Nuclear waste disposal: potential property value impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hageman, R.K.

    1981-10-01

    Hedonic price theory was employed to show that although negative impacts on property values may occur due to perceived risks of locating proximate to nuclear facilities or waste transport routes, these impacts may be over-shadowed by offsetting effects. The possibility of property value impacts occurring in combination tends to confound results derived from statistical property value studies, and an effort was made in the analysis to collect data on potential property value impacts through interviews based on systematic group judgement. The approach succeeded in identifying instances where property value loss has been claimed, and in some cases the loss was attributed to the fear generated by proximity to potential nuclear hazards. The lack of evidence does not allow for conclusions. (JMT)

  14. Liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-03-11

    The performance of liquid centrifugation for nuclear waste partitioning is examined for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Program currently under study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Centrifugation might have application for the separation of the LiF-BeF{sub 2} salt from heavier radioactive materials fission product and actinides in the separation of fission product from actinides, in the isotope separation of fission-product cesium before transmutation of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 135}Cs, and in the removal of spallation product from the liquid lead target. It is found that useful chemical separations should be possible using existing materials for the centrifuge construction for all four cases with the actinide fraction in fission product perhaps as low as 1 part in 10{sup 7} and the fraction of {sup 137}CS in {sup 133}Cs being as low as a few parts in 10{sup 5}. A centrifuge cascade has the advantage that it can be assembled and operated as a completely closed system without a waste stream except that associated with maintenance or replacement of centrifuge components.

  15. Nuclear waste disposal utilizing a gaseous core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paternoster, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a gaseous core nuclear reactor designed to produce power to also reduce the national inventories of long-lived reactor waste products through nuclear transmutation was examined. Neutron-induced transmutation of radioactive wastes is shown to be an effective means of shortening the apparent half life.

  16. For Sale: Nuclear Waste Sites--Anyone Buying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Don

    1992-01-01

    Explores why the United States Nuclear Waste Program has been unable to find a volunteer state to host either a nuclear waste repository or monitored retrieval storage facility. Discusses the Department of Energy's plans for Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a repository and state and tribal responses to the plan. (21 references) (MCO)

  17. Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2007-09-01

    The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses “throw-away” technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

  18. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg B. Egorov; Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2004-06-01

    This research program is directed toward rapid, sensitive, and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 99Tc, 90Sr, and trans-uranium (TRU) elements in low-activity waste (LAW) processing streams. The overall technical approach is based on automated radiochemical measurement principles, which entails integration of sample treatment and separation chemistries and radiometric detection within a single functional analytical instrument. Nuclear waste process streams are particularly challenging for rapid analytical methods due to the complex, high-ionic-strength, caustic brine sample matrix, the presence of interfering radionuclides, and the variable and uncertain speciation of the radionuclides of interest. As a result, matrix modification, speciation control, and separation chemistries are required for use in automated process analyzers. Significant knowledge gaps exist relative to the design of chemistries for such analyzers so that radionuclides can be quantitatively and rapidly separated and analyzed in solutions derived from low-activity waste processing operations. This research is addressing these knowledge gaps in the area of separation science, nuclear detection, and analytical chemistry and instrumentation.

  19. Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1984-05-08

    Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the human and environmental risk fall into four basic categories: geologic and seismological conditions at each HWF; engineered structures at each HWF; environmental conditions at each HWF; and nature of the material being released. In selecting and carrying out the six case studies, three groups of hazardous waste facilities were examined: generator industries which treat or temporarily store their own wastes; generator facilities which dispose of their own hazardous wastes on site; and industries in the waste treatment and disposal business. The case studies have a diversity of geologic setting, nearby settlement patterns, and environments. Two sites are above a regional aquifer, two are near a bay important to regional fishing, one is in rural hills, and one is in a desert, although not isolated from nearby towns and a groundwater/surface-water system. From the results developed in the study, it was concluded that the effect of seismic activity on hazardous facilities poses a significant risk to the population. Fifteen reasons are given for this conclusion.

  20. Problems and prospects for nuclear waste disposal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Herzik, E.B.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    This book is a collection of articles examining legal, organizational, and public-interest issues involving the transportation, storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes. The introductions examines the unresolved issues of nuclear-waste policy-making in the USA and then presents essays covering the disposal of commercial power plant fuel, low level radioactive wastes, the by-products of nuclear weapons production, and the challenges of transporting radiological materials.

  1. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions

  2. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup

  3. Solid radioactive waste management facility design for managing CANDU{sup R} 600 MW nuclear generating station re-tube/refurbishment Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pontikakis, N.; Hopkins, J.; Scott, D.; Bajaj, V.; Nosella, L.

    2007-07-01

    The main design features of the re-tube canisters, waste handling equipment and waste containers designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL{sup R}) and implemented in support of the re-tube/refurbishment activities for Candu 600 MW nuclear generating stations are described in this paper. The re-tube/refurbishment waste characterization and the waste management principles, which form the basis of the design activities, are also briefly outlined. (authors)

  4. Hydrologic issues associated with nuclear waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Neretnieks, Ivars; Tsang, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Significant progress in hydrology, especially in subsurface flow and solute transport, has been made over the last 35 years because of sustained interest in underground nuclear waste repositories. The present paper provides an overview of the key hydrologic issues involved, and to highlight advances in their understanding and treatment because of these efforts. The focus is not on the development of radioactive waste repositories and their safety assessment, but instead on the advances in hydrologic science that have emerged from such studies. Work and results associated with three rock types, which are being considered to host the repositories, are reviewed, with a different emphasis for each rock type. The first rock type is fractured crystalline rock, for which the discussion will be mainly on flow and transport in saturated fractured rock. The second rock type is unsaturated tuff, for which the emphasis will be on flow from the shallow subsurface through the unsaturated zone to the repository. The third rock type is clay-rich formations, whose permeability is very low in an undisturbed state. In this case, the emphasis will be on hydrologic issues that arise from mechanical and thermal disturbances; i.e., on the relevant coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The extensive research results, especially those from multiyear large-scale underground research laboratory investigations, represent a rich body of information and data that can form the basis for further development in the related areas of hydrologic research.

  5. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  6. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  7. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOEpatents

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Galvin, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  8. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    DOEpatents

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  9. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  10. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  11. Nuclear energy and radioactive waste disposal in the age of recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, James L.; Apted, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of humanity's energy needs requires that we embrace a multitude of various energy sources and applications. For a variety of reasons, nuclear energy must be a major portion of the distribution, at least one third. The often-cited strategic hurdle to this approach is nuclear waste disposal. Present strategies concerning disposal of nuclear waste need to be changed if the world is to achieve both a sustainable energy distribution by 2040 and solve the largest environmental issue of the 21. century - global warming. It is hoped that ambitious proposals to replace fossil fuel power generation by alternatives will drop the percentage of fossil fuel use substantially, but the absolute amount of fossil fuel produced electricity must be kept at or below its present 10 trillion kW-hrs/year. Unfortunately, the rapid growth in consumption to over 30 trillion kW-hrs/year by 2040, means that 20 trillion kW-hrs/yr of non-fossil fuel generated power has to come from other sources. If half of that comes from alternative non-nuclear, non-hydroelectric sources (an increase of 3000%), then nuclear still needs to increase by a factor of four worldwide to compensate. Many of the reasons nuclear energy did not expand after 1970 in North America (proliferation, capital costs, operational risks, waste disposal, and public fear) are no longer a problem. The WIPP site in New Mexico, an example of a solution to the nuclear waste disposal issue, and also to public fear, is an operating deep geologic nuclear waste repository in the massive bedded salt of the Salado Formation. WIPP has been operating for eight years, and as of this writing, has disposed of over 50,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic waste (>100 nCi/g but <23 Curie/liter) including high activity waste. The Salado Formation is an ideal host for any type of nuclear waste, especially waste from recycled spent fuel. (authors)

  12. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  13. Hydrothermal ore deposit and geothermal analogs of nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Hackbarth, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits and active geothermal systems can provide important information on the response of a rock/ground water system to the emplacement of hot, radioactive nuclear waste. Congress has mandated that the first deep geologic repository be licensed by 1998, so that scientific investigation must be completed in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies are sometimes too short and on too small a scale to adequately simulate the geologic environment over thousands of years. Computer models are often highly simplified. Fortunately, data from the field of economic geology can help scientist anticipate future nuclear waste repository behaviors in a complex environment over long periods of time. Some phenomena in ore deposits are direct parallels to possible repository phenomena. Some ore and gangue minerals show colloidal textures, indicating that colloids may contribute to radionuclide redistribution in a repository. Wall rock alteration in ore deposits indicates the types of alteration to be expected in a repository. In addition to individual analogous phenomena, hydrothermal convection may develop in the ground water after emplacement of waste. Primary dispersion halos, paragenetic relationships, and fluid inclusion data from ore deposits can help to predict the size, shape, and duration of convection cells which might be expected around a repository. Such studies might also identify the significant effects of complex coupling between thermal, hydrological, chemical, and mechanical factors.

  14. Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-06-22

    'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'

  15. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  16. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  17. Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program.

  18. Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-30

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables.

  19. Nuclear hazardous waste cost control management

    SciTech Connect

    Selg, R.A.

    1991-05-09

    The effects of the waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are currently under study to adjust the glass frit content to optimize the glass waste loadings and therefore significantly reduce the overall waste disposal cost. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Changes in waste contents affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt% waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Optimization of the glass waste forms to be produced in the SWPF is being supported by economic evaluations of the impact of the forms on waste disposal costs. Glass compositions are specified for acceptable melt processing and durability characteristics, with economic effects tracked by the number of waste canisters produced. This paper presents an evaluation of the effects of variations in waste content of the glass waste forms on the overall cost of the disposal, including offsite shipment and repository emplacement, of the Savannah River high-level wastes.

  20. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  1. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  2. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-03-01

    Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

  3. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

  4. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  5. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  6. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  7. Can clays ensure nuclear waste repositories?

    PubMed

    Zaoui, A; Sekkal, W

    2015-03-06

    Research on argillite as a possible host rock for nuclear waste disposal is still an open subject since many issues need to be clarified. In the Underground Research Laboratories constructed for this purpose, a damaged zone around the excavation has been systematically observed and characterized by the appearance of micro-fissures. We analyse here -at nanoscale level- the calcite/clay assembly, the main constituents of argillite, under storage conditions and show the fragility of the montmorillonite with respect to calcite. Under anisotropic stress, we have observed a shear deformation of the assembly with the presence of broken bonds in the clay mineral, localised in the octahedral rather than the tetrahedral layers. The stress/strain curve leads to a failure strength point at 18.5 MPa. The obtained in-plane response of the assembly to perpendicular deformation is characterized by smaller perpendicular moduli Ez = 48.28 GPa compared to larger in-plane moduli Ex = 141.39 GPa and Ey = 134.02 GPa. Our calculations indicate the instability of the assembly without water molecules at the interface in addition to an important shear deformation.

  8. Can clays ensure nuclear waste repositories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaoui, A.; Sekkal, W.

    2015-03-01

    Research on argillite as a possible host rock for nuclear waste disposal is still an open subject since many issues need to be clarified. In the Underground Research Laboratories constructed for this purpose, a damaged zone around the excavation has been systematically observed and characterized by the appearance of micro-fissures. We analyse here -at nanoscale level- the calcite/clay assembly, the main constituents of argillite, under storage conditions and show the fragility of the montmorillonite with respect to calcite. Under anisotropic stress, we have observed a shear deformation of the assembly with the presence of broken bonds in the clay mineral, localised in the octahedral rather than the tetrahedral layers. The stress/strain curve leads to a failure strength point at 18.5 MPa. The obtained in-plane response of the assembly to perpendicular deformation is characterized by smaller perpendicular moduli Ez = 48.28 GPa compared to larger in-plane moduli Ex = 141.39 GPa and Ey = 134.02 GPa. Our calculations indicate the instability of the assembly without water molecules at the interface in addition to an important shear deformation.

  9. Can clays ensure nuclear waste repositories?

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, A.; Sekkal, W.

    2015-01-01

    Research on argillite as a possible host rock for nuclear waste disposal is still an open subject since many issues need to be clarified. In the Underground Research Laboratories constructed for this purpose, a damaged zone around the excavation has been systematically observed and characterized by the appearance of micro-fissures. We analyse here -at nanoscale level- the calcite/clay assembly, the main constituents of argillite, under storage conditions and show the fragility of the montmorillonite with respect to calcite. Under anisotropic stress, we have observed a shear deformation of the assembly with the presence of broken bonds in the clay mineral, localised in the octahedral rather than the tetrahedral layers. The stress/strain curve leads to a failure strength point at 18.5 MPa. The obtained in-plane response of the assembly to perpendicular deformation is characterized by smaller perpendicular moduli Ez = 48.28 GPa compared to larger in-plane moduli Ex = 141.39 GPa and Ey = 134.02 GPa. Our calculations indicate the instability of the assembly without water molecules at the interface in addition to an important shear deformation. PMID:25742950

  10. Nuclear waste actinides as fissile fuel in hybrid blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, S.; Al-Kusayer, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    The widespread use of the present LWRs produces substantial quantities of nuclear waste materials. Among those, actinide nuclear waste poses a serious problem of stockage because the associated half life times for actinides is measured in terms of geological time periods (several millions of years) so that no waste disposal guarantee over such time intervals can be given, except for space disposal. On the other hand, these nuclear waste actinides are very good fissionable materials for high energetic (D,T) fusion neutrons. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate their quality as potential nuclear fuel in hybrid blankets. The present study investigates the neutronic performance of hybrid blankets containing Np/sup 237/ and Cm/sup 244/ as fissile materials. The isotopic composition of Americium has been adjusted to the spent fuel isotope composition of a LWR. The geometrical design has been made, according to the AYMAN fussion-fission (hybrid) experimental facility, now in the very early phase of planning.

  11. [The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste].

    PubMed

    Chaussade, J P

    1995-03-15

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricité de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality. EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the "Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioadctifs" (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste).

  12. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs (b... shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following information: (1) The name... nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in...

  13. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs (b... shipment of irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste must contain the following information: (1) The name... nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in...

  14. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-12-28

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

  15. Four themes that underlie the high-level nuclear waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1982, after years of deliberation and in response to mounting pressures from environmental, industrial, and other groups, the US Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, which was signed into law by the President in January 1983. That legislation signified a major milestone in the nation's management of high-level nuclear waste, since it represented a consensus among the nation's lawmakers to tackle a problem that had evaded solution for decades. Implementation of the NWPA has proven to be exceedingly difficult, as attested by the discord generated by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) geologic repository and monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility siting activities. The vision that motivated the crafters of the 1982 act became blurred as opposition to the law increased. After many hearings that underscored the public's concern with the waste management program, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act), which steamlined and focused the program, while establishing three independent bodies: the MRS Review Commission, the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, and the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator. Yet, even as the program evolves, several themes characterizing the nation's effort to solve the waste management problem continue to prevail. The first of these themes has to do with social consciousness, and the others that follow deal with technical leadership, public involvement and risk perceptions, and program conservatism.

  16. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  17. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-07-05

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  19. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  20. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository. PMID:19376651

  1. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  2. Nuclear Waste Cross Site Transfer Pump Operational Resonance Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    HAUCK, F.M.

    1999-12-01

    Two single-volute, multi-stage centrifugal pumps are installed at a nuclear waste transfer station operated by the Department of Energy in Hanford, WA. The two parallel 100% pumps are Variable Frequency Drive operated and designed to transport waste etc.

  3. Method for calcining nuclear waste solutions containing zirconium and halides

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Billie J.

    1979-01-01

    A reduction in the quantity of gelatinous solids which are formed in aqueous zirconium-fluoride nuclear reprocessing waste solutions by calcium nitrate added to suppress halide volatility during calcination of the solution while further suppressing chloride volatility is achieved by increasing the aluminum to fluoride mole ratio in the waste solution prior to adding the calcium nitrate.

  4. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  5. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.; Ackerman, John P.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Fischer, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

  6. Nuclear waste/nuclear power: their futures are linked

    SciTech Connect

    Skoblar, L.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews current aspects of radioactive waste disposal techniques and transportation. Addressed are high-level and low-level radioactive wastes, interim spent fuel storage and transportation. The waste options being explored by DOE are listed. Problems of public acceptance will be more difficult to overcome than technical problems. (DMC)

  7. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2013-03-01

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven system. The present paper aims at a short introduction into the field that has been characterized by a high collaborative activity during the last decade in Europe, in order to focus, in its later part, on the MYRRHA project as the European ADS technology demonstrator.

  8. Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

  9. Glass Property Models, Constraints, and Formulation Approaches for Vitrification of High-Level Nuclear Wastes at the US Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang

    2015-03-02

    The legacy nuclear wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy’s Hanford site is planned to be separated into high-level waste and low-activity waste fractions and vitrified separately. Formulating optimized glass compositions that maximize the waste loading in glass is critical for successful and economical treatment and immobilization of nuclear wastes. Glass property-composition models have been developed and applied to formulate glass compositions for various objectives for the past several decades. The property models with associated uncertainties and combined with composition and property constraints have been used to develop preliminary glass formulation algorithms designed for vitrification process control and waste form qualification at the planned waste vitrification plant. This paper provides an overview of current status of glass property-composition models, constraints applicable to Hanford waste vitrification, and glass formulation approaches that have been developed for vitrification of hazardous and highly radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford site.

  10. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1990-01-01

    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  12. Nuclear system that burns its own wastes shows promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, K.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fission energy system, capable of eliminating a significant amount of its radioactive wastes by burning them, is described. A theoretical investigation of this system conducted by computer analysis, is based on use of gaseous fuel nuclear reactors. Gaseous core reactors using a uranium plasma fuel are studied along with development for space propulsion.

  13. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-12-04

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described. (DMC)

  14. Radiation effects in a model ceramic for nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.

    2007-04-01

    The safe immobilization of nuclear waste in geological repositories is one of the major scientific challenges facing humanity today. Crystalline ceramics hold the promise of locking up actinides from nuclear fuel and excess weapons plutonium in their structure thereby isolating them from the environment. This paper presents the atomistic details of radiation damage in a model ceramic, zircon.

  15. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  16. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  17. Evaluation of Waste Arising from Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Taiwo, Temitope; Wigeland, Roald

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was recently completed at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to evaluate and screen nuclear fuel cycles. The final report was issued in October 2014. Uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles were evaluated using both fast and thermal spectrum reactors. Once-through, limited-recycle, and continuous-recycle cases were considered. This study used nine evaluation criteria to identify promising fuel cycles. Nuclear waste management was one of the nine evaluation criteria. The waste generation criterion from this study is discussed herein.

  18. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry, which accounts for about 20% of the total electricity supply, is a vital part of the nation`s energy resource. While it generates approximately one-third of the commercial low-level radioactive waste produced in the country, it has achieved one of the most successful examples in waste minimization. On the other hand, progress on development of new disposal facilities by the state compacts is currently stalled. The milestones have been repeatedly postponed, and the various Acts passed by Congress on nuclear waste disposal have not accomplished what they were intended to do. With dwindling access to waste disposal sites and with escalating disposal costs, the power plant utilities are forced to store wastes onsite as an interim measure. However, such temporary measures are not a permanent solution. A national will is sorely needed to break out of the current impasse.

  20. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  1. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Kanai; Higgins, William; Van Loef, Edgar V

    2006-01-23

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr3:Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr3:Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr3 and LaI3) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBrxCl3-x:Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr3 and LaCl3) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr3:Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce is lower than that for LaBr3:Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl3 is lower than that of LaBr3), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce than LaBr3:Ce since in some instances (for example, CdxZn1-xTe), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu2+ and Pr3+, tried in LaBr3 host crystals, the Eu2+ doped samples exhibited low light output. This was mostly because a

  2. CESAR: A Code for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, J.M.; Grouiller, J.P.; Launay, A.; Berthion, Y.; Marc, A.; Toubon, H.

    2006-07-01

    CESAR (Simplified Evolution Code Applied to Reprocessing) is a depletion code developed through a joint program between CEA and COGEMA. In the late 1980's, the first use of this code dealt with nuclear measurement at the Laboratories of the La Hague reprocessing plant. The use of CESAR was then extended to characterizations of all entrance materials and for characterisation, via tracer, of all produced waste. The code can distinguish more than 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 100 activation products, and it can characterise both the fuel and the structural material of the fuel. CESAR can also make depletion calculations from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. Between 2003-2005, the 5. version of the code was developed. The modifications were related to the harmonisation of the code's nuclear data with the JEF2.2 nuclear data file. This paper describes the code and explains the extensive use of this code at the La Hague reprocessing plant and also for prospective studies. The second part focuses on the modifications of the latest version, and describes the application field and the qualification of the code. Many companies and the IAEA use CESAR today. CESAR offers a Graphical User Interface, which is very user-friendly. (authors)

  3. Nuclear Waste: Increasing Scale and Sociopolitical Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porte, Todd R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the impact of radioactive waste management system on social and political development. The article also presents (1) types of information necessary to estimate the costs and consequences of radioactive waste management; and (2) an index of radioactive hazards to improve the basis for policy decisions. (HM)

  4. Scenarios for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Scenarios describing representative exposure cases associated with the disposal of low activity waste from the Hanford Waste Tanks have been defined. These scenarios are based on guidance from the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and previous Hanford waste disposal performance assessments.

  5. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.

  6. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Knudson

    2003-10-02

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis

  7. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2005-07-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis

  8. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  9. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  10. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  11. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins.

  12. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins. PMID:20022419

  13. Development of reference conditions for geologic repositories for nuclear waste in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Raines, G. E.; Rickertsen, L. D.; Claiborne, H. C.; McElroy, J. L.; Lynch, R. W.

    1980-10-01

    Activities to determine interim reference conditions for temperatures, pressure, fluid, chemical, and radiation environments that are expected to exist in commercial and defense high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt, basalt, tuff, granite, and shale are summarized. These interim conditions are being generated by the Reference Repository Conditions Interface Working Groups (RRC-IWG), an ad hoc IWG established by the National Waste Terminal Storage Program's (NWTS) Isolation Interface Control Board (I-ICB).

  14. Nuclear waste: increasing scale and sociopolitical impacts.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, T R

    1978-07-01

    The article argues that insufficient attention has been paid to the operational aspects of the U.S. radioactive waste management system when it grows to the scale necessary to handle wastes produced by a fully deployed plutonium economy. Without such information, many of the unsettling speculations which have become part of the public debate and are summarized herein cannot be clearly addressed. The article then outlines the types of information necessary to begin estimating the costs and consequences of radioactive waste management. Finally, an index of social exposure to radioactive hazard is proposed to improve the basis for policy decisions in this area.

  15. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; West, J M

    1997-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in Canada. This concept, based on a multibarrier system, would involve disposal of nuclear fuel waste in titanium or copper containers, surrounded by compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault 500-1000 m deep in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. Subsurface environments will not be sterile and an experimental program was initiated in 1991 by AECL to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal vault. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation, temperature and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the results to date from the research activities at AECL. PMID:9299719

  16. Microbial studies in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; West, J M

    1997-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for permanent geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in Canada. This concept, based on a multibarrier system, would involve disposal of nuclear fuel waste in titanium or copper containers, surrounded by compacted clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault 500-1000 m deep in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. Subsurface environments will not be sterile and an experimental program was initiated in 1991 by AECL to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the disposal vault. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria in compacted clay-based buffer materials under relevant radiation, temperature and desiccation conditions; mobility of microbes in compacted buffer materials; the potential for microbially influenced corrosion of containers; microbial gas production in backfill material; introduction of nutrients as a result of vault excavation and operation; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This paper summarizes the results to date from the research activities at AECL.

  17. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  18. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended with appropriations acts appended

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Titles 1 and 2 cover these subjects. Also included in this Act are: Title 3: Other provisions relating to radioactive waste; Title 4: Nuclear waste negotiation; Title 5: Nuclear waste technical review board; and Title 6: High-level radioactive waste. An appendix contains excerpts from appropriations acts from fiscal year 1984--1994.

  19. Nuclear waste management: the need for immediate legislative reform

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, J.L.; Masters, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    A balance must be struck between nuclear power advocates, who insist that the environmental consequences of present energy sources pose a greater ecological threat than does nuclear energy and that increasing reliance on foreign energy sources menaces American security, and nuclear detractors, who question that actual potential of nuclear energy. Nuclear opponents object to the moral and philosophical implications of bequeathing risks to future generations in order to satisfy the present generation's demand. The continued production of commercial radioactive waste is becoming an increasingly more significant constraint on nuclear power at a time of rising costs and constricted energy supplies. It is an issue demanding an immediate, yet considered, legislative response. Congress must organize a political framework in which the inherent risks can be equitably distributed with a minimum of dissention. Regardless of the ultimate decision on nuclear power's future, an environmentally wise and politically acceptable management program must be developed and implemented. 101 references.

  20. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10/sup 6/ years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES CONTINUOUS MELTING AND BULK VITRIFICAITON

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2008-03-24

    This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Nuclear wastes have a variety of components and composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee the glass can be easily made and resist environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models, and the strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste compositions presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slow down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; the glass on cooling may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

  2. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    SciTech Connect

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  3. Nuclear Waste Policy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Calloway, Jr., Bond T.

    2010-07-01

    The current U.S. reactor fleet produces 2,100–2,400 ton/yr of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). After 50-plus years of nuclear power generation, 58,000 tons of SNF has accumulated in temporary storage at the reactor sites. How did we get where we are, and where do we go from here?

  4. Differential lead retention in zircons: implications for nuclear waste containment.

    PubMed

    Gentry, R V; Sworski, T J; McKown, H S; Smith, D H; Eby, R E; Christie, W H

    1982-04-16

    An innovative ultrasensitive technique was used for lead isotopic analysis of individual zircons extracted from granite core samples at depths of 960, 2170, 2900, 3930, and 4310 meters. The results show that lead, a relatively mobile element compared to the nuclear waste-related actinides uranium and thorium, has been highly retained at elevated temperatures (105 degrees to 313 degrees C) under conditions relevant to the burial of synthetic rock waste containers in deep granite holes.

  5. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  6. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  7. Preclosure analysis of conceptual waste package designs for a nuclear waste repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, W.C.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Russell, E.W.; Stein, W.

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for possible disposal of high-level nuclear waste at a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The design requirements that the waste package must conform to are listed, as are several desirable design considerations. Illustrations of the reference and alternative designs are shown. Four austenitic stainless steels (316L SS, 321 SS, 304L SS and Incoloy 825 high nickel alloy) have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and ecnonmic analyses supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Postclosure containment and release rates are not analyzed in this report.

  8. Can Sisyphus succeed? Getting U.S. high-level nuclear waste into a geological repository.

    PubMed

    North, D Warner

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government has the obligation of managing the high-level radioactive waste from its defense activities and also, under existing law, from civilian nuclear power generation. This obligation is not being met. The January 2012 Final Report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future provides commendable guidance but little that is new. The author, who served on the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently on the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council from 1994 to 1999, provides a perspective both on the Commission's recommendations and a potential path toward progress in meeting the federal obligation. By analogy to Sisyphus of Greek mythology, our nation needs to find a way to roll the rock to the top of the hill and have it stay there, rather than continuing to roll back down again.

  9. Can Sisyphus succeed? Getting U.S. high-level nuclear waste into a geological repository.

    PubMed

    North, D Warner

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government has the obligation of managing the high-level radioactive waste from its defense activities and also, under existing law, from civilian nuclear power generation. This obligation is not being met. The January 2012 Final Report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future provides commendable guidance but little that is new. The author, who served on the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently on the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council from 1994 to 1999, provides a perspective both on the Commission's recommendations and a potential path toward progress in meeting the federal obligation. By analogy to Sisyphus of Greek mythology, our nation needs to find a way to roll the rock to the top of the hill and have it stay there, rather than continuing to roll back down again. PMID:23311528

  10. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  11. Recovery of transplutonium elements from nuclear reactor waste

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, David O.; Buxton, Samuel R.

    1977-05-24

    A method of separating actinide values from nitric acid waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels comprises oxalate precipitation of the major portion of actinide and lanthanide values to provide a trivalent fraction suitable for subsequent actinide/lanthanide partition, exchange of actinide and lanthanide values in the supernate onto a suitable cation exchange resin to provide an intermediate-lived raffinate waste stream substantially free of actinides, and elution of the actinide values from the exchange resin. The eluate is then used to dissolve the trivalent oxalate fraction prior to actinide/lanthanide partition or may be combined with the reprocessing waste stream and recycled.

  12. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-03-21

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  13. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1988-07-12

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  14. Thermal investigation of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal analysis has been conducted to determine the allowable size and response of bare and shielded nuclear waste forms in both low earth orbit and at 0.85 astronomical units. Contingency conditions of re-entry with a 45 deg and 60 deg aeroshell are examined as well as re-entry of a spherical shielded waste form. A variety of shielded schemes were examined and the waste form thermal response for each determined. Two optimum configurations were selected. The thermal response of these two shielded waste configurations to indefinite exposure to ground conditions following controlled and uncontrolled re-entry is determined. In all cases the prime criterion is that waste containment must be maintained.

  15. Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.

    2007-07-01

    Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

  16. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    Reports and summaries are provided for the following programs: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclide in soils; low-level waste generation reduction handbook; waste management system studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

  17. Immobilization and geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Tait, J C

    1984-08-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is developing methods for the safe disposal of both used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste. The disposal strategy is based on interim storage of the used fuel, immobilization of either used fuel or recycle waste, and disposal, deep in a stable geological formation in the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept proposes a multibarrier system to inhibit the release of the radioactive waste from the disposal vault. The principal components of the multibarrier system are (i) the waste form in which the radionuclides are immobilized, (ii) engineered barriers including high integrity containers, buffers and backfills designed to retard the movement of groundwaters in the disposal vault, and (iii) the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation itself. The research programs to investigate this concept are discussed briefly. Several different waste forms are being developed for the immobilization of high-level fuel recycle waste, including glass, glass-ceramics and crystalline materials. Dissolution of these materials in groundwater is the only likely scenario that could lead to radionuclide release. The factors that influence the aqueous dissolution behaviour of these materials are reviewed. PMID:6488089

  18. Immobilization and geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste.

    PubMed

    Tait, J C

    1984-08-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is developing methods for the safe disposal of both used nuclear fuel and fuel recycle waste. The disposal strategy is based on interim storage of the used fuel, immobilization of either used fuel or recycle waste, and disposal, deep in a stable geological formation in the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept proposes a multibarrier system to inhibit the release of the radioactive waste from the disposal vault. The principal components of the multibarrier system are (i) the waste form in which the radionuclides are immobilized, (ii) engineered barriers including high integrity containers, buffers and backfills designed to retard the movement of groundwaters in the disposal vault, and (iii) the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation itself. The research programs to investigate this concept are discussed briefly. Several different waste forms are being developed for the immobilization of high-level fuel recycle waste, including glass, glass-ceramics and crystalline materials. Dissolution of these materials in groundwater is the only likely scenario that could lead to radionuclide release. The factors that influence the aqueous dissolution behaviour of these materials are reviewed.

  19. Review and evaluation of metallic TRU nuclear waste consolidation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.R.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1983-08-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Commercial Waste Treatment Program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy waste treatment technology. In this report, viable methods are identified that could consolidate the volume of metallic wastes generated in a fuel reprocessing facility. The purpose of this study is to identify, evaluate, and rate processes that have been or could be used to reduce the volume of contaminated/irradiated metallic waste streams and to produce an acceptable waste form in a safe and cost-effective process. A technical comparative evaluation of various consolidation processes was conducted, and these processes were rated as to the feasibility and cost of producing a viable product from a remotely operated radioactive process facility. Out of the wide variety of melting concepts and consolidation systems that might be applicable for consolidating metallic nuclear wastes, the following processes were selected for evaluation: inductoslay melting, rotating nonconsumable electrode melting, plasma arc melting, electroslag melting with two nonconsumable electrodes, vacuum coreless induction melting, and cold compaction. Each process was evaluated and rated on the criteria of complexity of process, state and type of development required, safety, process requirements, and facility requirements. It was concluded that the vacuum coreless induction melting process is the most viable process to consolidate nuclear metallic wastes. 11 references.

  20. Design of a nuclear-waste package for emplacement in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, W.C.; Rothman, A.J.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Revelli, M.A.; Russell, E.W.; Schornhorst, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Design, modeling, and testing activities are under way at LLNL in the development of high level nuclear waste package designs. We discuss the geological characteristics affecting design, the 10CFR60 design requirements, conceptual designs, metals for containment barriers, economic analysis, thermal modeling, and performance modeling.

  1. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  2. Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2013-02-24

    Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source.

  3. Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste - 13532

    SciTech Connect

    Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job; Bryan, Samuel; Lines, Amanda; Levitskaia, Tatiana

    2013-07-01

    Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source. (authors)

  4. NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC : evaluation and selection of tools for the quality environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Julie F.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Vigil, Dena M.; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Nuclear Waste Management Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. These M&S capabilities are to be managed, verified, and validated within the NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC quality environment. M&S capabilities and the supporting analysis workflow and simulation data management tools will be distributed to end-users from this same quality environment. The same analysis workflow and simulation data management tools that are to be distributed to end-users will be used for verification and validation (V&V) activities within the quality environment. This strategic decision reduces the number of tools to be supported, and increases the quality of tools distributed to end users due to rigorous use by V&V activities. This report documents an evaluation of the needs, options, and tools selected for the NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC quality environment. The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Nuclear Waste Management Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Nuclear Waste Management IPSC) program element is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to assess quantitatively the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. This objective will be fulfilled by acquiring and developing M&S capabilities, and establishing a defensible level of confidence in these M&S capabilities. The foundation for assessing the level of confidence is based upon

  5. International High Level Nuclear Waste Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreschhoff, Gisela; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the radioactive waste management in Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the USSR. Indicates that scientists and statesmen should look beyond their own lifetimes into future centuries and millennia to conduct long-range plans essential to protection of future generations. (CC)

  6. Siting Patterns of Nuclear Waste Repositories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry D.; Shelley, Fred M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an inventory of international radioactive waste-management policies and repository siting decisions for North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. This discussion stresses the important role of demographic, geologic, and political factors in siting decisions. (Author/BSR)

  7. Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

  8. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  9. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  10. Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

  11. AN APPROACH FOR ENHANCING NUCLEAR MATERIALS TRACKING AND REPORTING IN WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    V. L. LONGMIRE; S. L. SEITZ; B. J. SINKULE

    2001-06-01

    Recent policy from the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) has identified the need to report nuclear materials in waste in a manner that is consistent with the Department of Energy's Nuclear Materials Information System (NMIS), which uses Form 471 as its official record. NMIS is used to track nuclear material inventories while they are subject to safeguards. This requirement necessitates the reevaluation of existing business practices that are used to track and report these nuclear materials. This paper provides a methodology for applying a systems approach to the evaluation of the flow of nuclear waste materials from a generating facility through to permanent disposal. This methodology can be used to integrate existing systems and leverage data already gathered that support both the waste reporting requirements and the NMIS requirements. In order to consider an active waste reporting system that covers waste management through to final disposal, the requirements for characterization, certification, and transportation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are used as an example. These requirements are found in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP/WAC) and associated requirement documents. This approach will prevent inconsistencies in reported data and address current and future needs. For example, spent fuel (which the U.S. intends to dispose of as high-level waste) has not been viewed as particularly attractive in terms of proliferation in comparison to materials associated with other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, collecting high-level waste (or some types of defense waste) in one location where it will be left for hundreds or thousands of years presents proliferation and safeguards issues that need to be considered as part of a systems evaluation. This paper brings together information on domestic and international safeguards practices and considers the current system of documentation used by the U

  12. Backfill composition for secondary barriers in nuclear waste repositories

    DOEpatents

    Beall, G.W.; Allard, B.M.

    1980-05-30

    A backfill composition for sorbing and retaining hazardous elements of nuclear wastes comprises 50 to 70% by weight of quartz, 10 to 30% by weight of montmorillonite, 1 to 10% by weight of phosphate mineral, 1 to 10% by weight of ferrous mineral, 1 to 10% by weight of sulfate mineral and 1 to 10% by weight of attapulgite.

  13. Backfill composition for secondary barriers in nuclear waste repositories

    DOEpatents

    Beall, Gary W.; Allard, Bert M.

    1982-01-01

    A backfill composition for sorbing and retaining hazardous elements of nuclear wastes comprises 50-70% by weight of quartz, 10-30% by weight of montmorillonite, 1-10% by weight of phosphate mineral, 1-10% by weight of ferrous mineral, 1-10% by weight of sulfate mineral and 1-10% by weight of attapulgite.

  14. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

  15. Nuclear fuel waste management and disposal concept: Report. Federal environmental assessment review process

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Canadian concept for disposing CANDU reactor waste or high-level nuclear wastes from reprocessing involves underground disposal in sealed containers emplaced in buffer-filled and sealed vaults 500--1,000 meters below ground, in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This document presents the report of a panel whose mandate was to review this concept (rather than a specific disposal project at a specific site) along with a broad range of related policy issues, and to conduct that review in five provinces (including reviews with First Nations groups). It first outlines the review process and then describes the nature of the problem of nuclear waste management. It then presents an overview of the concept being reviewed, its implementation stages, performance assessment analyses performed on the concept, and implications of a facility based on that concept (health, environmental, social, transportation, economic). The fourth section examines the criteria by which the safety and acceptability of the concept should be evaluated. This is followed by a safety and acceptability evaluation from both technical and social perspectives. Section six proposes future steps for building and determining acceptability of the concept, including an Aboriginal participation process, creation of a Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Agency, and a public participation process. The final section discusses some issues outside the panel`s mandate, such as energy policy and renewable energy sources. Appendices include a chronology of panel activities, a review of radiation hazards, comparison between nuclear waste management and the management of other wastes, a review of other countries` approaches to long-term management of nuclear fuel wastes, and details of a siting process proposed by the panel.

  16. Raman study of aluminum speciation in simulated alkaline nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Cliff T; Agnew, Stephen F; Schoonover, Jon R; Kenney, John W; Page, Bobbi; Osborn, Jill; Corbin, Rob

    2002-06-01

    The chemistry of concentrated sodium aluminate solutions stored in many of the large, underground storage tanks containing high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford and Savannah River Nuclear Reservations is an area of recent research interest. Not only is the presence of aluminate in solution important for continued safe storage of these wastes, the nature of both solid and solution aluminum oxyhydroxides is important for waste pretreatment. Moreover, for many tanks that have leaked high aluminum waste in the past, little is known about the speciation of Al in the soil. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the speciation of the aqueous species in the Al2O3-Na2O-H2O system over a wide range of solution compositions and hydration. A ternary phase diagram has been used to correlate the observed changes in the spectra with the composition of the solution and with dimerization of aluminate that occurs at elevated aluminate concentrations (>1.5 M). Dimerization is evidenced by growth of new Al-O stretching bands at 535 and 695 cm(-1) at the expense of the aluminate monomer band at 620 cm(-1). The spectrum of water was strongly influenced by the high concentrations of Na+ and OH- (>17 M). Upon increasing the concentration of NaOH in solution, the delta-(H-O-H) bending band of water (v2 mode) increased in frequency to 1663 cm(-1), indicating that the water contained in the concentrated caustic solution was more strongly hydrogen bonded at the higher base content. In addition, the sharp, well-resolved band at 3610 cm(-1), assigned to the v(O-H) of free OH-, increased in intensity with increasing NaOH. Analysis of the v(O-H) bands in the 3800-2600 cm(-1) region supported the overall increase in hydrogen bonding as evidenced by the increase in relative intensity of a strongly hydrated water band at 3118 cm(-1). Taking into consideration the activity of water, the molar concentrations of the monomeric and dimeric aluminate species were estimated using

  17. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act...

  18. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in...

  19. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b), (c... of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste shipment; (2) A description of the irradiated reactor fuel or nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in...

  20. Annual waste reduction activities report. Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-18

    This report discusses the waste minimization activities for the Pinellas Plant. The Pinellas Plant deals with low-level radioactive wastes, solvents, scrap metals and various other hazardous materials. This program has realized cost savings through recycling and reuse of materials.

  1. Can Shale Safely Host U.S. Nuclear Waste?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuzil, C. E.

    2013-07-01

    Even as cleanup efforts after Japan's Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, 2012].

  2. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff (Nevada Test Site).

  3. Ion-implantation studies of nuclear-waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northrup, C. J. M., Jr.; Arnold, G. W.; Headley, T. J.

    1981-11-01

    The first observations of physical and chemical changes induced by lead implantation damage and leaching are reported for two proposed US nuclear waste forms for commercial wastes. To simulate the effects of recoil nuclei due to alpha decay, the materials were implanted with lead ions at equivalent doses. In the titanate waste form, the zirconolite, perovskite, hollandite, and rutile phases all exhibited a mottled appearance in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) typical of defect clusters in radiation damaged, crystalline solids. One titanate phase containing uranium was found by TEM to be amorphous after implantation at the highest dose. No enhanced leaching (deionized water, room temperature, 24 hours) of the irradiated titanate waste form, including the amorphous phase, was detected by TEM, but Rutherford backscattering (RBS) suggested a loss of cesium and calcium after 21 hours of leaching.

  4. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-07-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning

  5. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  6. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  7. Characterization of Oversized Crates containing Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, Jim; Mozhayev, Andrey V.

    2007-11-01

    The 212-N Building at the Hanford Site held fifteen large crates containing glove boxes and process equipment associated with the development and fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The gloveboxes and associated equipment originated from the 308 Building of the Hanford Site and had been placed in the crates after a process upset in the 1960s. The crates were transported to the 212-N Building and had been in storage since 1972. In an effort to reduce the hazard categorization of 212-N the crates were removed from the building and Nondestructive Assay (NDA) was performed to characterize the crate contents meeting both Safeguards and Waste Management interests. A measurement system consisting of four configurable neutron slab detectors and high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was deployed. Since no viable information regarding the waste matrix and configuration was available it was essential to correct for attenuation with a series of transmission measurements using californium and europium sources for both neutron and gamma applications. The gamma and neutron results obtained during this measurement campaign are compared and discussed in the paper.

  8. A proliferation of nuclear waste for the Southeast.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Robert; Smith, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is being promoted as a program to bring about the expansion of worldwide nuclear energy. Here in the U.S. much of this proposed nuclear power expansion is slated to happen in the Southeast, including here in South Carolina. Under the GNEP plan, the United States and its nuclear partners would sell nuclear power plants to developing nations that agree not to pursue technologies that would aid nuclear weapons production, notably reprocessing and uranium enrichment. As part of the deal, the United States would take highly radioactive spent ("used") fuel rods to a reprocessing center in this country. Upon analysis of the proposal, it is clear that DOE lacks a credible plan for the safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes stemming from the GNEP program and that the high costs and possible public health and environmental impacts from the program pose significant risks, especially to this region. Given past failures to address waste problems before they were created, DOE's rush to invest major public funds for deployment of reprocessing should be suspended.

  9. Modeling of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.

    1988-09-01

    A methodology is developed for the assessment of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials. An assessment of the current status of understanding with regard to waste package materials and their behavior in radiation environments is presented. The methodology is used to make prediction as to the chemically induced changes in the groundwater surrounding nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff. The predictions indicate that mechanisms not currently being pursued by the Department of Energy may be a factor in the long-term performance of nuclear waste packages. The methodology embodies a physical model of the effects of radiation on aqueous solutions. Coupled to the physical model is a method for analyzing the complex nature of the physical model using adjoint sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity aid in both the physical understanding of the processes involved as well as aiding in eliminating portions of the model that have no bearing on the desired results. A computer implementation of the methodology is provided. 128 refs.

  10. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Gordon, L. E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-09-01

    Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  11. Waste minimization: A team approach at McGuire nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Poteat, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    The production of radioactive waste and its subsequent disposal is a costly proposition. Burial of low-level waste (LLW), if available at all, is expensive and getting more so. The availability of disposal options is often subject to the whims and vagaries of political forces that cannot be predicted, let alone controlled in any way by the members of the nuclear community. On-site storage is a limited and, quite often, an extremely difficult process to put into place. After LLW has been generated, various volume reduction techniques are available, but these can vary widely in cost and effectiveness. If and when new disposal sites are available, the waste acceptance criteria may be such that some or all of the volume reduction processes will not produce an acceptable final waste form. Consequently, the best thing to do is probably deceptively simple: Do not generate the waste in the first place. This is the philosophy that McGuire nuclear station operates under, and this paper discusses the team approach that has been developed to support this idea.

  12. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.

  13. "Hanford: A Conversation About Nuclear Waste and Cleanup"

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-05-10

    In ''Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup'', Roy Gephart takes us on a journey through a world of facts, values, conflicts, and choices facing the most complex environmental cleanup project in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Starting with the top-secret Manhattan Project, Hanford was used to create tons of plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hundreds of tons of waste remain. In an easy-to-read, illustrated text, Gephart crafts the story of Hanford becoming the world's first nuclear weapons site to release large amounts of contaminants into the environment. This was at a time when radiation biology was in its infancy, industry practiced unbridled waste dumping, and the public trusted what it was told. The plutonium market stalled with the end of the Cold War. Public accountability and environmental compliance ushered in a new cleanup mission. Today, Hanford is driven by remediation choices whose outcomes remain uncertain. It's a story whose epilogue will be written by future generations. This book is an information resource, written for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting an overview of Hanford and cleanup issues facing the nuclear weapons complex. Each chapter is a topical mini-series. It's an idea guide that encourages readers to be informed consumers of Hanford news, to recognize that knowledge, high ethical standards, and social values are at the heart of coping with Hanford's past and charting its future. Hanford history is a window into many environmental conflicts facing our nation; it's about building upon success and learning from failure. And therein lies a key lesson, when powerful interests are involved, no generation is above pretense. Roy E. Gephart is a geohydrologist and senior program manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. He has 30 years experience in environmental studies and the nuclear waste industry.

  14. Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, David O.; Buxton, Samuel R.

    1981-01-01

    Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M, (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound, (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete, and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

  15. Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

    1980-06-16

    Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

  16. Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

  17. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  18. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  19. Perceptions of risk in the management of nuclear wastes: Mapping elite and mass beliefs and attitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Espey, J.L.; Rouse, A.A.; Molund, D.H. . Inst. for Public Policy)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs.

  20. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of generic transuranic wastes from nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Atencio, J.D.

    1982-03-31

    A combination of passive and active neutron measurements which yields quantitative information about the isotopic composition of transuranic wastes from nuclear power or weapons material manufacture reactors is described. From the measurement of prompt and delayed neutron emission and the incidence of two coincidentally emitted neutrons from induced fission of fissile material in the sample, one can quantify /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu isotopes in waste samples. Passive coincidence counting, including neutron multiplicity measurement and determination of the overall passive neutron flux additionally enables the separate quantitative evaluation of spontaneous fission isotopes such as /sup 240/Pu, /sup 244/Cm and /sup 252/Cf, and the spontaneous alpha particle emitter /sup 241/Am. These seven isotopes are the most important constituents of wastes from nuclear power reactors and once the mass of each isotope present is determined by the apparatus and method of the instant invention, the overall alpha particle activity can be determined to better than 1 nCi/g from known radioactivity data. Therefore, in addition to the quantitative analysis of the waste sample useful for later reclamation purposes, the alpha particle activity can be determined to decide whether permanent low-level burial is appropriate for the waste sample.

  1. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of generic transuranic wastes from nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Atencio, James D.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of passive and active neutron measurements which yields quantitative information about the isotopic composition of transuranic wastes from nuclear power or weapons material manufacture reactors is described. From the measurement of prompt and delayed neutron emission and the incidence of two coincidentally emitted neutrons from induced fission of fissile material in the sample, one can quantify .sup.233 U, .sup.235 U and .sup.239 Pu isotopes in waste samples. Passive coincidence counting, including neutron multiplicity measurement and determination of the overall passive neutron flux additionally enables the separate quantitative evaluation of spontaneous fission isotopes such as .sup.240 Pu, .sup.244 Cm and .sup.252 Cf, and the spontaneous alpha particle emitter .sup.241 Am. These seven isotopes are the most important constituents of wastes from nuclear power reactors and once the mass of each isotope present is determined by the apparatus and method of the instant invention, the overall alpha particle activity can be determined to better than 1 nCi/g from known radioactivity data. Therefore, in addition to the quantitative analysis of the waste sample useful for later reclamation purposes, the alpha particle activity can be determined to decide whether "permanent" low-level burial is appropriate for the waste sample.

  2. ``Recycling'' Nuclear Power Plant Waste: Technical Difficulties and Proliferation Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2007-04-01

    One of the most vexing problems associated with nuclear energy is the inability to find a technically and politically viable solution for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The U.S. plan to develop a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is in jeopardy, as a result of managerial incompetence, political opposition and regulatory standards that may be impossible to meet. As a result, there is growing interest in technologies that are claimed to have the potential to drastically reduce the amount of waste that would require geologic burial and the length of time that the waste would require containment. A scenario for such a vision was presented in the December 2005 Scientific American. While details differ, these technologies share a common approach: they require chemical processing of spent fuel to extract plutonium and other long-lived actinide elements, which would then be ``recycled'' into fresh fuel for advanced reactors and ``transmuted'' into shorter-lived fission products. Such a scheme is the basis for the ``Global Nuclear Energy Partnership,'' a major program unveiled by the Department of Energy (DOE) in early 2006. This concept is not new, but has been studied for decades. Major obstacles include fundamental safety issues, engineering feasibility and cost. Perhaps the most important consideration in the post-9/11 era is that these technologies involve the separation of plutonium and other nuclear weapon-usable materials from highly radioactive fission products, providing opportunities for terrorists seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. While DOE claims that it will only utilize processes that do not produce ``separated plutonium,'' it has offered no evidence that such technologies would effectively deter theft. It is doubtful that DOE's scheme can be implemented without an unacceptable increase in the risk of nuclear terrorism.

  3. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author`s responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A.

  4. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  5. Environmentally sound disposal of wastes: Multipurpose offshore islands offer safekeeping, continuous monitoring of hazardous, nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tengelsen, W.E.

    1995-05-01

    Solid wastes have become a health threat to all municipalities and safe disposal costs are increasing for coastal cities. Onland dumps have become a continuing source of pollution, existing landfill sites should be eliminated. Ocean dumping is rules out because of the threat to aquatic resources but pollutants deep-sixed in the past should be isolated from the ocean environment before they further harm the aquatic food chain. And there are still no totally satisfactory solutions for nuclear waste disposal, especially for high-level wastes. A practical answer to our waste disposal problem is to build waterproof storage vault islands offshore to safely contain all past and futuer solid wastes so they would not mix with the ocean waters. Contaminated dredged spoil and construction materials can be safely included, in turn providing free shielding for nuclear waste stored in special vault chambers. Offshore islands can be built to ride out erthquakes and the ocean`s waters provide a stable temperature environment. Building modular structures in large quantities reduces per-unit costs; implementing these islands creates quality jobs and an economic stimulus. The island`s tops become valuable waterfront property for commercial, institutional, educational, infrastructural, and recreational uses; tenants and users provide the revenues that make this island concept self-supporting.

  6. Radiation and Thermal Ageing of Nuclear Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive decay of fission products and actinides incorporated into nuclear waste glass leads to self-heating and self-radiation effects that may affect the stability, structure and performance of the glass in a closed system. Short-lived fission products cause significant self-heating for the first 600 years. Alpha decay of the actinides leads to self-radiation damage that can be significant after a few hundred years, and over the long time periods of geologic disposal, the accumulation of helium and radiation damage from alpha decay may lead to swelling, microstructural evolution and changes in mechanical properties. Four decades of research on the behavior of nuclear waste glass are reviewed.

  7. Innovative systems for sustainable nuclear energy generation and waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseaux, Jm; David, S.

    2006-05-01

    The limited amount of fossil resources, the impact of green-house gas emissions on the world climate, the rising demand of primary energy projected to 2050, lead to a potentially critical situation for the world energy supply. The need for alternative (to fossil energies) massive energy production is evaluated to 10 Gtoe. The potential of Nuclear Energy generation at the level of 5 Gtoe is examined. Such a sustainable production can only be met by a breeder reactor fleet for which a deployment scenario is described with the associated constraints. Waste management is discussed in connection with different nuclear energy development scenarios according to the point in time when breeder reactors are started. At the world level, it appears that the optimal handling of today's wastes rests on an early decision to develop tomorrow's breeder reactors.

  8. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP's Best Hope?

    SciTech Connect

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2006-05-02

    The best technology is worthless if it cannot find a market Beam energy propulsion (BEP) is a very promising technology, but faces major competition from less capable but fully developed conventional rockets. Rockets can easily handle projected markets for payloads into space. Without a new, huge demand for launch capability, BEP is unlikely to gain the resources it needs for development and application. Launching tens of thousands of tons of nuclear waste into space for safe and permanent disposal will provide that necessary demand while solving a major problem on earth. Several options exist to dispose of nuclear waste, including solar orbit, lunar orbit, soft lunar landing, launching outside the solar system, and launching into the sun.

  9. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP's Best Hope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    The best technology is worthless if it cannot find a market Beam energy propulsion (BEP) is a very promising technology, but faces major competition from less capable but fully developed conventional rockets. Rockets can easily handle projected markets for payloads into space. Without a new, huge demand for launch capability, BEP is unlikely to gain the resources it needs for development and application. Launching tens of thousands of tons of nuclear waste into space for safe and permanent disposal will provide that necessary demand while solving a major problem on earth. Several options exist to dispose of nuclear waste, including solar orbit, lunar orbit, soft lunar landing, launching outside the solar system, and launching into the sun.

  10. Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Pope, James M.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

  11. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  12. Workshop on fundamental geochemistry needs for nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    In their deliberations, workshop participants did not attempt to incorporate the constraints that the 1982 National Nuclear Waste Management Policy Act placed upon the site-specific investigations. In particular, there was no attempt to (1) identify the research areas that apply most strongly to a particular potential repository site, (2) identify the chronological time when the necessary data or knowledge could be available, or (3) include a sensitivity analysis to prioritize and limit data needs. The workshop participants felt these are the purview of the site-specific investigations; the purpose of the workshop was to discuss the generic geochemistry research needs for a nuclear waste repository among as broad spectrum of individual scientists as possible and to develop a consensus of what geochemical information is important and why.

  13. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  14. Integrated data base report--1996: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Inventories of most of these materials are reported as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1996, which is September 30, 1996. Commercial SNF and commercial uranium mill tailings inventories are reported on an end-of-calendar year (CY) basis. All SNF and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are SNF, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through FY 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  15. Report of the committee to review the use of J-13 well water in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Carley, J.F.; Isherwood, W.F.; Raber, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Management Project Office of the Department of Energy conducted a special audit of the activities of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation Project at Livermore. It was noted that there never has been a comprehensive, well-documented examination of the basis for the use of J-13 water in the nuclear waste storage investigations. In each of the sections of This Report, an issue relating to the use of J-13 water has been addressed. 58 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable.

  17. Thermohydeologic Behavior at the Potential Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Rosenburg, N.D.; Gansemer, J.; Sun, Y.

    2000-02-17

    Radioactive decay of high-level nuclear waste emplaced in a Yucca Mountain repository will produce an initial heat flux on the order of 30 to 50 times the heat flux in the Geysers geothermal reservoir in California (Hardin et al., 1998). Even though the rate of heat production decreases rapidly with time after emplacement, this heat flux will change the thermal and hydrologic environment, affecting both the host rock and conditions within the drifts in ways significant to key repository performance variables.

  18. Method of determining a content of a nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Bernardi, Richard T.; Entwistle, David

    2003-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for identifying contents of a nuclear waste container. The method includes the steps of forming an image of the contents of the container using digital radiography, visually comparing contents of the image with expected contents of the container and performing computer tomography on the container when the visual inspection reveals an inconsistency between the contents of the image and the expected contents of the container.

  19. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable. PMID:21318321

  20. Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Roy, R.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1981-03-15

    Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite.

  1. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  2. Status of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) are part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program being conducted by the Department of Energy. Within the NWTS program, the NNWSI is the component that focuses on siting evaluations on and near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The objectives of the Nevada project include evaluating the suitability of a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) site on or near the NTS, evaluating the suitability of a commercial nuclear waste repository site on or near the NTS, and supporting the NWTS program with research that is uniquely possible at NTS. Current engineering studies suggest that TEF and repository surface facilities would need to be located on gently sloping alluvium east of Yucca Mountain. Access from surface facilities to underground waste emplacement areas would be by vertical shafts and horizontal drifts, or possibly by inclined adits. The current NNWSI schedule includes an exploratory shaft location and horizon recommendation in 12/82, with a start of exploratory shaft drilling in 9/83. Because of the complexities of horizon selection, it is possible that the exploratory shaft depth or horizon recommendation may involve the exploration of more than one horizon. Phase I of the exploratory shaft, determination of TEF site suitability, is currently scheduled for 7/85. Phase II of the exploratory shaft, determination of repository site suitability, is currently scheduled for 3/87. This schedule is consistent with the current NWTS TEF and repository site selection schedules.

  3. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  4. Nuclear Waste Analytical Round Robins 1-6 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The MCC has conducted six round robins for the waste management, research, and development community from 1987 to present. The laboratories participating regularly are Ames, Argonne, Catholic University, Lawrence Livermore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Savannah River, and West Valley Nuclear. Glass types analyzed in these round robins all have been simulated nuclear waste compositions expected from vitrification of high-level nuclear waste. A wide range of analytical procedures have been used by the participating laboratories including Atomic Absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, direct current plasma-emission spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy techniques. Consensus average relative error for Round Robins 1 through 6 is 5.4%, with values ranging from 9.4 to 1.1%. Trend on the average improved with each round robin. When the laboratories analyzed samples over longer periods of time, the intralaboratory variability increased. Lab-to-lab variation accounts for most of the total variability found in all the round robins. Participation in the radiochemistry portion has been minimal, and analytical results poor compared to nonradiochemistry portion. Additional radiochemical work is needed in future round robins.

  5. The Storage, Transportation, and Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younker, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Congress established a comprehensive federal policy to dispose of wastes from nuclear reactors and defense facilities, centered on deep geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Site screening led to selection of three potential sites and in 1987, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to characterize only one site: Yucca Mountain in Nevada. For more than 20 years, teams of scientists and engineers have been evaluating the potential suitability of the site. On the basis of their work, the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, concluded in February 2002 that a safe repository can be sited at Yucca Mountain. On July 23, 2002, President Bush signed Joint Resolution 87 approving the site at Yucca Mountain for development of a repository, which allows the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare and submit a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Concerns have been raised relative to the safe transportation of nuclear materials. The U.S. history of transportation of nuclear materials demonstrates that high-level nuclear materials can be safely transported. Since the 1960s, over 1.6 million miles have been traveled by more than 2,700 spent nuclear fuel shipments, and there has never been an accident severe enough to cause a release of radioactive materials. The DOE will use NRC-certified casks that must be able to withstand very stringent tests. The same design features that allow the casks to survive severe accidents also limit their vulnerability to sabotage. In addition, the NRC will approve all shipping routes and security plans. With regard to long-term safety, the Yucca Mountain disposal system has five key attributes. First, the arid climate and geology of Yucca Mountain combine to ensure that limited water will enter the emplacement tunnels. Second, the DOE has designed a waste package and drip shield that are expected to have very long lifetimes in the repository environment. Third, waste form

  6. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  7. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  8. Nuclear waste transportation: case studies of identifying stakeholder risk information needs.

    PubMed

    Drew, Christina H; Grace, Deirdre A; Silbernagel, Susan M; Hemmings, Erin S; Smith, Alan; Griffith, William C; Takaro, Timothy K; Faustman, Elaine M

    2003-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of our nation's nuclear legacy, involving complex decisions about how and where to dispose of nuclear waste and how to transport it to its ultimate disposal site. It is widely recognized that a broad range of stakeholders and tribes should be involved in this kind of decision. All too frequently, however, stakeholders and tribes are only invited to participate by commenting on processes and activities that are near completion; they are not included in the problem formulation stages. Moreover, it is often assumed that high levels of complexity and uncertainty prevent meaningful participation by these groups. Considering the types of information that stakeholders and tribes need to be able to participate in the full life cycle of decision making is critical for improving participation and transparency of decision making. Toward this objective, the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) participated in three public processes relating to nuclear waste transportation and disposal in 1997-1998. First, CRESP organized focus groups to identify concerns about nuclear waste transportation. Second, CRESP conducted exit surveys at regional public workshops held by DOE to get input from stakeholders on intersite waste transfer issues. Third, CRESP developed visual tools to synthesize technical information and allow stakeholders and tribes with varying levels of knowledge about nuclear waste to participate in meaningful discussion. In this article we share the results of the CRESP findings, discuss common themes arising from these interactions, and comment on special considerations needed to facilitate stakeholder and tribal participation in similar decision-making processes.

  9. Nuclear waste transportation: case studies of identifying stakeholder risk information needs.

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Christina H; Grace, Deirdre A; Silbernagel, Susan M; Hemmings, Erin S; Smith, Alan; Griffith, William C; Takaro, Timothy K; Faustman, Elaine M

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of our nation's nuclear legacy, involving complex decisions about how and where to dispose of nuclear waste and how to transport it to its ultimate disposal site. It is widely recognized that a broad range of stakeholders and tribes should be involved in this kind of decision. All too frequently, however, stakeholders and tribes are only invited to participate by commenting on processes and activities that are near completion; they are not included in the problem formulation stages. Moreover, it is often assumed that high levels of complexity and uncertainty prevent meaningful participation by these groups. Considering the types of information that stakeholders and tribes need to be able to participate in the full life cycle of decision making is critical for improving participation and transparency of decision making. Toward this objective, the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) participated in three public processes relating to nuclear waste transportation and disposal in 1997-1998. First, CRESP organized focus groups to identify concerns about nuclear waste transportation. Second, CRESP conducted exit surveys at regional public workshops held by DOE to get input from stakeholders on intersite waste transfer issues. Third, CRESP developed visual tools to synthesize technical information and allow stakeholders and tribes with varying levels of knowledge about nuclear waste to participate in meaningful discussion. In this article we share the results of the CRESP findings, discuss common themes arising from these interactions, and comment on special considerations needed to facilitate stakeholder and tribal participation in similar decision-making processes. PMID:12611653

  10. Evaluating and controlling the characteristics of the nuclear waste in the FWMS using Waste Stream Analysis Model

    SciTech Connect

    Andress, D.; Joy, D.S.; McLeod, N.B.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the waste stream analysis (WSA) model used by the Department of Energy to model the time and location dependent properties of the nuclear waste stream in the Federal Waste Managements System and at utility spent fuel storage facilities. It`s abilities are described.

  11. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository.

  12. Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository prompts heated congressional hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-11-01

    Although the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future is not expected until January 2012, the tentative conclusions of the commission's draft report were dissected during a recent joint hearing by two subcommittees of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Among the more heated issues debated at the hearing was the fate of the stalled Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The Blue Ribbon Commission's (BRC) draft report includes recommendations for managing nuclear waste and for developing one or more permanent deep geological repositories and interim storage facilities, but the report does not address the future of Yucca Mountain. The BRC charter indicates that the commission is to "conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle." However, the draft report states that the commission was not asked to consider, and therefore did not address, several key issues. "We have not rendered an opinion on the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site or on the request to withdraw the license application for Yucca Mountain," the draft report states.

  13. Corrosion of steel in simulated nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    1993-12-01

    Processing of inhibited nuclear waste to forms for long-term storage will cause waste tank environments to have dynamic conditions. During processing compositional changes in the waste may produce a corrosive environment for the plain carbon steel tanks. Large concentrations of nitrates which corrode steel are contained in the waste. Nitrite and hydroxides are added to inhibit any corrosion. Concentration changes of nitrate and nitrite were investigated to identify corrosion regimes that may occur during processing. Corrosion testing was performed with cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization resistance. Test samples were plain carbon steel which was similar to the material of construction of the waste tanks. The corrosion morphology of test samples was investigated by visual evaluation and scanning electron microscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis was also performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The corrosion mechanism changed as a function of the nitrate concentration. As the nitrate concentration was increased the steel transitioned from a passive state to general attack, and finally pitting and crevice corrosion. The nitrate anion appeared to destabilize the surface oxide. Nitrite countered the oxide breakdown, although the exact mechanism was not determined.

  14. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  15. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE SOLIDIFICATION CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2009-06-01

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  16. Colloid formation during waste form reaction: implications for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, J. K.; Bradley, J.; Teetsov, A.; Bradley, C. R.; ten Brink, Marilyn Buchholtz

    1992-01-01

    Insoluble plutonium- and americium-bearing colloidal particles formed during simulated weathering of a high-level nuclear waste glass. Nearly 100 percent of the total plutonium and americium in test ground water was concentrated in these submicrometer particles. These results indicate that models of actinide mobility and repository integrity, which assume complete solubility of actinides in ground water, underestimate the potential for radionuclide release into the environment. A colloid-trapping mechanism may be necessary for a waste repository to meet long-term performance specifications.

  17. Burning nuclear wastes in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Howard, W.M.

    1980-02-20

    We have studied actinide burn-up in ICF reactor pellets; i.e., 14 MeV neutron fission of the very long-lived actinides that pose storage problems. A major advantage of pellet fuel region burn-up is safety: only milligrams of highly toxic and active material need to be present in the fusion chamber, whereas blanket burn-up requires the continued presence of tons of actinides in a small volume. The actinide data tables required for Monte Carlo calculations of the burn-up of /sup 241/Am and /sup 243/Am are discussed in connection with a study of the sensitivity to cross section uncertainties. More accurate and complete cross sections are required for realistic quantitative calculations.

  18. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project; GFY technical activity summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes.

  19. Handling of liquid radioactive wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear-powered submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, B.V.

    1995-10-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes are produced during the standard decontamination of the reactor loop and liquidation of the consequences of accidents. In performing the disassembly work on decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, the equipment must first be decontaminated. All this leads to the formation of a large quantity of liquid wastes with a total salt content of more then 3l-5 g/liter and total {beta}-activity of up to 1 {center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} Ci/liter. One of the most effective methods for reprocessing these wastes - evaporation - has limitations: The operating expenses are high and the apparatus requires expensive alloyed steel. The methods of selective sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents are used for reprocessing liquid wastes form the nuclear-powered fleet. A significant limitation of the method is the large decrease in sorption efficiency with increasing total salt-content of the wastes. In some works, in which electrodialysis is used for purification of the salt wastes, the total salt content can be decreased by a factor of 10-100 and the same quantity of radionuclides can be removed. We have developed an electrodialysis-sorption scheme for purifying salt wastes that makes it possible to remove radionuclides to the radiation safety standard and chemically harmful substances to the health standards. The scheme includes electrodialysis desalinization (by 90% per pass on the EDMS apparatus), followed by additional purification of the diluent on synthetic zeolites and electro-osmotic concentration (to 200-250 g/liter on the EDK apparatus). The secondard wastes---salt concentrates and spent sorbents---are solidified. (This is the entire text of the article.)

  20. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation.

  1. Loading Capacities for Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium in High Caustic Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks Containing Selected Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    OJI, LAWRENCE

    2004-11-16

    In this study the loading capacities of selected actinides onto some of the most common sorbent materials which are present in caustic nuclear waste storage tanks have been determined. Some of these transition metal oxides and activated carbons easily absorb or precipitate plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, which if care is not taken may lead to unwanted accumulation of some of these fissile materials in nuclear waste tanks during waste processing. Based on a caustic synthetic salt solution simulant bearing plutonium, uranium and neptunium and ''real'' nuclear waste supernate solution, the loading capacities of these actinides onto iron oxide (hematite), activated carbon and anhydrous sodium phosphate have been determined. The loading capacities for plutonium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 3.4 0.22 plus or minus and 5.5 plus or minus 0.38 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for plutonium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 2.01 microgram per gram of sludge solids. The loading capacities for neptunium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 7.9 plus or minus 0.52 and greater than 10 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for neptunium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 4.48 microgram per gram of sludge solids. A typical nuclear waste storage tank solid material did not show any significant affinity for uranium. Sodium phosphate showed significant affinity for both neptunium and uranium, with loading capacities of 6.8 and 184.6 plus or minus 18.5 microgram per gram of sorbent, respectively.

  2. 75 FR 38151 - Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste On January... prior to transportation of certain shipments of nuclear waste and spent fuel. The advance notification... numbers of those individuals in each State who are responsible for receiving information on nuclear...

  3. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The impact on space systems of three alternative waste mixes was evaluated as part of an effort to investigate the disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories. A brief overview of the study background, objectives, scope, approach and guidelines, and limitations is presented. The effects of variations in waste mixes on space system concepts were studied in order to provide data for determining relative total system risk benefits resulting from space disposal of the alternative waste mixes. Overall objectives of the NASA-DOE sustaining-level study program are to investigate space disposal concepts which can provide information to support future nuclear waste terminal storage programmatic decisions and to maintain a low level of research activity in this area to provide a baseline for future development should a decision be made to increase the emphasis on this option.

  5. Analysis of space systems for the space disposal of nuclear waste follow-on study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The impact on space systems of three alternative waste mixes was evaluated as part of an effort to investigate the disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories. A brief overview of the study background, objectives, scope, approach and guidelines, and limitations is presented. The effects of variations in waste mixes on space system concepts were studied in order to provide data for determining relative total system risk benefits resulting from space disposal of the alternative waste mixes. Overall objectives of the NASA-DOE sustaining-level study program are to investigate space disposal concepts which can provide information to support future nuclear waste terminal storage programmatic decisions and to maintain a low level of research activity in this area to provide a baseline for future development should a decision be made to increase the emphasis on this option.

  6. Characterization of nuclide inventories in waste streams from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oppermann, U.; Mueller, W.

    1993-12-31

    Producers of radioactive waste are increasingly required to characterize the nuclide specific activity inventory of their wastes to demonstrate compliance with the acceptance criteria of interim storages or repositories for the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Nuclide specific characterization of activity inventories for nuclides that are hard to measure in nuclear power plant wastes in general is based on calculations by fixed correlations to easy measurable intense {gamma}-emitters (key nuclides). This method is establish within a CEC project for LWR waste streams from four European countries. First experiences from this project in comparison to data from the US and to earlier evaluations for German LWRs are presented. The applicability of the method is discussed with regard to the measurability of radiologically relevant nuclides comparability between different reactor systems and waste streams, and the availability of the necessary data. All topics are illustrated by examples for individual correlations. Conclusions are drawn for the degree of necessary differentiation and the main factors responsible for these differences.

  7. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  8. CETE R&D at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Supporting Management of Nuclear Waste - 9227

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Collins, Emory D; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Spencer, Barry B; Binder, Jeffrey L; Walker, Elisabeth A; Vedder, Raymond James; Taylor, Robin D

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting a complete, coupled end-to-end (CETE) demonstration of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Program. The CETE project under way at ORNL is focused on (1) the demonstration of separations technology that would significantly reduce the quantity of nuclear waste that would require long-term geologic disposal and (2) providing products and waste streams for further treatment and testing to develop suitable forms for recycle or disposal. Equipment for the CETE research and development (R&D) capability has been installed to provide all primary processing operations, ranging from spent fuel receipt to production of products and waste forms. The head-end treatment and off-gas recovery as well as the various solvent extraction processes separate the spent fuel into a number of discrete product streams, each with unique properties. As part of the CETE project demonstrations at ORNL, each of these product streams is recovered to serve as the feed to other critical process and waste management research, development, and demonstration activities. These include the production of recycle MOX fuel, transmutation fuels, recycle cladding, and new waste forms. The paper discusses the separation and recovery processes used in the CETE demo and the resulting products from the first campaign.

  9. Health Cost of a Nuclear Waste Repository, WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, Erhun

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States of America’s first nuclear waste dumping site, has over the years generated a great deal of concern and controversy. The most sensitive aspect of this project is that it may impose serious health risks on future generations. The first leg of this project is about to be completed and at the time of writing the Department of Energy is planning to perform experiments with a small quantity of waste for operational demonstrations. If everything goes well, then towards the end of this decade large quantities of wastes will be transported to the site for disposal. This article reconsiders the health cost of this project from an economic perspective in light of recent developments in the field of social discounting. As in earlier studies, two cases of health risks are considered: total cancer and genetic deformity over a one million year cutoff period. The analysis shows that whereas ordinary discounting method wipes out the future health detriments, expressed in monetary terms, the modified discounting criterion retains a substantial proportion of such costs in economic analysis.

  10. Monitor for detecting nuclear waste leakage in a subsurface repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainer, S.; Hirschfeld, T.; Bowman, H.; Milanovich, F.; Perry, D.; Johnson, D.

    1980-11-01

    A remote fiber optics system is employed in conjunction with the coprecipitation enhanced fluorimetry technique to detect radioactive waste leakage. An in situ monitoring capability using fiber optics to effect communication between the instrumentation and the sample is demonstrated. The sample is an actinide or a tracer material leaking from an underground nuclear waste repository into the ground water. A lanthanide (which is an excellent fluorescent agent), actinide or other species which does not radiation damage is chosen as the tracer to maximize sensitivity, specificity, and relevance. Taggants having variable excitation and emission wavelengths create a need for an acromatic retroreflective fiber coupler. This was done using the geometrical properties of the fiber to design a coupler requiring no dichroics or glossy energy splitting surfaces.

  11. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  12. Space disposal of nuclear wastes. Volume 1: Socio-political aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, T.; Rochlin, G. I.; Metlay, D.; Windham, P.

    1976-01-01

    The history and interpretation of radioactive waste management in the U.S., criteria for choosing from various options for waste disposal, and the impact of nuclear power growth from 1975 to 2000 are discussed. Preconditions for the existence of high level wastes in a form suitable for space disposal are explored. The role of the NASA space shuttle program in the space disposal of nuclear wastes, and the impact on program management, resources and regulation are examined.

  13. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  14. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  15. Commercial nuclear waste research and development program. Quarterly report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hakl, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This document is a report of activities performed by AESD-Nevada Operations in meeting task objectives of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) planning documentation for Fiscal Year (FY) 1982. Significant activities were: Completion of a fuel assembly exchange was successfully in support of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) Program; input was provided, in response to FY 1982 guidance, to DOE/NV and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for a proposed co-located Generic Packaging Facility (GPF); in response to FY 1982 guidance, drafts were prepared of facility layouts, material and process flow charts, equipment requirements, costs, and schedules for packaging (at E-MAD) of 28 alternative configurations of defense high-level waste, disassembled spent fuel, and commercial high-level waste in support of a proposed Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF); and quarterly dry run operations for canister emplacement in a drywell and in the Hot Bay Transfer Pit using the Emplacement/Installation Vehicle (EIV).

  16. Shale: an overlooked option for US nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Toss a dart at a map of the United States and, more often than not, it will land where shale can be found underground. A drab, relatively featureless sedimentary rock that historically attracted little interest, shale (as used here, the term includes clay and a range of clay-rich rocks) is entering Americans’ consciousness as a new source of gas and oil. But shale may also offer something entirely different—the ability to safely and permanently house high-level nuclear waste.

  17. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y; Nitao, J; Buscheck, T A; Sun, Y

    2006-02-03

    In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport.

  18. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y; Nitao, J J; Buscheck, T A; Sun, Y

    2006-07-24

    In this study, we conduct a two dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have a strong impact on in-drift convective flow and transport.

  19. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-03-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes.

  20. Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Hao; J. Nitao; T.A. Buscheck; Y. Sun

    2006-03-28

    In this study, we conduct a two-dimensional numerical analysis of double diffusive natural convection in an emplacement drift for a nuclear waste repository. In-drift heat and moisture transport is driven by combined thermal- and compositional-induced buoyancy forces. Numerical results demonstrate buoyancy-driven convective flow patterns and configurations during both repository heat-up and cool-down phases. It is also shown that boundary conditions, particularly on the drip-shield surface, have strong impacts on the in-drift convective flow and transport.

  1. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear transmutation could be used in the elimination or reduction of hazards from radioactive wastes. The rationale for this suggestion is the subject of this paper. The objectives of partitioning-transmutation are described. The benefits are evaluated. The author concludes that transmutation would appear at best to offer the opportunity of reducing an already low risk. This would not seem to be justifiable considering the cost. If non-radiological risks are considered, there is a negative total benefit. (DC)

  2. Thermodynamic data management system for nuclear waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Siegel, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Thermodynamic property values for use in assessing the performance of a nuclear waste repository are described. More emphasis is on a computerized data base management system which facilitates use of the thermodynamic data in sensitivity analysis and other studies which critically assess the performance of disposal sites. Examples are given of critical evaluation procedures; comparison of apparent equilibrium constants calculated from the data base, with other work; and of correlations useful in estimating missing values of both free energy and enthalpy of formation for aqueous species. 49 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUSSOLUTIONS DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Silvester, L.F.

    1988-05-01

    Tables of consistent thermodynamic property values for nuclear waste isolation are given. The tables include critically assessed values for Gibbs energy of formation. enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for minerals; solids; aqueous ions; ion pairs and complex ions of selected actinide and fission decay products at 25{sup o}C and zero ionic strength. These intrinsic data are used to calculate equilibrium constants and standard potentials which are compared with typical experimental measurements and other work. Recommendations for additional research are given.

  4. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  5. 76 FR 3678 - Board Meeting: February 16, 2011-Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: February 16, 2011--Las Vegas, NV, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... Radioactive Waste Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste...

  6. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-03-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.

  7. RH-TRU Waste Shipments from Battelle Columbus Laboratories to the Hanford Nuclear Facility for Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, J.; Baillieul, T. A.; Biedscheid, J.; Forrester, T,; McMillan, B.; Shrader, T.; Richterich, L.

    2003-02-26

    Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL), located in Columbus, Ohio, must complete decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for nuclear research buildings and grounds by 2006, as directed by Congress. Most of the resulting waste (approximately 27 cubic meters [m3]) is remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The BCL, under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Ohio Field Office, has initiated a plan to ship the TRU waste to the DOE Hanford Nuclear Facility (Hanford) for interim storage pending the authorization of WIPP for the permanent disposal of RH-TRU waste. The first of the BCL RH-TRU waste shipments was successfully completed on December 18, 2002. This BCL shipment of one fully loaded 10-160B Cask was the first shipment of RH-TRU waste in several years. Its successful completion required a complex effort entailing coordination between different contractors and federal agencies to establish necessary supporting agreements. This paper discusses the agreements and funding mechanisms used in support of the BCL shipments of TRU waste to Hanford for interim storage. In addition, this paper presents a summary of the efforts completed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the 10-160B Cask system. Lessons learned during this process are discussed and may be applicable to other TRU waste site shipment plans.

  8. Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Inside a Failed Copper Nuclear Waste Container

    SciTech Connect

    Broczkowski, Michael E.; Goldik, Jonathan S.; Santos, Billy G.; Noel, James J.; Shoesmith, David

    2007-07-01

    Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization has recommended to the Canadian federal government an adaptive phased management approach to the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. This approach includes isolation in a deep geologic repository. In such a repository, the fuel would be sealed inside a carbon steel-lined copper container. To assist the development of performance assessment models studies of fuel behaviour inside a failed waste container are underway. Using an iterative modeling and experimental approach, the important features and processes that determine fuel behaviour have been identified and studied. These features and processes are discussed and the results of studies to elucidate specific mechanisms and determine important parameter values summarized. (authors)

  9. 75 FR 75641 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... notification to Native American Tribes of transportation of certain types of nuclear waste (64 FR 71331... Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...'s designee, of certain shipments of irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste...

  10. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  11. 76 FR 17970 - Board Meeting: April 27, 2011-Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: April 27, 2011--Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review... 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Nuclear...

  12. 77 FR 34194 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States... shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste,'' requires licensees to provide advance notice...

  13. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  14. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  15. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  16. 25 CFR 170.900 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? 170.900 Section 170.900 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... and Nuclear Waste Transportation § 170.900 What is the purpose of the provisions relating to transportation of hazardous and nuclear waste? Sections 170.900 through 170.907 on transportation of nuclear...

  17. Reversing nuclear opposition: evolving public acceptance of a permanent nuclear waste disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Silva, Carol L; Nowlin, Matthew C; deLozier, Grant

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear facilities have long been seen as the top of the list of locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), with nuclear waste repositories generating the greatest opposition. Focusing on the case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, we test competing hypotheses concerning the sources of opposition and support for siting the facility, including demographics, proximity, political ideology, and partisanship, and the unfolding policy process over time. This study tracks the changes of risk perception and acceptance of WIPP over a decade, using measures taken from 35 statewide surveys of New Mexico citizens spanning an 11-year period from fall 1990 to summer 2001. This time span includes periods before and after WIPP became operational. We find that acceptance of WIPP is greater among those whose residences are closest to the WIPP facility. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations drawn from the broader literature, acceptance is also greater among those who live closest to the nuclear waste transportation route. We also find that ideology, partisanship, government approval, and broader environmental concerns influence support for WIPP acceptance. Finally, the sequence of procedural steps taken toward formal approval of WIPP by government agencies proved to be important to gaining public acceptance, the most significant being the opening of the WIPP facility itself.

  18. Gamma radiation induced changes in nuclear waste glass containing Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma radiation induced changes were investigated in sodium-barium borosilicate glasses containing Eu. The glass composition was similar to that of nuclear waste glasses used for vitrifying Trombay research reactor nuclear waste at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to study the speciation of the rare earth (RE) ion in the matrix before and after gamma irradiation. Judd-Ofelt ( J- O) analyses of the emission spectra were done before and after irradiation. The spin counting technique was employed to quantify the number of defect centres formed in the glass at the highest gamma dose studied. PL data suggested the stabilisation of the trivalent RE ion in the borosilicate glass matrix both before and after irradiation. It was also observed that, the RE ion distributes itself in two different environments in the irradiated glass. From the EPR data it was observed that, boron oxygen hole centre based radicals are the predominant defect centres produced in the glass after irradiation along with small amount of E’ centres. From the spin counting studies the concentration of defect centres in the glass was calculated to be 350 ppm at 900 kGy. This indicated the fact that bulk of the glass remained unaffected after gamma irradiation up to 900 kGy.

  19. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-12-31

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power.

  20. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.H.

    1995-09-11

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

  1. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  2. 78 FR 66858 - Waste Confidence-Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AJ20 Waste Confidence--Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On September 13, 2013, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published for public...

  3. Biosphere model for assessing doses from nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.I.; Zach, R.; Sheppard, S.C.; Amiro, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    In Canada`s nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the waste would be placed in corrosion-resistant metal containers, surrounded by clay-based buffer and backfill materials, in a vault deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The engineered and natural barriers of the disposal system are designed to isolate the waste from the surface environment. Nevertheless, isolation may not be complete for all time and nuclides could reach the surface environment. Because this would likely occur far in the future, the impact on the environment and humans must be predicted with the help of mathematical models. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), a key regulator of Canada`s nuclear industry, requires that quantitative model simulations extend to at least 10,000 years. The AECB has established an individual risk limit for human exposure of 10{sup -6} serious health effects per year. This limit corresponds to a radiological dose of 0.05 mSv/a or about 2.5% of the natural background dose, based on the AECB`s risk conversion factor of 0.02. To demonstrate environmental and human safety, radiological doses are predicted to a member of a self-sufficient critical group, the most exposed people for up to 10,000 years. For times longer than 10,000 years, reasoned arguments are required to show that no sudden or dramatic increases will occur that would be unacceptable by today`s standards. Our predictions are based on linked vault, geosphere and biosphere models, which compose the system model.

  4. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G G

    2001-03-28

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  5. Integrated Data Base report--1993: U.S. spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel; also, commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1993. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program wastes, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 256 refs., 38 figs., 141 tabs.

  6. A consumption approach to wastes from economic activities.

    PubMed

    Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. PMID:26851169

  7. Radiation and Thermal Stability of Murataite Ceramics Nuclear Waste Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2006-05-01

    The wide range of complex nuclear wastes requires a variety of robust hosts for long-term storage during disposal. Wastes with high actinide and iron concentrations have generated intense interest in murataite ceramics as a candidate waste form due to its four distinct cation sites as well as cation vacancies. Critical to this application is the radiation stability of the waste host. We have determined both the radiation and thermal stabilities of murataite ceramics using in situ observations in a transmission electron microscope during ion bombardment at the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory. A central issue for structural stability is radiation damage-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transformation that may result in macroscopic swelling, cracking and phase decomposition. Such a response would lead to a significant change in chemical durability and release of incorporated radionuclides. We found that, murataite ceramics are susceptible to ion beam induce ordered-disordered transition and amorphization. The ion dose required for amorphization was determined as a function of temperature and the degree of initial structural disorder. The upper temperature limit for amorphization of murataites was determined to be in the range of 860 K to 1060 K for 1 MeV Kr2+ ion irradiation. Decrease of the susceptibility to irradiation induced amorphization for disordered murataite, suggests that the amorphization susceptibility depends, in part, on the initial degree of intrinsic disorder prior to irradiation. The thermal stability of murataite polytypes was studied by in-situ TEM observation. Phase decomposition with the precipitation of Fe-rich nanocrystals was induced in the murataite structure. The phase decomposition and nanocrystal formation have no significant effects on the radiation resistance of murataite ceramics used as potential host phases for the immobilization of actinides.

  8. SRNL CRP progress report [Development of Melt Processed Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-10-02

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multiphase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing.

  9. Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Research, Hospitals and Nuclear Medical Centers in Egypt - 13469

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-07-01

    The application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in medical diagnosis and therapy is an important issue. Physicians can use radioisotopes to diagnose and treat diseases. Methods of treatment, conditioning and management of low level radioactive wastes from the use of radiation sources and radioisotopes in hospitals and nuclear medicine application, are described. Solid Radioactive waste with low-level activity after accumulation, minimization, segregation and measurement, are burned or compressed in a compactor according to the international standards. Conditioned drums are transported to the interim storage site at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) represented in Hot Labs and Waste Management Center (HLWMC) for storage and monitoring. (authors)

  10. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger M. C. Swenson

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  11. An approach to thermochemical modeling of nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Beahm, E.C.; Spear, K.E.

    1998-11-01

    This initial work is aimed at developing a basic understanding of the phase equilibria and solid solution behavior of the constituents of waste glass. Current, experimentally determined values are less than desirable since they depend on measurement of the leach rate under non-realistic conditions designed to accelerate processes that occur on a geologic time scale. The often-used assumption that the activity of a species is either unity or equal to the overall concentration of the metal can also yield misleading results. The associate species model, a recent development in thermochemical modeling, will be applied to these systems to more accurately predict chemical activities in such complex systems as waste glasses.

  12. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  13. Abyssal Sequestration of Nuclear Waste in Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2013-12-01

    This work outlines a new method for disposing of hazardous (e.g., nuclear) waste. The technique is called Abyssal Sequestration, and it involves placing the waste at extreme depths in Earth's crust where it could achieve the geologically-long period of isolation. Abyssal Sequestration involves storing the waste in hydraulic fractures driven by gravity, a process we term gravity fracturing. In short, we suggest creating a dense fluid (slurry) containing waste, introducing the fluid into a fracture, and extending the fracture downward until it becomes long enough to propagate independently. The fracture will continue to propagate downward to great depth, permanently isolating the waste. Storing solid wastes by mixing them with fluids and injecting them into hydraulic fractures is a well-known technology. The essence of our idea differs from conventional hydraulic fracturing techniques only slightly in that it uses fracturing fluid heavier than the surrounding rock. This difference is fundamental, however, because it allows hydraulic fractures to propagate downward and carry wastes by gravity instead of or in addition to being injected by pumping. An example of similar gravity-driven fractures with positive buoyancy is given by magmatic dikes that may serve as an analog of Abyssal Sequestration occurring in nature. Mechanics of fracture propagation in conditions of positive (diking) and negative (heavy waste slurry) buoyancy is similar and considered in this work for both cases. Analog experiments in gelatin show that fracture breadth (horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when fracturing process in the fracture 'head' (where breadth is 'created') is dominated by solid toughness, as opposed to the viscous fluid dissipation dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting 'buoyant' or 'sinking' finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response of the crack to fluid loading

  14. Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Toghiani, B.

    2000-10-30

    Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial step in the remediation of these saltcakes is a rehydration process called saltcake dissolution. At Hanford, dissolution experiments have been conducted on small saltcake samples from five tanks. Modeling of these experimental results, using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), are being performed at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University. The River Protection Project (RPP) at Hanford will use these experimental and theoretical results to determine the amount of water that will be needed for its dissolution and retrieval operations. A comprehensive effort by the RPP and the Tank Focus Area continues to validate and improve the ESP and its databases for this application. The initial effort focused on the sodium, fluoride, and phosphate system due to its role in the formation of pipeline plugs. In FY 1999, an evaluation of the ESP predictions for sodium fluoride, trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate, and natrophosphate clearly indicated that improvements to the Public database of the ESP were needed. One of the improvements identified was double salts. The inability of any equilibrium thermodynamic model to properly account for double salts in the system can result in errors in the predicted solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of species in the system. The ESP code is evaluated by comparison with experimental data where possible. However, data does not cover the range of component concentrations and temperatures found in many tank wastes. Therefore, comparison of ESP with another code is desirable, and may illuminate problems with both

  15. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  16. Application of rock melting to construction of storage holes for nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Neudecker, J.W. Jr.

    1988-12-31

    Rock melting technology can provide in-situ glass liners in nuclear waste package emplacement holes to reduce permeability and increase borehole stability. Reduction of permeability would reduce the time and probability of groundwater contacting the waste packages. Increasing the stability of the storage boreholes would enhance the retrievability of the nuclear waste packages. The rock melting hole forming technology has already been tested in volcanic tuff similar to the geology at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  18. Addendum to the Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. Staiger; Michael Swenson; T. R. Thomas

    2004-05-01

    This report is an addendum to the report Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, INEEL/EXT-98-00455 Rev. 1, June 2003. The original report provided a summary description of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs). It also contained dozens of pages of detailed data tables documenting the volume and composition (chemical content and radionuclide activity) of the calcine stored in the CSSFs and the liquid waste from which the calcine was derived. This addendum report compiles the calcine composition data from the original report. It presents the compiled data in a graphical format with units (weight percent, curies per cubic meter, and nanocuries per gram) that are commonly used in regulatory and waste acceptance criteria documents. The compiled data are easier to use and understand when comparing the composition of the calcine with potential regulatory or waste acceptance criteria. This addendum report also provides detailed explanations for the large variability in the calcine composition among the CSSFs. The calcine composition varies as a result of reprocessing different types of fuel that had different cladding materials. Different chemicals were used to dissolve the various types of fuel, extract the uranium, and calcine the resulting waste. This resulted in calcine with variable compositions. This addendum report also identifies a few trace chemicals and radionuclides for which the accuracy of the amounts estimated to be in the calcine could be improved by making adjustments to the assumptions and methods used in making the estimates.

  19. Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Lien-Mow; Kilpatrick, Lester L.

    1984-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

  20. Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-05-19

    High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

  1. The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150

    SciTech Connect

    Gulik, V.I.; Biland, A.B.

    2012-07-01

    New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

  2. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  3. Review of progress in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.B.; Johnson, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is reviewed, illustrating the progress that has been made in assessing the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Research is being conducted into used fuel storage and transportation, fuel waste immobilization, site characterization and selection methods, and performance assessment modelling. Details of achievements in these areas are outlined, and results of the most recent interim assessment are discussed.

  4. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  5. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-10

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  6. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  7. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Tammy Ann

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  8. Candidate waste forms for immobilisation of waste chloride salt from pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Chironi, I.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Farnan, I.

    2012-01-01

    Sodalite/glass bodies prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at ˜850 °C/100 MPa are candidates for immobilising fission product-bearing waste KCl-LiCl pyroprocessing salts. To study the capacity of sodalite to structurally incorporate such pyroprocessing salts, K, Li, Cs, Sr, Ba and La were individually targeted for substitution in a Na site in sodalite (Na vacancies targeted as charge compensators for alkaline and rare earths) and studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after sintering in the range of 800-1000 °C. K and Li appeared to enter the sodalite, but Cs, Sr and Ba formed aluminosilicate phases and La formed an oxyapatite phase. However these non-sodalite phases have reasonable resistance to water leaching. Pure chlorapatite gives superior leach resistance to sodalite, and alkalis, alkaline and rare earth ions are generally known to enter chlorapatite, but attempts to incorporate simulated waste salt formulations into HIPed chlorapatite-based preparations or to substitute Cs alone into the structure of Ca-based chlorapatite were not successful on the basis of scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited severe water leachability, mainly in regard to Cs release. Attempts to substitute Cs into Ba- and Sr-based chlorapatites also did not look encouraging. Consequently the use of apatite alone to retain fission product-bearing waste pyroprocessing salts from electrolytic nuclear fuel reprocessing is problematical, but chlorapatite glass-ceramics may be feasible, albeit with reduced waste loadings. Spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl, does not appear to be suitable for incorporation of Cl-bearing waste containing fission products.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  10. Radiation damage studies related to nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Much of the previously reported work on alpha radiation effects on crystalline phases of importance to nuclear waste forms has been derived from radiation effects studies of composite waste forms. In the present work, two single-phase crystalline materials, Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pyrochlore) and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (zirconolite), of relative importance to current waste forms were studied independently by doping with /sup 244/Cm at the 3 wt % level. Changes in the crystalline structure measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of dose show that damage ingrowth follows an expected exponential relationship of the form ..delta..V/V/sub 0/ = A(1-exp(-BD)). In both cases, the materials became x-ray amorphous before the estimated saturation value was reached. The predicted magnitudes of the unit cell volume changes at saturation are 5.4% and 3.5%, respectively, for Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/. The later material exhibited anisotropic behavior in which the expansion of the monoclinic cell in the c/sub 0/ direction was over five times that of the a/sub 0/ direction. The effects of transmutations on the properties of high-level waste solids have not been studied until now because of the long half-lives of the important fission products. This problem was circumvented in the present study by preparing materials containing natural cesium and then irradiating them with neutrons to produce /sup 134/Cs, which has only a 2y half-life. The properties monitored at about one year intervals following irradiation have been density, leach rate and microstructure. A small amount of x-ray diffraction work has also been done. Small changes in density and leach rate have been observed for some of the materials, but they were not large enough to be of any consequence for the final disposal of high level wastes.

  11. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  12. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  13. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2006-06-01

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  14. Determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste from reactor decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Ostergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Sven P

    2007-04-15

    An analytical method for the determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste such as graphite, heavy concrete, steel, aluminum, and lead was developed. Several methods were investigated for decomposing the samples. AgCl precipitation was used to separate 36Cl from the matrix elements, followed by ion-exchange chromatography to remove interfering radionuclides. The purified 36Cl was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. The chemical yield of chlorine, as measured by ICPMS, is above 70% and the decontamination factors for all interfering radionuclides are greater than 10(6). The detection limit of this analytical method for 36Cl is 14 mBq. The method has been used to determine 36Cl in heavy concrete, aluminum, and graphite from the Danish DR-2 research reactor.

  15. Nuclear energy and waste management pyroprocess for system symbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    The actinide management has become a key issue in nuclear energy. Recovering and fissioning transuranium elements reduce the long-term proliferation risks and the environmental burden. The better way of waste management will be made by system symbiosis: a combination of light-water reactor and fast reactor and/or accelerator-driven transmutation system should be sought. The new recycling technology should be able to achieve good economy with smaller plants, which can process fuels from different types of reactors on a common technical basis. Ease in handling the higher heat load of transuranium nuclides is also important. Pyroprocesses with the use of molten salts are regarded as the strong candidate for such recycling technology. In JAEA, the first laboratory for the high-temperature chemistry of Am and Cm has been established. The fundamental data will be combined with the computer code for predicting the molten-salts electrolytic processes.

  16. Determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste from reactor decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Ostergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Sven P

    2007-04-15

    An analytical method for the determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste such as graphite, heavy concrete, steel, aluminum, and lead was developed. Several methods were investigated for decomposing the samples. AgCl precipitation was used to separate 36Cl from the matrix elements, followed by ion-exchange chromatography to remove interfering radionuclides. The purified 36Cl was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. The chemical yield of chlorine, as measured by ICPMS, is above 70% and the decontamination factors for all interfering radionuclides are greater than 10(6). The detection limit of this analytical method for 36Cl is 14 mBq. The method has been used to determine 36Cl in heavy concrete, aluminum, and graphite from the Danish DR-2 research reactor. PMID:17375901

  17. Information Strategy of Nuclear Training Center Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jeneie, I.

    2008-07-01

    Slovenia has plans to build a repository for low- and medium-radioactive waste by 2013, the location in the very neighborhood of nuclear power plant is almost chosen, but the final approval hasn't been granted yet. The main obstacle is public opinion. Public information activities are therefore vitally important. One of the most important players in this area in Slovenia is Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana. Though its main task is training of nuclear professionals, it has a significant role in dissemination of knowledge about radioactivity and nuclear technology also among general public. Public information is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia visits the Information center yearly and in May 2007, we have celebrated the 100,000. visitor since its opening. Live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations are offered. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. The paper describes the information strategy, types of lectures and information materials, permanent exhibition with the most important exhibits. Furthermore, the results of yearly polls of our visitors and comparison with relevant Euro-barometer polls are presented. (authors)

  18. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaff, K; Lorenzoni, I; Pidgeon, N F; Poortinga, W; Simmons, P

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, human influence on the climate through increased use of fossil fuels has become widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues for the global community. For the United Kingdom, we suggest that these concerns have increasingly become manifest in a new strand of political debate around energy policy, which reframes nuclear power as part of the solution to the need for low-carbon energy options. A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey. The data allow us to explore how UK citizens might now and in the future interpret and make sense of this new framing of nuclear power--which ultimately centers on a risk-risk trade-off scenario. We use the term "reluctant acceptance" to describe how, in complex ways, many focus group participants discursively re-negotiated their position on nuclear energy when it was positioned alongside climate change. In the concluding section of the paper, we reflect on the societal implications of the emerging discourse of new nuclear build as a means of delivering climate change mitigation and set an agenda for future research regarding the (re)framing of the nuclear energy debate in the UK and beyond.

  19. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source for Proliferation-Resistant Low-Waste Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N; Carelli, M; Conway, L; Dzodzo, M; Greenspan, E; Hossain, Q; Saphier, D; Shimada, H; Sienicki, J; Wade, D

    2001-04-01

    Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is a small innovative reactor suitable for use in developing countries. The reference design is a SOMWe lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) cooled fast reactor. It is designed so that the fuel is installed and sealed into the reactor module at the factory. The nuclear controls, a major portion of the instrumentation and the Pb-Bi covering the core are also installed at the factory. At the site of operations the reactor module is inserted into a pool of Pb-Bi that contains the steam generators. Major components, such as the pool vessel and steam generators, are permanent and remain in place while the reactor module is replaced every 15 years. At the end of life the sealed reactor module is removed and returned to an internationally controlled recycling center. Thus, the ENHS provides a unique capability for ensuring the security of the nuclear fuel throughout its life. The design also can minimize the user country investment in nuclear technology and staff. Following operation and return of the module to the recycling facility, the useable components, including the fuel, are refurbished and available for reuse. A fuel cycle compatible with this approach has been identified that reduces the amount of nuclear waste.

  20. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  1. Electrochemical Treatment of Alkaline Nuclear Wastes. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are two of the major hazardous non-radioactive species present in Hanford and Savannah River (SR) high-level waste (HLW). Electrochemical treatment processes have been developed to remove these species by converting aqueous sodium nitrate/nitrite into sodium hydroxide and chemically reducing the nitrogen species to gaseous ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Organic complexants and other organic compounds found in waste can be simultaneously oxidized to gaseous carbon dioxide and water, thereby reducing flammability and leaching risks as well as process interferences in subsequent radionuclide separation processes. Competing technologies include thermal, hydrothermal and chemical destruction. Unlike thermal and hydrothermal processes that typically operate at very high temperatures and pressures, electrochemical processes typically operate at low temperatures (<100 C) and atmospheric pressure. Electrochemical processes effect chemical transformations by the addition or removal of electrons and, thus, do not add additional chemicals, as is the case with chemical destruction processes. Hanford and SR have different plans for disposal of the low-activity waste (LAW) that results when radioactive Cs{sup 137} has been removed from the HLW. At SR, the decontaminated salt solution will be disposed in a cement waste form referred to as Saltstone, whereas at Hanford the waste will be vitrified as a borosilicate glass. Destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before disposing the decontaminated salt solution in Saltstone would eliminate possible groundwater contamination that could occur from the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from the cement waste form. Destruction of nitrate and nitrite before vitrification at Hanford would significantly reduce the size of the off-gas system by eliminating the formation of NO{sub x} gases in the melter. Throughout the 1990's, the electrochemical conversion process has been extensively studied at SR, the University of

  2. Mortgaging the future: dumping ethics with nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2005-10-01

    On August 22, 2005 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued proposed new regulations for radiation releases from the planned permanent U.S. nuclear-waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The goal of the new standards is to provide public-health protection for the next million years - even though everyone admits that the radioactive wastes will leak. Regulations now guarantee individual and equal protection against all radiation exposures above the legal limit. Instead E.P.A. recommended different radiation exposure-limits for different time periods. It also recommended using only the arithmetic mean of the dose distribution, to assess regulatory compliance during one time period, but using only the median dose to assess compliance during another period. This piece argues that these two changes - in exposure-limits and in methods of assessing regulatory compliance - have at least four disturbing consequences. The changes would threaten equal protection, ignore the needs of the most vulnerable, allow many fatal exposures, and sanction scientifically flawed dose calculations.

  3. Ceramic package fabrication for YMP nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfinger, K.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop alternate materials/design concepts to metal barriers for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. There is some potential that site conditions may prove to be too aggressive for successful employment of the metal alloys under current consideration or that performance assessment models will predict metal container degradation rates that are inconsistent with the goal of substantially complete containment included in the NRC regulations. In the event that the anticipated lifetimes of metal containers are considered inadequate, alternate materials (i.e. ceramics or ceramic/metal composites) will be chosen due to superior corrosion resistance. This document was prepared using information taken from the open literature, conversations and correspondence with vendors, news releases and data presented at conferences to determine what form such a package might take. This discussion presents some ceramic material selection criteria, alternatives for the materials which might be used and alternatives for potential fabrication routes. This includes {open_quotes}stand alone{close_quotes} ceramic components and ceramic coatings/linings for metallic structures. A list of companies providing verbal or written information concerning the production of ceramic or ceramic lined waste containers appears at the end of this discussion.

  4. Commercial nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    During the last five years, the declared size of the commercial light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has steadily decreased. As of January 1980, the total number of power plants had dropped to 191 from the 226 in December 31, 1974. At least another nine were cancelled in the last few months. This report was developed as the first of a series to track implications to waste management due to such changes in the declared size of the industry. For the presently declared size, key conclusions are: the declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 162 GWe and consume about 10/sup 6/ MTU as enrichment feed. As few as two repositories of about 100,000 MTHM capacity each would hold the waste. Predisposal storage (reactor basins and AFRs) would peak at less than 100,000 MTHM (in the year 2020) with one repository opening in the year 1997 and the other in the year 2020. Most of the 100,000 MTHM would have to be in AFR storage unless current practice regarding reactor basin size was radically changed.

  5. Status of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, C.J.; Stephens, M.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste has been developed extensively over the past several years, and is now well-advanced. The Concept, which involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock located in the Canadian Precambrian Shield, is supported by an R D program with the following objectives: (1) to develop and demonstrate technology to site, design, build and operate a disposal facility; (2) to develop and demonstrate a methodology to evaluate the performance of the disposal system; and (3) to demonstrate that sites are likely to exist in the Canadian Precambrian Shield that would meet the regulatory requirements. A combination of engineered and natural barriers will be used to ensure that the vault design will meet rigorous safety standards. Experimental work is being carried out to elucidate all the important phenomena associated with the safety of the vault, including the performance of engineered barriers, natural geological barriers, and the biosphere.

  6. Nuclear waste management issues: a multidisciplinary evaluation framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.

    1980-02-01

    Initially, this paper characterizes the nuclear waste problem that requires analysis to establish the rationale for an interdisciplinary approach to resolve it. The problem characterization also explains why the specific concern with contaminated groundwater and intrusion through drilling has been selected for the focus of the panel meeting. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT), the group process format chosen for the experts' deliberations, is explained in some detail and its value in facilitating the desired dialogue is described. The dialogue is organized around the various issue areas that would be of concern to a program manager dealing with the potential problem of radioactivity escaping to the biosphere through human intrusion into contaminated groundwater. The participants are identified by professional discipline so that the dialogue can be presented in a realistic fashion. Both the content of the dialogue and its format are evaluated. Particular attention is given to their usefulness in generating a cross-section of subissues and factors that should be addressed when analyzing the waste disposal system's adequacy to prevent contaminated groundwater escaping to the biosphere.

  7. Active genes at the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Angela

    2007-06-01

    The nucleus is spatially and functionally organized and its architecture is now seen as a key contributor to genome functions. A central component of this architecture is the nuclear envelope, which is studded with nuclear pore complexes that serve as gateways for communication between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Although the nuclear periphery has traditionally been described as a repressive compartment and repository for gene-poor chromosome regions, several recent studies in yeast have demonstrated that repressive and activating domains can both be positioned at the periphery of the nucleus. Moreover, association with the nuclear envelope favors the expression of particular genes, demonstrating that nuclear organization can play an active role in gene regulation. PMID:17467257

  8. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)

  9. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  10. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] waste form testing at Argonne National Laboratory; Semiannual report, January--June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Biwer, B.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory is performing experiments in support of the waste package development of the Yucca Mountain Project (formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project). Experiments in progress include (1) the development and performance of a durability test in unsaturated conditions, (2) studies of waste form behavior in an irradiated atmosphere, (3) studies of behavior in water vapor, and (4) studies of naturally occurring glasses to be used as analogues for waste glass behavior. This report documents progress made during the period of January--June 1988. 21 refs., 37 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. 77 FR 8926 - Board Meeting: March 7, 2012-Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: March 7, 2012--Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board... authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board will hold...

  12. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  13. Remote installation of risers on underground nuclear waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.P.; Gessner, R.F.

    1988-03-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established to solidify 2120 m/sup 3/ (560,000) gallons of high-level nuclear waste generated during six years of commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing. This liquid will be processed to remove radioactive elements which, with the remaining sludge, will be combined with glass formers and be converted into borosilicate glass. Risers were installed on the high-level tank for installation of pumps which will be used to remove the liquid and sludge. The extensive use of remote technology was required to install the risers and to minimize operator exposure to high levels of radiation and contamination. The riser installation required remotely: drilling through two feet of concrete shielding; installing pump access pipes which are welded to the tank top; and cutting holes in tanks located 3658 mm (12) feet below ground. These operations were successfully completed 13 times without exposing personnel to high-level radiation or contamination. Specially designed remote equipment was developed for each step of this operation. Extensive operator training in the use of this equipment was performed on a tank with low radiation prior to work on the high-level tank. This paper discusses the application of remote technology that assured a quality job was safely accomplished. 3 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  15. Cermet Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks and Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Dole, Leslie R.

    2007-07-01

    Multipurpose transport, aging, and disposal casks are needed for the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Self-shielded cermet casks can out-perform current SNF casks because of the superior properties of cermets, which consist of encapsulated hard ceramic particulates dispersed in a continuous ductile metal matrix to produce a strong high-integrity, high-thermal conductivity cask. A multi-year, multinational development and testing program has been developing cermet SNF casks made of steel, depleted uranium dioxide, and other materials. Because cermets are the traditional material of construction for armor, cermet casks can provide superior protection against assault. For disposal, cermet waste packages (WPs) with appropriate metals and ceramics can buffer the local geochemical environment to (1) slow degradation of SNF, (2) reduce water flow though the degraded WP, (3) sorb neptunium and other radionuclides that determine the ultimate radiation dose to the public from the repository, and (4) contribute to long-term nuclear criticality control. Finally, new cermet cask fabrication methods have been partly developed to manufacture the casks with the appropriate properties. The results of this work are summarized with references to the detailed reports. (authors)

  16. Nuclear waste processing based on FOOF and KrF sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.C.; Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A class of oxygen fluoride compounds and krypton difluoride show great promise in recovering and purifying plutonium and other actinides from nuclear waste and residues. Since 1983, a significant effort has been expended in three main areas of research; one area is the characterization of the reactive species and the fluorination reaction chemistry with various actinides. The second area is to develop efficient production methods for the active chemicals. The third area is actually in demonstrating application of these fluorinating agents to actinides recovery and purification. Substantial progress has been made in all three areas and some of the highlights in their research effort is discussed. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Redox of Simulated Nuclear Waste Glass Forming Melts

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, Sara C.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2001-12-01

    Glasses are found in most reduction-oxidation (redox) items that are used everyday; from automobiles to planes. With stability of most glasses, they are being used to store hazardous waste materials. Many elements have different oxidation states and are found in multiple states in glasses. Redox of glasses has significant effect on processing of waste glass melts in melters as well as properties of the waste forms. Nuclear waste glasses generally have complex chemistry (including several redox ions) and form corrosive melts. Basic objective: study the redox of the glasses containing Fe and Ni with square wave voltammetry. A basic simulated frit glass was used for vitrification. The frit composition used was 57.90% SiO2, 17.70% Na2O, 14.70% B2O3, 5.70% Li2O, 2.00% MgO, 1.00% TiO2, 0.50% ZrO2, and 0.50% La2O3. Batch glasses were synthesized and then dopants of Fe2O3 , NiO, and a combination of Fe2O3-NiO were added in 1-wt % amounts. The glass was melted at 1150 C and held for 24 hours. It was poured to the top of a medium sized Pt/Rh crucible and placed in a furnace at 1150 C. The glass powder was allowed to melt for five minutes before the testing apparatus was placed in the melt. The testing apparatus was composed of a Pt/Rh working electrode, Pt/Rh counter electrode, and a Zr/Al reference electrode. The counter electrode is placed in the melt until it is touching the bottom of the crucible creating a closed circuit. Both the reference electrode and working electrode are located half way down the counter electrode. The test showed that melt resistivity was high indicating the amount of conductivity in the melt. Sample melt volume and area of the working electrode were high. Adjusting the crucible size and sizing other electrodes will improve the measurements. Future work: testing NiO glass and Fe2O3-NiO glass to see the interaction between the Fe and the Ni and synthesis of 2 wt %, 3 wt %, and 5-wt % Fe2O3 doped glasses to study effects of Fe concentration.

  18. Engineering of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 for bioprecipitation of uranium from dilute nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2006-12-01

    Genetic engineering of radiation-resistant organisms to recover radionuclides/heavy metals from radioactive wastes is an attractive proposition. We have constructed a Deinococcus radiodurans strain harboring phoN, a gene encoding a nonspecific acid phosphatase, obtained from a local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The recombinant strain expressed an approximately 27-kDa active PhoN protein and efficiently precipitated over 90% of the uranium from a 0.8 mM uranyl nitrate solution in 6 h. The engineered strain retained uranium bioprecipitation ability even after exposure to 6 kGy of 60Co gamma rays. The PhoN-expressing D. radiodurans offers an effective and eco-friendly in situ approach to biorecovery of uranium from dilute nuclear waste.

  19. High performance gamma measurements of equipment retrieved from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, G.L.

    1997-03-17

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to 90% saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

  20. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards.

  1. High-performance gamma spectroscopy for equipment retrieval from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Gary L.; Hillesand, K. E.; Goodwin, S. G.; Kessler, S. F.; Killian, E. W.; Legare, D.; Nelson, Joseph V., Jr.; Richard, R. F.; Nordquist, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to ninety per cent saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  3. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: attitudes and perceptions of local residents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, G W; Jenkins-Smith, H C; Silva, C

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and-more generally-the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three counties where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste.

  4. The future of high-level nuclear waste disposal, state sovereignty and the tenth amendment: Nevada v. Watkins

    SciTech Connect

    Swazo, S.

    1996-12-01

    The federal government`s monopoly over America`s nuclear energy production began during World War II with the birth of the Atomic Age. During the next thirty years, nuclear waste inventories increased with minor congressional concern. In the early 1970s, the need for federal legislation to address problems surrounding nuclear waste regulation, along with federal efforts to address these problems, became critical. Previous federal efforts had completely failed to address nuclear waste disposal. In 1982, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) to deal with issues of nuclear waste management and disposal, and to set an agenda for the development of two national high-level nuclear waste repositories. This article discusses the legal challenge to the NWPA in the Nevada v. Watkins case. This case illustrates the federalism problems faced by the federal government in trying to site the nation`s only high-level nuclear waste repository within a single state.

  5. ORNL nuclear waste programs annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Research progress is reported in 20 activities under the headings: spent fuels, defense waste management, commercial waste management, remedial action, and conventional reactors. Separate entries were prepared for each activity.

  6. Potential of Chromolaena odorata for phytoremediation of (137)Cs from solution and low level nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shraddha; Thorat, Vidya; Kaushik, C P; Raj, Kanwar; Eapen, Susan; D'Souza, S F

    2009-03-15

    Potential of Chromolaena odorata plants for remediation of (137)Cs from solutions and low level nuclear waste was evaluated. When plants were exposed to solutions spiked with three different levels of (137)Cs, namely 1 x 10(3) kBqL(-1), 5 x 10(3) kBqL(-1) and 10 x 10(3) kBqL(-1), 89%, 81% and 51% of (137)Cs was found to be remediated in 15 d, respectively. At the lowest Cs activity (1 x 10(3) kBqL(-1)), accumulation of Cs was found to be higher in roots compared to shoots, while at higher Cs activities (5 x 10(3) kBqL(-1) and 10 x 10(3) kBqL(-1)), Cs accumulation was more in shoots than roots. When plants were incubated in low level nuclear waste, 79% of the activity was removed by plants at the end of 15 d. The present study suggests that C. odorata could be used as a potential candidate plant for phytoremediation of (137)Cs.

  7. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  8. Debate heats up over potential Interim Nuclear Waste Repository, as studies of Yucca Mountain continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With spent nuclear fuel piling up at power plants around the United States, and with a potential permanent nuclear waste repository at Nevada's Yucca Mountain not scheduled to accept waste until 11 years from now in the year 2010, the nuclear energy industry and many members of Congress have renewed their push to establish an interim repository at the adjacent Nevada Test Site of nuclear bombs.At a sometimes contentious March 12 hearing to consider the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1999 (House Resolution 45) that would require an interim facility to begin accepting waste in 2003, bill cosponsor Rep. Jim Barton (R-Tex.) told Energy Secretary Bill Richardson that he preferred that Congress and the Clinton Administration negotiate rather than fight over the measure.

  9. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Radionuclide characterization of potential BRC waste types from nuclear power stations: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Hetzer, D.C.; Wynhoff, N.L.; Raney, P.J.; Forsythe, J.D.; Schmitt, J.S.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hara, K.T.; Strebin, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a detailed radiological characterization and statistical assessment of the measured radionuclide distributions for four candidate ''below regulatory concern'' (BRC) waste types from commercial nuclear power stations. These measurements and statistical evaluations will provide the bases for conducting detailed dose assessments associated with various disposal options for BRC wastes. The four waste types selected were dry active waste (DAW), oil, soil, and secondary side ion exchange resin. The measurement included gamma-spectrometric analyses of 558 total samples, including 102 DAW samples, 231 oil samples, 142 soil samples, and 83 resin samples. Radionuclides usually detected during the gamma spectrometry included /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 58/Co. Frequently, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 125/Sb were detected, especially in wastes from plants which had experienced a relatively high rate of fuel cladding failures. Selected aliquots of the gamma-counted samples were radiochemically analyzed for /sup 14/C, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 63/Ni, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 238/Pu, and /sup 239,240/Pu. The gamma-emitting radionuclides in the BRC wastes, which are the primary contributors to the limiting dose to the general population for BRC waste disposal, were dominated by /sup 60/Co and /sup 137/Cs. The variability in the major gamma-emitting nuclides was assessed as a function of reactor type and waste stream. A similar evaluation was conducted for the difficult-to-measure radionuclides. From these assessments, it was concluded that the variability in radionuclide composition from all waste streams and all plants was sufficiently small to justify the development of a single, conservative radionuclide composition that would be representative of the BRC waste generated at commercial US nuclear power stations.

  11. U.S. program assessing nuclear waste disposal in space - A 1981 status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Best, R. E.; Compton, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts, current studies, and technology and equipment requirements for using the STS for space disposal of selected nuclear wastes as a complement to geological storage are reviewed. An orbital transfer vehicle carried by the Shuttle would kick the waste cannister into a 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit. One flight per week is regarded as sufficient to dispose of all high level wastes chemically separated from reactor fuel rods from 200 GWe nuclear power capacity. Studies are proceeding for candidate wastes, the STS system suited to each waste, and the risk/benefits of a space disposal system. Risk assessments are being extended to total waste disposal risks for various disposal programs with and without a space segment, and including side waste streams produced as a result of separating substances for launch.

  12. Annual report on the development and characterization of solidified forms for nuclear wastes, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; McVay, G.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Roberts, F.P.

    1980-12-01

    Development and characterization of solidified nuclear waste forms is a major continuing effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Contributions from seven programs directed at understanding chemical composition, process conditions, and long-term behaviors of various nuclear waste forms are included in this report. The major findings of the report are included in extended figure captions that can be read as brief technical summaries of the research, with additional information included in a traditional narrative format. Waste form development proceeded on crystalline and glass materials for high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. Leaching studies emphasized new areas of research aimed at more basic understanding of waste form/aqueous solution interactions. Phase behavior and thermal effects research included studies on crystal phases in defense and TRU waste glasses and on liquid-liquid phase separation in borosilicate waste glasses. Radiation damage effects in crystals and glasses from alpha decay and from transmutation are reported.

  13. Radiation resistant concrete for applications in nuclear power and radioactive waste industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Steven Robert

    Elemental components of ordinary concrete contain a variety of metals and rare earth elements that are susceptible to neutron activation. This activation occurs by means of radiative capture, a neutron interaction that results in formation of radioisotopes such as Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154. Studies have shown that these three radioisotopes are responsible for the residual radioactivity found in nuclear power plant concrete reactor dome and shielding walls. Such concrete is classified as Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and requires disposal at appropriate disposal sites. There are only three such sites in the USA, and every nuclear power plant will produce at the time of decommissioning approximately 1,500 tonnes of activated concrete classified as LLRW and VLLW. NAVA ALIGA (ancient word for a new stone) is a new concrete mixture developed mainly by research as presented in this thesis. The purpose of NAVA ALIGA is to satisfy IAEA clearance levels if used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, or radioactive waste canisters. NAVA ALIGA will never be activated above the IAEA clearance level after long-term exposure to neutron radiation when used as a material for reactor dome, spent fuel pool, and radioactive waste canisters. Components of NAVA ALIGA were identified using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ISP-MS) to determine trace element composition. In addition, it was tested for compressive strength and permeability, important for nuclear infrastructure. The studied mixture had a high water to cement ratio of 0.56, which likely resulted in the high measured permeability, yet the mixture also showed a compressive strength greater than 6 000 psi after 28 days. In addition to this experimental analysis, which goal was to develop a standard approach to define the concrete mixtures in satisfying the IAEA

  14. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

  15. Intergovernmental complexity in nuclear waste disposal policy: The indeterminate role of local government

    SciTech Connect

    Herzik, E.B.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-12-31

    Local governments play a critical, albeit often overlooked, role in nuclear waste disposal policymaking. The centrality of local governments in the policymaking process rests on the simple fact that impacts would be borne disproportionately by local jurisdictions hosting and immediately adjacent to waste disposal sites. This article focuses on the capacity of local jurisdictions in Southern and rural Nevada to absorb and support an undertaking as large and technically complex as the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. The article also examines the perceptions of local government officials concerning a number of management and policy issues related to the construction and operation of the proposed waste repository.

  16. The National Nuclear Laboratory's Approach to Processing Mixed Wastes and Residues - 13080

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Howard; Docrat, Tahera; Allinson, Sarah J.; Coppersthwaite, Duncan P.; Sultan, Ruqayyah; May, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    The National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) treats a wide variety of materials produced as by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle, mostly from uranium purification and fuel manufacture but also including materials from uranium enrichment and from the decommissioning of obsolete plants. In the context of this paper, treatment is defined as recovery of uranium or other activity from residues, the recycle of uranium to the fuel cycle or preparation for long term storage and the final disposal or discharge to the environment of the remainder of the material. NNL's systematic but flexible approach to residue assessment and treatment is described in this paper. The approach typically comprises up to five main phases. The benefits of a systematic approach to waste and residue assessments and processing are described in this paper with examples used to illustrate each phase of work. Benefits include early identification of processing routes or processing issues and the avoidance of investment in inappropriate and costly plant or processes. (authors)

  17. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Research is reported on: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, TRU waste immobilization and decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, /sup 129/I fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation, waste management system and safety studies, effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, backfill material, spent fuel storage (criticality), barrier sealing and liners for U mill tailings, and revegetation of inactive U tailings sites. (DLC)

  18. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXX

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Darrell; Poinssot, Christophe; Begg, Bruce

    2007-07-01

    Management of nuclear waste remains an important international topic that includes reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, waste-form design and development, storage and disposal packaging, the process of repository site selection, system design, and performance assessment. Requirements to manage and dispose of materials from the production of nuclear weapons, and the renewed interest in nuclear power, in particular through the Generation IV Forum and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, can be expected to increase the need for scientific advances in waste management. A broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines is necessary to provide safe and effective solutions and address complex issues. This volume offers an interdisciplinary perspective on materials-related issues associated with nuclear waste management programs. Invited and contributed papers cover a wide range of topics including studies on: spent fuel; performance assessment and models; waste forms for low- and intermediate-level waste; ceramic and glass waste forms for plutonium and high-level waste; radionuclides; containers and engineered barriers; disposal environments and site characteristics; and partitioning and transmutation.

  20. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  1. The crucial role of nomothetic and idiographic conceptions of time: interdisciplinary collaboration in nuclear waste management.

    PubMed

    Moser, Corinne; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius; Scholz, Roland W

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste involves extensive time scales. Technical experts consider up to 1 million years for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste in their safety assessment. Yet nuclear waste is not only a technical but also a so-called sociotechnical problem and, therefore, requires interdisciplinary collaboration between technical, natural, social sciences, and the humanities in its management. Given that these disciplines differ in their language, epistemics, and interests, such collaboration might be problematic. Based on evidence from cognitive psychology, we suggest that, in particular, a concept like time is presumably critical and can be understood differently. This study explores how different scientific disciplines understand extensive time scales in general and then focuses on nuclear waste. Eighteen qualitative exploratory interviews were conducted with experts for time-related phenomena of different disciplines, among them experts working in nuclear waste management. Analyses revealed two distinct conceptions of time corresponding to idiographic and nomothetic research approaches: scientists from the humanities and social sciences tend to have a more open, undetermined conception of time, whereas natural scientists tend to focus on a more determined conception that includes some undetermined aspects. Our analyses lead to reflections on potential difficulties for interdisciplinary teams in nuclear waste management. We focus on the understanding of the safety assessment, on potential implications for communication between experts from different disciplines (e.g., between experts from the humanities and engineering for risk assessment and risk communication), and we reflect on the roles of different disciplines in nuclear waste management.

  2. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  4. 78 FR 57668 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal... availability of ``U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Plan for Monitoring Disposal Actions Taken by the U.S... responsibilities for monitoring DOE's waste disposal activities at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at...

  5. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  7. Helium solubility in SON68 nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fares, Toby; Peuget, Sylvain; Bouty, Olivier; Broudic, Veronique; Maugeri, Emilio; Bes, Rene; Jegou, Christophe; Chamssedine, Fadel; Sauvage, Thierry; Deschanels, Xavier

    2012-12-15

    Helium behavior in a sodium borosilicate glass (SON68) dedicated to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste is examined. Two experimental approaches on nonradioactive glass specimens are implemented: pressurized helium infusion experiments and {sup 3}He ion implantation experiments. The temperature variation of helium solubility in SON68 glass was determined and analyzed with the harmonic oscillator model to determine values of the energy of interaction E(0) at the host sites (about -4000 J/mol), the vibration frequency (about 1.7 x 10{sup 11} s{sup -1}), and the density of solubility sites (2.2 x 10{sup 21} sites cm{sup -3}). The implantation experiments show that a non diffusive transport phenomenon (i.e., athermal diffusion) is involved in the material when the helium concentration exceeds 2.3 x 10{sup 21} He cm{sup -3}, and thus probably as soon as it exceeds the density of solubility sites accessible to helium in the glass. We propose that this transport mechanism could be associated with the relaxation of the stress gradient induced by the implanted helium profile, which is favored by the glass damage. Microstructural characterization by TEM and ESEM of glass specimens implanted with high helium concentrations showed a homogeneous microstructure free of bubbles, pores, or cracking at a scale of 10 nm. (authors)

  8. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-12-01

    Studies have shown that the repository long-term radiological risk is from the long-lived transuranics and the fission products Tc-99 and I-129, thermal loading concerns arise mainly form the short-lived fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. In relation to the disposition of nuclear waste, ATW is expected to accomplish the following: (1) destroy over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroy over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separate Sr and Cs (short half-life isotopes); (4) separate uranium; (5) produce electricity. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to a ATW site where the plutonium, other transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their only pass through the facility. This approach contrasts with the present-day reprocessing practices in Europe and Japan, during which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors.

  9. Electron beam irradiation effects in Trombay nuclear waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Pujari, P. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Spectroscopic investigations were carried out on electron beam irradiated sodium barium borosilicate glasses, which is the base glass for immobilization of nuclear high level radioactive waste, generated from the research reactors at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. This was done in order to access the defects generated in it under long term irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to identify the defect centers generated in the borosilicate glass after irradiation. In addition, positron annihilation spectroscopy and infrared investigations were done on the samples to evaluate the radiation induced changes in the glass. It was found that, boron-oxygen and silicon based hole centers along with E' centers are getting formed in the glass after irradiation due to the breaking of the Si sbnd O bonds at regular tetrahedron sites of Si sbnd O sbnd Si. The positron annihilation spectroscopy data gave an idea regarding the free volume size and fraction of the glasses before and after irradiation. It was seen that, after irradiation the free volume size in the glass increased with creation of additional sites. Microwave power variation and temperature variation studies suggested the formation of at least five different radicals in the irradiated glasses. The spin Hamiltonian parameter of all the radical species were determined by computer simulation. An electron paramagnetic resonance spin counting technique was employed to evaluate the defect concentration in the glasses after irradiation.

  10. Analysis by simulation of the disposition of nuclear fuel waste

    SciTech Connect

    Turek, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A descriptive simulation model is developed which includes all aspects of nuclear waste disposition. The model is comprised of two systems, the second system orchestrated by GASP IV. A spent fuel generation prediction module is interfaced with the AFR Program Management Information System and a repository scheduling information module. The user is permitted a wide range of options with which to tailor the simulation to any desired storage scenario. The model projects storage requirements through the year 2020. The outputs are evaluations of the impact that alternative decision policies and milestone date changes have on the demand for, the availability of, and the utilization of spent fuel storage capacities. Both graphs and detailed listings are available. These outputs give a comprehensive view of the particular scenario under observation, including the tracking, by year, of each discharge from every reactor. Included within the work is a review of the status of spent fuel disposition based on input data accurate as of August 1980. The results indicate that some temporary storage techniques (e.g., transshipment of fuel and/or additional at-reactor storage pools) must be utilized to prevent reactor shutdowns. These techniques will be required until the 1990's when several AFR facilities, and possibly one repository, can become operational.

  11. Hydrogeologic effects of natural disruptive events on nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.N.

    1980-06-01

    Some possible hydrogeologic effects of disruptive events that may affect repositories for nuclear wastte are described. A very large number of combinations of natural events can be imagined, but only those events which are judged to be most probable are covered. Waste-induced effects are not considered. The disruptive events discussed above are placed into four geologic settings. Although the geology is not specific to given repository sites that have been considered by other agencies, the geology has been generalized from actual field data and is, therefore, considered to be physically reasonable. The geologic settings considered are: (1) interior salt domes of the Gulf Coast, (2) bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico, (3) argillaceous rocks of southern Nevanda, and (4) granitic stocks of the Basin and Range Province. Log-normal distributions of permeabilities of rock units are given for each region. Chapters are devoted to: poresity and permeability of natural materials, regional flow patterns, disruptive events (faulting, dissolution of rock forming minerals, fracturing from various causes, rapid changes of hydraulic regimen); possible hydrologic effects of disruptive events; and hydraulic fracturing.

  12. Nuclear waste spectrum as evidence of technological extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Wright, D. P.

    1980-04-01

    The possible observational consequences of galactic civilizations which utilize their local star as a repository for radioactive fissile waste material are considered. If a relatively small fraction of the nuclear resources present in the crust of a terrestrial-type planet were processed via breeder reactors, the resulting stellar spectrum would be selectively modified over geological time periods provided the star has a sufficiently shallow outer convective zone. Consideration of surface convective mixing and stellar lifetimes restricts the possible candidate stars to the approximate spectral range A5-F2. The abundance anomalies resulting from the slow neutron fission of plutonium-239 and uranium-233 are presented and it is argued that these anomalous distributions are unlikely to be duplicated by natural nucleosynthesis processes. Relative to solar system abundances, the elements praseodymium and neodymium are found to be the most overabundant. These elements, along with the radioactive elements technetium and plutonium, could be used to identify A5-F2 candidate stars in a preliminary spectral survey.

  13. Nuclear waste: Asset or liability? A pragmatic view in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Janice Irene

    Temporary storage of nuclear waste has become a pervasive and increasingly difficult problem for U.S. policymakers because permanent disposition solutions are so politically and environmentally charged that agreement among stakeholders has proved impossible. The question is what to do with nuclear waste---the spent fuel and nuclear warheads from dismantled weapons? Is there a feasible alternative to geologic disposal? It is hypothesized that the energy potential resident in spent fuel and dismantled warheads can be put to productive use by recycling these waste materials using existing technologies. A Notional Nuclear Power System (NNPS) was developed as the vehicle to address a resolution to the nuclear waste issue. The methodology identified five issues, defined four feasible alternatives, determined the relative importance of the issues, judged the capabilities of each alternative to contribute to the resolution of each issue, and used a quasi-statistical weighted analysis to determine the best alternative. Expert judgments were obtained from high-level managers in the field over a three-year period. Safety and nuclear waste were the most important of the five issues considered. The NNPS earned the highest rating because it utilized the recovered plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from spent fuel and nuclear warheads to fuel Generation IV reactors. The United States has a choice---burn it or bury it! Should breakthroughs in the nuclear reactor technology occur beyond Generation IV reactors, further research would be warranted.

  14. Effect of pH on the destruction of complexants with ozone in Hanford nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1981-06-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear waste at Hanford has generated some waste solutions with high concentration (0.1 to 0.5M) of N-(hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other organic complexing agents. These complexants must be destroyed bacause they affect radionuclide migration in soils, waste concentration, radionuclide removal, and other waste storage and processing considerations. Previous studies on actual waste solutions demonstrated that preozonation of the alkaline waste significantly improved radionuclide removal. A series of bench-scale experiments using synthetic waste has been performed to determine the optimum pH for most efficient ozone destruction of EDTA. Ozonation of EDTA in synthetic waste was carried out over the pH range of 1 to 14. Potential catalytic materials were examined at different pH levels. The EDTA-ozone reaction rates and stoichiometric requirements were compared and evaluated for the varying conditions.

  15. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility, desirability and preferred approaches for disposal of selected high-level nuclear wastes in space were analyzed. Preliminary space disposal risk estimates and estimates of risk uncertainty are provided.

  16. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-03-31

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  17. Technology Perspectives on the Management of Spent-Resin Wastes Generated From Nuclear Power Reactor Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Shiv Vijayan; Makoto Kikuchi; Akihiro Komatsu

    2002-07-01

    Organic-resin wastes (spent resins) are generated by different purification systems employed in all types of nuclear power reactors during routine and non-routine operations. The quantities of such resin wastes, and their inventories of contaminants vary depend on the operational goals of the individual power plant. Depending on the regulatory target in the particular jurisdiction where the reactor is located, the type and amounts of radionuclides, metals and other chemical contaminants in the resin waste determine the extent of treatment required for interim storage or final disposal of the waste. Resin-waste treatment comprises different operations such as pretreatment, conditioning/stabilization and containerisation that produce a waste package suitable for handling, transport, storage and disposal. One aspect of the contaminants that has significant impact on waste conditioning and the overall cost of managing such wastes are the concentrations of short half-life (arbitrarily less than approximately 30 years) radionuclides, and long half-life radionuclides, in particular carbon-14, and toxic metals present in the waste. A spectrum of resin-waste conditioning methods is available. Some methods have been applied to specific situations while others are being developed for future applications to meet the need for reducing worker dose, environmental releases, and waste-storage and disposal costs. This paper describes waste treatment options for low-level radioactive resin wastes and potential options of resin wastes containing appreciable amounts of carbon-14. Indications are that drying of the resin waste containing long half-life radionuclides such as carbon-14 and compaction or pelletizing can be favourable to allow interim dry-storage of the waste and to provide sufficient flexibility in the preparation of a suitable waste form to meet applicable waste acceptance criteria for the eventual disposal of such wastes. (authors)

  18. Science Is Important, but Politics Drives the Siting of Nuclear Waste Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, George H.

    2014-02-01

    In 1982, I worked on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow tasked with assisting a member of the House Energy and Commerce Committee. When I recently read the suggestion that clay-rich strata (shales) could be a viable medium for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal [Neuzil, 2013], I could not help but remember the insights I gained more than 30 years ago from my time on the Hill.

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

  20. Utilization of the wastes of vital activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusarov, B. G.; Drigo, Y. A.; Novikov, V. M.; Samsonov, N. M.; Farafonov, N. S.; Chizhov, S. V.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    The recycling of wastes from the biological complex for use in life-support systems is discussed. Topics include laboratory equipment, heat treatment of waste materials, mineralization of waste products, methods for production of ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, the extraction of sodium chloride from mineralized products, and the recovery of nutrient substances for plants from urine.