Science.gov

Sample records for active oil fields

  1. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  2. The role of active and ancient geothermal systems in evolution of Grant Canyon oil field, Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Bereskin, S.R. ); Bortz, L.C.

    1991-06-01

    Since discovery in 1983, the Grant Canyon field has been among the most prolific oil producers (on a per-well basis) in the US. Production through June 1990 was 12,935,630 bbl of oil, principally from two wells which in tandem have consistently yielded more than 6,000 bbl of oil per day. The field is hosted by highly porous Devonian dolomite breccia loosely cemented with hydrothermal quartz. Results of fluid-inclusion and petrographic research in progress at Grant Canyon suggest that paleogeothermal and perhaps currently circulating geothermal systems may have played a major role in oil-reservoir evolution. For example, as previously reported, the breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary aqueous, aqueous/oil, and oil fluid inclusions which were trapped at about 120C (average homogenization temperature) and document initial oil migration and entrapment as droplets or globules dispersed in dilute (< 2.2 wt.% equivalent NaCl) aqueous solutions. Additional evidence of geothermal connection is that the horst-block trap at Grant Canyon is top and side sealed by valley-fill clastic and volcanic rocks which are locally hydrothermally altered and calcite flooded. These secondary seals are enhanced by disseminated, solid asphaltic residues locally accounting for 23% (volume) of the rock. Current reservoir temperatures at Grant Canyon (120C) and the adjacent Bacon Flat field (171C) attest to vigorous contemporary geothermal activity. Based on results of the authors' Grant Canyon work to date, they suggest that active and paleohydrothermal systems could be viable petroleum exploration targets in otherwise favorable terrain elsewhere in the Basin and Range.

  3. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  4. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  5. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  6. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  7. Manitoba oil activity review, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  8. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week.

  9. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  10. Ubarana Oil Field, offshore Brazil: case history

    SciTech Connect

    Chagas, L.S.; Stringhini, A.V.; Gontijo, J.E.

    1981-05-01

    Ubarana is the first commercial oil field on the northern continental shelf of Brazil. Discovery well No. 1-RNS-3, drilled in 1973, was located on a seismic structural high in the offshore extension of the Potiguar Basin, about 13 km from the coast and 160 km northwest of Natal. The well penetrated oil-bearing, fluvio-deltaic sandstones of the Cretaceous acu formation. Five outpost wells, also located on the mapping of seismic horizons adjacent to the producing interval, helped to extend the limits of the accumulation. A total of 1.4 million cu m of oil has been produced between 1976 and Oct. 1980. The surface area of Ubarana Field is approximately 35 sq km with oil-bearing reservoirs at an average depth of approximately 2400 m. Permeability and porosity of the sandstones generally are poor. Pressure is normal and the main production mechanism is solution gas drive. The volume of oil in place is approximately 37 million cu m; estimated recovery factor is 29%. There are presently 4 platforms in the Ubarana Field active in drilling and production with 32 producing wells, and 14 locations to be drilled.

  11. Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    Physicochemical methods for enhancing oil recovery from oil fields that are developed using water flooding and thermal steam treatment are considered. The results of pilot testing of processes based on these methods carried out at West Siberian and Chinese oil fields are analysed. The attention is focused on the processes that make use of surfactant blends and alkaline buffer solutions and thermotropic gel-forming systems.

  12. Oil field redevelopment -- some lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of some oil field redevelopment experiences that resulted in unanticipated expenses or other inconveniences and consequently became learning experiences. Compared with many other types of contaminated properties, oil fields are relatively easy to remediate. The primary contaminant is crude oil ranging in nature from hard and weathered tar to fresh crude with a notable fraction of light end hydrocarbons. Groundwater is usually not impacted due to the low mobility and solubility of crude oil. Crude oil overall has a relatively low toxicity, is not considered a hazardous material and can usually be easily remediated using bioremediation. All of these factors contribute to the notion that oil fields are low risk in terms of cleanup. However, experience has shown that oil field redevelopment does have some risks as is illustrated by examples.

  13. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  14. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C. )

    1991-10-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important.

  15. The microbiological activity and toxicity of oil-polluted playa solonchaks and filled grounds within the Severnye Buzachi Oil Field (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynybaeva, T. G.; Kostina, N. V.; Terekhov, A. M.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    The number of colony-forming units of microorganisms, the viable biomass, and also the intensity of the microbiological processes (respiration, nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and cellulose decomposition) in playa solonchaks and sandy-loamy filled grounds in the territory of the Severnye Buzachi Oilfields (Kazakhstan) were much lower than in other soil types attesting to the limited capability of these substrates for selfpurification. Upon pollution by oil at concentrations of 100 600 mg/kg, the number of copiotrophic bacteria increased, whereas the actinomycetal and fungal populations were reduced and the biomass pool, the rates of CO2 emission, the potential nitrogen fixation, and denitrification became higher. The microbial communities of the playa solonchaks were weakly active and consumed few applied substrates. The biotesting with Artemia salina L. showed that some areas belonged to the lands of the 4th danger class, although the majority of the soil and substrate samples were not toxic. The germination of Lepidium sativum L. seeds was suppressed because of the salt toxicity, which is not related to the oil concentration (30 to 600 mg/kg).

  16. Environmental contamination in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.; Hall, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on freshwater wildlife of chronic exposure to oil field discharges are not well known. Collections of wastewater, aquatic invertebrates, fish, salamanders, and small mammals were made in several streams in the oil fields of western Pennsylvania during 1980-81. Estimates of the petroleum content of two wastewater discharges were high (21.9 and 8.4 ppm) and one was low (0.3 ppm). Water conductivity was inversely related to aquatic invertebrate biomass. Hydrocarbons accumulated in significantly greater amounts in crayfish, fish, and small mammals from collection sites with oil extraction activity than from sites without oil extraction activity. Estimates of total petroleum in invertebrates, trout, and suckers averaged between 200 and 280 ppm for oil extraction sites and between 8 and 80 ppm for sites without oil extraction activity: Oil extraction activity did not affect metal accumulation by fish. Oil and wastewater discharges in oil fields disrupt community composition and can cause an overall reduction in stream productivity.

  17. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  18. Organic geochemistry of oils from Oil Spring and Florence oil field near Canon City, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, P.G.; Dolan, Michael P.; Warden, Augusta; King, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Oil Spring is an oil seep located approximately 6 miles north of Ca?on City, Colorado. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the oil from Oil Spring and the oil from nearby Florence oil field share a common source. Bulk and molecular geochemical analyses show that the oil seep is most likely derived from a group of geochemically similar Cretaceous source rocks including the Carlile Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Graneros Shale, and the Mowry Shale. The Florence oil is derived from the Sharon Springs Member of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale.

  19. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields. PMID:22704814

  20. Coreflood assay using extremophile microorganisms for recovery of heavy oil in Mexican oil fields.

    PubMed

    Castorena-Cortés, Gladys; Roldán-Carrillo, Teresa; Reyes-Avila, Jesús; Zapata-Peñasco, Icoquih; Mayol-Castillo, Martha; Olguín-Lora, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    A considerable portion of oil reserves in Mexico corresponds to heavy oils. This feature makes it more difficult to recover the remaining oil in the reservoir after extraction with conventional techniques. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has been considered as a promising technique to further increase oil recovery, but its application has been developed mainly with light oils; therefore, more research is required for heavy oil. In this study, the recovery of Mexican heavy oil (11.1°API and viscosity 32,906 mPa s) in a coreflood experiment was evaluated using the extremophile mixed culture A7, which was isolated from a Mexican oil field. Culture A7 includes fermentative, thermophilic, and anaerobic microorganisms. The experiments included waterflooding and MEOR stages, and were carried out under reservoir conditions (70°C and 9.65 MPa). MEOR consisted of injections of nutrients and microorganisms followed by confinement periods. In the MEOR stages, the mixed culture A7 produced surface-active agents (surface tension reduction 27 mN m⁻¹), solvents (ethanol, 1738 mg L⁻¹), acids (693 mg L⁻¹), and gases, and also degraded heavy hydrocarbon fractions in an extreme environment. The interactions of these metabolites with the oil, as well as the bioconversion of heavy oil fractions to lighter fractions (increased alkanes in the C₈-C₃₀ range), were the mechanisms responsible for the mobility and recovery of heavy oil from the porous media. Oil recovery by MEOR was 19.48% of the residual oil in the core after waterflooding. These results show that MEOR is a potential alternative to heavy oil recovery in Mexican oil fields.

  1. OIL AND GAS FIELD EMISSIONS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an oil and gas field emissions survey. The production segment of the oil and gas industry has been identified as a source category that requires the development of more reliable emissions inventory methodologies. The overall purpose of the project was ...

  2. Using InSAR to Analyze the Effects of Oil Extraction on the Kuparuk Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluyut, E.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ground deformation around oil fields is a major concern in regards to the impacts of this human-induced change on the environment. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) was used to map the ground deformation in the area of the Kuparuk Oil Field in Northern Alaska from 2007 to 2010. Data packages from the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) and corresponding data for the digital elevation model (DEM) were used to create interferograms and the DEM. This was done using MATLAB and Python on a Linux operating system. Selected interferograms were cropped and errors from noise, topography, or atmosphere were minimized through fitting and stacking techniques. After analysis, the InSAR data yielded a chronology of a change in ground deformation around the Kuparuk Oil Field, which is correlated to a history of recovery techniques. Analysis of interferograms from before, in transition, and after application of different techniques can determine patterns of ground deformation in the field. It was found that positive ground deformation was more prevalent before the implementation of new oil recovery techniques as opposed to after implementation, with negative ground deformation occurring during the transition of the applications that allowed for more productive oil extraction. These results quantitatively demonstrate the magnitude of land subsidence that actively recovered oil fields induce. They also suggest that new methods of enhanced oil recovery are stabilizing the subterranean layers being drilled, creating a decrease in positive land deformation. This could support the continuation of research in fields of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration.

  3. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  4. Methanogenic Oil Degradation in the Dagang Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation is one of the main in situ oil transformation processes in subsurface oil reservoirs. Recent studies have provided evidence of biodegradation of residual oil constituents under methanogenic conditions. Methane, like other biogenic gases, may contribute to reduce the viscosity of oil and enhance its flow characteristics (making it more available) but it can also be used as a energy source. So the aim of the present study was to provide reliable information on in situ biotransformation of oil under methanogenic conditions, and to assess the feasibility of implementing a MEOR strategy at this site. For this reason, chemical and isotopic analyses of injection and production fluids of the Dagang oil field (Hebei province, China) were performed. Microbial abundances were assessed by qPCR, and clone libraries were performed to study the diversity. In addition, microcosms with either oil or 13C-labelled hydrocarbons were inoculated with injection or production waters to characterize microbial processes in vitro. Geochemical and isotopic data were consistent with in situ biogenic methane production linked to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: GC-MS profiles of petroleum samples were nearly devoid of n-alkanes, linear alkylbenzenes, and alkyltoluenes, and light PAH, confirming that Dagang oil is mostly highly weathered. In addition, carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane (δ13CCH4 and δDCH4, respectively), and the bulk isotopic discrimination (Δδ13C) between methane and CO2 (between 32 and 65 ) were in accordance with previously reported values for methane formation during hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, methane-producing Archaea and hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were abundant in produced oil-water samples. On the other hand, our laboratory degradation experiments revealed that autochthonous microbiota are capable of significantly degrade oil within several months, with biodegradation patterns resembling those

  5. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  6. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  7. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-09-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  8. Sacha oil field of Ecuadorian Oriente

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, R.W.; Bonilla, G.; Robbins, R.K.

    1982-08-01

    The Sacha oil field in the Ecuadorian Oriente was discovered in early 1969. Production began in July 1972, and at the end of 1980 had exceeded 190 million bbl. Drilling through 1980 had resulted in 91 oil wells and 2 dry holes. Estimated original primary recoverable reserves surpass 632 million bbl. The field is on a very low-relief anticline about 17.5 mi (28 km) long and averaging 4 mi (6.5 km) wide. Vertical closure amounts to 200 ft (60 m) and there are 41,000 acres (16,600 ha.) of areal closure on top of the principal reservoir. The Cretaceous sandstones, at drilled depths between 9,300 and 10,100 ft (2,835 and 3,080 m) provide excellent reservoirs. The Hollin Formation, the basal Cretaceous sandstone, is the principal reservoir, having produced 80% of the oil through 1980 and containing about 68% of the original reserves.

  9. Use of magnetic field aids oil search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    Efficient oil and gas exploration requires the measurement of the earth's magnetic field with the ability to determine and remove with high accuracy that part of the signal caused by changes in the magnetic basement, and measurement of rock drill cuttings when possible, only to add confidence that the magnetic mineral body is authigenic in origin (created in place), and not detrital. This paper reports that results show that anomalous areas developed from aeromagnetic data and drill holes shown to have anomalous authigenic altered drill cuttings are both 80-85% probable of oil and natural gas discovery, and similarly those areas not anomalous in either are 10-15% probable of oil and gas discovery. The method involves the gathering of low terrain clearance high resolution data of the earth's magnetic field using the cesium vapor magnetometer or equivalent.

  10. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  11. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields.

  12. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  13. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of uncertainty in the length of evaluation time and in reported reserves during this initial period, reserve growth based on the first production year is more reliable for model development. However, reserve growth models based both on discovery year and first production year show rapid growth in the first few years and slower growth in the following years. In contrast, the reserve growth patterns for the conterminous United States and offshore Gulf of Mexico show a steady reserve increase throughout the productive lives of the fields. The different reserve booking requirements and the lack of capital investment for improved reservoir management and production technologies in West Siberian fields relative to U.S. fields are the probable causes for the difference in growth patterns. Reserve growth models based on the first production year predict that the reserve growth potential in the 42 largest oil fields of West Siberia over a five-year period (1998-2003) ranges from 270-330 million barrels or 0.34-0.42 percent per year. For a similar five-year period (1996-2001), models for the conterminous United States predict a growth of 0.54-0.75 percent per year. This abstract presents the contents of a poster prepared for the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference on Understanding World Oil Resources, November 12-17, 2006 - Colorado Springs, Colorado. A paper 'Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia' was published in Natural Resources Research, v. 12, no. 2, June, 2003.

  14. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  15. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  16. Functional response of an adapted subtidal macrobenthic community to an oil spill: macrobenthic structure and bioturbation activity over time throughout an 18-month field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An experimental oil spill was carried out in order to assess in situ responses of a macrobenthic community of shallow subtidal sediments historically exposed to petroleum contamination. Both structural and functional (bioturbation activity) parameters of the community, subjected or not to a pulse acute contamination (25,000 ppm), were studied for 18 months. No difference in the community structure was detected between contaminated and control sediments, from 6 to 18 months of experimentation. Vertical distributions of organisms, however, were affected by the presence of oil contamination leading to a deeper burial of some polychaete species. In the same time, changes in sediment-reworking activity and more especially a deeper particle burying in sediments subjected to acute oil contamination were shown. These results highlight the need to complete the analysis of community structure by assessing functional aspects, such as bioturbation activity, a process integrating various aspects of benthic behaviour (e.g. feeding, locomotion, burrow building) in order to estimate real (structural and functional) and long-term effects of oil contamination on benthic communities. PMID:25471721

  17. Functional response of an adapted subtidal macrobenthic community to an oil spill: macrobenthic structure and bioturbation activity over time throughout an 18-month field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Franck; Stora, Georges; Cuny, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An experimental oil spill was carried out in order to assess in situ responses of a macrobenthic community of shallow subtidal sediments historically exposed to petroleum contamination. Both structural and functional (bioturbation activity) parameters of the community, subjected or not to a pulse acute contamination (25,000 ppm), were studied for 18 months. No difference in the community structure was detected between contaminated and control sediments, from 6 to 18 months of experimentation. Vertical distributions of organisms, however, were affected by the presence of oil contamination leading to a deeper burial of some polychaete species. In the same time, changes in sediment-reworking activity and more especially a deeper particle burying in sediments subjected to acute oil contamination were shown. These results highlight the need to complete the analysis of community structure by assessing functional aspects, such as bioturbation activity, a process integrating various aspects of benthic behaviour (e.g. feeding, locomotion, burrow building) in order to estimate real (structural and functional) and long-term effects of oil contamination on benthic communities.

  18. Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname

    SciTech Connect

    Dronkert, H. ); Wong, T.E. )

    1993-02-01

    After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

  19. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  20. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  1. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  2. Gullfaks oil field - From challenge to success

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, H.; Nygaard, O. )

    1990-09-01

    The giant Gullfaks oil field was discovered in 1978. The field contains oil reserves in excess of 1.3 billion bbl. The field is located in the northeastern past of Block 34/10 in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Gullfaks represents the shallowest structural element of the Tampen Spur and was formed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous as a sloping high with a westerly structural dip gradually decreasing toward the east. The major north-south-striking faults, with easterly sloping fault planes, divided the field into several rotated fault blocks. Central and eastern parts of the structure have been eroded by the Early Cretaceous transgression. The reservoir sandstones are comprised of the Middle Jurassic delta-deposited Brent Group, the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine sandstones of the Cook Formation, and the Lower Jurassic fluvial channel and delta-plain deposits of the Statfjord Formation. The presence of gas in the post-Jurassic section and a variable water depth have complicated seismic interpretation. However, the improved quality of the 1985 three dimensional seismic survey and deliberate deepening of the development wells have resulted in a more accurate and complete structural interpretation. The Brent reserves in the western part of the field currently are being developed by the Gullfaks A and B platforms. The eastern part of the field is developed by a third platform, Gulflaks C. Water injection is the major drive mechanism maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point.

  3. The Heidrun Field: Oil offtake system

    SciTech Connect

    Rajabi, F.D.; Breivik, K.; Syvertsen, K.

    1996-12-31

    Offtake of oil from the Heidrun field is achieved through a Direct Shuttle Loading (DSL) system. This approach eliminates the need for an intermediate storage facility, allowing continuous production and transfer of oil directly from the Heidrun TLP to shuttle tankers. Purpose-built or appropriately converted tankers with an integral bow turret locate and connect to a Submerged Turret Loading (STL) buoy which functions both as a tanker mooring point and a termination for the flexible offloading line. The system is designed to permit the tankers to remain connected during loading and to disengage from the STL buoy on completion of loading in all weather conditions up to and including the 100 year storm. This paper describes implementation of the Heidrun DSL system from conception to first oil. It gives the background for choosing the DSL system and information on the data generated to support the selection process. Design, fabrication and installation of various components are explained to give an insight into the challenges that had to be overcome for realization of this first-of-its-kind system in a record time of about one year. Installation of the complete DSL system in the summer of 1994, approximately one year ahead of the original plans, enabled full scale in situ testing of the system with a purpose-modified shuttle tanker. The two-month test program provided the equivalent of one year of operational experience with the system before first oil. The paper addresses data obtained during the full scale testing, and comparison with analytical results. The operation of the Heidrun DSL system is also described. These data together with the experience gained during realization of this bold concept will give key information on how such a concept can be effectively applied to any major or marginal field development scenario either as an offtake system or in conjunction with an FPSO/FSO.

  4. Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

    2000-07-01

    Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

  5. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  6. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  7. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  8. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  9. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  10. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  11. Microbial processes in oil fields: culprits, problems, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha; Elshahed, Mostafa S; McInerney, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, metabolic capabilities, ecological roles, and community dynamics of oil reservoir microbial communities is far from complete. The lack of appreciation of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can lead to detrimental consequences such as souring or plugging. In contrast, knowledge of the microbiology of oil reservoirs can be used to enhance productivity and recovery efficiency. It is clear that (1) nitrate and/or nitrite addition controls H2S production, (2) oxygen injection stimulates hydrocarbon metabolism and helps mobilize crude oil, (3) injection of fermentative bacteria and carbohydrates generates large amounts of acids, gases, and solvents that increases oil recovery particularly in carbonate formations, and (4) nutrient injection stimulates microbial growth preferentially in high permeability zones and improves volumetric sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Biosurfactants significantly lower the interfacial tension between oil and water and large amounts of biosurfactant can be made in situ. However, it is still uncertain whether in situ biosurfactant production can be induced on the scale needed for economic oil recovery. Commercial microbial paraffin control technologies slow the rate of decline in oil production and extend the operational life of marginal oil fields. Microbial technologies are often applied in marginal fields where the risk of implementation is low. However, more quantitative assessments of the efficacy of microbial oil recovery will be needed before microbial oil recovery gains widespread acceptance. PMID:19203651

  12. Polymer flooding increases production in giant oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Delamaide, E.; Corlay, P. )

    1994-12-01

    Daqing field, discovered in 1959, is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, with original oil in place exceeding two billion tons. Reservoir heterogeneity and oil viscosity have resulted in moderate displacement efficiency and high watercut. To increase recovery, polymer injection was tested in two pilots between 1987 and 1992, after lab and reservoir studies. Both pilots proved highly successful and led to the decision to extend polymer injection to the whole field. This article presents the history of Daqing polymer flooding, from preliminary studies to full-field extension.

  13. [Antibacterial activity of natural compounds - essential oils].

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Majerová, Michaela; Šudomová, Miroslava; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-12-01

    Since the problem of bacterial resistance has become a serious problem worldwide, it was necessary to search for new active substances that can overcome the problem and enhance the treatment efficacy of bacterial infections. Numerous plant-derived essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activities. This review aimed to summarize the most promising essential oils that exhibited remarkable antibacterial activities against various bacterial infections, including staphylococcal infections, Helicobacter pylori infections, skin infections, tuberculosis infection and dental bacterial infection. The synergy effect of essential oils in combination with antibiotics, as well as their role in the treatment of bacterial infections have been discussed. Essential oils can be used as models for further studies in vivo and clinical trials.

  14. Kill fluid for oil field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes a process employing a kill fluid to substantially reduce the volumetric flow of formation fluid into a wellbore penetrating a formation containing the formation fluid below an earthen surface. It comprises: admixing components of a continuous flowing gel at the surface comprising of water-soluble carboxylate-containing polymer, a complex capable of crosslinking the polymer and formed of at least one electropositive chromium III species and at least one electronegative carboxylatespecies, and an aqueous solvent for the polymer and the complex; crosslinking the polymer and the complex to form the gel, wherein the kill fluid comprises the gel; placing a volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore sufficient to create a hydrostatic head which exerts a kill fluid pressure against the formation fluid substantially equal to or greater than the formation fluid pressure and thereby substantially reduces the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore; performing an oil field operation after placing the volume of the kill fluid in the wellbore; and removing the gel from the wellbore to substantially restore the volumetric flow of the formation fluid into the wellbore.

  15. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976.

  16. Geology and geothermal origin of Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat Oil Fields, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Goff, F. ); Ross, J.R. ); Bortz, L.C. ); Bereskin, S.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Eastern Nevada's Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields show strong evidence of formation in a still-active, moderate-temperature geothermal system. Modern manifestations of this system include unusually elevated oil-reservoir temperature at shallow depth, 116-122[degrees]C at 1.1-1.6 km, and dilute Na-HCO[sub 3]Cl thermal waters directly associated with hot oil. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that these thermal waters are meteoric in origin, but were probably recharged prior to the Holocene (before 10 ka). The waters apparently ascended to oil-reservoir elevations after deep heating in response to the normal regional thermal gradient; there is no evidence for a modern magmatic heat source. The beginning of oil-reservoir evolution at both fields is recorded by late-stage, fracture-filling quartz in the vuggy, brecciated, Paleozoic dolostone reservoir rocks. Oil and aqueous solutions were trapped as fluid inclusions in the quartz at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing in the reservoirs. Present day and fluid-inclusion temperatures define essentially coincident isothermal profiles through and beneath the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon consistent with near-constant convective heat transfer since inception of the geothermal system. Some basin and range oil fields have arisen as valuable byproducts of actively circulating geothermal systems and blending this concept into current exploration stratigies could hasten discovery of the 100 mbbl fields many geologists believe remain to be found in this region. 100 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review.

    PubMed

    Nerio, Luz Stella; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment. PMID:19729299

  19. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  20. Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

  1. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  2. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  3. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  4. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  5. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  6. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  7. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  8. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  9. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    PubMed Central

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  10. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils.

    PubMed

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro; van Vuuren, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  11. Polarimetric SAR Models for Oil Fields Monitoring in China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, A.; Nunziata, F.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.; Ding, X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, physical-based models for polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) oil fields monitoring are proposed. They all share a physical rationale relying on the different scattering mechanisms that characterize a free sea surface, an oil slick-covered sea surface, and a metallic target. In fact, sea surface scattering is well modeled by a Bragg-like behaviour, while a strong departure from Bragg scattering is in place when dealing with oil slicks and targets. Furthermore, the proposed polarimetric models aim at addressing simultaneously target and oil slick detection, providing useful extra information with respect to single-pol SAR data in order to approach oil discrimination and classification. Experiments undertaken over East and South China Sea from actual C-band RadarSAT-2 full-pol SAR data witness the soundness of the proposed rationale.

  12. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Dentz, Jordan; Doty, Chris

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  13. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  14. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  15. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines.

  16. Synergistic antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils with chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Chai, Zhi; Li, Pinglan; Cheng, Yongqiang; Jing, Hao; Leng, Xiaojing

    2011-12-14

    The synergistic antimicrobial activities of three natural essential oils (i.e., clove bud oil, cinnamon oil, and star anise oil) with chitosan films were investigated. Cinnamon oil had the best antimicrobial activity among three oils against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Aspergillus oryzae , and Penicillium digitatum . The chitosan solution exhibited good inhibitory effects on the above bacteria except the fungi, whereas chitosan film had no remarkable antimicrobial activity. The cinnamon oil-chitosan film exhibited a synergetic effect by enhancing the antimicrobial activities of the oil, which might be related to the constant release of the oil. The cinnamon oil-chitosan film had also better antimicrobial activity than the clove bud oil-chitosan film. The results also showed that the compatibility of cinnamon oil with chitosan in film formation was better than that of the clove bud oil with chitosan. However, the incorporated oils modified the mechanical strengths, water vapor transmission rate, moisture content, and solubility of the chitosan film. Furthermore, chemical reaction took place between cinnamon oil and chitosan, whereas phase separation occurred between clove bud oil and chitosan.

  17. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  18. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  19. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  20. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  1. Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  2. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  3. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  4. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    PubMed

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  5. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field

    PubMed Central

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S.; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P.; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC. PMID:26793176

  6. Microbial Methane Production Associated with Carbon Steel Corrosion in a Nigerian Oil Field.

    PubMed

    Mand, Jaspreet; Park, Hyung S; Okoro, Chuma; Lomans, Bart P; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in oil field pipeline systems can be attributed to many different types of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms including sulfate reducers, methanogens and acetogens. Samples from a low temperature oil reservoir in Nigeria were analyzed using DNA pyrotag sequencing. The microbial community compositions of these samples revealed an abundance of anaerobic methanogenic archaea. Activity of methanogens was demonstrated by incubating samples anaerobically in a basal salts medium, in the presence of carbon steel and carbon dioxide. Methane formation was measured in all enrichments and correlated with metal weight loss. Methanogens were prominently represented in pipeline solids samples, scraped from the inside of a pipeline, comprising over 85% of all pyrosequencing reads. Methane production was only witnessed when carbon steel beads were added to these pipeline solids samples, indicating that no methane was formed as a result of degradation of the oil organics present in these samples. These results were compared to those obtained for samples taken from a low temperature oil field in Canada, which had been incubated with oil, either in the presence or in the absence of carbon steel. Again, methanogens present in these samples catalyzed methane production only when carbon steel was present. Moreover, acetate production was also found in these enrichments only in the presence of carbon steel. From these studies it appears that carbon steel, not oil organics, was the predominant electron donor for acetate production and methane formation in these low temperature oil fields, indicating that the methanogens and acetogens found may contribute significantly to MIC.

  7. An overview of giant oil and gas fields of the decade: 1978-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Halbouty, M.T. )

    1990-09-01

    Scientific studies and projections of future world energy demand indicate that although alternate-energy fuel sources must be actively pursued and developed, there must be adequate petroleum supplies to bridge the gap. For the international petroleum industry, the years covered by this conference, 1978-1988, were complex. They were years of boom and bust. The world's energy consciousness was boosted sharply by the effects of the 1979 Iranian revolution and the resulting embargo that sent world oil prices to record heights. Global petroleum exploration soon surged, leading to the industry's all-time drilling high in 1981. Then came the oil price collapse in 1985, and the following years were characterized by falling oil prices and drastic budget cuts for exploration and development. Although exploration dropped sharply, there was a steady flow of giant oil and gas field discoveries. Using the giant field designation criteria of 500 million bbl of oil recoverable for fields in Asiatic Russia, North Africa, and the Middle East; 100 million bbl of oil recoverable for the fields in the remainder of the world; and 3 tcf and 1 tcf of gas reserves recoverable for the same areas, respectively, it is estimated that at least 182 oil and gas fields containing an estimated 140 billion BOE were discovered in 46 countries during the years covered by this conference. Today, exploration is slowly gaining momentum in all types of petroleum provinces-intensely explored, partially explored, moderately explored, and essentially unexplored - and as long as exploration continues in whatever area of the world, there will always be opportunities to find giant oil and gas fields.

  8. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Tinis, R.

    1991-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment.

  9. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  10. Subtle history and geology of Villeperdue oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Arbin, P. )

    1990-09-01

    Villeperdue oil field is located in the Paris basin 80 km east of Paris. The first well was drilled in 1959 and tested some oil. But it was not until 1982, after a subtle seismic and drilling history, that exploration resumed and the field proved commercial. The reservoir is an oolitic limestone of early Callovian age (late Dogger); it has an average thickness of about 30 m and is 1,850 m below ground level. The trap, not obvious from seismic data, is a combination of stratigraphic, structural, and diagenetic features. The structure is a western-plunging nose, and the eastward updip closure is supposedly controlled by permeability change with the possible influence of gentle faults and pressure barriers. The producing surface is about 70 km{sup 2}, with a 60-m oil column. Gross porosity, ranging from 8 to 20%, is highly variable, the result of numerous porosity types. As a result, each well has its own characteristics, and field development is mainly controlled by this problem. Thus, porosity detection over the field, and consequently delineation, are dependent on subtle seismic facies studies. Today, 145 wells have been drilled, of which 120 are producing and 19 are used for water injection. Horizontal wells are planned to increase productivity. Production of this giant oil field (based on the Paris basin scale) has been of 3 million m{sup 3} to date, with an average weekly production of about 13,000 m{sup 3}.

  11. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  12. Growth history of oil reserves in major California oil fields during the twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Oil reserves in 12 of California's 52 giant fields (fields with estimated recovery > 100 million barrels of oil) have continued to appreciate well past the age range at which most fields cease to show significant increases in ultimate recovery. Most of these fields were discovered between 1890 and 1920 and grew to volumes greater than 500 million barrels in their first two decades. Growth of reserves in these fields accelerated in th e1950s and 1960s and is mostly explained by application of secondary and tertiary recovery technicques, primarily waterflooding and thermal recovery. The remaining three-fourths of California's giant fields show a pattern of growth in which fields cease to grow significantly by 20-30 years following recovery. virtually all of these fields have estimated ultimate recoveries less than about 500 million barrels and most are in the 100-200 million barrel range. Three of six offshore giant fields, all discovered between 1966 and 1981, have shown decreases in their estimated ultimate sizes within about the first decade after production began, presumably because production volumes ailed to match initial projections. The data suggest that: 1. Only fields that attain an estimated ultimate size of several hundred million barrels shortly after discovery and have geologic characterisics that make them suceptible to advanced recovery techniques are likely to show substantial late growth. 2. Offshore fields are less likely to show significant growth, probably because projections based on modern seismic reflection and reservoir test data are unlikely to underestimate the volume of oil in the field. 3. Secondary and tertiary recovery programs rather than field extensions or new pool discoveries are responsible for most of the significant growth of reserves in California. 4. field size data collected ove rmany decades provide a more comprehensive context for inferring reasons for reserve appreciation than shorter data series such as the Oil and Gas

  13. Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

  14. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2002-01-01

    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  15. Feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six oil fields of Colombia. Export trade information (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The study was prepared for the Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos by Scientific Software-Intercomp, Inc. The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. The Final Report (Volume 1) is divided into the following sections (along with summary, conclusions, recommendations, tables and figures): (1) Data Gathering and Review; (2) Enhanced Oil Recovery Reservoir Screening; (3) Laboratory and Field Coordination; (4) Rescreening of Selected Reservoirs; and (5) Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilots.

  16. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  17. ROLE OF SMALL OIL AND GAS FIELDS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Fleming, Mary L.

    1985-01-01

    The actual economic size cutoff is a function of such factors as depth, water depth offshore, and accessibility to transportation infrastructure. Because of the constraint of resource availability, price is now the principal force driving drilling activity. The proportion of new-field wildcats to other exploratory wells has fallen in recent years, but success in new-field wildcats has risen to about 20%. However, only very small fields, less than 1 million BOE, are being found in large numbers. Through 1979, almost 93% of known gas fields and 94. 5% of known oil fields were small, yet they contain only 14. 5% of the ultimately recoverable gas and 12. 5% of the oil. However, small fields are less capital intensive than equivalent-capacity synthetic-fuel plants, they are extremely numerous, and they are relatively easy and inexpensive to find and put on production. Refs.

  18. The Application Of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery On Unconventional Oil: A Field Specific Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Sean; Millar, Andrew; Allison, Heather; McCarthy, Alan

    2014-05-01

    A substantial amount of the world's recoverable oil reserves are made from unconventional or heavy resources. However, great difficulty has been had in recovering this oil after primary and secondary recovery methods have been employed. Therefore, tertiary methods such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) have been employed. MEOR involves the use of bacteria and their metabolic products to alter the oil properties or rock permeability within a reservoir in order to promote the flow of oil. Although MEOR has been trialed in the past with mixed outcomes, its feasibility on heavier oils has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to show that MEOR can be successfully applied to unconventional oils. By using an indigenous strain of bacteria isolated from a reservoir of interest and applied to field specific microcosms, we will look into the effect of these bacteria compared to variant inoculums to identify which mechanisms of action the bacteria are using to improve recovery. Using this information, we will be able to identify genes of interest and groups of bacteria that may be beneficial for MEOR and look accurately identify favorable bacteria within a reservoir.

  19. Giant oil fields of the Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1993-09-01

    The 134 giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area contain 29% of the total giant-field reserves. Cumulative production is 32% of the giant-field cumulative total and 20% of the United States cumulative production. Eighty-nine of the giant fields are offshore with 22% of the reserves, 11 fields are in east Texas with 24% of the reserves, and 1 field is in Florida with 1% of the reserves. In 106 of the giant fields the primary producing interval is Cenozoic with 65% of the reserves, and in 28 giant fields the producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval is Mesozoic with 35% of the reserves. The primary producing interval in 124 giant fields consists of clastics with 91% of the reserves, in 7 fields the primary lithology is carbonates with 6% of the reserves, and in 3 giant fields the lithology is mixed clastics and carbonates. A total of 127 fields are in structural traps with all of the reserves, 4 fields are stratigraphic traps (3%) with 18% of the reserves, and 3 fields are combination traps with 1% of the reserves. Over 50 of the giant oil fields in structural traps are salt domes. The most prevalent types of giant fields in the Gulf Coastal area are onshore structural traps with Cenozoic clastics as the primary producing intervals.

  20. Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. ); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. ); Pilger, P.F. )

    1993-09-20

    A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

  1. Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L.; Talukdar, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

  2. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and <0.1% of the Ba was released. Potential for the release of 226Ra was demonstrated, and the 226 Ra release associated with sulfate-reducing activity was predictable from the amount of Ba released. As with Ba, only a fraction of the 226Ra expected from the amount of sulfide produced was released, and most of the Ra remained associated with the solid material.

  3. Activity of essential oils against Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Hayley A; Palombo, Enzo A

    2009-12-01

    Alternative methods for controlling bacterial endospore contamination are desired in a range of industries and applications. Attention has recently turned to natural products, such as essential oils, which have sporicidal activity. In this study, a selection of essential oils was investigated to identify those with activity against Bacillus subtilis spores. Spores were exposed to thirteen essential oils, and surviving spores were enumerated. Cardamom, tea tree, and juniper leaf oils were the most effective, reducing the number of viable spores by 3 logs at concentrations above 1%. Sporicidal activity was enhanced at high temperatures (60 degrees C) or longer exposure times (up to one week). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified the components of the active essential oils. However, none of the major oil components exhibited equivalent activity to the whole oils. The fact that oil components, either alone or in combination, did not show the same level of sporicidal activity as the complete oils suggested that minor components may be involved, or that these act synergistically with major components. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine spores after exposure to essential oils and suggested that leakage of spore contents was the likely mode of sporicidal action. Our data have shown that essential oils exert sporicidal activity and may be useful in applications where bacterial spore reduction is desired.

  4. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Soković, Marina; Mihajlović, Biserka; Matavulj, Milan

    2003-05-01

    The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica. PMID:12802721

  6. Bird mortality in oil field wastewater disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980's. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  7. Bird Mortality in Oil Field Wastewater Disposal Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Pedro

    2010-11-01

    Commercial and centralized oilfield wastewater disposal facilities (COWDFs) are used in the Western United States for the disposal of formation water produced from oil and natural gas wells. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, COWDFs use large evaporation ponds to dispose of the wastewater. Birds are attracted to these large evaporation ponds which, if not managed properly, can cause wildlife mortality. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 154 field inspections of 28 COWDFs in Wyoming from March 1998 through September 2008 and documented mortality of birds and other wildlife in 9 COWDFs. Of 269 bird carcasses recovered from COWDFs, grebes (Family Podicipedidae) and waterfowl (Anatidae) were the most frequent casualties. Most mortalities were attributed to oil on evaporation ponds, but sodium toxicity and surfactants were the suspected causes of mortality at three COWDFs. Although the oil industry and state and federal regulators have made much progress in reducing bird mortality in oil and gas production facilities, significant mortality incidents continue in COWDFs, particularly older facilities permitted in the early 1980’s. Inadequate operation and management of these COWDFs generally results in the discharge of oil into the large evaporation ponds which poses a risk for birds and other wildlife.

  8. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  9. New insights into the antioxidant activity and components in crude oat oil and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qiu, Shuang; Gan, Jing; Li, Zaigui; Nirasawa, Satoru; Yin, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Developing new antioxidants and using natural examples is of current interest. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities and the ability to inhibit soybean oil oxidation of oat oil obtained with different solvents. Oat oil extract obtained by ethanol extraction gave the highest antioxidant activity with a DPPH radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity of 88.2 % and a reducing power (A 700) of 0.83. Oat oil extracted by ethanol contained the highest polyphenol and α-tocopherol content. Significant correlation was observed between the total polyphenol contents, individual phenolic acid, α-tocopherol, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Soybean oil with 2 % added oat oil showed low malondialdehyde content (8.35 mmol mL(-1)), suggesting that the added oat oil inhibited oxidation. Oat oil showed good antioxidant activity, especially when extracted with ethanol which could also retard the oxidation of soybean oil . DPPH radical scavenging activity was the best method to evaluate the antioxidant activity and components of oat oil.

  10. Clay-oil droplet suspensions in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozynek, Zbigniew; Fossum, Jon Otto; Kjerstad, Knut; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene

    2012-02-01

    Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement and oil circulation when an electric field is applied. Results show how electric field strength, dielectric and electrorheological properties as well as electrohydrodynamics determine the fluid flow and clay particle formation. In a presence of the DC electric fields the clay particles formed a ribbon-like structure onto the inner surface of the droplet. The structure consists of short chain-like clay elements orienting parallel to the electric field direction. It is suggested that a combination of two phenomena, namely the induced viscous flow (electrohydrodynamic effect) and the polarization of the clay particles (dielectric effect), contribute to the ribbon-like structure formation. -/abstract- References [1] G. Taylor, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences 291 (1966) 159--166. [2] J. R. Melcher and G. I. Taylor, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1 (1969) 111--146. [3] H. Sato, N. Kaji, T. Mochizuki, and Y. H. Mori, Physics of Fluids 18 (2006) 127101. [4] D. A. Saville, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 27--64. [5] J. O. Fossum, Y. M'eheust, K. P. S. Parmar, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy, and D. M. Fonseca Europhysics Letters 74

  11. Manuka oil a natural herbicide with preemergence activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural herbicides approved in organic agriculture are primarily non-selective burn-down essential oils applied POST. Multiple applications are often required due to their low efficacy. To address this problem, the in vivo herbicidal activity of manuka oil, the essential oil distilled from Leptosp...

  12. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

    1996-07-16

    A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

  13. Strategies for field application of foams in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, E.E.; Ivory, J.; Law, D.H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Steam-based processes in heavy oil reservoirs that are not stabilized by gravity have poor vertical and areal conformance. This is because gases are more mobile within the pore space than liquids and steam tends to override or channel through oil in a formation. The steam-foam process which consists of adding surfactant with or without non-condensible gas to the injected steam, was developed to improve the sweep efficiency of steam drive and cyclic steam processes. The foam-forming components injected with the steam stabilize the liquid lamellae and cause some of the steam to exist as a discontinuous phase. The steam mobility (gas relative permeability) is thereby reduced resulting in an increased pressure gradient in the steam-swept region, to divert steam to the unheated interval and displace the heated oil better. The propagation of surfactant in the reservoir is determined by its thermal stability, adsorption, precipitation, and oil partitioning behaviour. The propagation of the foam is determined by the mechanisms that generate and destroyfoam in the reservoir, including gas and liquid velocities, condensation and evaporation, non-condensible gas, and the presence of oil. Strategies were developed to minimize the chemical requirements for generating effective steam-foams. Economic steam-foam processes requires that surfactant losses are minimized, foam propagation and foam stability is maximized at surfactant concentrations lower than has hereto been used in the field. This paper, based on laboratory finding and field experience, discusses the important considerations which affect the efficient application of steam-foam in the field.

  14. Composition of Satureja kitaibelii essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Kundaković, Tatjana; Milenković, Marina; Zlatković, Sasa; Kovacević, Nada; Goran, Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Satureja kitaibelii from Rtanj mountain (Serbia), collected during three years, was studied. Thirty-nine components were identified in each sample of S. kitaibelii essential oil, representing about 87% of the oils. p-Cymene was the most dominant compound in all three oils (27.9%, 14.7% and 24.4%, respectively). The simple formulation of a lozenge with 0.2% of S. kitaibelii essential oil was prepared and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the lozenge with essential oil was tested using a broth microdilution assay. Both essential oil and lozenge possessed strong antimicrobial activity with MIC values of 0.10-25 microg/mL, and 0.97-15.6 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:21941914

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    PubMed

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  16. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  17. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  18. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  19. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  20. Source rock identification and oil generation related to trap formation: Southeast Constantine oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjema, A.; Rahmani, A.; Belhadi, E.M.; Hamel, M.; Bourmouche, R. )

    1990-05-01

    Petroleum exploration began in the Southeast Constantine basin in the late 1940s. Despite the very early discovery of Djebel Onk field (1954), exploration remains very sparse and relatively unsuccessful due mainly to the geological complexity of the region. The Ras-Toumb oil field was discovered only twenty years later. In 1988, a new discovery, the Guerguit-El-Kihal oil field renewed the interest of explorationists in this region. The Southeast Constantine Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin has a sedimentary sequence of shales and carbonates with a thickness exceeding 7,000 m. Structural traps are related to pyrenean and post-Villafranchian phases. Potential reservoirs with good petrophysical characteristics and seals can be found throughout the section and are mainly Cenomanian-Turonian and Coniacian limestones and dolomites. The known source rocks are Cenomanian-Turonian and Campanian carbonate shales. Kerogen is a mixture of type II and type III for the Campanian. The kerogen has a fair petroleum potential and is often immature or low mature. The Cenomanian-Turonian kerogen is type II amorphous, with a variable but important petroleum potential. Total organic carbon values range from 1.5% to 7%. Maturity corresponds to the oil window. This source rock is well known throughout the Mediterranean region and is related to the oceanic anoxic event. Kinetic modeling of this organic matter evolution indicates favorable oil generation timing related to trap formation ages.

  1. Design of gearbox for oil field hoisting equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimova, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The kinematic diagram of the mechanical drive of oil field hoisting equipment is determined by the gear ratio for raising and lowering the down-hole equipment, the necessary hoist load capacity, and the power of the traction engine of the transport base. The choice of a rational gear ratio for raising the down-hole equipment is an important stage in the kinematic design of the transmission. The gear ratio of the gearbox of an oil-field hoist should be such as to ensure that the equipment is raised and lowered most rapidly and the utilization of the traction engine power is highest. The preferred gear train is one chosen in accordance with the geometric structure of the gear train of the gearbox. Such gearboxes are convenient to operate and easy to build. The design of these gearboxes is discussed.

  2. Earthquakes in the oil field at Rangely, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Healy, John H.; Raleigh, C. Barry; Coakley, John M.

    1972-01-01

    Seven years of seismic data recorded at the Uinta Basin Observatory were searched for earthquakes originating near an oil field at Rangely, Colorado, located 65 km ESE of the observatory. Changes in the number of earthquakes recorded per year appear to correlate with changes in the quantity of fluid injected per year. Between November 1962 and January 1970, 976 earthquakes were detected near the oil field by the UBO station; 320 earthquakes were larger than magnitude 1. Richter magnitudes are estimated from both S-wave and P-wave measurements and a method based on the duration of the seismic signal is used to estimate the magnitude of the larger shocks. The two largest shocks had magnitudes of 3.4 and 3.3. The total seismic energy released was l0l7 ergs. During this same period the energy used for water injection, measured at the wellhead, was 1021 ergs.

  3. [Rapid quantitative detection of sulfate reducing bacteria in oil field].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Ma, Fang; Wang, Ji-Hua; Zhao, Li-Jun

    2007-02-01

    It take long time and high cost to measure sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in wastewater of oil field. A rapid quantitative method was developed by combining polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and most probable number (MPN) to measure sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in wastewater of oil field. The bacterium solution was directly prepared from wastewater for PCR amplification, which ensured quantitative accuracy. Reaction system and amplification condition were designed using universal primers DSR1F and DSR5R of dissimilatory sulfite reductase in SRB. The result show that the accuracy of this method is two magnitude higher than that of MPN. The whole measuring process take 3 - 4 hours and the reproducibility of this method is extremely stable, being fit to practical process.

  4. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  5. Sulfide mineralization and magnetization, Cement oil field, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Fishman, Neil S.; Webring, Michael W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1989-01-01

    Geochemical, petrographic, and rock-magnetic studies were undertaken to investigate possible sources for reported positive aeromagnetic anomalies over the Cement oil field, Oklahoma. Ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite (monoclinic, Fe7S8 ), intergrown with more-abundant, nonmagnetic pyrite (FeS2), is present in well-cutting, core, and quarry samples at Cement, and it is the only identified source of possible enhanced magnetization in rocks over the field. Magnetite, found only in well cuttings from Cement, is contamination from drilling. Magnetite was considered previously by others to be the source of magnetic anomalies at Cement.

  6. Plans for first oil production revived in two Sudanese fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    A Vancouver, British Columbia, independent and its Sudanese partner have filed a development plan with the government of Sudan to produce an initial 40,000 b/d from Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan. Arakis Energy Corp., and the private Sudanese company State Petroleum Corp. (SPC) want to begin the first commercial hydrocarbon production in the destitute, war torn country. They are picking up where Chevron Corp. left off after years of grappling with an ambitious, costly - and ultimately futile - effort to export crude-oil from Sudan. After finding almost 300 million bbl of oil in Sudan during the early 1980s, Chevron scuttled a $2 billion project to export 50,000 b/d of Sudanese crude in 1986. It drilled 90 wells and sank more than $1 billion into the project. But it dropped the plan, citing the 1986 collapse of oil prices and concerns over security after repeated guerrilla attacks delayed work. The paper details the project.

  7. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  8. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  9. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  10. Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils.

    PubMed

    Miraliakbari, H; Shahidi, F

    2008-11-15

    The antioxidative components of tree nut oils were extracted using a solvent stripping process. Tree nut oil extracts contained phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and tocopherols. The chloroform/methanol extracted oils had higher amounts of phenolic compounds than their hexane extracted counterparts. The antioxidant activity of tree nut oil minor component extracts were assessed using the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene bleaching test, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and photochemiluminescence inhibition assays. Results of these studies demonstrated that extracts of chloroform/methanol extracted oils possessed higher antioxidant activities than extracts of their hexane extracted counterparts. Meanwhile the extract of chloroform/methanol extracted pecan oil possessed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:26047445

  11. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Lee, Ki Ha; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    1994-09-01

    Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.

  12. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  13. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6-165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals.

  14. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6-165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals. PMID:26140436

  15. Geology of Terra Nova oil field, Grand Banks, Newfoundland

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, J.D.; Sullivan, G.W.; Park, J.

    1986-05-01

    Oil was discovered at the Petro-Canada et al Terra Nova K-08 well in May 1984. The well was drilled in the Jeanne d'Arc subbasin, 340 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland, and 35 km southeast of the giant Hibernia oil field. Follow-up wells provided log correlations and core data that have been used with a three-dimensional seismic survey to construct a geologic model. Mapping the field demonstrated a combination structural-stratigraphic trap. The reservoir is within the lower part of the Jeanne d'Arc sequence (Upper Jurassic). This conglomeratic sandstone is interpreted as having been deposited in a nearshore to fluvial setting by basinward, northward progradation of fan-delta systems. The reservoir has a depositional limit updip to the south, and is overstepped and sealed by transgressive shales of the upper Jeanne d'Arc. Oil source is from the underlying Egret (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) argillaceous limestones. The geologic model and seismic interpretation have been tested by appraisal drilling.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1999-06-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives. PMID:10438227

  17. Potential for oil mining at Elk Basin oil field, Wyoming-Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ayler, M.F.; Brechtel, C.

    1987-08-01

    By using the teachings of two US Patents, 4,458,945 and 4,595,239, it is possible to place mine workings below the Frontier sands of the Elk basin field, drill upward safely into the reservoir, and produce by gravity added to any present drive system. The patents describe equipment and a way of drilling upward with all cuttings and fluids flowing into a closed pipeline system for surface discharge. A final casing can be cemented into place and the well completed, again with all production into a closed pipeline. This system would permit field pressure control and maintenance with gravity drainage. Wells could be placed on one-acre spacing or less, thus producing much of the oil normally lost between surface wells. An analysis will be presented of probable mining costs for development of the Elk basin oil field on one-acre spacing. Petroleum engineers will then be able to estimate for themselves which method has the most profit potential and maximum recovery - the present systems or oil recovery by mining.

  18. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  19. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL. PMID:11858553

  20. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  1. Essential oils with microbicidal and antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Saviuc, Crina-Maria; Drumea, Veronica; Olariu, Laura; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazăr, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Phytochemistry studies on the plants extracts in general, and on essential oils (EOs) in particular are focused on the isolation and identification of the components of complex mixtures, in order to determine structure - activity correlations (i.e., physiological and/ or ecological roles, bases for the pharmacognosy studies). Problems as microbial resistance to existing antibiotics and the decline in the formulation of new antibiotics generated an increased interest in anti-infective herbal medicines. Some plants are known to be EOs producing, especialy superior plants, angiosperms and gymnosperms, belonging to approximately 50 families, most frequently Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Zingiberaceae, etc. The antimicrobial activity of EOs and of their components has been demonstrated on a variety of microorganisms. Our aim was to review relevant literature for identifying current research directions regarding EOs, in terms of antimicrobial effects, analysismethods and mechanisms of action. A plethora of methods have been used to test EOs antimicrobial properties concerning the microbial growth inhibition and/ or their anti-pathogenic effect. The reported methods contributed also to the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. Future research is needed for developing EOs related strategies in overlapping the multi-drug resistance and for reducing the required concentrations to achieve a particular antimicrobial and/ or antibiofilm effect to the human health benefit and/or for food safety purposes. PMID:25594290

  2. 24 CFR 4100.3 - Field activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field activities. 4100.3 Section...) NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND CHANNELING OF FUNCTIONS § 4100.3 Field activities. The Corporation conducts its field activities from district and field offices around the country. District...

  3. 24 CFR 4100.3 - Field activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field activities. 4100.3 Section...) NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND CHANNELING OF FUNCTIONS § 4100.3 Field activities. The Corporation conducts its field activities from district and field offices around the country. District...

  4. Corrosion of alloy steels in oil field fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests have been conducted on two low alloy and two higher alloy steels at a range of brine salinities and sulfide contents typical of oil well production fluids. AISI types 4130 and 4340 show the same behavior in these fluids as mild steel. AISI type 410 stainless steel and 9% chromium - 1% molybdenum steel corrode at rates as great as that of mild steel at higher chloride or sulfide concentrations. Special corrosion inhibitors are required for higher alloy steels when they are exposed to these conditions.

  5. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  6. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  7. Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Kamsuk, K; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Tuetun, B; Champakaew, D; Pitasawat, B

    2007-07-01

    Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites. PMID:17512681

  8. Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules.

  9. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  10. Rejuvenation of a giant oil field-Quiriquire Field, Venezuela: A team approach

    SciTech Connect

    Friestad, H.; Hull, R.; Miller, D.

    1996-08-01

    Quiriquire field is located in the Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela, at the southeastern corner of the Serrania del Interior mountain range. Since its discovery in 1928, the field has produced over 750 MMBO from a stratigraphically trapped, shallow, Pliocene alluvial fan (Quiriquire Formation). A deep oil zone, the Los Jabillos sand of Oligocene age, was discovered in 1952 on a deep thrust anticline situated below the shallow oil field. Both zones potentially have significant reserves yet to be recovered. In 1994, Maxus, BP, and Otepi began working with Lagoven to rejuvenate oil production from both zones. Maxus, as operator, has been utilizing geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, and reservoir, drilling, construction, and environmental engineers, working together as a team, to fully evaluate the most economic methods of developing these remaining reserves. A program of reactivation and recompletion of old wells, as well as the drilling of deviated infill wells, stepouts, and new exploration plays has been formulated by the team. A staged approach to the broad program will enable Maxus to prioritize those projects which have the best economic return. The use of new technology in seismic, drilling, logging, and completions is expected to improve the recovery of oil over previous conventional methods. Using modern technology to enhance the understanding of the structural and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms, the team has defined and built structural and seismic models to help identify possible productive reservoirs.

  11. High field dc conduction current and spectroscopy of aged transformer oil

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sulaiman, A.A.; Ahmed, O.; Hassan, M.M.; Quresh, M.

    1982-11-01

    This paper studies the experimental results of the quasi-state high field dc conduction current, and changes occuring in the molecular structure of aged transformer oil, sampled from EHV transformer operating for the last five years. Aged oil was compared with fresh transformer oil and liquid paraffin. It was found that aged oil exhibits higher conduction than both of the other oils through 600 seconds of field application. However, no molecular changes were detected using different techniques of spectroscopy such as GC; UV; IR and NMR. Metallic impurities were found to be of the same order but the acidity increased manifolds to that of fresh oil.

  12. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  13. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L.; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14–0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7–10.3% range), γ-cymene (5–7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8–7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50–66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8–16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12–20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5–60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240–600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0–5 and at 5–7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved

  14. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  15. Geochemistry of oil-field water from the North Slope

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of oil-field water is important in understanding the origin and migration of petroleum as well as the water mineral reactions that affect the porosity and permeability of the reservoir rocks. This knowledge is essential in interpreting electric logs and in determining potential pollution, corrosion, and disposal problems of water produced with oil and gas. Finally, the chemical composition of water is an important factor in determining the conditions (temperature, pressure) for the formation of clathrates. This chapter reports detailed chemical analyses of seven formation-water samples from wells within the NPRA and one surface-and two formation-water samples from the Prudhoe Bay oil field. The authors also report {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values for eight of the water samples as well as analyses for gases from six wells. The formation-water samples were obtained from depths ranging from about 700 to 2800 m and from reservoir rocks ranging in age from Mississippian (Lisburne Group) to Triassic. The reservoir rocks are sandstone except for sample 79-AK-5, which was obtained from a limestone interbedded with sandstone. Generally, the pre-Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks on the North Slope have a similar mineral composition. Van de Kamp (1979) gave the following description of these sandstones: Quartz (usually monocrystalline) and chert are the major components; carbonate and clay are variable. Carbonate occurs as detrital grains and as cement, siderite being the most common type. Siderite can form as much as 30 percent of the rock. Clay occurs as a common matrix, generally making up less than 10 percent of the rock. Accessory minerals include pyrite, plagioclase, microcline, glauconite, zircon, sphene, tourmaline, and muscovite.

  16. Antifungal activities of origanum oil against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Manohar, V; Ingram, C; Gray, J; Talpur, N A; Echard, B W; Bagchi, D; Preuss, H G

    2001-12-01

    The antimicrobial properties of volatile aromatic oils from medicinal as well as other edible plants has been recognized since antiquity. Origanum oil, which is used as a food flavoring agent, possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activities attributed to the high content of phenolic derivatives such as carvacrol and thymol. In the present study, antifungal properties of origanum oil were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Using Candida albicans in broth cultures and a micro dilution method, comparative efficacy of origanum oil, carvacrol, nystatin and amphotericin B were examined in vitro. Origanum oil at 0.25 mg/ml was found to completely inhibit the growth of C. albicans in culture. Growth inhibitions of 75% and >50% were observed at 0.125 mg/ml and 0.0625 mg/ml level, respectively. In addition, both the germination and the mycelial growth of C. albicans were found to be inhibited by origanum oil and carvacrol in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of origanum oil was examined in an experimental murine systemic candidiasis model. Groups of mice (n = 6) infected with C. albicans (5 x LD50) were fed varying amounts of origanum oil in a final vol. of 0.1 ml of olive oil (vehicle). The daily administration of 8.6 mg of origanum oil in 100 microl of olive oil/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in 80% survivability, with no renal burden of C. albicans as opposed to the group of mice fed olive oil alone, who died within 10 days. Similar results were obtained with carvacrol. However, mice fed origanum oil exhibited cosmetically better clinical appearance compared to those cured with carvacrol. The results from our study encourage examination of the efficacy of origanum oil in other forms of systemic and superficial fungal infections and exploration of its broad spectrum effect against other pathogenic manifestations including malignancy. PMID:11855736

  17. Oil field brines as ore-forming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sverjensky, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that oil field brines can become ore-forming solutions and can transport base metals and reduced sulfur to sites of ore formation by large-scale migration along aquifers out of sedimentary basins is examined using data on the chemical compositions of presnt-day heavy metal-bearing oil field brines and the petrography of their reservoir rocks, and is a theoretical evaluation of the chemistry of possible water-rock interactions in the aquifers during migration. The concept of water-rock interactions in the aquifers of sandstone and carbonate-hosted base metal sulfide ore deposits is clearly of potential importance in explaining geochemical characteristics of such deposits, including the Na/K ratios of the fluid inclusions, the lead isotope compositions of galena, the paragenesis sphalerite followed by galena, and the overall Zn/Pb ratios of the deposits. It is because of these water-rock interactions that a single brine carrying base metals and reduced sulfur can evolve chemically in its aquifer so that brines with a spectrum of geochemical characteristics arrive as a function of time at a distant site of ore formation.

  18. Antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil under frying conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant activity of sesamol was investigated in soybean oil using a miniaturized frying experiment with potato cubes fried at 180 °C. Oxidation of soybean oil was determined by gel permeation chromatography for polymerized triacylglycerols and by 1H NMR spectroscopy for reactions at reactive si...

  19. Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active. PMID:16890387

  20. Anti-Legionella activity of essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia.

    PubMed

    Dunkić, Valerija; Mikrut, Antonija; Bezić, Nada

    2014-05-01

    The essential oil of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. was characterized by a high concentration of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (21.3%) and thymol (9.2%). The in vitro activity of the essential oil against Legionela pneumophila serogroups (SG) I and 2-15 and Legionella spp. from different sources, using microdilution, showed that L. pneumofila is sensitive to the oil, with MICs ranging from 0.12 to 0.5%, v/v, and a MBC at 0.5 to 1%, v/v. The essential oil of S. cuneifolia was effective in the reduction of Legionellosis infections. PMID:25026730

  1. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  2. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-01-01

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent. PMID:27525894

  3. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination.

  4. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24563645

  5. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  6. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas. PMID:27531144

  7. Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils.

    PubMed

    Das, N G; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, P K; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4 min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0 min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes.

  8. Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils.

    PubMed

    Das, N G; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, P K; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4 min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0 min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes. PMID:25817806

  9. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Fei, H; Laine, R A

    2001-08-01

    Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules, Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 micrograms/cm2. The tunneling response of termites to vetiver oil also was examined. Vetiver oil decreased termite tunneling activity at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/g sand. Tunneling and paper consumption were not observed when vetiver oil concentrations were higher than 25 micrograms/g sand. Bioactivity of the 8 oils against termites and chemical volatility were inversely associated. Listed in decreasing order of volatility, the major constituents of the 8 oils were: eucalyptol, citronellal, citral, citronellol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thujopsene, and both alpha- and beta-vetivone. Vetivor oil is a promising novel termiticide with reduced environmental impact for use against subterranean termites. PMID:11521400

  10. Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jingrui; Zhou, Rui; Meng, Zuchao; Zhang, Jie

    2013-05-07

    Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.

  11. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  12. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  13. Low-field NMR determinations of the properties of heavy oils and water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    LaTorraca, G A; Dunn, K J; Webber, P R; Carlson, R M

    1998-01-01

    Low-field (< 50 mT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging measurements are beginning to be used to obtain estimates of oil viscosity in situ. To build an interpretive capability, we made laboratory T1 and T2 relaxation measurements on a suite of high-density, high-viscosity crude oils. These measurements were also used to estimate oil viscosity and water fraction from T1 and T2 measurements on stable, water-in-oil emulsions. High-density, high-viscosity oils have components that relax faster than can be measured by nuclear magnetic resonance logging tools. This requires corrections to T2 logging measurements for accurate estimates of oil saturation and porosity. PMID:9803933

  14. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  15. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant formulations for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; McDaniel, Richard

    2008-10-21

    A sealant for an oil or geothermal well capable of setting within about 3 to about 6 hours at temperatures less than about 250.degree. F. for shallow wells less than about 10,000 feet and deep wells greater than about 10,000 feet having MgO present in the range of from about 9.9 to about 14.5%, KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 present in the range of from about 29.7 to about 27.2%, class C fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 36.3%, class F fly ash present in the range of from about 19.8 to about 0%, boric acid or borax present in the range of from about 0.39 to about 1.45%, and water present in the range of from about 20.3 to about 21.86% by weight of the sealant.A method of sealing wells is disclosed as are compositions for very high temperature wells is disclosed as is a composition for treating oil field wastes.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery using water as a driving fluid. Part 7. Field applications of carbon dioxide flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Mungan, N.

    1981-09-01

    Spurred by Windfall Profit Tax incentives and the availability of less costly CO/sub 2/ from natural deposits, there now is increased interest and activities in the field application of CO/sub 2/ flooding in the US. Interest is focused on miscible CO/sub 2/ flooding, but it should be recognized that even without miscibility, the swelling and viscosity reduction of crude oil can significantly contribute to incremental oil recovery. Thus, CO/sub 2/ flooding may apply to the recovery of heavy oils and could serve as an alternative process to steam and hydrocarbon solvent processes in some instances. This study deals with how to identify a suitable reservoir, studies required to support a field application, guidelines for pilot testing, operational problems that may arise in the field, and a brief review of field applications to date.

  17. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations. PMID:17883004

  18. Anticonvulsant activities of nutmeg oil of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Abdul; Ul Haq, Rizwan; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the volatile oil of nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans Houtt, using well-established animal seizure models and to evaluate its potential for acute toxicity and acute neurotoxicity. The volatile oil of nutmeg (nutmeg oil) was tested for its effects in maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and bicuculline seizure tests. All the experiments were performed at the time of peak effect of nutmeg oil. Nutmeg oil showed a rapid onset of action and short duration of anticonvulsant effect. It was found to possess significant anticonvulsant activity against electroshock-induced hind limb tonic extension. It exhibited dose dependent anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures. It delayed the onset of hind limb tonic extensor jerks induced by strychnine. It was anticonvulsant at lower doses, whereas weak proconvulsant at a higher dose against pentylenetetrazole and bicuculline induced clonic seizures. Nutmeg oil was found to possess wide therapeutic margin, as it did not induce motor impairment when tested up to 600 microL/kg in the inverted screen acute neurotoxicity test. Furthermore, the LD(50) (2150 microL/kg) value was much higher than its anticonvulsant doses (50-300 microL/kg). The results indicate that nutmeg oil may be effective against grand mal and partial seizures, as it prevents seizure spread in a set of established animal models. Slight potentiation of clonic seizure activity limits its use for the treatment of myoclonic and absence seizures.

  19. Anticonvulsant activities of nutmeg oil of Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Abdul; Ul Haq, Rizwan; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Raza, Mohsin

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the volatile oil of nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans Houtt, using well-established animal seizure models and to evaluate its potential for acute toxicity and acute neurotoxicity. The volatile oil of nutmeg (nutmeg oil) was tested for its effects in maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and bicuculline seizure tests. All the experiments were performed at the time of peak effect of nutmeg oil. Nutmeg oil showed a rapid onset of action and short duration of anticonvulsant effect. It was found to possess significant anticonvulsant activity against electroshock-induced hind limb tonic extension. It exhibited dose dependent anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures. It delayed the onset of hind limb tonic extensor jerks induced by strychnine. It was anticonvulsant at lower doses, whereas weak proconvulsant at a higher dose against pentylenetetrazole and bicuculline induced clonic seizures. Nutmeg oil was found to possess wide therapeutic margin, as it did not induce motor impairment when tested up to 600 microL/kg in the inverted screen acute neurotoxicity test. Furthermore, the LD(50) (2150 microL/kg) value was much higher than its anticonvulsant doses (50-300 microL/kg). The results indicate that nutmeg oil may be effective against grand mal and partial seizures, as it prevents seizure spread in a set of established animal models. Slight potentiation of clonic seizure activity limits its use for the treatment of myoclonic and absence seizures. PMID:19067329

  20. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 < 50.0 μg/mL). The oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile. PMID:27214068

  1. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. PMID:26434144

  2. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way.

  3. In vitro activity of an essential oil against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Monzote, L; García, M; Montalvo, A M; Scull, R; Miranda, M; Abreu, J

    2007-11-01

    The in vitro antileishmanial effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against Leishmania donovani was investigated. The product showed significant activity against promastigotes and amastigotes, with a 50% effective concentration of 4.45 and 5.1 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil caused an irreversible inhibition of the growth of promastigotes after a treatment with 100 or 10 microg/mL for 1 or 24 h, respectively. The phagocytic activity of the macrophages was preserved at a concentration toxic to the parasite. The essential oil from C. ambrosioides may be a potential candidate drug to development a new agent to combat this parasitic disease.

  4. Feasibility study for the development of the Karakuduk oil field. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The study, conducted by Chaparral Resources, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study to better define the characteristics and extent of the Karakuduk Oil Field. The proposed project would include the reworking of four existing exploratory wells and drilling one new well. The plan also calls for the installation of a trunkline, as well as a facility with all necessary oil, has and water handling equipment according to the production needs of the Pilot through Full Production Phases. This is Volume One of a two-volume report and is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Overview and Schedule; (2) Oil Field Reserves; (3) Field Drilling Plan; (4) Field Facilities; (5) Oil Tranpsortation Plan; (6) Oil Marketing Plan; (7) Engineering, Procurement and Construction Plan; (8) Oil Field Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Mapping and Survey of Site; (10) Cost Estimate.

  5. Alkanes in benthic organisms from the Buccaneer oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.

    1980-06-01

    About 200 g per day of alkanes are present in brine discharged from each of two production platforms in the Buccaneer oil field in the NW Gulf of Mexico. These alkanes disperse rapidly in the water column, so that seawater concentrations of petroleum alkanes in this region are generally very low. They can be taken up to some extent by plankton, fish, and barnacles, but the petroleum alkane concentrations in these organisms are also relatively low. The largest pool of petroleum alkanes is in the surficial sediments, where concentrations of up to 25 ppM are observed, with concentration gradients extending more than 20 m from the production platforms. Organisms are examined which are exposed to these sediments and, for comparison, other specimens from control sites around structures from which there are no discharges.

  6. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

    2012-01-01

    Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

  7. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Hande; Soyer, Ferda; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen

    2010-07-28

    Turkish extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from different varieties/geographical origins and their phenolic compounds were investigated in terms of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties in comparison to refined olive, hazelnut, and canola oils. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella Enteritidis. Although all EVOOs showed a bactericidal effect, the individual phenolic compounds demonstrated only slight antimicrobial activity. Moreover, refined oil samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. Among the phenolic compounds, cinnamic acid (2 mg/kg of oil) had the highest percent inhibition value with 0.25 log reduction against L. monocytogenes. The synergistic interactions of tyrosol, vanillin, vanillic, and cinnamic acids were also observed against Salmonella Enteritidis. The antioxidant activities of oils were tested by beta-carotene-linoleate model system and ABTS method. In both methods, EVOOs showed higher antioxidant activities, whereas refined oils had lower activity. The ABTS method provided a higher correlation (0.89) with total phenol content.

  8. Geochemical Specific Characters of the Oil and the Origin of the Oil and Gas Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottikh, Rimma; Pisotskiy, Bogdan; Plotnikova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    and porous rocks. The high metal content of carbonaceous substances and their compositional variations governed by homogenisation temperatures of the inclusions suggest that they are not the products of the decomposition of oil fields. The constant presence of uranium in the fluid and its differentiation products allows the tracing of the systems' migration ways from the crystalline basement to oil-saturated reservoir zones of the sedimentary cover The known geochemical properties of bitumen and oil - high platinum content, specific distributions of rare earth elements, that are not characteristic of the upper crust formations, as well as 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compounds, which are out of balance with the organic matter of sedimentary rocks - suggest that hydrocarbons are accumulated in the presence of cooling high-alkalinity mafite-ultramafite intrusions. This logically corresponds to the distribution of seismic anomalies and magnetic and gravity fields in the consolidated crust below the various petroleum fields (for example, South Tatarstan and Nepsky arches of the Romashkino and Verkhne-Chonskoye oil fields). The acquired geochemical and thermodynamic characteristics of the reduced fluids and their differentiation products from the crystalline basement and the sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian and eastern East European platforms indicate that these were formed outside of the sedimentary cover and that the migration was directed upwards. The analysis of the magmatic evolution on platforms reveals its alkaline trend due to the impeded degassing of magmatic sources at depth and the inflow of new doses of alkaline fluids or melts into them. Further evolution of the zones of partial melting of the substratum led, in the authors' view, to the generation of oil-forming fluids and their transportation into the Earth's upper crust. Their interaction with the surrounding rocks in turn led to the formation of oil accumulations. Thus, oil is the product

  9. Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Olive Oil against Candida Spp. Isolated from Blood Stream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. Aim To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. Materials and Methods The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Results Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Conclusion Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp. PMID:27656437

  10. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites. PMID:20861922

  11. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  12. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Seseli globiferum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Janaćković, Peda; Soković, Marina; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Vajs, Vlatka; Vucković, Ivan; Krivosej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

    2011-08-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli globiferum Vis. obtained by hydrodistillation with Clevenger-type apparatus was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, representing 99.4% of the total oil. The main components of the oil were sabinene (38.0%), alpha-pinene (21.2%) and beta-phellandrene (13.5%). The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the isolated essential oil were determined using the broth microdilution method against seven bacterial species: Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterobacter cloacae (clinical isolates), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Micrococcus flavus (ATCC 10240) and three fungal species: Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061) and Penicillium funiculosum (ATCC 36839). The essential oil showed activity against bacteria P. aeruginosa, followed by M flavus, L. monocytigenes and E. coli, and all investigated fungal species. PMID:21922927

  13. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of Pituranthos chloranthus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Neffati, A; Bouhlel, I; Ben Sghaier, M; Boubaker, J; Limem, I; Kilani, S; Skandrani, I; Bhouri, W; Le Dauphin, J; Barillier, D; Mosrati, R; Chekir-Ghedira, L; Ghedira, K

    2009-03-01

    The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide and H(2)O(2)-induced genotoxicity. Essential oils showed a protective effect against damages induced by radicals, obtained from the photolysis of H(2)O(2), on DNA plasmid through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The scavenging capacity of these essential oils was also estimated by evaluating the inhibition of ABTS(+.) radical. PMID:21783938

  14. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  15. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field. PMID:24456231

  16. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field.

  17. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  18. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices. PMID:27429006

  19. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Emily H.; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices. PMID:27429006

  20. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF.

  1. Methanotrophy in a Paleoproterozoic oil field ecosystem, Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Crne, A E; Lepland, A; van Zuilen, M A

    2012-11-01

    Organic carbon rich rocks in the c. 2.0 Ga Zaonega Formation (ZF), Karelia, Russia, preserve isotopic characteristics of a Paleoproterozoic ecosystem and record some of the oldest known oil generation and migration. Isotopic data derived from drill core material from the ZF show a shift in δ(13) C(org) from c. -25‰ in the lower part of the succession to c. -40‰ in the upper part. This stratigraphic shift is a primary feature and cannot be explained by oil migration, maturation effects, or metamorphic overprints. The shift toward (13) C-depleted organic matter (δ(13) C(org) < -25‰) broadly coincides with lithological evidence for the generation of oil and gas in the underlying sediments and seepage onto the sea floor. We propose that the availability of thermogenic CH(4) triggered the activity of methanotrophic organisms, resulting in the production of anomalously (13) C-depleted biomass. The stratigraphic shift in δ(13) C(org) records the change from CO(2) -fixing autotrophic biomass to biomass containing a significant contribution from methanotrophy. It has been suggested recently that this shift in δ(13) C(org) reflects global forcing and progressive oxidation of the Earth. However, the lithologic indication for local thermogenic CH(4) , sourced within the oil field, is consistent with basinal methanotrophy. This indicates that regional/basinal processes can also explain the δ(13) C(org) negative isotopic shift observed in the ZF. PMID:23009699

  2. Alaska North Slope oil-field restoration research strategy. Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wyant, J.G.; Knapp, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The document provides a research strategy to support ecological restoration of disturbances related to oil and gas developments on the North Slope of Alaska that is mutually beneficial to the arctic ecorestoration research community and the arctic regulatory community (including at least the following entities: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, EPA, National Marine Fisheries, US FWS, BLM, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, and the North Slope Borough). The purpose of this strategy is to: (1) identify major information or knowledge gaps that have inhibited restoration activities or slowed the regulatory decision process, (2) determine the potential for filling knowledge gaps through research, and (3) suggest tentative priorities for research that are based on the needs identified in steps one and two.

  3. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  4. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  5. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Salvatore, G; Mazzanti, G

    1999-12-01

    In this work we studied the local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil obtained from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., a medicinal plant traditionally used as an antispasmodic. We compared its activity to the essential oils obtained from two citrus fruits, Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f., which have no medical uses. Biological tests were also performed on the major pure components of L. angustifolia Mill. essential oil: linalol and linalyl acetate as determined by GC and confirmed by GC-MS. Anaesthetic activity was evaluated in vivo in the rabbit conjunctival reflex test, and in vitro in a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. The essential oil of L. angustifolia, linalyl acetate and linanol (0.01-10 micrograms/ml) but not the oils of Citrus reticulata and Citrus limon were able to drastically reduce, in a dose-dependent manner, the electrically evoked contractions of rat phrenic-hemidiaphragm. In the rabbit conjunctival reflex test treatment with a solution of essential oil of L. angustifolia, as well as linalyl acetate and linalol (30-2500 micrograms/ml administered in the conjunctival sac) allow a dose-dependent increase in the number of stimuli necessary to provoke the reflex, thus confirming in vivo the local anaesthetic activity observed in vitro. PMID:10630108

  6. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g). PMID:27529211

  7. Essential oil from Artemisia phaeolepis: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Abdelkafi, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia phaeolepis, a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, grows on the grasslands of Mediterranean region. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia phaeolepis was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 79 components representing 98.19% of the total oil were identified, and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (11.30%), camphor (8.21%), terpine-4-ol (7.32%), germacrene D (6.39), caryophyllene oxide (6.34%), and caryophyllene (5.37%). The essential oil showed definite inhibitory activity against 10 strains of test microorganisms. Eucalyptol, camphor, terpine-4-ol, caryophyllene, germacrene D and caryophyllene oxide were also examined as the major components of the oil. Camphor showed the strongest antimicrobial activity; terpine-4-ol, eucalyptol, caryophyllene and germacrene D were moderately active and caryophyllene oxide was weakly active. The study revealed that the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. PMID:24292348

  8. Composition and antibacterial activity of Abies balsamea essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pichette, André; Larouche, Pierre-Luc; Lebrun, Maxime; Legault, Jean

    2006-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. coli (>100 microg/mL) and active against S. aureus, with an MIC of 56 microg/mL. The oil composition was analysed by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity of each oil constituent was determined. The essential oil of A. balsamea is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (>96%) and some sesquiterpenes. beta-pinene (29.9%), delta-3-carene (19.6%) and alpha-pinene (14.6%) were the major components. beta-pinene and delta-3-carene were found inactive against both bacteria strains. However, three constituents of the essential oil were active against S. aureus: alpha-pinene, beta-caryophyllene (0.4%) and alpha-humulene (0.2%) with MIC values of 13.6 microg/mL, 5.1 microg/mL and 2.6 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:16619365

  9. Interpreting Reservoir Microseismicity Detected During CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring is expected to be a useful tool in CO2 sequestration projects for mapping pressure fronts and detecting fault activation and potential leakage paths. Downhole microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration is conducting the monitoring activities in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources Company, under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. The CO2 injection at Aneth is associated with a field-wide enhanced oil recovery operation following decades of pressure maintenance and oil recovery by water-flood injection. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Over the first year of monitoring, approximately 3800 microearthquakes have been detected within about 3 km of the geophone string. The Aneth reservoir events are relatively large with magnitudes ranging from approximately -1 to 1. For comparison, reservoir seismicity induced during hydraulic fracturing treatments typically result in events with magnitudes <-1, unless pre-existing faults are pressurized by the treatments. The Aneth events delineate two NW-SE oriented fracture zones located on opposite flanks of the reservoir. Injection activity is fairly uniform over the entire field area, and the microseismicity does not correlate either temporally or spatially with any anomalous changes in injection or production activities near the source locations. Because the activity is fairly isolated and relatively energetic, I speculate that the seismicity may be due to critically stressed structures driven by longer-term production- and

  10. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Patchouli Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Shui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of five biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:24250637

  11. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  13. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-02-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consists of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of late Proterozoic age. The main granitic pluton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian shield. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alteration/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers. A model has been constructed to illustrate the changes in the primary rock texture and structure with sequential diagenetic processes, taking into consideration the fracture distribution and their opening affinities as related to their depths.

  14. Basement reservoir in Zeit Bay oil field, Gulf of Suez

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, I.; Askary, S.

    1988-01-01

    Fractured basement, one of the most important reservoirs of Zeit Bay field, contains nearly one-third of oil in place of the field. The flow rates per well vary from 700 to 9,000 BOPD. Due to its well-established production potential, 60% of the wells for the development of the field were drilled down to basement. The Zeit Bay basement consist of granitic rocks of pegmatitic to coarse porphyritic texture and has equal proportions of alkali feldspars. Dykes of various compositions are present, traversing the granite at different intervals. Dykes include aplite, microsyenite, diabase and lamprophyre. The last two pertain to the post-granitic dykes of later Proterozoic age. The main granitic luton is related to one of the final stages of the tectonic-magmatic cycle of the Arabo-Nubian sheild. The Zeit Bay area was a significant paleohigh until the Miocene, hence its structural picture is very complicated due to the impact of different tectonic movements from the late Precambrian to Cenozoic. The resulting structural elements were carefully investigated and statistically analyzed to decipher the influence of various tectonic events. The presence of high porosity in some intervals and low porosity in others could be tied to the presence of new fractures and the nature of cementing minerals. The relation of mineralized fractures and their depths lead to zonation of porous layers in the granitic pluton. Diagenetic processes on the granitic body and the alternation/resedimentation of the diagenetic products controlled the magnitude and amplitude of the porosity layers.

  15. Antimicrobial, insecticidal and phytotoxic activities of Cotinus coggyria Scop. essential oil (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Çenet, Menderes; Oztürk, Bintuğ; Balcilar, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of Cotinus coggyria Scop.' leaves was found to be rich in α-pinene (43.1%), limonene (21.3%) and β-myrcene (8.5%). In the antimicrobial screening, essential oil was notably active on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC BAA-977, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 using the disc diffusion and volatilisation assays. The fumigant assay of the essential oil caused 70% and 100% mortality on the two pest adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum at 80 μL L⁻¹ air concentration at 96 h, respectively. In the toxicity assay on weeds, a dose-dependent decrease was observed in the germination and seedling growth of Silybum marianum and Portulaca oleracea. The present results indicated that oil could be suggested as an effective biocontrol agent in various fields.

  16. Vertical magnetic field and its analytic signal applicability in oil field underground pipeline detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Liu, Dejun; Pan, Qi; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Yi; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    We propose using the vertical component of the magnetic anomaly (vertical magnetic field (VMF)) and its analytic signal (AS) to detect oil field underground pipelines. The connection between two peaks of the VMF curves or the AS curves was used to calculate the pipeline azimuth, and the peak coordinates of the AS were used to determine the horizontal position of pipelines. Then, the effect of the pipeline magnetization direction and pipeline buried depth on the horizontal locating error was analyzed. Three typical pipeline models were used for verifying this method. Results indicate that this method can be used to precisely calculate the stretch direction of the pipeline and effectively improve the identification capability in detecting parallel pipelines. The horizontal position of the pipeline axis can be accurately located by the peak of the AS and the locating error increases with the increase in pipeline buried depth, but it is not affected by pipeline outer diameter, thickness, susceptibility. The instrument design and the VMF measurement strategy are realistic and applicable. The VMF detection with its AS provides a new effective method for horizontal locating and direction calculating of oil field underground pipelines.

  17. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  18. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast–southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957–1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. PMID:24191019

  19. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  20. Evidence for a palaeo-oil column and alteration of residual oil in a gas-condensate field: Integrated oil inclusion and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Julien; Burruss, Robert C.; Chou, I.-Ming; Kempton, Richard; Liu, Keyu; Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2014-10-01

    In the Phuong Dong gas condensate field, Cuu Long Basin, Vietnam, hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz trapped a variety of petroleum fluids in the gas zone. Based on the attributes of the oil inclusion assemblages (fluorescence colour of the oil, bubble size, presence of bitumen), the presence of a palaeo-oil column is inferred prior to migration of gas into the reservoir. When a palaeo-oil column is displaced by gas, a residual volume fraction of oil remains in pores. If the gas does not completely mix with the oil, molecular partitioning between the residual oil and the new gas charge may change the composition and properties of the residual oil (gas stripping or gas washing). To simulate this phenomenon in the laboratory, we sealed small amounts of crude oil (42 and 30 °API) and excess pure gas (methane, ethane, or propane) in fused silica capillary capsules (FSCCs), with and without water. These mixtures were characterized with the same methods used to characterize the fluid inclusions, heating and cooling stage microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. At room temperature, mixtures of ethane and propane with the 30 °API oil formed a new immiscible fluorescent liquid phase with colour that is visually more blue than the initial oil. The fluorescence of the original oil phase shifted to yellow or disappeared with formation of semi-solid residues. The blue-shift of the fluorescence of the immiscible phases and strong CH stretching bands in FT-IR spectra are consistent with stripping of hydrocarbon molecules from the oil. In experiments in FSCCs with water solid residues are common. At elevated temperature, reproducing geologic reservoir conditions, the fluorescence changes and therefore the molecular fractionation are enhanced. However, the precipitation of solid residues is responsible of more complex changes. Mixing experiments with the 42 °API oil do not form a new immiscible hydrocarbon liquid although the fluorescence

  1. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-12-12

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment.

  2. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

  3. Essential oils of Alpinia rafflesiana and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Shariha; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Ahmad, Farediah

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, pseudostems, rhizomes and fruits of Alpinia rafflesiana were isolated by hydrodistillation. The oils were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The most abundant components in the leaf oil were trans-caryophyllene (32.61%), caryophyllene oxide (8.67%), (2E,6Z)-farnesol (4.91%) and alpha-terpineol (4.25%), while 1,8-cineole (32.25%), myrcene (13.63%), alpha-terpineol (9.90%) and trans-caryophyllene (9.80%) were the main constituents in the pseudostem oil. The rhizome constituted of tetracosane (42.61%), tau-cadinol (7.46%), alpha-terpineol (6.71%) were the major components, whereas tetracosane (13.39%), (2E,6E)-farnesol (7.31%), alpha-terpineol (8.51%) and caryophyllene oxide (8.05%) were the main components in the fruit oil. Antimicrobial assay revealed that all the essential oils showed moderate to weak inhibition against the tested microorganisms. The leaf oil was the most active and inhibited both S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 7.81 microg/mL and 15.6 microg/mL, respectively.

  4. [Microwave thermal remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil enhanced by granular activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-Zhi

    2009-02-15

    The advantage of rapid, selective and simultaneous heating of microwave heating technology was taken to remediate the crude oil-contaminated soil rapidly and to recover the oil contaminant efficiently. The contaminated soil was processed in the microwave field with addition of granular activated carbon (GAC), which was used as strong microwave absorber to enhance microwave heating of the soil mixture to remove the oil contaminant and recover it by a condensation system. The influences of some process parameters on the removal of the oil contaminant and the oil recovery in the remediation process were investigated. The results revealed that, under the condition of 10.0% GAC, 800 W microwave power, 0.08 MPa absolute pressure and 150 mL x min(-1) carrier gas (N2) flow-rate, more than 99% oil removal could be obtained within 15 min using this microwave thermal remediation enhanced by GAC; at the same time, about 91% of the oil contaminant could be recovered without significant changes in chemical composition. In addition, the experiment results showed that GAC can be reused in enhancing microwave heating of soil without changing its enhancement efficiency obviously.

  5. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  6. Microseismic monitoring of the Chaveroo oil field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Albright, J.N.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Murphy, M.B.; Roberts, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Induced microseismicity was monitored in the Chaveroo oil field in southeastern New Mexico during a pressurized stimulation of a well being prepared as an injector for a waterflood operation. In addition, the microseismicity was monitored for 5 weeks following the stimulation while the area was under normal waterflood production. Little seismicity was detected during the 5.5 hour stimulation in which three thousand barrels of water were injected into the reservoir at pressures ranging from 96 to 257 bars in excess of hydrostatic pressure. Intermittent monitoring over the 5-week period indicated detectable seismicity occurred during waterflood production. Monitoring during the 5 weeks, however, was not complete enough to draw general conclusions on temporal variations of observed microseismicity. Seventy-three good quality events recorded over a cumulative 24 hours of intermittent monitoring were located using the hodogram technique. Events were detected at distances up to 1700 m from the monitor well but most occurred within 900 m. The map of microearthquake locations indicated that events occurred in the vicinity of producing wells and away from injection wells. The first half of the sequence of mappable events occurred along linear trends, but the pattern became more scattered during the later half of the sequence. The lack of seismicity during the pressurized injection and the increased seismicity levels occurring away from injection wells during waterflood production, suggest seismicity is not induced by Mohr-Coulomb failure. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Driving mechanism for plunger pumps in oil field installations

    SciTech Connect

    Gazarov, R.E.; Zaslavskii, Yu.V.

    1995-07-01

    Mobile oil field pumping installations of up to 1600 kW power at a pressure up to 140 MPa are widely used in hydraulic fracturing of beds, acid treatment of the near-face zone, cementation of wells, and other flushing and pressure operations. Equipment in these installations, which include high-pressure plunger pumps of high unit capacity, are mounted on mobile bases of limited lifting capacity (KrAZ automobile chassis, T-130 tractors, etc.). Very strict demands are made on the reliability, durability, and mass/size characteristics of the pumps and on all the equipment of the mobile installations. In modern pumps, an axial load of up to 100 tons or more, which is transmitted to the crankshaft, acts on each plunger. The engine of the installation rotates the crankshaft through a multiple-speed transmission and the transmission shaft of the pump. The forces acting on the elements of the driving part of a pump with a connecting rod - crank drive and a single-reduction tooth gear are described.

  8. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of artemisia pallens wall.

    PubMed

    Nakhare, S; Garg, S C

    1991-01-01

    Helminthic infections are now being recognized as the cause of much chronic ill health and sluggishness among the tropical people. More than half of the world populations suffers from worm infections of one type or the other. Traditional system of medicine reports the efficacy of chenopodiul oil, Embelia ribes (Via-Varang), Trachyspermum ammi Ajwain and Biper betle (Pan) oils etc. for eliminating helminthes. The present study reports the strong anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of Artemisia pallens Wall. Against Pheritima posthuma (earth worm), Taenia solium (tape worm) and Ascaris lumbricoides (round worm). The helminthes have been found to be more susceptible to the oil than to piperazine phosphate of similar concentration. Artemisia pallens has been ascribed to possess anthelmintic and stomachic properties in indigenous system of medicine. The present screening not only confirms the correct usage of the plant by the rurals but also enhances the creditability of ethnobotanical explorations.

  10. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224

  11. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  12. Microbiology to help solve our energy needs: methanogenesis from oil and the impact of nitrate on the oil-field sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, Alexander; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2008-03-01

    Our society depends greatly on fossil fuels, and the environmental consequences of this are well known and include significant increases of the CO(2) concentration in the earth's atmosphere. Although microbiology has traditionally played only a minor role in fossil-fuel extraction, two novel key discoveries indicate that this may change. First, the realization that oil components can be converted to methane and CO(2) by methanogenic consortia in the absence of electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate) explains how much of the world's oil has been biodegraded in situ. In addition to inorganic nutrients, only water is needed for these methanogenic conversions. Hence, continued methanogenic biodegradation may have shaped the heavy-oil reservoirs that are so prevalent today. The potential to exploit these reactions, for example, by in situ gasification, is currently being actively investigated. Second, injection of nitrate in oil and gas fields can lower sulfide concentrations. High sulfide concentrations, caused by the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), are associated with increased risk of corrosion, reservoir plugging (through precipitated sulfides), and human safety. Nitrate injection into an oil field stimulates subsurface heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Nitrite, formed by these NRB by partial reduction of nitrate, is a strong and specific SRB inhibitor. Nitrate injection has, therefore, promise in positively controlling the oil-field sulfur cycle. There is now more interest in and potential to apply petroleum microbiology than there has been in the past, allowing microbiologists to contribute to a sustainable energy future. PMID:18378604

  13. Hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.; Mendes, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, located in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. Data about the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water are presented in tabular form. The tables contain records of privately owned wells (active and abandoned), monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, oil wells, and brine-injection wells; lithologic descriptions of drill cuttings and well-completion data from monitoring wells; data from two aquifer tests conducted in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits; chemical quality of ground water; and information on the quantity and chemical quality of surface water. Records of electromagnetic geophysical measurements collected throughout an area of about 20 square miles of the study area are compiled and included on a floppy disk. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, site- numbering system, general physical and cultural features, and construction of monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey. plate-sized map presents additional information about privately owned wells, monitoring wells, oil wells, brine-injections wells, surface-water data-collection sites, and area of electromagnetic data collection. The data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water in the vicinity of the Poplar River Valley in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. The data can be used to help delineate the occurrence of brine and saline water in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits in the East Poplar oil field.

  14. Active oil-water interfaces: buckling and deformation of oil drops by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria are unicellular organisms that seek nutrients and energy for growth, division, and self-propulsion. Bacteria are also natural colloidal particles that attach and self-assemble at liquid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present experimental results on active oil-water interfaces that spontaneously form when bacteria accumulate or grow on the interface. Using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, we simultaneously observed the dynamics of adsorbed Alcanivorax bacteria and the oil-water interface within microfluidic devices. We find that, by growing and dividing, adsorbed bacteria form a jammed monolayer of cells that encapsulates the entire oil drop. As bacteria continue to grow at the interface, the drop buckles and the interface undergoes strong deformations. The bacteria act to stabilize non-equilibrium shapes of the oil-phase such wrinkling and tubulation. In addition to presenting a natural example of a living interface, these findings shape our understanding of microbial degradation of oil and may have important repercussions on engineering interventions for oil bioremediation.

  15. Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.

  16. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  17. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Copaiba Oil Gel on Dental Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Cláudia A.C.G.; Conde, Nikeila C. de Oliveira; Venâncio, Gisely N.; Milério, Patrícia S.L.L.; Bandeira, Maria F.C.L.; da Veiga Júnior, Valdir F.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian biodiversity products that have been used for years in folk medicine, have emerged as feasible and promising alternatives for the inhibition of microorganisms in dental biofilm. Copaiba oil, a phytotherapic agent widely used by the Amazonian populations, is known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, healing and antitumor medicinal properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera multijuga) gel against strains of Streptococcus sp present in dental biofilm. Materials and Methods: The copaiba oil was obtained and the chemical components were identified. The oil emulsions were formulated and used with the Brain Heart Infusion agar diffusion method with strains of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus salivarius isolated from patients as well as standard strains of S. mitis (ATCC903), S. mutans (ATCC10449), S. sanguinis (ATCC15300) and S. oralis (ATCC10557). The study groups were as follows: experimental copaiba oil gel, 1% chlorhexidine gel (positive control) and base gel (negative control). The seeded plates were incubated at 37ºC for 12, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The results obtained were analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk and Friedman Tests (p<0.05) for non parametric data and the Tukey test was used for pH values with 5% level of significance. Results: The experimental copaiba oil gel and 1% chlorhexidine gel showed antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms. Conclusion: The copaiba oil gel demonstrated antibacterial activity against all the strains of Streptococcus sp tested, suggesting that it can be used for dental biofilm control. PMID:27386004

  19. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  20. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  1. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  3. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  4. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  5. Biodegradation of diesel oil by an Arabian Sea sediment culture isolated from the vicinity of an oil field.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Suparna; Jagadevan, Sheeja; Mohapatra, Gita; Vijay, Avinash

    2004-12-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed to test the diesel oil biodegradation ability of ES1 cultures isolated from Arabian Sea sediments obtained from the vicinity of an oil field. This culture could utilize diesel as the sole source of carbon and energy. Under aerobic conditions, 39% loss of diesel oil was observed over 8 days where 80% of the loss was due to aliphatic constituents. Under anoxic nitrate reducing conditions the rate and extent of degradation was significantly lower, i.e., 18% over 50 days. Salt acclimatized cultures could tolerate salinities up to 3.5% and demonstrated optimal performance at a salinity of 0.5%. The optimum N/P ratio for these cultures was found to be in the range of 2:1-5:1. Addition of two trace elemental substance formulations exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on culture growth. This culture has good potential for decontamination of oil-contaminated marine and subsurface environments.

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical

  7. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  8. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  9. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  10. Environmental effects of the Kuwaiti oil field fires

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Theory suggests that the rates of smoke emission and heat generation and, consequently, the atmospheric injection height and residence time of the smoke are crucial in determining whether the environmental effects are of global or only regional importance. Confirming the results of model calculations, observations have shown that, up to now, the smoke did not rise higher than to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), about 3,300 m at a maximum. The photochemistry within the smoke cloud very likely is significantly different from that of the smoke-free troposphere. Also, because there is very little precipitation in the greater Gulf region from May through October, it is difficult to predict how and where NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and their oxidation products HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} will be deposited. Photochemical oxidation should be largely suppressed in the denser parts of the smoke cloud, so major acid deposition is likely to occur at some distance from the source area, probably as far away as 2,000 km. Results of model calculations suggest that the effect of the smoke emission in Kuwait on the Asian summer monsoon is small. In summary, one should expect severe environmental consequences of the Kuwaiti oil field fires for the territory of Kuwait and for parts of Iraq, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Serious effects also may be felt in Iran and the other Gulf states, and perhaps even as far away as Turkey and Afghanistan. The surface waters of the Gulf also may be severely affected by smoke deposition. Significant environmental effects on a global or even hemispheric scale, however, are not likely to occur.

  11. Geo-information approach to the study of Romashkino oil field geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmanov, S.; Sharipov, B.; Akhmetov, A.; Delev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Geodynamic processes have an immediate influence on a fluid dynamics, for that version they are of significant importance in the formation and reformation processes of oil and gas deposits. The object of our analysis was Romashkino oil field, which is confined to the anticlinal structure of the arch part of the South Tatar Arch. The initial data in our project include the series of a paper maps, which contain the location of the intersection of production and injection wells with the Kyn horizont at the Romashkino oil field and geologic engineering information, which contains the flow rates's inversions data of the well's production activity. Inversion occurs as a periodic increasing of the flow rates which is not caused by the external special influence on the well, against the long-term production activity's decreasing by the decreasing of oil's flow rates. During the analysis of the data we identified the anomalous wells in which the hydrocarbon feed process was observed with the highest probability based on several criteria. By the using of modern GIS technology we have compared the plots, in which an anomal wells are located, with a block structure of the basement and the sedimentary cover, and with the deconsolidated and fluid's penetrability zones of the crystalline basement. For analysis of tabular data array we used ArcGis software package. Romashkino's map was vectorized by using the EasyTrase and when we assigned a number to each object. When the project was exported to ArcGIS and data obtained the geographic coordinates. We obtained the following attributes for the testing wells: the year of exploitation's beginning, the period of the inversion, the ratio of flow rates before and after inversion, and others. We created a series of maps with location of wells, with a flow rate's inversion by the year (1957-1998) for Minnibayevo area and by the five-year intervals for Minnibayevo area separately and for the Romashkino oil field. The maps of the inversion

  12. Comparison of the antioxidant activities of extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Lavelli, Vera

    2002-12-18

    The phenol content and antioxidant activity of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) differing in their origins and degradation degrees were studied. The o-diphenolic compounds typical of olive oil, namely, the oleuropein derivatives hydroxytyrosol (3',4'-dihydroxyphenylethanol, 3',4'-DHPEA), the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to 3',4'-DHPEA (3',4'-DHPEA-EDA), and an isomer of oleuropein aglycon (3',4'-DHPEA-EA), were analyzed by HPLC. The antioxidant activity was studied by (a) the xanthine oxidase (XOD)/xanthine system, which generates superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide; (b) the diaphorase (DIA)/NADH/juglone system, which generates superoxide radical and semiquinonic radical; and (c) the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) test. Results showed that EVOOs with a low degradation level (as evaluated by acidity, peroxide number, and spectroscopic indices K(232), K(270), and deltaK according to the EU Regulation) had a higher content of 3',4'-DHPEA-EDA and a lower content of 3',4'-DHPEA than oils having intermediate and advanced degradation levels. EVOOs with a low degradation degree were 3-5 times more efficient as DPPH scavengers and 2 times more efficient as inhibitors of the XOD-catalyzed reaction than oils with intermediate and advanced degradation levels. The DIA-catalyzed reaction was inhibited by EVOOs having low or intermediate degradation levels but not by the most degraded oils.

  13. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  14. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  15. Uncertainty of oil field GHG emissions resulting from information gaps: a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-09-01

    Regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from liquid fuel production generally work with incomplete data about oil production operations. We study the effect of incomplete information on estimates of GHG emissions from oil production operations. Data from California oil fields are used to generate probability distributions for eight oil field parameters previously found to affect GHG emissions. We use Monte Carlo (MC) analysis on three example oil fields to assess the change in uncertainty associated with learning of information. Single factor uncertainties are most sensitive to ignorance about water-oil ratio (WOR) and steam-oil ratio (SOR), resulting in distributions with coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.1-0.9 and 0.5, respectively. Using a combinatorial uncertainty analysis, we find that only a small number of variables need to be learned to greatly improve on the accuracy of MC mean. At most, three pieces of data are required to reduce bias in MC mean to less than 5% (absolute). However, the parameters of key importance in reducing uncertainty depend on oil field characteristics and on the metric of uncertainty applied. Bias in MC mean can remain after multiple pieces of information are learned, if key pieces of information are left unknown.

  16. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

  17. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work. PMID:27545649

  18. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  19. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  20. Encounters with Insects: Field and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes field and classroom activities to conduct investigations of insects that emphasize capture and release rather than capture for semipermanent collections. Provides contact information for the Young Entomologists' Society, Inc. (JRH)

  1. Did CO2 injection induce 2006-2011 earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GAN, W.; Frohlich, C.

    2013-12-01

    Induced seismicity related to underground injection of liquids has been widely reported. However, earthquakes triggered by gas injection, particularly having magnitudes M3 and larger, haven't been observed. Davis and Pennington (1) concluded that earthquakes occurring 1974-1982 in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX were induced by water flooding for secondary recovery that took place between 1956 and 1982. Subsequently the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) reported no further seismicity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. In the present study we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program. We identified and carefully relocated 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocated epicenters occur within several NE-SW-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified subsurface faults. Moreover, both the rate and b value for the 2009-2011 activity differs from the values for earlier activity, possibly suggesting a different physical origin. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Fluid injection doesn't explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period, and don't appear to have undergone significant recent changes. However, since 2004 significant volumes of CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell fields. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have triggered the recent seismic activity. If so, this is the first reported instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes M3 and larger. Further analysis may help to evaluate recent concerns about possible risks associated with large-scale carbon capture and storage

  2. 37. SAR2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SAR-2, SHOWING OIL CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ABOVE) AND GENERATOR FIELD COIL CONTROL RHEOSTATS (BELOW). SCE negative no. 10331, November 1, 1923. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  4. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  5. Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Marianna Vieira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented. PMID:25401162

  6. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  7. The space-time structure of oil and gas field growth in a complex depositional system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Mast, R.F.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of an oil and gas field, an initial estimate is usually made of the ultimate recovery of the field. With the passage of time, this initial estimate is almost always revised upward. The phenomenon of the growth of the expected ultimate recovery of a field, which is known as "field growth," is important to resource assessment analysts for several reasons. First, field growth is the source of a large part of future additions to the inventory of proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in most petroliferous areas of the world. Second, field growth introduces a large negative bias in the forecast of the future rates of discovery of oil and gas fields made by discovery process models. In this study, the growth in estimated ultimate recovery of oil and gas in fields made up of sandstone reservoirs formed in a complex depositional environment (Frio strand plain exploration play) is examined. The results presented here show how the growth of oil and gas fields is tied directly to the architectural element of the shoreline processes and tectonics that caused the deposition of the individual sand bodies hosting the producible hydrocarbon. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  8. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25870697

  9. Relation between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and antihypertensive activity for six essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yvon, Yan; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Razafindrazaka, René; Randriantsoa, Adolphe; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chabir, Naziha; Mkaddem, Mounira Guedri; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2012-08-01

    Six essential oils (EOs), Juniperus phoenicea (leaves and berries), Thymus capitatus, Lauris nobilis, Melaleuca armillaris, and Eucalyptus gracilis, were screened for their antioxidant and antihypertensive activity as well as their chemical compositions. We identified and quantified 24 compounds (representing 99.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea leaves, 14 compounds (representing 98.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea berries, 11 compounds (representing 99.6% of total oil) for T. capitatus, 32 compounds (representing 98.9% of total oil) for L. nobilis, 32 compounds (representing 98.7% of total oil) for M. armillaris, and 26 compounds (representing 99.3% of total oil) for E. gracilis. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.59 to 2183.6 mg/L, whereas T. capitatus (1.24 ± 0.05 mg/L) gave the best activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated by testing the vasorelaxing capacity of EOs on rat aorta precontracted by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). T. capitatus and L. nobilis were most active for an antihypertensive activity (29 ± 3 and 59 ± 2 mg/L, respectively). Correlations between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and/or antihypertensive activity were studied. Significant correlation has been found for antihypertensive activity and p-cymene (R(2) = 0.86), β-elemene (R(2) = 0.90), and β-myrcene (R(2) = 0.76). A good correlation has been found between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (R(2) = 0.98). Antioxidant activity can contribute to the prevention of the increase of the blood pressure. According to the literature, no study has been reported until now of correlation between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity. Natural EOs can find its interest and application in a medicinal area. PMID:22860587

  10. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Low oil and gas prices slow Midcontinent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Midcontinent is home to some of the nation`s oldest, most well-established fields. But state officials are beginning to see the results of long-term industry saturation: The majors are beginning to leave, nobody can afford to use advanced recovery techniques when oil and gas prices are so low and sometimes today`s producers are being asked to clean up yesterday`s mistakes.

  12. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rojas-Fermin, Luís; Lucena, María; Buitrago, Alexis

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils from fresh aerial parts of Monticalia greenmaniana (Hieron) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) collected in March, were analyzed by GC/MS. Oil yields (w/v) of 0.1% (flowers), 0.07%, (stems) and 0.1% (leaves) were obtained by hydrodistillation. Thirteen, sixteen and eighteen components, respectively, were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components of the flower and stem oils were 1-nonane (38.8% flowers; 33.5% stems), alpha-pinene (29.0% flowers; 14.8% stems) and germacrene D (15.6% flowers; 18.6% stems). However, in the leaf oil, germacrene D was observed at 50.7%, followed by beta-cedrene at 8.4%. The leaf essential oil showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against the important human pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 25955) with MIC values ranging from 75 to 6000 ppm.

  13. An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kristyn Ann

    The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations. One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), which can use CO2 to improve production from declining oil fields. Revenues from the

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic/superoleophilic cotton for application in the field of water/oil separation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Ma, Miaolian; Zang, Deli; Gao, Zhengxin; Wang, Chengyu

    2014-03-15

    Cotton with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties had been successfully fabricated for application in the field of oil/water separation by the combination of SiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fiber surface and subsequent octadecyltrichlorosilane modification. The as-prepared cotton could be used to selectively absorb various common oils and organic solvents up to above 50 times of its own weight while repelling water completely. The absorbed oils were easily collected by a simple vacuum filtration, and the recovered cotton could be reused for several cycles while still keeping high absorption capacity. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton was simply spun into cloth, which not only could be tailored to the water-repellent clothing but also could be used in the oil/water separation filter system. The results presented in this work might provide a simple, low-cost and environment friendly approach for application in the field of water/oil separation.

  15. De-convoluting mixed crude oil in Prudhoe Bay Field, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Scott, Ramos L.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Bird, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-four crude oil samples from the Barrow arch on the North Slope of Alaska were studied to assess the relative volumetric contributions from different source rocks to the giant Prudhoe Bay Field. We applied alternating least squares to concentration data (ALS-C) for 46 biomarkers in the range C19-C35 to de-convolute mixtures of oil generated from carbonate rich Triassic Shublik Formation and clay rich Jurassic Kingak Shale and Cretaceous Hue Shale-gamma ray zone (Hue-GRZ) source rocks. ALS-C results for 23 oil samples from the prolific Ivishak Formation reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay Field indicate approximately equal contributions from Shublik Formation and Hue-GRZ source rocks (37% each), less from the Kingak Shale (26%), and little or no contribution from other source rocks. These results differ from published interpretations that most oil in the Prudhoe Bay Field originated from the Shublik Formation source rock. With few exceptions, the relative contribution of oil from the Shublik Formation decreases, while that from the Hue-GRZ increases in reservoirs along the Barrow arch from Point Barrow in the northwest to Point Thomson in the southeast (???250 miles or 400 km). The Shublik contribution also decreases to a lesser degree between fault blocks within the Ivishak pool from west to east across the Prudhoe Bay Field. ALS-C provides a robust means to calculate the relative amounts of two or more oil types in a mixture. Furthermore, ALS-C does not require that pure end member oils be identified prior to analysis or that laboratory mixtures of these oils be prepared to evaluate mixing. ALS-C of biomarkers reliably de-convolutes mixtures because the concentrations of compounds in mixtures vary as linear functions of the amount of each oil type. ALS of biomarker ratios (ALS-R) cannot be used to de-convolute mixtures because compound ratios vary as nonlinear functions of the amount of each oil type.

  16. Chars pyrolyzed from oil palm wastes for activated carbon preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Lua, A.C.; Guo, J.

    1999-01-01

    Chars pyrolyzed from extracted oil palm fibers for the preparation of activated carbons were studied. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and hold time on density, porosity, yield, BET and micropore surface areas, total pore volume, and pore size distributions of chars were investigated. The optimum conditions for pyrolysis were found to be at a pyrolysis temperature of 850 C for a hold time of 3.5 h. Scanning electron micrographs of the char surfaces verified the presence of porosities. The experimental results showed that it was feasible to produce chars with high BET and micropore surface areas from extracted oil palm fibers. The resulting chars will be subjected to steam or carbon dioxide activation to prepare activated carbons for use as gas adsorbents for air pollution control.

  17. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in Field-Scale Biopiles Composed of Aged Oil Sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Shijie; Boronin, Alexander; Wang, Qunhui

    2014-09-01

    Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved. Microbial metabolic activity of the treated pile was improved by 25.06% calculated from the maximums during the treatment. Microbial diversity index (Shannon index) ranges were improved from 1.64-3.02 (control pile) to 2.34-3.14 (treated pile). The numbers of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the total heterotrophic bacteria were correlated with the environmental temperature, and microbial metabolic characteristics in the treated pile revealed the distinctive carbon resources selection with the addition of cotton stalk. Temporal microbial metabolic characteristics, which have important effect on bioremediation, were revealed in this study.

  18. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in Field-Scale Biopiles Composed of Aged Oil Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Shijie; Boronin, Alexander; Wang, Qunhui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved. Microbial metabolic activity of the treated pile was improved by 25.06% calculated from the maximums during the treatment. Microbial diversity index (Shannon index) ranges were improved from 1.64–3.02 (control pile) to 2.34–3.14 (treated pile). The numbers of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the total heterotrophic bacteria were correlated with the environmental temperature, and microbial metabolic characteristics in the treated pile revealed the distinctive carbon resources selection with the addition of cotton stalk. Temporal microbial metabolic characteristics, which have important effect on bioremediation, were revealed in this study. PMID:25228785

  19. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process.

  20. The discovery and development of the El Dorado (Kansas) oil field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skelton, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers named El Dorado, Kansas, in 1857 for the beauty of the site and the promise of future riches but not until 58 years later was black rather than mythical yellow gold discovered when the Stapleton No. 1 oil well came in on October 5, 1915. El Dorado's leaders were envious when nearby towns found huge gas fields and thrived. John Donley, an El Dorado barber, had tried to find either gas or oil in 1878 at a nearby site selected by a spiritualist. He staked out a townsite, spudded a well and drilled 200 feet before running out of money. Wells in 1879 and 1882 produced only brine. In June, 1914, chafed over discovery of oil in nearby Augusta, El Dorado city fathers contracted with Erasmus Haworth, soon to retire from his position as State Geologist, to perform a geological study of the area. His field work outlined the El Dorado Anticline, which unsuccessfully was drilled first in August, 1915. On abandonment, the Wichita Natural Gas Company purchased the lease and drilled the Stapleton No. 1 oil well. More success followed and by 1918, the El Dorado produced 29 million barrels, almost 9% of the nation's oil. Entrepreneurs came and prospered: the Cities Service Oil Company, A.L. Derby, Jack Vickers, and Bill Skelly all became familiar names in Midcontinent oil marketing. Earlier giant fields had hurt the price of crude oil but the El Dorado came in as both World War I and the rapid popularization of motor transport made a market for both light and heavy ends of the refinery stream. The giant gas field never materialized as hoped but in late 1995, the El Dorado Field produced its 300 millionth barrel of oil.

  1. Inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fabio, A; Corona, A; Forte, E; Quaglio, P

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate "in vitro" the inhibitory effects of spices and essential oils on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. The sensitivity to nine spices and their oils (chilli, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme) was studied. Antibacterial activity was evaluated on liquid and solid medium. Spices: 1% concentration of each spice was added separately to Triptic Soy Broth and then inoculated to contain 10(8)/ml organism and held to 4 degrees C for 7 days. Populations of test organism were determined on Triptic Soy Agar. Oils: Inhibition of growth was tested by using the paper disc agar diffusion method (at 35, 20 and 4 degrees C) and measuring their inhibition zone. MIC was determined by the broth microdilution method. Some culinary spices produce antibacterial activity: inhibition of growth ranged from complete (cinnamon and cloves against A. hydrophila) to no inhibition. Antibacterial inhibition zone ranged from 8 mm to 45 mm: thyme essential oil showed the greatest inhibition against A. hydrophila. PMID:12578319

  2. Oil, gas field growth projections: Wishful thinking or reality?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Mast, R.F.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The observed `field growth' for the period from 1992 through 1996 with the US Geological Survey's (USGS) predicted field growth for the same period are compared. Known field recovery of field size is defined as the sum of past cumulative field production and the field's proved reserves. Proved reserves are estimated quantities of hydrocarbons which geologic and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to recoverable from known fields under existing economic and operating conditions. Proved reserve estimates calculated with this definition are typically conservative. The modeling approach used by the USGS to characterize `field growth phenomena' is statistical rather that geologic in nature.

  3. A surface vitrinite reflectance anomaly related to Bell Creek oil field, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Dalziel, M.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements from surface samples of mudrock and coal show anomalously high values over the Bell Creek oil field. The average vitrinite reflectance (Rm) increases to a maximum of 0.9 percent over the field against background values of about 0.3 percent. The Rm anomaly coincides with a geochemical anomaly indicated by diagenetic magnetite in surface rocks and a geobiologic anomaly indicated by ethane-consuming bacteria. These samples were taken from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Fort Union Formations which form an essentially conformable sequence. The depositional environment is similar in both formations, and we expect little variation in the source and composition of the organic matter. The surface R m should be approximately constant because of a uniform thermal history across the field. Temperature studies over local oil fields with similar geology suggest the expected thermal anomaly would be less than 10?C (50?F), which is too small to account for the significantly higher rank over the field. Coal clinkers are rare in the vicinity of Bell Creek and an Rm anomaly caused by burning of the thin, discontinuous coal seams is unlikely. The limited topographic relief, less than 305 m (1,000 ft), over the shallow-dipping homoclinal structure and the poor correlation between Rm and sample locality elevation (r = -0.2) indicate that the Rm anomaly is not due to burial, deformation and subsequent erosion. We conjecture that activity by petroleum-metabolizing bacteria is a possible explanation of the Rm anomaly. Microseepage from oil reservoirs supports large colonies of these organisms, some of which can produce enzymes that can cleave hydrocarbon side-chains on the kerogen molecule. The loss of these side chains causes condensation of the ring structures (Stach and others, 1982) and consequently increases its reflectance. These data indicate that vitrinite reflectance may be a useful tool to explore for stratigraphic traps in the

  4. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  5. Source Mechanism, Stress Triggering, and Hazard Analysis of Induced Seismicity in Oil/Gas Fields in Oman and Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Toksoz, M. N.; Ding, M.; Al-Enezi, A.; Al-Jeri, F.; Meng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Induced seismicity has drawn new attentions in both academia and industry in recent years as the increasing seismic activity in the regions of oil/gas fields due to fluid injection/extraction and hydraulic fracturing. Source mechanism and triggering stress of these induced earthquakes are of great importance for understanding their causes and the physics of the seismic processes in reservoirs. Previous research on the analysis of induced seismic events in conventional oil/gas fields assumed a double couple (DC) source mechanism. The induced seismic data in this study are from both Oman and Kuwait. For the Oman data, the induced seismicity is monitored by both surface network (0oil/gas field. The data used in the study consist of 800 events located by the surface network and 2000 events from the downhole network. For the Kuwait data a surface network is used to collect the local seismic data (0oil/gas fields from year 1999 to 2007 for Oman, and from year 2006 to 2015 for Kuwait. In addition, the local hazard corresponding to the induced seismicity in these oil/gas fields is assessed and compared to ground motion prediction due to large (M>5.0) regional tectonic earthquakes.

  6. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  7. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  8. Ozonation of sunflower oils: impact of experimental conditions on the composition and the antibacterial activity of ozonized oils.

    PubMed

    Moureu, Sophie; Violleau, Frédéric; Ali Haimoud-Lekhal, Djamila; Calmon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Ozone can react with vegetable oils to produce ozonized oils which have antimicrobial properties and can be used in dermatology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ozonation conditions and of the initial fatty acid composition on iodine index (II), peroxide index (IP), acidity value (AV) of ozonized sunflower oils. The antibacterial activity of these products against the three bacterial strains that are more often involved in mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis) was also evaluated. In that purpose, two different sunflower oils have been studied: a "classical" oil (55% linoleic acid, 35% oleic acid) and a "high oleic" oil (90% oleic acid). Both were ozonized with or without water during different times (from 1 to 7 h). Results show that the addition of water has a direct impact on the increase in IP (up to 2600 meq of active oxygen/kg of oil with water and 430 without) and AV but does not influence the kinetic of the decrease in II. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were ranging from 1.25 to 40 mg/mL and the antibacterial activity of oils ozonized with water was better than the one of oils ozonized alone. These results are an open door to new applications of ozonized oils.

  9. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (τ) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low τ and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers’ turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field.

  10. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  11. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  12. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.

  13. Effect of various amendments on heavy mineral oil bioremediation and soil microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Oh, Bang-Il; Kim, Jeong-gyu

    2008-05-01

    To examine the effects of amendments on the degradation of heavy mineral oil, we conducted a pilot-scale experiment in the field for 105 days. During the experiment, soil samples were collected and analyzed periodically to determine the amount of residual hydrocarbons and evaluate the effects of the amendments on microbial activity. After 105 days, the initial level of contamination (7490+/-480 mg hydrocarbon kg(-1) soil) was reduced by 18-40% in amended soils, whereas it was only reduced by 9% in nonamended soil. Heavy mineral oil degradation was much faster and more complete in compost-amended soil than in hay-, sawdust-, and mineral nutrient-amended soils. The enhanced degradation of heavy mineral oil in compost-amended soil may be a result of the significantly higher microbial activity in this soil. Among the studied microbial parameters, soil dehydrogenase, lipase, and urease activities were strongly and negatively correlated with heavy mineral oil biodegradation (P<0.01) in compost-amended soil.

  14. Inactivation of Bacteria in Oil Field Injected Water by a Pulsed Plasma Discharge Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qing; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed plasma discharge was employed to inactivate bacteria in the injection water for an oil field. The effects of water conductivity and initial concentration of bacteria on elimination efficiency were investigated in the batch and continuous flow modes. It was demonstrated that Fe2+ contained in injection water could enhance the elimination efficiency greatly. The addition of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) indicated that active radicals generated by pulsed plasma discharges played an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Moreover, it was found that the microbial inactivation process for both batch and continuous flow mode well fitted the model based on the Weibull's survival function. supported by Zhejiang Province Welfare Technology Applied Research Project of China (No. 2014C31137), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21436007 and U1462201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2015QNA4032)

  15. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and

  16. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  17. Antileishmanial activity of the essential oil from Bixa orellana.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Cuellar, Armando; Setzer, William N

    2014-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa. There is currently no vaccine against leishmaniasis, and chemotherapy remains the only effective control. However, conventional drugs are toxic, expensive, and require long periods of treatment, and resistance to clinical chemotherapeutic agents is emerging. Recent research on plants has shown a successful approach to obtain new antileishmanial alternatives. Herein, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the essential oil from Bixa orellana seeds against Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. A total of 73 compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, of which ishwarane (18.6%) and geranylgeraniol (9.1%) were the major components. The oil showed activity against intracellular amastigote form (IC50  = 8.5 µg/mL), while the cytotoxic concentration was sevenfold higher for the host cells. The ability of Bixa oil to control disease progression of established cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice was demonstrated, after a treatment with 30 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration over 14 days. The present study reports for the first time the antileishmanial potentialities of the essential oil from B. orellana. PMID:23983115

  18. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  19. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  20. Effectiveness of Zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil as an alternative repellent under laboratory and field applications.

    PubMed

    Kamsuk, K; Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there were considerable efforts made to promote the use of environmentally friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides and repellents, particularly from botanical sources. In this study, Zanthoxylum piperitum-derived essential oil isolated by steam distillation was investigated and compared to the standard synthetic repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), for repellency against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. The oil of Z. piperitum alone and also with 5% vanillin added repelled laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti with the median protection times of 1.5 and 2.5 h, respectively. These repellency times were proven to be significantly lower than those of DEET-based products: 25% DEET and 25% DEET + 5% vanillin demonstrating 3.5 and 5.5 h, respectively. However, when applied under field conditions, Z. piperitum oil + 5% vanillin was found to provide better protection against a wide range of natural mosquito populations than 25% DEET + 5% vanillin. While the product of DEET was effective in reducing bites with 99.7% protection, the protective effect of Z. piperitum oil product appeared complete (100%). It had a protective effect against Aedes gardnerii, Anopheles barbirostris, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex gelidus, Culex vishnui group, and Mansonia uniformis. The better repellency against a wide range of field mosquitoes derived from Z. piperitum oil products suggested an advantage of efficacy by providing a broad spectrum of activity. Therefore, Z. piperitum could have potential for use in the development of combined repellents as a natural active ingredient, synergist, or additive to conventional synthetic chemicals, particularly in situations when DEET is ineffective and impractical. PMID:16896651

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  3. Essential oil of Valeriana officinalis L. cultivars and their antimicrobial activity as influenced by harvesting time under commercial organic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Letchamo, Wudeneh; Ward, William; Heard, Brooks; Heard, Denise

    2004-06-16

    The essential oil content and the composition of subterranean parts of two valerian (Valeriana officinalis, L.) cultivars Select and Anthose, from certified commercial organic fields, were determined by hydrodistillation, followed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analysis. Eight and fourteen month old cv. Select had 0.67 and 0.87% essential oil, while similar aged cv. Anthose contained 0.97 and 1.1% essential oil. Forty-three and fifty-three components from cv. Select and cv. Anthose oils were detected, respectively. The oil composition significantly varied due to the cultivar type, plant age, and/or harvesting time. The major components for cv. Select were valerenal, bornyl acetate, 15-acetoxy valeranone, valerenic acid, and camphene, while cv. Anthose had valerenal, (-)-bornyl acetate, alpha-humulene, camphene, 15-acetoxy valeranone, and valerenic acid. With further aging of the plants, the valerenal, valerenic acid, and alpha-humulene contents increased. The oil of cv. Select had a strong antimicrobial effect against Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while cv. Anthose showed low or no activity against all test microbes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of valerian oil depends on the cultivar and its developmental stage. The oil profile of our cultivars did not match the literature proposed chemotype profiles. PMID:15186117

  4. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  5. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  6. Evidence of hydrocarbon contamination from the Burgan oil field, Kuwait: interpretations from thermal remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    ud Din, Saif; Al Dousari, Ahmad; Literathy, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents the application of thermal remote sensing for mapping hydrocarbon polluted sites. This has been achieved by mono-window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) measurements, using multi-date band 6 data of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The emissivity, transmittance and mean atmospheric temperature were used as critical factors to estimate LST. The changes in the surface emissivity due to oil pollution alter the apparent temperature, which was used as a recognition element to map out oil polluted surfaces. The LST contrast was successfully used to map spatial distribution of hydrocarbon pollution in the Burgan Oil field area of Kuwait. The methodology can be positively used to detect waste dumping, oil spills in oceans and ports, besides environmental management of oil pollution at or near the land surface.

  7. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  8. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  9. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  10. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  11. Bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC and its application in the treatment of oil-field produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Lixi; Ma, Chunling; Chi, Zhenming

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-nine strains of bioflocculant-producing bacteria were isolated from 3 activated sludge samples. Among them, strain MYC was found to have the highest and stable flocculating rate for both kaolin clay suspension and oil-field produced water. The bacterial strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. MYC according to its morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16SrDNA sequence. The optimal medium for bioflocculant production by this bacterial strain was composed of cane sugar 20gL-1 KH2PO4 2g L-1, K2HPO45gL-1, (NH4)2SO4 0.2gL-1, urea 0.5 gL-1 and yeast extract 0.5 gL-1, the initial pH being 5.5. When the suspension of kaolin clay was treated with 0.5% of Klebsiella sp. MYC culture broth, the flocculating rate reached more than 90.0% in the presence of 500mgL1 CaCl2, while the flocculating rate for oil-field produced water was near 80.0% in a pH range of 7.0-9.0 with the separation of oil and suspended particles from the oil-field produced water under similar conditions. The environment-friendly nature of the bioflocculant and high flocculating rate of the strain make the bioflocculant produced by Klebsiella sp. MYC an attractive bioflocculant in oil-field produced water treatment.

  12. Computer Simulation of Stress-Strain State of Oil Gathering Pipeline Designed for Ugut Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, P. V.; Burkova, S. P.; Samigullin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the stress and strain state modeling of infield pipeline in Ugut oil field. The finite element models of the stress field distribution in the pipeline wall are presented in this paper. The attention is paid to the pipeline reliability under stress conditions induced by the internal pressure and external compressive or tensile loads.

  13. Forecasting populations of undiscovered oil fields with the log-Pareto distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bettini, C.

    1987-01-01

    The search for a statistical representation of parent populations of oil field sizes in sedimentary basins has yielded a new probability distribution, termed the log-Pareto distribution. The log-Pareto law, related to the log-Pareto distribution, describes the medians of oil field sizes (either volumes or areas) associated with size-ranks in a parent population of fields. The name proposed for the new distribution stems from the assumption that an algebraic transformation involving logarithms of the volumes (or areas) of a parent population of oil fields yields a frequency distribution of transformed sizes that accords with the Pareto distribution. The derivation of the log-Pareto law and the log-Pareto distribution involved two steps, namely, (1) simulating a parent population of oil fields such that the population is conditioned to both the proportion of a basin's area occupied by fields and their geographic variability, and (2) finding a mathematical function that fits the log-log plot of field ranks versus simulated field areas. Both the log-Pareto law and log-Pareto distribution are useful for estimating the size distribution of the oil fields that remain to be discovered in a basin. A log-Pareto law fitted to the range of the largest fields discovered in maturely explored basins tends to underestimate the subpopulation of undiscovered fields, while Pareto's law tends to overestimate the undiscovered subpopulation. Therefore the log-Pareto law is more appropriate for risk-averse decision makers, and Pareto law for risk-seeking decision makers. The log-Pareto law has been validated with both simulated data and actual data from Nigeria, the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the Campos Basin in Brazil.

  14. Assessment of microbial respiratory activity of a manufactured gas plant soil after remediation using sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Mai, Maike; Li, Peijun

    2005-09-30

    Microbial activity of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, as well as remaining oil degradability, before and after remediation using sunflower oil was assessed. A sandy soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was collected from an MGP site in Berlin, Germany. Column solubilizations of PAHs from the field-moist soil and air-dried soil using sunflower oil as an extractant at an oil/soil ratio of 2:1 (v/m) were carried out to compare PAH removals from the soil under these two conditions. After column solubilizations, portions of untreated soil (UTS), solubilized field-moist soil (SFMS), and solubilized air-dried soil (SADS) were amended with nutrients. Both nutrient amended and unamended soil samples were subjected to soil respiratory measurement. Soil respiration parameters, such as basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, lag time, exponential growth rate, respiratory activation quotient, peak maximum time, and cumulative CO2 evolution were calculated from the soil respiration curves. The parameters were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). Results showed that the impact of soil moisture on the PAH removals was quite significant, with the SADS showing higher PAH removals and the SFMS showing lower ones. There were significant differences between the respiration parameters with respect to the UTS, SFMS, and SADS. Basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, and exponential growth rate were lower for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Lag time and peak maximum time were higher for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Exponential growth rate was higher for the SFMS relative to the SADS. These parameters demonstrated that soil microbial activity was reduced at the onset of the test, because a lot of bioavailable materials for microbial growth were removed by sunflower oil. On the other hand, cumulative CO2 evolutions in the SFMS and SADS were higher than that in

  15. Strontium isotope constraint on the genesis of crude oils, oil-field brines and Kuroko ore deposits from the Green Tuff region of northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takanori; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Farrell, Clifton W.

    1989-10-01

    Crude oils from Akita to northern Niigata oil fields in the Green Tuff region of northeastern Japan have distinctly uniform 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7080-0.7082), while those from the southern Niigata oil field contain more radiogenic strontium (0.7095-0.7102). The regional variation in the strontium isotopic composition of crude oils is also reflected in their sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions, and may be attributed to the regional heterogeneity of marine organic sediments from which the crude oils were ultimately derived. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of most oil-field brines (0.7061-0.7084), however, are different from and vary more locally than those of the accompanying crude oils. This finding supports the view that strontium, and by inference some other dissolved solutes in the brines, may have evolved during diagenesis by reaction of a connate and/or a meteoric water with rocks in the Green Tuff region. Barites in the sulfide ore and anhydrites and gypsums in the sulfate (sekko) ore from the Fukazawa and Kosaka Kuroko deposits in the Hokuroku district are divided by the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7081 (±0.0001), which is identical to that of crude oils from nearby oil fields. This similarity in ratios lends support to the conclusion that the Kuroko base metal deposits and crude oil deposits were ultimately derived from a common organic sediment named PUMOS (Primitive Undifferentiated Metalliferous Organic Sediments).

  16. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  17. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  18. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  19. Process and economic model of in-field heavy oil upgrading using aqueous pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B., LLNL

    1997-01-21

    A process and economic model for aqueous pyrolysis in-field upgrading of heavy oil has been developed. The model has been constructed using the ASPEN PLUS chemical process simulator. The process features cracking of heavy oil at moderate temperatures in the presence of water to increase oil quality and thus the value of the oil. Calculations with the model indicate that for a 464 Mg/day (3,000 bbl/day) process, which increases the oil API gravity of the processed oil from 13.5{degree} to 22.4{degree}, the required value increase of the oil would need to be at least $2.80/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API($0.40/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API) to make the process economically attractive. This level of upgrading has been demonstrated in preliminary experiments with candidate catalysts. For improved catalysts capable of having the coke make and increasing the pyrolysis rate, a required price increase for the oil as low as $1.34/Mg{center_dot}{degree}API ($0.21/bbl{center_dot}{degree}API)has been calculated.

  20. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends.

  1. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: oil field or wilderness

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, A.

    1987-11-01

    The second session of the 100th Congress will see continued debate over the prospect of oil and gas drilling on a 19-million-acre expanse of mountains and tundra known as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The arctic refuge, most of which lies above the Arctic Circle, is larger than any refuges in the lower 48 states. Because of its size, the area supports a broad range of linked ecosystems. Of particular concern is the 1.5-million-acre coastal plain, which may be targeted for development. The coastal plain provides a home, at least part of the year, to Alaska's porcupine caribou. The coastal plain also supports many other forms of wildlife-including the wolf, arctic fox, brown bear, polar bear, and arctic peregrine falcon, which is listed as a threatened species. The potential effects of drilling projects extend beyond loss of wildlife; they include desecration of the land itself. Although few members of Congress deny the value of protecting the amazing variety of life on the coastal plain, some insist that limited drilling could be conducted without destroying crucial habitat. Last July, the department tentatively divided some of the targeted lands among native corporations in preparation for leasing to oil companies. In response to what was felt to be an attempt to overstep congressional authority, the House passed HR 2629, banning this kind of land deal without congressional approval. In essence, the measure reiterated congressional authority provided by the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980. This act mandated the study of environmental threats and oil potential by the Department of Interior, while putting the ANWR coastal plain off-limits to development without an explicit congressional directive.

  2. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels, respectively. Well work during the first quarter and plans for 2002 are

  3. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    PubMed

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process.

  4. Methane-forming bacteria of oil-fields

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinavichus, K.S.; Obraztsova, A.Ya.; Belyaev, S.S.; Ivanov, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    Pure cultures of the methanogenic bacteria, Methanobacterium bryantii and M. formicicum have been isolated, for the first time from oil deposits and their morphological, physiological and biochemical properties studied. All strains grow of H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/ and two of the three M. formicicum also utilize formate as a role source of carbon and energy. In no case could methanol, acetate, methylamine or glucose serve as an energy source for these autotrophs. All strains were resistant to penicillin and streptomycin and neither sulfate or sulfide inhibited their growth. Medium salinity inhibited the growth of M. bryantii but not that of M. formicicum.

  5. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  6. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  7. Antinociceptive Activity of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Donald, Graciela Rocha; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. (ZP) is a traditional medicinal plant used mainly in countries from Asia such as Japan. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of ZP essential oil (ZPEO). The major component present in the essential oil was beta-phellandrene (29.39%). Its antinociceptive activity was tested through animal models (formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking and hot plate). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP), with measurement of cytokines. The results showed antinociceptive effect for ZPEO for the first phase of the formalin-induced licking, glutamate, and hot plate tests. However, ZPEO had no effect on reducing paw licking induced by capsaicin. Finally, ZPEO had no effect against inflammation induced by carrageenan. PMID:27547225

  8. Antinociceptive Activity of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Donald, Graciela Rocha; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. (ZP) is a traditional medicinal plant used mainly in countries from Asia such as Japan. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of ZP essential oil (ZPEO). The major component present in the essential oil was beta-phellandrene (29.39%). Its antinociceptive activity was tested through animal models (formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking and hot plate). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP), with measurement of cytokines. The results showed antinociceptive effect for ZPEO for the first phase of the formalin-induced licking, glutamate, and hot plate tests. However, ZPEO had no effect on reducing paw licking induced by capsaicin. Finally, ZPEO had no effect against inflammation induced by carrageenan. PMID:27547225

  9. Effect of oil droplet size on activation energy for coalescence of oil droplets in an O/W emulsion.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Katsuki, Kazutaka; Matsuno, Ryuichi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The activation energy of a reasonable order of magnitude was estimated for the coalescence of oil droplets in an O/W emulsion by formulating the balance of forces acting on a droplet that crosses over the potential barrier to coalesce with another droplet by the DLVO theory and Stokes' law. An emulsion with smaller oil droplets was shown to be more stable.

  10. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  11. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  12. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: a consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-11-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions.

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection was lowered only slightly and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  15. Antibacterial activity of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum leaf essential oils.

    PubMed

    Shafi, P M; Rosamma, M K; Jamil, Kaiser; Reddy, P S

    2002-08-01

    The leaf essential oils of Syzygium cumini and Syzygium travancoricum were tested for their antibacterial property. The activity of S. cumini essential oil was found to be good, while that of S. travancoricum was moderate. PMID:12165339

  16. 76 FR 25331 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Oil and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Oil and... CONTACT: Laura Knudsen, Assessment and Remediation Division, Office of Superfund Remediation and... throughout the Superfund process. Title: National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan...

  17. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last 6 months (July 2004-December 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the US: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico.

  18. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  19. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general. This... 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  20. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  1. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  2. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  3. Antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Izumi, Erika; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; da Veiga-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease. According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 1.5-two million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis each year worldwide. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, which were developed more than a century ago. The goals of this study were to investigate the antileishmanial activity of diterpene acids in copaiba oil, as well as some possible targets of their action against Leishmania amazonensis. Methyl copalate and agathic, hydroxycopalic, kaurenoic, pinifolic and polyaltic acids isolated from Copaifera officinales oleoresins were utilised. Ultrastructural changes and the specific organelle targets of diterpenes were investigated with electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. All compounds had some level of activity against L. amazonensis. Hydroxycopalic acid and methyl copalate demonstrated the most activity against promastigotes and had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.5 and 6.0 µg/mL, respectively. However, pinifolic and kaurenoic acid demonstrated the most activity against axenic amastigote and had IC50 values of 3.5 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Agathic, kaurenoic and pinifolic acid caused significant increases in plasma membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation of the protozoan. In conclusion, copaiba oil and its diterpene acids should be explored for the development of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:23440116

  4. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-11

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

  5. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.

  6. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Blom, Ronald G.; Goldstein, Richard M.

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oilfields are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or >400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  7. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik, J.

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  8. Pilot test of alkaline surfactant polymer flooding in Daqing Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Demin; Zhang Zhenhua; Cheng Jiecheng; Yang Jingchun; Gao Shutang; Li Lin

    1996-12-31

    After the success of polymer flooding in Daqing, two alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) floods have been conducted to (1) increase oil recovery further (2) study the feasibility of ASP flooding (3) provide technical and practical experience for expanding the ASP pilots. Inverted five spot pattern is adopted in both pilots. Pilot 1 (PO) is located in the West Central area of Daqing Oil Field and consists of 4 injectors and 9 producers. Pilot 2 (XF) is located in the South area of Daqing Oil Field and has 1 injector and 4 producers. The crude oil of both pilots have high paraffin content and low acid value. Compared to PO, XF has characteristics of lower heterogeneity, lighter oil and higher recovery by water flooding. For each pilot, after extensive screening, an ASP system has been determined. The ASP systems all feature very low surfactant concentration and wide range of ultra low interfacial tension with change of concentration of any of the three components. Core flooding and numerical simulation show more than 20% OOIP incremental recovery by ASP over water flooding for both pilots. By the end of May, 1995, 100% of ASP slug and 100% of the polymer buffer have been injected in the pilots. Production wells showed good responses in terms of large decrease in water cut and increase in oil production. The performance of each pilot has followed the numerical simulation predication very well, or even a bit better. Emulsions showed up in producers, but the emulsions are easy to be broken by a special de-emulsifier. No formation damage and scaling have been detected. The ASP flood pilot tests are technically successful and, based on the preliminary evaluation, economically feasible. Therefore, in the near future, much larger scale ASP flood field tests are going to be performed at several districts in Daqing Oil Field.

  9. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'Souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  10. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ziervogel, Kai; D'souza, Nigel; Sweet, Julia; Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and β-glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components, indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40) into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps. PMID:24847314

  11. [Study on composition, antibiotic activity and antioxidant activity of volatile oils from uyghur medicine Althaea rosea].

    PubMed

    Munira, Abudukeremu; Muheta'er, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Xia, Na

    2015-04-01

    Althaea rosea is a type of mallow plant. Its dry flowers are one of common herb in Uyghur medicines and recorded to have several efficacies such as external application for detumescence, moistening lung and arresting cough, sweating and relieving asthma, diminishing swelling and promoting eruption, soothing the nerves and strengthening heart. However, there are only fewer studies on effective components of A. rosea and no literature about its volatile oil and pharmacological activity. In this paper, the volatile oil of A. rosea was obtained by using the chemical distillation and extraction method. The individual chemical components were separated from the volatile oil and identified by the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer technique (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity against free radicals was detected by the'ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer method. The antibiotic activity was detected by the filter paper diffusion method. The experimental results showed nearly 70 compounds in the volatile oil, with complex chemical components. With a low content, most of the compounds were aromatic and aliphatic compounds and their derivatives. A. rosea had a better antibiotic activity for common microorganisms, with a wide antibacterial spectrum. According to the results, the volatile oil of A. rosea will have a good application value in medicine, food and cosmetic industries, which provided a scientific basis for the development of natural A. rosea resources. PMID:26281609

  12. [Study on composition, antibiotic activity and antioxidant activity of volatile oils from uyghur medicine Althaea rosea].

    PubMed

    Munira, Abudukeremu; Muheta'er, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Xia, Na

    2015-04-01

    Althaea rosea is a type of mallow plant. Its dry flowers are one of common herb in Uyghur medicines and recorded to have several efficacies such as external application for detumescence, moistening lung and arresting cough, sweating and relieving asthma, diminishing swelling and promoting eruption, soothing the nerves and strengthening heart. However, there are only fewer studies on effective components of A. rosea and no literature about its volatile oil and pharmacological activity. In this paper, the volatile oil of A. rosea was obtained by using the chemical distillation and extraction method. The individual chemical components were separated from the volatile oil and identified by the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer technique (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity against free radicals was detected by the'ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer method. The antibiotic activity was detected by the filter paper diffusion method. The experimental results showed nearly 70 compounds in the volatile oil, with complex chemical components. With a low content, most of the compounds were aromatic and aliphatic compounds and their derivatives. A. rosea had a better antibiotic activity for common microorganisms, with a wide antibacterial spectrum. According to the results, the volatile oil of A. rosea will have a good application value in medicine, food and cosmetic industries, which provided a scientific basis for the development of natural A. rosea resources.

  13. Brief introduction of Huizhou 21-1 and Huizhou 26-1 oil field facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhusheng

    1993-12-31

    This article introduces the facility options of the earliest developed fields Huizhou 21-1 and Huizhou 26-1 in east South China Sea. It includes design data (production parameters, sea states and environments, properties of crude oil and so on), process and main facilities. The basic data used for design is fairly precise and reasonable after several years running. The facilities stand the test of typhoon and monsoon, also fully utilize the oil and gas resources of fields and gain fairly economic benefits.

  14. Characterising oil and water in porous media using decay due to diffusion in the internal field.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rhiannon T; Djurhuus, Ketil; Seland, John Georg

    2015-10-01

    In the method Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), the diffusion behaviour of water molecules in the internal magnetic field makes it possible to determine a distribution of pore sizes in a sample. The DDIF experiment can also be extended to a DDIF-Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (DDIF-CPMG) experiment to measure correlations between the pore size and the transverse relaxation time, T2. In this study we have for the first time applied the DDIF experiment and the DDIF-CPMG experiment to porous materials saturated with both water and oil. Because of the large difference in diffusion rates between water and oil molecules, the DDIF experiment will act as a filter for the signal from oil, and we are left with the DDIF-signal from water only. This has been verified in model systems consisting of glass beads immersed in separate layers of water and oil, and in a sandstone sample saturated with water and oil. The results show that the DDIF and DDIF-CPMG experiments enable the determination of the confining geometry of the water phase, and how this geometry is correlated to T2. Data obtained in the sandstone sample saturated with water and oil also show that with the exception of the smallest pores there is no clear correlation between pore size and the relaxation time of water.

  15. Characterising oil and water in porous media using decay due to diffusion in the internal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Rhiannon T.; Djurhuus, Ketil; Seland, John Georg

    2015-10-01

    In the method Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), the diffusion behaviour of water molecules in the internal magnetic field makes it possible to determine a distribution of pore sizes in a sample. The DDIF experiment can also be extended to a DDIF-Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (DDIF-CPMG) experiment to measure correlations between the pore size and the transverse relaxation time, T2 . In this study we have for the first time applied the DDIF experiment and the DDIF-CPMG experiment to porous materials saturated with both water and oil. Because of the large difference in diffusion rates between water and oil molecules, the DDIF experiment will act as a filter for the signal from oil, and we are left with the DDIF-signal from water only. This has been verified in model systems consisting of glass beads immersed in separate layers of water and oil, and in a sandstone sample saturated with water and oil. The results show that the DDIF and DDIF-CPMG experiments enable the determination of the confining geometry of the water phase, and how this geometry is correlated to T2 . Data obtained in the sandstone sample saturated with water and oil also show that with the exception of the smallest pores there is no clear correlation between pore size and the relaxation time of water.

  16. Singlet oxygen scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of essential oils from rutaceae.

    PubMed

    Ao, Yoko; Satoh, Kazue; Shibano, Katsushige; Kawahito, Yukari; Shioda, Seiji

    2008-07-01

    Since we have been exposed to excessive amounts of stressors, aromatherapy for the relaxation has recently become very popular recently. However, there is a problem which responds to light with the essential oil used by aromatherapy. It is generally believed that singlet oxygen is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as light-induced skin disorders and inflammatory responses. Here we studied whether essential oils can effectively scavenge singlet oxygen upon irradiation, using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Green light was used to irradiate twelve essential oils from rutaceae. Among these twelve essential oils, eight were prepared by the expression (or the compression) method (referred to as E oil), and four samples were prepared by the steam distillation method (referred to as SD oil). Five E oils enhanced singlet oxygen production. As these essential oils may be phototoxic, it should be used for their use whit light. Two E oils and three SD oils showed singlet oxygen scavenging activity. These results may suggest that the antioxidant activity of essential oils are judged from their radical scavenging activity. Essential oils, which enhance the singlet oxygen production and show higher cytotoxicity, may contain much of limonene. These results suggest that limonene is involved not only in the enhancement of singlet oxygen production but also in the expression of cytotoxic activity, and that attention has to be necessary for use of blended essential oils.

  17. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin.

  18. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PubMed

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin. PMID:25495783

  19. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  20. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In our research on natural compounds efficient against human pathogen or opportunist microorganisms contracted by food or water, the antimicrobial activity of 19 essential oils (EOs) was investigated against 11 bacterial species (6 Gram positive, 5 Gram negative) and 7 fungal species (2 dermatophytes, 1 mould, 4 yeasts) using microdilution assays. Five essential oils were obtained from Tunisian plants (EOtun): Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L. and Thymus vulgaris L., whereas others were commercial products (EOcom). Overall, T. vulgaris EOtun was the most efficient EO against both bacteria (Gram negative: MIC ≤ 0.34 mg/mL; Gram positive: MIC ≤ 0.70 mg/mL) and fungi (yeasts: MIC ≤ 0.55 mg/mL; mould: MIC = 0.30 mg/mL; dermatophytes: MIC ≤ 0.07 mg/mL). Two EOcom displayed both acceptable antibacterial and antifungal potency, although weaker than T. vulgaris EOtun activity: Origanum vulgare EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.13 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 1.80 mg/mL), and Cymbopogon martinii var. motia EOcom (bacteria: MIC ≤ 1.00 mg/mL, fungi: MIC ≤ 0.80 mg/mL). Bacillus megaterium, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Trichophyton spp. were the most sensitive species to both EOcom and EOtun. This study demonstrated the noteworthy antimicrobial activity of two commercial EOs and points out the remarkable efficiency of T. vulgaris EOtun on all tested bacterial and fungal species, certainly associated with its high content in carvacrol (85 %). These three oils could thus represent promising candidates for applications in water and food protections. PMID:26566647

  1. Analysis of the ecological risk of opening new oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anikiev, V.V.; Mansurov, M.N.; Fleishman, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    Practical recommendations that would ensure the ecological safety of opening new marine oil and gas fields should include analysis of ecological risk. Such an analysis should precede the studies of ecological safety and resolve a sequence of problems in evaluating the ecological risk, the probability and scale of accidents at the oil and gas extraction complex, and economic damage that could occur. This paper presents a method of evaluation of risks for fish populations incurred by marine extraction of oil and gas, calculates the required limit of probability of accidents excluding the possibility of degradation of flatfish populations, estimates expenses incurred by accidental oil spills, and presents data on level of pollution. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Hydrocarbon charging histories of the Ordovician reservoir in the Tahe oil field, Tarim Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Quan; Chen, Hong-Han; Li, Si-Tian; Zhang, Xi-Ming; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    The Ordovician reservoir of the Tahe oil field went through many tectonic reconstructions, and was characterized by multiple hydrocarbon chargings. The aim of this study was to unravel the complex charging histories. Systematic analysis of fluid inclusions was employed to complete the investigation. Fluorescence observation of oil inclusions under UV light, and microthermometry of both oil and aqueous inclusions in 105 core samples taken from the Ordovician reservoir indicated that the Ordovician reservoir underwent four oil chargings and a gas charging. The hydrocarbon chargings occurred at the late Hercynian, the Indo-Sinian and Yanshan, the early Himalaya, the middle Himalaya, and the late Himalaya, respectively. The critical hydrocarbon charging time was at the late Hercynian.

  3. Application of bio-huff-`n`-puff technology at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Yan-Fed Xue; Gang Dai; Ling Zhao

    1995-12-31

    An enriched culture 48, capable of adapting to the reservoir conditions and fermenting molasses to produce gas and acid, was used as an inoculum for bio- huff-`n`-puff tests at Fuyu oil area of Jilin oil field. The production well was injected with water containing 4-6% (v/v) molasses and inoculum, and then shut in. After 15-21 days, the well was placed back in operation. A total of 44 wells were treated, of which only two wells showed no effects. The daily oil production of treated wells increased by 33.3-733.3%. Up to the end of 1994, the oil production was increased by 204 tons per well on average. Results obtained from various types of production wells were discussed.

  4. Hydro geochemistry Study of Yamama formation water in southern Iraqi oil Fields, Migration,Diagensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. A.; SOC Team

    2013-05-01

    Yamama Formation (Lower Cretaceous) form one of the main oil reservoir in southern Iraq, the present study deals with the general physical and chemical characteristics of Yamama formation water in selected oil fields - southern Iraq. Via the collecting the available water analysis data in in selected 10 wells in southern Iraqi oil fields, Well Logs, as well as, the technical final well reports. The task of this study is to illustrate the chemical and physical variation among the study oil wells, and their relation with the depositional environment, the grading of temperature and pressure, the reason behind of over pressure phenomenon, besides the delineation of oil migration and water reservoir movement direction. The study confirms the occurrences of two types of formation water; the first one is the connate water, which is brine, hypersaline, and marine in nature reflects the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulations. And the second is mixing water reflects the mixing of original marine water with percolating meteoric water for various degree. Regarding the hydrochemical ratios, the direction of water movement and oil migration is from northeast toward west and south west starting from Messan oil Fields, moreover, the secondary migration of oil is in the same direction. The western migration of oil and water attributed to the enhancement of porosity and permeability in this direction, which in turn means the possibility of finding new stratigraphic traps in this direction mainly western of Nasiriya and Garraf areas. The relationship between depositional environment and diagenetic processes in one hand, and the sediment logical units; tidal lime granular unit revealed the occurrences of khidar al-may which extends up to Al-Managish in Kuwait and Nahar Umar - Majnoon, Nasiriya - Abu Amood, as well as the clayey units represented by isolated and semi isolated lagoonal deposits. Based on the ionic ratios in AlZubair, Nahar Umer and Al-Kifil oil fields, outer shelf

  5. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  7. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and inhibitory activity towards acetylcholinesterase of essential oils from Gynura bicolor DC.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Usami, Atsushi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    The compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and stems of Gynura bicolor DC. were analyzed by GC-MS. One hundred eight components of these oils were identified. (E)-β-caryophyllene (31.42 %), α-pinene (17.11 %), and bicyclogermacrene (8.09 %) were found to be the main components of the leaf oil, while α-pinene (61.42 %), β-pinene (14.39 %), and myrcene (5.10 %) were the major constituents of the stem oil. We found 73 previously unidentified components in these oils from G. bicolor. The oils were also subjected to odor evaluation. Eleven and 12 aroma-active compounds were detected in the leaf and stem oils, respectively. The abilities of these oils to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined. The sesquiterpenoids in the oils were found to inhibit AChE activity more strongly than the monoterpenoids in the oils did. It was suggested that the three main components in each essential oil act synergistically against AChE activity. These results show that the essential oils obtained from G. bicolor are a good dietary source of AChE activity inhibition.

  8. Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikolić, Nikola D; Miladinović, Ljiljana C; Cvetković, Olga G

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and β-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components. PMID:22389175

  9. Investigation of the effects of oil field traffic on low volume roadways

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The farm to market roads in Texas are designed to provide service for relatively low traffic volumes and infrequent heavy vehicles. Efforts to increase domestic oil production have increased the demand placed on the rural highway system. These roads were not initially constructed to endure the impact of oil field traffic. This dissertation identifies oil field traffic and provides an estimate of annual cost associated with a reduced pavement life. Identification of oil field traffic through site specific observation provides the basis for the investigation. The study includes a description of traffic during the development of an oil well, an estimation of reduction in pavement life under these operating conditions, a description of associated roadway damage, and an estimation of increased annual pavement cost due to oil well traffic. Three main components of the analysis procedure include a pavement analysis, traffic analysis, and an estimate of the potential traffic generated by an oil well and placed on a section of F.M. roadway. A resurfacing interval for a bituminous surface treated pavement is then determined by comparing the estimated cumulative traffic demand with the terminal structural capability of the intended use pavement section. Comparison of the resurfacing intervals demonstrates the reduction in pavement life; a further comparison is made of the respective annual cost per mile of roadway. The difference between the estimated annual costs constitutes a unit capital loss due to increased traffic. A computational example of the analysis procedure is provided. Specific assumptions and limitations are also discussed. The results of the analysis are summarized in a chart and table format.

  10. Chemical Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Natural Oil Nanostructured Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Everton N; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Morais, Andreza R V; Dantas, Teresa R F; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Verissimo, Lourena M; Rehder, Vera L G; Chaves, Guilherme M; Oliveira, Anselmo G; Egitol, E Sócrates T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii) resin-oil, copaiba essential oil, and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) oil against fungi and bacteria related to skin diseases. Firstly, the essential oil was extracted from copaiba resin-oil and these oils, along with bullfrog oil, were characterized by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Secondly, nanostructured emulsion systems were produced and characterized. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed, followed by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination, the bioautography assay, and the antibiofilm determination. Strains of the genera Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Candida were used. The CG-MS analysis was able to identify the components of copaiba resin-oil, copaiba essential oil, and bullfrog oil. The MIC assay in association with the bioautography revealed that some esters of palmitic and oleic acids, a-curcumene, a-himachalene, isothujol, and α-fenchene--probably inhibited some strains. The nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba resin-oil and essential oil improved the antimicrobial activity of the pure oils, especially against Staphylococcus and Candida, resistant to azoles. The bullfrog oil nanostructured emulsion showed a lower antimicrobial effect when compared to the copaiba samples. However, bullfrog oil-based nanostructured emulsion showed a significant antibiofilm activity (p < 0.05). Given the significant antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the evaluated oils, it may be concluded that nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba and bullfrog oils are promising candidates for the treatment of infections and also may be used to incorporate other antimicrobial drugs.

  11. Chemical Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Natural Oil Nanostructured Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Everton N; Xavier-Júnior, Francisco H; Morais, Andreza R V; Dantas, Teresa R F; Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Verissimo, Lourena M; Rehder, Vera L G; Chaves, Guilherme M; Oliveira, Anselmo G; Egitol, E Sócrates T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii) resin-oil, copaiba essential oil, and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) oil against fungi and bacteria related to skin diseases. Firstly, the essential oil was extracted from copaiba resin-oil and these oils, along with bullfrog oil, were characterized by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Secondly, nanostructured emulsion systems were produced and characterized. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed, followed by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination, the bioautography assay, and the antibiofilm determination. Strains of the genera Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Candida were used. The CG-MS analysis was able to identify the components of copaiba resin-oil, copaiba essential oil, and bullfrog oil. The MIC assay in association with the bioautography revealed that some esters of palmitic and oleic acids, a-curcumene, a-himachalene, isothujol, and α-fenchene--probably inhibited some strains. The nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba resin-oil and essential oil improved the antimicrobial activity of the pure oils, especially against Staphylococcus and Candida, resistant to azoles. The bullfrog oil nanostructured emulsion showed a lower antimicrobial effect when compared to the copaiba samples. However, bullfrog oil-based nanostructured emulsion showed a significant antibiofilm activity (p < 0.05). Given the significant antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the evaluated oils, it may be concluded that nanostructured emulsions based on copaiba and bullfrog oils are promising candidates for the treatment of infections and also may be used to incorporate other antimicrobial drugs. PMID:26328453

  12. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  13. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activity of Pulicaria vulgaris essential oil from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Miri, Abdolhossein; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Setzer, William N; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aerial parts (flowering stage) of Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. by GC-MS. Also, the antimicrobial activity of the EO against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) was tested. In total, 23 compounds were recognized, accounting for 98.08% of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were thymol (50.22%), p-menth-6-en-2-one (carvotanacetone, 20.2%), thymol isobutyrate (16.88%), menthan-2-one (4.31%), 1-methyl-1,2-propanedione (4.13%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (4.01%), myrtenol (1.22%), linalool (1.1%), and β-myrcene (1.9%). Results of antibacterial test of P. vulgaris essential oil showed that all assayed concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa at P < 0.05. MIC for B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa was 17.5, 25.2, 19.4 and 33.2 μg/mL respectively; antifungal screening of the essential oil of P. vulgaris showed that the oil significantly inhibited the growth of A. niger and C. albicans (MIC = 15.5 and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively). Results of cytotoxicity assay showed that the essential oil exhibited a significant cytotoxic activity against both cell lines. In case of MCF-7 and Hep-G2 cell lines, IC50 of the essential oil were 5.36 and 7.16 μg/ml, respectively. The potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the EO may be attributed to its high contents of thymol, carvotanacetone and thymol isobutyrate. Antimicrobial and antitumor chemotherapies are showing diminishing effectiveness because of emergence of drug-resistance. Hence, using efficient natural chemotherapeutic agents such as Pulicaria vulgaris essential oil with fewer side effects is an encouraging approach to fight cancer and infectious diseases in medicine, agriculture, food science and related fields. PMID

  15. Chemical composition and biological activity of Pulicaria vulgaris essential oil from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Miri, Abdolhossein; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Setzer, William N; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aerial parts (flowering stage) of Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. by GC-MS. Also, the antimicrobial activity of the EO against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) was tested. In total, 23 compounds were recognized, accounting for 98.08% of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were thymol (50.22%), p-menth-6-en-2-one (carvotanacetone, 20.2%), thymol isobutyrate (16.88%), menthan-2-one (4.31%), 1-methyl-1,2-propanedione (4.13%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (4.01%), myrtenol (1.22%), linalool (1.1%), and β-myrcene (1.9%). Results of antibacterial test of P. vulgaris essential oil showed that all assayed concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa at P < 0.05. MIC for B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa was 17.5, 25.2, 19.4 and 33.2 μg/mL respectively; antifungal screening of the essential oil of P. vulgaris showed that the oil significantly inhibited the growth of A. niger and C. albicans (MIC = 15.5 and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively). Results of cytotoxicity assay showed that the essential oil exhibited a significant cytotoxic activity against both cell lines. In case of MCF-7 and Hep-G2 cell lines, IC50 of the essential oil were 5.36 and 7.16 μg/ml, respectively. The potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the EO may be attributed to its high contents of thymol, carvotanacetone and thymol isobutyrate. Antimicrobial and antitumor chemotherapies are showing diminishing effectiveness because of emergence of drug-resistance. Hence, using efficient natural chemotherapeutic agents such as Pulicaria vulgaris essential oil with fewer side effects is an encouraging approach to fight cancer and infectious diseases in medicine, agriculture, food science and related fields.

  16. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.R.

    1994-04-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  17. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  18. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enpeng

    topic. Dr. Tao with his group at Temple University, using his electro or magnetic rheological viscosity theory has developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. After we successfully reduced the viscosity of crude oil with field and investigated the microstructure changing in various crude oil samples with SANS, we have continued to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil, bunker diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel and crude oil and ultra low temperature with electric field treatment. Our research group developed the viscosity electrorheology theory and investigated flow rate with laboratory and field pipeline. But we never visualize this aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering experiment has confirmed the theoretical prediction that a strong electric field induces the suspended nano-particles inside crude oil to aggregate into short chains along the field direction. This aggregation breaks the symmetry, making the viscosity anisotropic: along the field direction, the viscosity is significantly reduced. The experiment enables us to determine the induced chain size and shape, verifies that the electric field works for all kinds of crude oils, paraffin-based, asphalt-based, and mix-based. The basic physics of such field induced viscosity reduction is applicable to all kinds of suspensions.

  19. [Antifungal activity of essential oils and their constituents against Candida spp. and their effects on activity of amphotericin B].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Akiko; Takahashi, Eizo; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    Candidiasis is a common opportunistic fungal infection that responds well to amphotericin B (AMPH) treatment. However, AMPH often causes adverse effects such as kidney injury and hypokalemia. Because some essential oils have been reported to have antifungal effects, we investigated the antifungal activity of various essential oils and their major constituents against Candida spp. Most essential oils examined in this study showed antifungal activity, and several enhanced the antifungal effect of AMPH. Clove oil in particular, and its major constituent eugenol, had potent effects. These findings suggest that combining certain essential oils or their constituents with AMPH may be useful for suppressing the adverse effects of AMPH treatment. PMID:20519869

  20. Successful field evaluation of the efficiency of a gas gravity drainage process by applying recent developments in Sponge coring technique in a major oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Durandeau, M.; El-Emam, M.; Anis, A.H.; Fanti, G.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the application and integration of new technologies and recent developments in Sponge coring and presents the methodology used to carry out successfully the various phases of well designed Sponge coring project, including the coring phase, the on-site measurements and the full evaluation of the Sponge core samples. A field case is presented where a Sponge coring project was accomplished to obtain accurate fluids distribution and evaluate the gas gravity drainage efficiency in one of the Arab D sub-reservoirs of a major oil field offshore Abu Dhabi. A Sponge coring technology team was created to optimize the methodology used during Sponge coring an minimize the uncertainties which persisted on some of the previous operations. The effectiveness of the technique is discussed, with comparison to open hole logs and SCAL data. Realistic petrophysical parameters were obtained from non-invaded, native-state core samples. The effective oil saturation obtained from the Sponge core analysis results showed that the gravity segregation mechanism has been very active and efficient to recover the oil in the reservoir.

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  2. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Evandri, M G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Mastrangelo, S; Bolle, P; Mazzanti, G

    2005-09-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential. In this study, after determining the chemical composition of tea-tree oil and lavender oil, by gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry, we investigated their mutagenic and antimutagenic activities by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain, with and without an extrinsic metabolic activation system. Neither essential oil had mutagenic activity on the two tested Salmonella strains or on E. coli, with or without the metabolic activation system. Conversely, lavender oil exerted strong antimutagenic activity, reducing mutant colonies in the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene. Antimutagenicity was concentration-dependent: the maximal concentration (0.80 mg/plate) reduced the number of histidine-independent revertant colonies by 66.4%. Lavender oil (0.80 mg/plate) also showed moderate antimutagenicity against the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 1-nitropyrene. Its antimutagenic property makes lavender oil a promising candidate for new applications in human healthcare. PMID:15907354

  3. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Evandri, M G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Mastrangelo, S; Bolle, P; Mazzanti, G

    2005-09-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential. In this study, after determining the chemical composition of tea-tree oil and lavender oil, by gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry, we investigated their mutagenic and antimutagenic activities by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain, with and without an extrinsic metabolic activation system. Neither essential oil had mutagenic activity on the two tested Salmonella strains or on E. coli, with or without the metabolic activation system. Conversely, lavender oil exerted strong antimutagenic activity, reducing mutant colonies in the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene. Antimutagenicity was concentration-dependent: the maximal concentration (0.80 mg/plate) reduced the number of histidine-independent revertant colonies by 66.4%. Lavender oil (0.80 mg/plate) also showed moderate antimutagenicity against the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 1-nitropyrene. Its antimutagenic property makes lavender oil a promising candidate for new applications in human healthcare.

  4. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response... requirements in the regulations under Part 254, ``Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located... 254, Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward of the Coast Line. OMB...

  5. Programed oil generation of the Zubair Formation, Southern Iraq oil fields: Results from Petromod software modeling and geochemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Ameri, T. K.; Pitman, J.; Naser, M.E.; Zumberge, J.; Al-Haydari, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    1D petroleum system modeling was performed on wells in each of four oil fields in South Iraq, Zubair (well Zb-47), Nahr Umr (well NR-9), West Qurna (well WQ-15 and 23), and Majnoon (well Mj-8). In each of these fields, deposition of the Zubair Formation was followed by continuous burial, reaching maximum temperatures of 100??C (equivalent to 0. 70%Ro) at depths of 3,344-3,750 m of well Zb-47 and 3,081. 5-3,420 m of well WQ-15, 120??C (equivalent to 0. 78%Ro) at depths of 3,353-3,645 m of well NR-9, and 3,391-3,691. 5 m of well Mj-8. Generation of petroleum in the Zubair Formation began in the late Tertiary, 10 million years ago. At present day, modeled transformation ratios (TR) indicate that 65% TR of its generation potential has been reached in well Zb-47, 75% TR in well NR-9 and 55-85% TR in West Qurna oil field (wells WQ-15 and WQ-23) and up to 95% TR in well Mj-8, In contrast, younger source rocks are immature to early mature (<20% TR), whereas older source rocks are mature to overmature (100% TR). Comparison of these basin modeling results, in Basrah region, are performed with Kifle oil field in Hilla region of western Euphrates River whereas the Zubair Formation is immature within temperature range of 65-70??C (0. 50%Ro equivalent) with up to 12% (TR = 12%) hydrocarbon generation efficiency and hence poor generation could be assessed in this last location. The Zubair Formation was deposited in a deltaic environment and consists of interbedded shales and porous and permeable sandstones. In Basrah region, the shales have total organic carbon of 0. 5-7. 0 wt%, Tmax 430-470??C and hydrogen indices of up to 466 with S2 = 0. 4-9. 4 of kerogen type II & III and petroleum potential of 0. 4-9. 98 of good hydrocarbon generation, which is consistent with 55-95% hydrocarbon efficiency. These generated hydrocarbons had charged (in part) the Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Zubair Formation itself, in the traps formed by Alpine collision that closed the

  6. A look at Bacon Flat, Grant Canyon oil fields of Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1993-05-17

    The prolific wells at Grant Canyon, and the puzzling geology, have intrigued explorationists and promoters. Many a Nevada prospect has been touted as 'another Grand Canyon.' But what processes formed Grant Canyon, and can others be found Last August, Equitable Resources Energy Co,'s Balcron Oil Division spudded a well at Bacon Flat, a mile west of Grant Canyon. A one well field, Bacon Flat had been abandoned in 1988. But just 900 ft north of the field opener, Balcron's well tested oil at a rate or 5,400 b/d. It turns out that Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon fields have a common geological history and, in fact, share the same faulted horst. However, they formed by an unusual combination of events that may be unique to those fields. This paper describes the geologic history, well logging interpretations, structures, the Jebco C seismic line, a geologic cross section, and the author's conclusions.

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  8. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  10. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current thermal operations in the Wilmington Field are economical with low oil prices due to the availability of inexpensive steam from an existing 50 MMBTU/hr steam generator that can utilize non-commercial low Btu produced gas. Such favorable terms for obtaining steam are not expected to be available in the future.

  12. DHIs validation for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Enacheschu, M.E.; Demers, J.H.L.

    1989-03-01

    The giant Amauligak field is a three-way fault bounded block situated in the eastern area of the Beaufort Sea known as the growth fault sector. The Amauligak structure was triggered by a major synsedimentary fault trending northeast-southwest. Interbedded sands and shales of the Oligocene Kugmallit Sequence (Pullen delta front) form the core of the structure. A strong amplitude anomaly was recognized on older seismic data in the crestal area of the structure at the top of the Kugmallit Sequence-Pullen unconformity level. Recent (1986) exploration three-dimensional data reveal diverse DHIs including: bright spots, phase change, shadow zone and flat spot, all associated with a large gas cap. Interpretation of seismic data and interactive seismic modeling suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the aspect and distribution of DHIs at the Amauligak field. Although the gas/liquid contact is seismically mappable over the field, the nature of the downdip liquid remained unknown. To overcome this ambiguity, highly deviated wells were drilled to investigate the reservoir above and below the edge of the amplitude anomaly.

  13. Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, where subsurface water temperatures reach 171{degrees}C, and at Blackburn, above which a petroleum-providing hot spring issues at a temperature of 90{degrees}C. We suggest that in the Basin and Range province, hydrothermal systems may have: (1) matured oil from otherwise submature source rocks; (2) transported oil to ultimate entrapment sites by convection in moderate-to high-temperature fluids; and (3) sealed reservoir traps through hydrothermal alteration of overlying Tertiary caprocks. 69 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Chapter A9. Safety in Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Susan L.; Ray, Ronald G.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols (requirements and recommendations) and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter of the manual addresses topics related to personal safety to be used in the collection of water-quality data, including: policies and general regulations on field safety; transportation of people and equipment; implementation of surface-water and ground-water activities; procedures for handling chemicals; and information on potentially hazardous environmental conditions, animals, and plants. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be announced on the USGS Home Page on the World Wide Web under 'New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/ index.html.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the number of viable biofilm cells, but none of them could remove biofilms completely. Thyme and patchouli oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the number of viable biofilm cells, but none of them could remove biofilms completely. Thyme and patchouli oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. PMID:25280938

  17. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  18. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  19. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Pulicaria odora L.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Fadwa E L; Akssira, Mohamed; Ezoubeiri, Aicha; Gadhi, Chems Eddoha A; Mellouki, Fouad; Benherraf, Ahmed; Blazquez, Amparo M; Boira, Herminio

    2005-07-14

    The chemical composition of the volatile oil constituent from Pulicaria odora L. roots has been analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty-seven components were identified, being thymol (47.83%) and its derivative isobutyrate (30.05%) the main constituents in the oil. Furthermore, the oil was tested against seven bacteria at different concentrations. Results showed that the oil exhibited a significant antibacterial activity.

  20. [The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikhaĭlova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated.

  1. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  3. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26990450

  4. [The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikhaĭlova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

  5. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-04-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3-4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼ 18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. PMID:25645060

  6. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-04-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3-4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼ 18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites.

  7. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  8. The chemical composition of some Lauraceae essential oils and their antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Simić, A; Soković, M D; Ristić, M; Grujić-Jovanović, S; Vukojević, J; Marin, P D

    2004-09-01

    The antifungal activity of Aniba rosaeodora, Laurus nobilis, Sassafras albidum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils were investigated against 17 micromycetes. Among the tested fungal species were food poisoning, spoilage fungi, plant and animal pathogens. In order to determine fungistatic and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) macrodilution and microdilution tests were used. Linalool was the main component in the essential oil of A. rosaeodora, while 1.8-cineole was dominant in L. nobilis. In sassafras essential oil safrole was the major component and in the oil of C. zeylanicum the main component was trans-cinnamaldehyde. The essential oil of cinnamon showed the strongest antifungal activity.

  9. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  10. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control. PMID:25996514

  11. Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolin, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

  12. Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, J.D. ); Edwards, E.B. ); Heck, R.G. )

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

  13. Geology of the undeveloped oil and gas fields of Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, J.D.; Edwards, E.B.; Heck, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Two prominent subsurface structural features of the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin are the Hosgri fault system and the associated anticlinal fold trend. Exploratory drilling and 3D seismic mapping have delineated a series of oil and gas fields along this trend which underlie four federal units and one non-unitized lease. The units are named after local geography and are called the Lion Rock, Point Sal, Purisima Point and Santa Maria Units. The individual lease, OCS P-0409, overlies the San Miguel field. The Hosgri fault system trends northwest-southeast and effectively forms the eastern boundary of the oil and gas province. Lying semi-parallel with the fault are several anticlinal culminations which have trapped large volumes of oil and gas in the fractured Montery Formation. The Monterey is both source and reservoir rock, averaging 300 meters n thickness throughout the Central Basin. Development of the Monterey Formation as a reservoir rock was through diagensis and tectonism with resulting porosities-from 15 to 20% and permeability up to one Darcy. These parameters coupled with a high geothermal gradient facilitate the inflow rates of the viscous Monterey oil. Some 24 exploration and delineation wells have been drilled in this area and tested at rates ranging from a few hundred to several thousand barrels per day. Estimated oil reserves in the Central Offshore Santa Maria Basin total approximately 1 billion barrels.

  14. The significance of large variations in oil properties of the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Behrenbruch, P.; Du, P.Q.

    1995-10-01

    The Dai Hung Oil field, offshore Vietnam, is comprised of a complex subsurface structure containing stacked reservoir sequences typically found in many other Southeast Asian fields. Combined with areal fault compartmentalization, this situation has led to the observed, large variations in oil properties. Furthermore, the depositional environment in terms of burial history has created a unique overpressure situation which also had an affect, particularly on the crude saturation conditions of individual reservoirs. For commercial and technical reasons, this situation required a detailed analysis, both in terms of variation in crude assay and live oil properties. For whole crude properties: gravity, K factor, wax content and pour point-graphs were drawn up using a large data base of worldwide crudes against which the Dai Hung data could be validated. In case of PVT properties (bubble point and formation volume factor) existing industry correlations were examined. It could be concluded that the sweet, medium gravity and moderately waxy Dai Hung crude has whole crude properties which are comparable to other, similar crudes. The general framework of crude properties established is suitable to type other crudes, even if limited information is available. Of the existing PVT correlations tested, it was found that Standing`s correlation for the oil formation volume factor and the Kartoatmodjo-Schmidt correlation for the bubble point fitted the Dai Hung crude data the best. For the lower shrinkage Dai Hung crudes the Malaysian oil formation volume factor correlation by Omar-Todd gave the best data fit.

  15. Sisterhood in the oil field: informal support networks, gender roles and adaptation among women in the Oklahoma oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The petroleum drilling industry exhibits a number of definitive characteristics, which combined with the most recent boom/bust drilling cycle, affect women in much the same manner as factors commonly associated with the eroding of women's social and economic positions within modernizing societies. Recognizing that modernization has a negative impact on women, this study focuses on strategies of adaptation employed by women associated both directly and indirectly with the petroleum drilling industry in an oil boom/bust town in western Oklahoma. Utilizing the traditional techniques of ethnographic interview and participant observation, it was shown that informal support networks formed by women enhanced women's adaptation by extending their resource base beyond the nuclear family and encouraging solidarity. Gender-based division of labor was also modified by western energy development. Boom times facilitated a rigid division of labor that gave way to a more flexible arrangement during bust times without a concomitant change in gender-based ideology. This was accounted for by differences in the rates of change for the underlying habits and values associated with the public and private sectors.

  16. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of flowerheads of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) against agricultural pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castellanos, P P; Bishop, C D; Pascual-Villalobos, M J

    2001-05-01

    The antifungal activity of Chrysamthemum coronarium was evaluated against 12 agricultural pathogens. Flowerhead oil was active both in contact and headspace in vitro assays producing hyphal growth inhibition, although there was less activity on faster growing fungi. The main compounds identified in the oil were camphor (29.2%), alpha-pinene (14.8%), beta-pinene (9.5%) and lyratyl acetate (9.8%). The blue color of the oil was due to the presence of chamazulene (0.5%).

  17. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-01

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  18. Low-Salinity Waterflooding to Improve Oil Recovery - Historical Field Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-11-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of wa-terfloods. Laboratory water-flood tests and single-well tracer tests have shown that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery, but work designed to test the method on a field scale has not yet been undertaken. Historical waterflood records could unintentionally provide some evidence of improved recovery from waterflooding with lower salinity brine. Nu-merous fields in the Powder River basin of Wyoming have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) obtained from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Three Minnelusa formation fields in the basin were identified as potential candidates for waterflood comparisons based on the salinity of the connate and injection water. Historical pro-duction and injection data for these fields were obtained from the public record. Field waterflood data were manipulated to be displayed in the same format as laboratory coreflood re-sults. Recovery from fields using lower salinity injection wa-ter was greater than that using higher salinity injection wa-ter—matching recovery trends for laboratory and single-well tests.

  19. Structural setting and validation of direct hydrocarbon indicators for Amauligak oil field, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Enachescu, M.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The recent discovery of a giant oil field in the southeastern Beaufort-Mackenzie basin has brought this frontier area closer to oil production despite severe environmental conditions. The Amauligak field is a fault-bounded growth structure developed in the Kugmallit Trough, within deltaic deposits of the Beaufort Sea Shelf. Shelf construction occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary by repeated progradation of the Mackenzie River delta in response to rift-induced opening of the Canada basin and extension of the Kugmallit Trough. The Amauligak field contains oil and gas in multiple sandstone reservoirs of the Oligocene Kugmallit sequence. The upper sandstones are truncated by an unconformity and sealed by the overlying shales of the Miocene Mackenzie Bay sequence. Based on two-dimensional seismic coverage, the field was initially described as structurally simple. Interactive interpretation on Landmark and SIDIS workstations of a three-dimensional seismic program revealed the local structural complications, spatial configuration, and detailed structural elements of the field. Direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), including amplitude anomaly, phase change, flat spot, and low-frequency zone, associated with a large gas cap were investigated using full amplitude-range and attribute-extraction methods. Interpretation of seismic data and correlation with well results suggest that a combination of structural, stratigraphic, and hydrodynamic factors are responsible for the appearance and distribution of Amauligak DHIs. On the amplitude displays, a fluid contact is seismically mappable over the field, clearly separating the gas cap from the wet reservoir. 16 figs.

  20. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  1. Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Budahn, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra+228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life=5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life=1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. Copyright ?? 2000 .

  2. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  3. Using percolation theory to predict oil field performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. R.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Dokholyan, N. V.; Havlin, S.; Lopez, E.; Paul, G.; Stanley, H. E.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we apply scaling laws from percolation theory to the problem of estimating the time for a fluid injected into an oilfield to breakthrough into a production well. The main contribution is to show that when these previously published results are used on realistic data they are in good agreement with results calculated in a more conventional way but they can be obtained significantly more quickly. As a result they may be used in practical engineering circumstances and aid decision making for real field problems.

  4. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  5. Magnetic field associated with active electrochemical corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Afshin

    The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the underlying sources of the magnetic field associated with ongoing electrochemical corrosion, to investigate the spatio-temporal information content of the corrosion magnetic field, and to evaluate its potential utility in non-invasive quantification of hidden corrosion. The importance of this work lies in the fact that conventional electrochemical instruments and techniques are not well suited for non-invasive measurements of the rate and dynamics of corrosion in occluded regions such as in aircraft lap joints. With the increase in the number of aging engineered systems there is an increasing demand for more accurate corrosion predictive models that can improve the probability of detection of corrosion induced flaws in structures, and hence reduce the risk of catastrophic failures. Therefore, such rate information is of great importance to the corrosion community. At the present time, there are no other techniques capable of providing such information. This work is the first successful attempt at quantification of the rate of corrosion through non- invasive measurements of its associated magnetic field. It includes the development of appropriate experimental techniques and associated models. Herein we have reviewed previous experiments, explored various exposure conditions and sample geometries, and discussed appropriate experimental procedures. We have defined quantitative magnetic parameters and, in conjunction with mass loss calibration measurements, have used them to determine non-invasively the rate and dynamics of ongoing hidden corrosion. We conclude that the corrosion magnetic field contains spatial and temporal information that correlate with the distribution, magnitude, and time course of currents associated with electrochemical corrosion. In conjunction with appropriate calibration experiments, sample geometry, and experimental topology, the magnetic activity of a corroding sample can be

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    PubMed

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  7. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values. PMID:23082579

  8. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  9. Exploring active galaxies with integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, James E. H.; Miller, Bryan W.; Gerssen, Joris; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2004-11-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy provides a powerful new tool for disentangling the complex structure of Active Galactic Nuclei& -- allowing 2D mapping of the distribution, kinematics and excitation of ionized gas and of stellar velocity profiles and populations. Such comprehensive datasets are likely to reveal important clues about the physics of the narrow line region, interactions with the host galaxy and central dynamical forces. Here we present observations of the central regions of NGC1068, obtained using the visible-wavelength GMOS-IFU at Gemini North and NGC4151, taken with a prototype near-infrared fibre IFU at the UK Infrared Telescope.

  10. Methanogenic bacteria from the bondyuzhskoe oil field: general characterization and analysis of stable-carbon isotopic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, S S; Wolkin, R; Kenealy, W R; Deniro, M J; Epstein, S; Zeikus, J G

    1983-02-01

    Selective enrichment culture techniques were employed to obtain mixed cultures of methanogenic rods and sarcina from surface flooding waters and deep subsurface ( approximately 1650 m) oil-bearing sedimentary rocks and formation waters sampled from an old oil field in the U.S.S.R. previously reported to display active biological methanogenesis. The methanogens were selectively isolated as colonies on agar petri dishes that were incubated in a novel container. The general cellular and growth features of three Methanobacterium isolates were determined. These strains grew optimally at 37 to 45 degrees C in anaerobic pressure tube cultures with a doubling time of 16 to 18 h on H(2)-CO(2) and proliferated as autotrophs. Acetate addition significantly enhanced the final cell yield. Growth of these strains was completely inhibited by either 0.6 g of sodium sulfide per liter or 31.0 of sodium chloride per liter, but growth was not inhibited by either 0.3 g of sodium sulfide per liter or 1.0 g of sodium sulfate per liter. One novel isolate, Methanobacterium sp. strain ivanov, was grown on H(2)-CO(2), and the stable-carbon isotopic fractionations that occurred during synthesis of methane, cell carbon, and lipids were determined. The results of this study were used to examine the anomalous relationship between the isotopic and chemical compositions of natural gas occurring in the deep subsurface environment of the oil field.

  11. Chemical Composition of Blumea lacera Essential Oil from Nepal. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and (Z)-Lachnophyllum Ester.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Chhetri, Bhuwan K; Dosoky, Noura S; Shrestha, Samon; Poudel, Ambika; Setzer, William N

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Blumea lacera collected from Biratnagar, Nepal, has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The major component from the oil, (Z)-lachnophyllum ester, was isolated by preparative silica gel chromatography. B. lacera oil was dominated by (Z)-lachnophyllum ester (25.5%), (Z)-lachnophyllic acid (17.0%), germacrene D (11.0%), (E)-β-farnesene (10.1%), bicyclogermacrene (5.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.8%), and (E)-nerolidol (4.2%). Also detected in the oil were (E)-lachnophyllic acid (3.3%) and (E)-lachnophyllum ester (1.7%). (Z)-Lachnophyllum ester exhibited cytotoxic activity against MDA-MD-231, MCF-7, and 5637 human tumor cells, as well as antibacterial and antifungal activity. PMID:26669117

  12. Solar activity geomagnetic field and terrestrial weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W.; Sturrock, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral analysis is used as an independent test of the reported association between interplanetary-magnetic-field structure and terrestrial weather. Spectra of the Ap geomagnetic activity index and the vorticity area index for the years from 1964 to 1970 are examined for common features that may be associated with solar-related phenomena, specifically for peaks in the power spectra of both time series with periods near 27.1 days. The spectra are compared in three ways, and the largest peak with the smallest probability estimate is found to occur at a period of 27.49 days. This result is considered to be statistically significant at the 98% level. It is concluded that the period derived from the Ap spectrum is related to solar rotation and that the analysis provides supporting evidence for a connection between the vorticity area index and solar activity.

  13. Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Wan, Baojie; Inui, Taichi; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F; Jaki, Birgit U

    2014-03-28

    The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition.

  14. Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Wan, Baojie; Inui, Taichi; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F; Jaki, Birgit U

    2014-03-28

    The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. PMID:24641242

  15. Lloydminster fireflood performance, modifications promise good recoveries. [Canadian oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fairfield, W.H.; White, P.D.

    1982-02-08

    Efforts to increase ultimate recovery by thermal methods began 16 years ago with steam huff-and-puff and displacement steam drive. These early efforts were not successful. The first in situ combustion drive, the Golden Lake Sparky Fireflood, was initiated 12 years ago and is the subject of this work. It consists of one 20-acre inverted five-spot pattern and two approximately 30-acre inverted seven-spots. All three patterns are currently operating, and the project shows promise of accomplishing recoveries in excess of 30%. It is currently being expanded to include two additional patterns. Field characteristics are discussed along with observations on combustion operations Sparky sands. A critique of the fireflood process is given and the oxygen fireflood - a modification to the fireflood process - is outlined. 4 refs.

  16. Essential Oil Compositions and Antimicrobial Activities of Various Parts of Litsea cubeba from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Chang; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2016-04-01

    The essential oils of leaves, fruits, flowers, stems and twigs of Litsea cubeba were extracted by hydrodistillation. A total of 53, 50, 76, 94 and 90 compounds were identified from the leaf, fruit, flower, stem and twig oils, respectively, and their yields were 13.9 ± 0.09, 4.0 ± 0.03, 10.4 ± 0.05, 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.4 ± 0.02 mL/100 g of the oven-dried (o.d.) materials, respectively. The main component in the leaf, flower and twig oils was 1,8-cineole, whereas in the fruit oil it was citral, and in the stem oil limonene, citronellal, and citronellol. When tested for their antibacterial activities using the paper disc diffusion method, oils from all parts showed excellent activities, particularly the fruit oil. When the oils were infused onto filter paper and tested for their antimicrobial paper capability according to the JIS L 1902 method, the fruit oil exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities. Citral was deemed the main cause of the antimicrobial activity. With the multiplicity of contagious diseases and their prevalence in hospitals, these essential oils present a potentially good choice as antibacterial agents. We think that the essential oils of this species are capable of multipurpose applications. PMID:27396208

  17. Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin: reservoir characterization for improved well completion and oil recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bluefield Field is the largest oil-producing area in the Unita basin of northern Utah. The field inclucdes over 300 wells and has produced 137 Mbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Green River and Wasatch (Colton) formations. Oil and gas are produced at depths of 10 500-13 000 ft (3330-3940 m), with the most prolific reservoirs existing in over-pressured sandstones of the Colton Formation and the underlying Flagstaff Member of the lower Green River Formation. Despite a number of high-recovery wells (1-3 MMbbl), overall field recovery remains low, less than 10% original oil in place. This low recovery rate is interpreted to be at least partly a result of completion practices. Typically, 40-120 beds are perforated and stimulated with acid (no proppant) over intervals of up to 3000 ft (900 m). Little or no evaluation of individual beds is performed, preventing identification of good-quality reservoir zones, water-producing zones, and thief zones. As a result, detailed understanding of Bluebell reservoirs historically has been poor, inhibiting any improvements in recovery strategies. A recent project undertaken in Bluebell field as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Class 1 (fluvial-deltaic reservoir) Oil Demonstration program has focused considerable effort on reservoir characterization. This effort has involved interdisciplinary analysis of core, log, fracture, geostatistical, production, and other data. Much valuable new information on reservoir character has resulted, with important implications for completion techniques and recovery expectations. Such data should have excellent applicability to other producing areas in the Uinta Basin withi reservoirs in similar lacustrine and related deposits.Bluebell field is the largest oil-producing area in the Uinta basin of northern Utah. The field includes over 300 wells and has produced 137 MMbbl oil and 177 bcf gas from fractured Paleocene-Eocene lacustrine

  18. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  19. Comparison of the concentrations of phenolic compounds in olive oils and other plant oils: correlation with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; de Castro, Antonio; Romero, Concepcion; Brenes, Manuel

    2006-07-12

    The antimicrobial activity of different edible vegetable oils was studied. In vitro results revealed that the oils from olive fruits had a strong bactericidal action against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, this effect being higher in general against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, olive oils showed bactericidal activity not only against harmful bacteria of the intestinal microbiota (Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli) also against beneficial microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Otherwise, most of the foodborne pathogens tested (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia sp., and Shigella sonnei) did not survive after 1 h of contact with olive oils. The dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein and ligstroside aglycons, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were the phenolic compounds that statistically correlated with bacterial survival. These findings were confirmed by testing each individual phenolic compound, isolated by HPLC, against L. monocytogenes. In particular, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed a potent antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that not all oils classified as "olive oil" had similar bactericidal effects and that this bioactivity depended on their content of certain phenolic compounds.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on Hepatoprotective and Gastroprotective Activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants is beneficial for health because of their bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. Camellia oil made from tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used as an edible oil and a traditional medicine in Taiwan and China. Until now, the camellia oil has been widely considered as a dietary oil for heath. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of camellia oil with antioxidant activity against oxidative stress leading to hepatic damage and gastrointestinal ulcers. The information in this review leads to the conclusion that camellia oil is not only an edible oil but also a vegetable oil with a potential function for human health. PMID:26598814

  1. Gravity Field Determination at AIUB: Current Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Prange, L.; Meyer, U.; Mervart, L.; Dach, R.; Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.

    2009-04-01

    Research on global gravity field recovery from satellite missions such as CHAMP and GRACE was initiated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Switzerland) in the year 2006. Since September 2007, the activities were extended in the framework of the project Satellite Geodesy sponsored by the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM, Germany). Gravity field recovery at AIUB is rigorously treated as an extended orbit determination problem. This so-called Celestial Mechanics Approach is applied to GPS high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (hl-SST) data of low Earth orbiters (LEOs), via the use of kinematic LEO positions, and to K-band low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (ll-SST) data of the GRACE mission. Kinematic LEO positions are determined at AIUB using the GPS orbit and clock products of the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). CODE is an analysis center of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and is operated by AIUB in cooperation with the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Germany), and the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy (IAPG) of the Technical University of Munich. We will describe the currently implemented refined processing strategies of the Celestial Mechanics Approach and present selected results. The benefits of our rigorous approach are demonstrated by comparisons of our latest annual GRACE ll-SST solutions and multi-annual CHAMP hl-SST solutions with the results of other groups and by external validations. A special focus is on the relevance of background models for GRACE gravity field determination when using K-band data, and on the impact of systematic errors in GPS observations when performing gravity field recovery with hl-SST observations.

  2. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed. PMID:17067055

  3. Study on spatial variation of land subsidence over Minagish-Umm Gudair oil fields of Kuwait using synthetic aperture radar interferometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kota S.; Al Jassar, Hala K.; Kodiyan, Nevil J.; Daniel, Viju P.

    2016-01-01

    Land subsidence can be a major problem where there are large-scale underground activities such as oil extraction. This paper addresses the spatial variability of land subsidence over Minagish and Umm Gudair oil fields of Kuwait. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) with multiple reference scenes using a persistent scatterer InSAR toolchain was employed in this study. Twenty-nine scenes of advanced synthetic aperture radar data (for the period January 2005 to August 2009) were used to make 20 pairs of interferograms (with high coherence and low noise) of stable point-like reflectors. The output of this study is the land subsidence maps of Minagish and Umm Gudair oil fields with a spatial resolution of 40 m. The results indicate that there is land subsidence of 29.9 mm/year in the southern part of the oil field (Umm Gudair). This is the first detailed assessment of land subsidence in the Minagish-Umm Gudair oil fields; therefore, no ground-truth data are available to compare the subsidence results. The results were consistent, indicating their validity.

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove bud essential oil and eugenol nanoparticles in alcohol-free microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Said Fatouh; Sadek, Zainab; Edris, Amr

    2012-01-01

    Clove bud essential oil (CEO) and its major individual phenolic constituent eugenol were formulated as nanoparticles in water-based microemulsion systems. The oil titration method was used to incorporate different amounts of the oil and eugenol in the micellar solution of Tween-20. The Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated using the DPPH* free radical scavenging assay and the agar disc dilution method, respectively. Results showed that microemulsion improved the evaluated activities of CEO and eugenol compared with the crude counterparts. Individual eugenol microemulsion was more effective than CEO microemulsion which contained only 61.7% eugenol among its constituents. The results of this study could have potential applications in water-based disinfectants, preservation and flavoring of food and in personal hygiene products. It may also have promising applications in the nutraceutical and functional beverage field. PMID:23138253

  5. Electric field dependent dielectric response of alumina/silicone oil colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magallon, Louis; Tsui, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the dielectric response of a mixture of alumina nanopowder and silicone oil. Frequency and electric field dependent measurements of another insulating colloid, i.e., urea-coated Ba0.8Rb0.4TiO(C2O4)2 nanoparticles immersed in silicone oil, revealed universal dielectric response (UDR) characteristics and, with the application of high voltage, a negative capacitance. Alumina in silicone oil represents a simpler system in which to perform similar dielectric investigation. This colloid is sandwiched in a parallel plate capacitor cell, and the complex impedance is measured via lock-in amplifier at various frequencies and applied dc biases. Furthermore, we will compare and discuss the dielectric behaviors of different sized suspended alumina particles.

  6. Evaluation of Slime-Producing Bacteria in Oil Field Core Flood Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Geesey, G. G.; Mittelman, M. W.; Lieu, V. T.

    1987-01-01

    Epifluorescence microscopy and carbohydrate determinations indicated that the decrease in permeability of oil reservoir sand to reclaimed sewage water was partially the result of biological plugging. Filtration and biocide addition studies demonstrated that the increase in bacterial densities and slime concentrations in flooded oil field cores appeared to be due to both deposition from the reclaimed water and in situ microbial growth and slime production. Although these biological components increased throughout the cores during flooding, the region where the water entered the core exhibited the highest cell densities and slime concentrations. The approach described in this report should be useful in predicting the potential of a water source to induce biological plugging of oil reservoir sand. PMID:16347276

  7. Analysis of airborne multi-spectral imagery of an oil spill field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, V.J.; Freemantle, J.R.; Brown, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A field trial was conducted at Canadian Forces Base Petawawa in May 1993 by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada to test the effectiveness of remote sensing systems to detect oil spills. Shallow test pools covered with various thicknesses and types of oil were overflown by a number of sensors. Imagery from one of the sensors used, the Multi-element Electro-optical Imaging Scanner (MEIS), has recently been transcribed from high density digital tape and analyzed. The MEIS sensor was flown on a Falcon 20 jet and collected data at 7 different wavelengths from 518 nm to 873 nm. Preliminary results show that one of the slicks, Hydraulic Fluid, can be readily identified by its distinctive color in the visible region. The oil slicks, at least under these very controlled conditions, presented unique spectral signatures which could be identified using normal image processing classification techniques.

  8. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  9. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products. PMID:18636737

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Wan, Feng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; Li, Xiao-Hong; He, Cheng-Jun; Dai, Ou

    2013-01-01

    The herb and fruits of Leonurus japonicus Houtt., named "Yimucao" and "Chongweizi", respectively, in Chinese, have been widely used in China as gynecological medicines. The components of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils was determined by micro-dilution assay. The results showed large variations in the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the oils. The oil of "Yimucao" showed antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria and consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, with phytone, phytol, caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene being the most significant constituents, whereas the oil of "Chongweizi", mainly made up of bornyl acetate and aliphatic hydrocarbons, was inactive in the antibacterial assay. Further study of the main compounds in "Yimucao oil" showed that β-caryophyllene had wide-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23344204

  11. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Nepeta crispa Willd. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sonboli, Ali; Salehi, Peyman; Yousefzadi, Morteza

    2004-01-01

    The composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Nepeta crispa Willd., an endemic species from Iran, was studied. The oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-three compounds, accounting for 99.8% of the total oil, were identified. The main constituents were 1,8-cineol (47.9%) and 4aalpha,7alpha,7abetanepetalactone (20.3%). The antimicrobial activity of essential oil of N. crispa was tested against seven gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria and four fungi. The results of the bioassays showed the interesting antimicrobial activity, in which the gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, were the most sensitive to the oil. Also, the oil exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Wan, Feng; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Guo, Li; Li, Xiao-Hong; He, Cheng-Jun; Dai, Ou

    2013-01-01

    The herb and fruits of Leonurus japonicus Houtt., named "Yimucao" and "Chongweizi", respectively, in Chinese, have been widely used in China as gynecological medicines. The components of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils was determined by micro-dilution assay. The results showed large variations in the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the oils. The oil of "Yimucao" showed antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria and consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, with phytone, phytol, caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene being the most significant constituents, whereas the oil of "Chongweizi", mainly made up of bornyl acetate and aliphatic hydrocarbons, was inactive in the antibacterial assay. Further study of the main compounds in "Yimucao oil" showed that β-caryophyllene had wide-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and mutagenic activities of seven Lamiaceae essential oils.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2009-01-01

    Deeper knowledge of the potentiality of aromatic plants can provide results of economic importance for food and pharmacological industry. The essential oils of seven Lamiaceae species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antibacterial, antifungal and mutagenic activities. Monoterpenes in the oils ranged between 82.47% (hyssop oil) and 97.48% (thyme oil), being mainly represented by oxygenated compounds. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against six pathogenic and five non-pathogenic bacterial strains. Oregano and thyme oils showed the strongest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic ones. The antifungal activity was evaluated against six fungal strains of agrifood interest: the oils tested exhibited variable degrees of activity. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains were used to assess the possible mutagenic activity. No oil showed mutagenic activity. Data obtained let us hypothesise that the use of essential oils could be a viable and safe way to decrease the utilisation of synthetic food preservatives. Further research is needed to obtain information regarding the practical effectiveness of essential oils to prevent the growth of food borne and spoiling microbes under specific application conditions. PMID:19924059

  14. Subsidence rate monitoring of Aghajari oil field based on Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, N. Fouladi; Sahebi, M. R.; Matkan, A. A.; Roostaei, M.

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence, due to natural or anthropogenic processes, causes significant costs in both economic and structural aspects. That part of subsidence observed most is the result of human activities, which relates to underground exploitation. Since the gradual surface deformation is a consequence of hydrocarbon reservoirs extraction, the process of displacement monitoring is amongst the petroleum industry priorities. Nowadays, Differential SAR Interferometry, in which satellite images are utilized for elevation change detection and analysis - in a millimetre scale, has proved to be a more real-time and cost-effective technology in contrast to the traditional surveying method. In this study, surface displacements in Aghajari oil field, i.e. one of the most industrious Iranian hydrocarbon sites, are being examined using radar observations. As in a number of interferograms, the production wells inspection reveals that surface deformation signals develop likely due to extraction in a period of several months. In other words, different subsidence or uplift rates and deformation styles occur locally depending on the geological conditions and excavation rates in place.

  15. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2(∗), π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging. PMID:27208417

  16. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2(∗), π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  17. Mapping three-dimensional oil distribution with π-EPI MRI measurements at low magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Marica, Florea; MacMillan, Bryce; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to image oil saturation distribution in rock cores during oil displacement processes. However, a lengthy measurement time for 3D measurements at low magnetic field can hinder monitoring the displacement. 1D and 2D MRI measurements are instead often undertaken to monitor the oil displacement since they are faster. However, 1D and 2D images may not completely reflect the oil distribution in heterogeneous rock cores. In this work, a high-speed 3D MRI technique, π Echo Planar Imaging (π-EPI), was employed at 0.2 T to monitor oil displacement. Centric scan interleaved sampling with view sharing in k-t space was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the π-EPI measurements. A D2O brine was employed to distinguish the hydrocarbon and water phases. A relatively homogenous glass bead pack and a heterogeneous Spynie core plug were employed to show different oil displacement behaviors. High quality 3D images were acquired with π-EPI MRI measurements. Fluid quantification with π-EPI compared favorably with FID, CPMG, 1D-DHK-SPRITE, 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and 3D Conical SPRITE measurements. π-EPI greatly reduced the gradient duty cycle and improved sensitivity, compared to FSE and Conical SPRITE measurements, enabling dynamic monitoring of oil displacement processes. For core plug samples with sufficiently long lived T2, T2∗, π-EPI is an ideal method for rapid 3D saturation imaging.

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  19. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  20. Effect of flaring of natural gas in oil fields of Assam on rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K K; Hazarika, S; Kalita, B; Sharma, B

    2011-07-01

    Assam (India) is endowed with natural resources like oil, coal and natural gas. The crude oil, one of the most precious natural resources, is found in the districts of upper Assam. During the process of extraction of crude oil, low-pressure natural gas is burnt in the air. Most of the oil wells in upper Assam are located near rice fields and therefore, rice crop grown near the oil wells is exposed to light uninterruptedly causing grain sterility resulting significant loss in grain yield. To identify promising varieties for these areas, we studied the effect of flare on rice varieties with different photoperiod sensitivity. The high light intensity and increased light hours were the factors responsible for substantial loss in grain yield near the flare resulting from delay in flower initiation, reduction of panicle length, having less number of grains per panicle and more grain sterility. To prevent significant loss in yield, photoperiod-sensitive traditional and improved rice varieties should not be grown up to the distance of 80 and 100 m, respectively from the boundary wall of the flare pit. Modern weakly-photoperiod sensitive varieties like Ranjti and Mahsuri can be grown 40 m away from the wall while modern photoperiod insensitive variety like Jaya, can be cultivated 20 m away from the wall without significant loss in yield. PMID:23029930

  1. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1998-03-03

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    1997-08-08

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  3. Using dispersants after oil spills: impacts on the composition and activity of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, Sara; Paul, John H; Joye, Samantha B

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants are globally and routinely applied as an emergency response to oil spills in marine ecosystems with the goal of chemically enhancing the dissolution of oil into water, which is assumed to stimulate microbially mediated oil biodegradation. However, little is known about how dispersants affect the composition of microbial communities or their biodegradation activities. The published findings are controversial, probably owing to variations in laboratory methods, the selected model organisms and the chemistry of different dispersant-oil mixtures. Here, we argue that an in-depth assessment of the impacts of dispersants on microorganisms is needed to evaluate the planning and use of dispersants during future responses to oil spills. PMID:25944491

  4. Using dispersants after oil spills: impacts on the composition and activity of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Kleindienst, Sara; Paul, John H; Joye, Samantha B

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants are globally and routinely applied as an emergency response to oil spills in marine ecosystems with the goal of chemically enhancing the dissolution of oil into water, which is assumed to stimulate microbially mediated oil biodegradation. However, little is known about how dispersants affect the composition of microbial communities or their biodegradation activities. The published findings are controversial, probably owing to variations in laboratory methods, the selected model organisms and the chemistry of different dispersant-oil mixtures. Here, we argue that an in-depth assessment of the impacts of dispersants on microorganisms is needed to evaluate the planning and use of dispersants during future responses to oil spills.

  5. Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.

    PubMed

    Salter, E; Ford, J

    2001-01-01

    According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis. PMID:11382983

  6. Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. ); Sargeant, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

  7. Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T.; Sargeant, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

  8. Interpretation of the magnetic anomaly over the Omaha Oil Field, Gallatin County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Sparlin, M.A. ); Lewis, R.D. . Waterways Experiment Station)

    1994-07-01

    A 40 nanoTesla (nT) magnetic anomaly identified in an aeromagnetic survey over southern Illinois contours as a localized magnetic high on the west flank of a regional magnetic low. This magnetic anomaly is generally coincident with the Omaha Oil Field in northwest Gallatin County, Illinois. It was initially assumed that cultural sources of steel associated with this oil field were the primary source of the magnetic feature; however, similar oil fields overflown by the survey do not exhibit magnetic anomalies in the data set. The Luther Rister et ux [number sign]1 well, drilled near the apex of the Omaha structural dome, encountered two zones of ultramafic intrusive rock containing 9.0% by volume magnetite. These intrusives were identified to be alnoeites which are a class of mantle-derived ultramafic rock that can be associated with the incipient stages of crustal rifting. A ground magnetic survey verified the presence of the anomaly, and provided detailed data for 3-D modeling of the source. Petrophysical evaluations, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thin section modal analysis were made on drill cuttings from the ultramafic intrusives encountered in the Luther Rister [number sign]1 well. These measurements were made to constrain the 3-D magnetic modeling by the petrophysical characteristics of the source. After removal of the regional magnetic field, the resulting 140 nT residual magnetic anomaly was successfully modeled using two ultramafic sills with an igneous feeder plug. The two igneous sills adequately account for the structural closure exhibited in the Omaha Oil Field and raise the interesting possibility of other hydrocarbon trapping structures generated by intrusives emplaced into the sedimentary section.

  9. Spore-forming thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from North Sea oil field waters

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnes, J.T.; Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. )

    1991-08-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C{sub 4} through C{sub 6}) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed.

  10. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5) using the broth macrodilution method. Results: The tested essential oils produced variable antibacterial effect, while Chamomile blue oil demonstrated no antibacterial activity. Origanum, Thyme, and Basil oils were ineffective on P. aeruginosa isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 0.12% to 1.50% (v/v) for tea tree oil, 0.25-4% (v/v) for origanum and thyme oil, 0.50% to >4% for basil oil and >4% for chamomile blue oil. Compared to literature data on reference strains, the reported MIC values were different by 2SD, denoting less successful antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant isolates. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils are influenced by the strain origin (wild, reference, drug sensitive, or resistant) and it should be taken into consideration whenever investigating the plants’ potential for developing new antimicrobials. PMID:27366345

  12. Phytochemical compositions of volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera and their biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-long; Zhou, Yan; Ge, Wei-chen; Yuan, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Background: This research, extract compositions of volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera (Linn.) DC by steam distillation method. The gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technology (GC-MS) was used to separate and determine chemical components of volatile oil. Meanwhile, the percentage of the chemical components was determined in the volatile oil by peak area normalization method. At the same time, we determine and evaluate antitumor, antibacterial, and antioxidation activities of chemical components of volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera of the aromatic plant. Materials and Methods: We screened the cytotoxicity of volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera by using prawn larva and by prawn-lethal bioactivity experiment. Use the slanting test tube method to evaluate the antibacterial activity of volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera for eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. Taking Trolox as the contrast, the research uses DPPH method to study the radical-scavenging function (IC50) of the volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera. Results: The results show that 42 kinds of compounds are separated from volatile oil of Blumea balsamifera. The appraised components take up 97.65% of total peak area. The volatile oil in Blumea balsamifera mainly contains sesquiterpenoids. The results also show that it has relatively strong activity of antitumor and anti-plant pathogenic fungi and some antioxidation activity. Conclusion: This research provided the reference data for further development of this natural resource, and at the same time, we understood more of the chemical components of volatile oil and bioactivity of this aromatic plant. PMID:25210324

  13. Sedimentary style and oil-gas field distribution in Western Bohai Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansheng Qiao )

    1994-07-01

    Western Bohai Bay is located near Tianjing City and the Yanshan Mountains. Tectonically, it is part of the Bohai Bay rift, including the Qiku, Nanpu, and Cangdong depressions. The Paleogene strata consist of three cycles in the rift. Usually, the sublacustrine fans or basalts formed at the initial stage of every cycle. The dark shales and turbidites developed at the high level of lacustrine transgression. However, the deltas or evaporates appeared at the regressive stage. The sublacustrine fans or deltas generally distribute in the marginal part of a depression, with humic type kerogen. The dark shales of deep lacustrine facies in the inner part of it contain sapropel type kerogen. The transitional zone between them is interbedded shales and sandstones, with mixed type kerogen. The oil-gas fields mainly occur in the transitional zone around the oil-generating center. The great oil-gas fields are formed in areas where the big drape anticline coincided with the sublacustrine fan-front or delta-front sandstones and were sealed by shales or evaporates. A great number of small overpressured oil reservoirs are in the mature source rocks in the depression center.

  14. Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

    2014-07-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved α -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), α-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and β hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH β-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals.

  15. An active antenna for ELF magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, John F.; Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The work of Nikola Tesla, especially that directed toward world-wide electrical energy distribution via excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, has stimulated interest in the study of these resonances. Not only are they important for their potential use in the transmission of intelligence and electrical power, they are important because they are an integral part of our natural environment. This paper describes the design of a sensitive, untuned, low noise active antenna which is uniquely suited to modern earth-ionosphere cavity resonance measurements employing fast-Fourier transform techniques for near-real-time data analysis. It capitalizes on a little known field-antenna interaction mechanism. Recently, the authors made preliminary measurements of the magnetic fields in the earth-ionosphere cavity. During the course of this study, the problem of designing an optimized ELF magnetic field sensor presented itself. The sensor would have to be small, light weight (for portable use), and capable of detecting the 5-50 Hz picoTesla-level signals generated by the natural excitations of the earth-ionosphere cavity resonances. A review of the literature revealed that past researchers had employed very large search coils, both tuned and untuned. Hill and Bostick, for example, used coils of 30,000 turns wound on high permeability cores of 1.83 m length, weighing 40 kg. Tuned coils are unsuitable for modern fast-Fourier transform data analysis techniques which require a broad spectrum input. 'Untuned' coils connected to high input impedance voltage amplifiers exhibit resonant responses at the resonant frequency determined by the coil inductance and the coil distributed winding capacitance. Also, considered as antennas, they have effective areas equal only to their geometrical areas.

  16. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O'Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  17. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  18. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fátima; de Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230514

  19. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25632490

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  1. In vitro inhibition activity of essential oils from some Lamiaceae species against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Mathela, C S; Tewari, A K; Bisht, K S

    2014-09-01

    Natural products have been in focus as alternative, effective and safe materials against the phytopathogens. Investigations show Nepeta oils as effective in controlling the food crops decay. The inhibitory effects of essential oils derived from Nepeta leucophylla, Nepeta ciliaris, Nepeta clarkei and Calamintha umbrosa against five phytopthogenic fungi have been determined. In vitro antifungal activity varied with their constituents and target species. More active being the oils containing oxygenated terpenoids. Helminthosporium maydis was sensitive to the all oils, IC50 values have 43.6-109.3 μg mL(-1). The N. leucophylla oil possessing oxygenated iridoids was more effective against H. maydis (IC50 value of 43.6 μg mL(-1)) while N. ciliaris was more active against Fusarium oxysporum (IC50 value of 219.2 μg mL(-1)). The oils were effective against the spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens. PMID:25175652

  2. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  3. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  4. Chemical composition and possible in vitro antigermination activity of three Hypericum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Marandino, Aurelio; De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; Milella, Luigi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    The essential oils of Hypericum perforatum, H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum, growing in Southern Italy, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In the three oils, 111 compounds in all were identified: 53 for the oil of H. hircinum (93.7% of the total oil), 55 for H. perforatum (96.5% of the total oil) and 63 for H. perfoliatum (98.7% of the total oil). The major fraction of the essential oils of H. perforatum and H. hircinum was represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the monoterpene alpha-pinene, and the phenol thymol were the most abundant compounds in the essential oil of H. perfoliatum. The oils were evaluated for their potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum. The germination of this latter was significantly inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum, at the highest doses tested, whereas radicle elongation of garden cress was significantly inhibited by the essential oils of H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum. The radicle elongation of radish was inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum to a major extent and by H. perforatum and perfoliatum in a minor measure.

  5. Evaluating GIS for establishing and monitoring environmental conditions of oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeil, R.W.; Ellis, J.W.

    1995-04-01

    Good management of an oil field and compliance with ever-increasing environmental regulations is enhanced by technologies that improve a company`s understanding of field/production facilities and environmental conditions that have occurred to both through time. In Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, and offshore Cabinda, remote sensing, computer-aided drafting (CAD) and Global Positioning System (GPF) technologies have effectively been used by Chevron to provide accurate maps of facilities and to better understand environmental conditions. Together these proven technologies have provided a solid and cost-effective base for planning field operation, verifying well and seismic locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often cartographic-quality hardcopy images and maps for use in the office and field. Chevron has been evaluating the capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to integrate images, maps, and tabular data into a useful database that can help managers and workers better evaluate conditions in an oil field, plan new facilities, and monitor/predict trends (for example, of air emissions, groundwater, soil chemistry, subsidence, etc.). Remote sensing, CAD (if formatted properly), and GPS data can be integrated to establish the spatial or cartographic base of the GIS. A major obstacle to establishing a sophisticated GIS for an overseas operation is the initial cost of data collection and conversion from legacy data base management systems and hardcopy to appropriate digital format. However, Chevron routinely uses GIS for oil spill modeling and is now using GIS in the field for integrating GPS data with field observations and programs.

  6. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance.

  7. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest im