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Sample records for active older drivers

  1. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  2. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses) do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group). Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers) who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot). In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes). Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs. PMID:22385499

  3. Why HID headlights bother older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Mainster, M A; Timberlake, G T

    2003-01-01

    Driving requires effective coordination of visual, motor, and cognitive skills. Visual skills are pushed to their limit at night by decreased illumination and by disabling glare from oncoming headlights. High intensity discharge (HID) headlamps project light farther down roads, improving their owner’s driving safety by increasing the time available for reaction to potential problems. Glare is proportional to headlamp brightness, however, so increasing headlamp brightness also increases potential glare for oncoming drivers, particularly on curving two lane roads. This problem is worse for older drivers because of their increased intraocular light scattering, glare sensitivity, and photostress recovery time. An analysis of automobile headlights, intraocular stray light, glare, and night driving shows that brightness rather than blueness is the primary reason for the visual problems that HID headlights can cause for older drivers who confront them. The increased light projected by HID headlights is potentially valuable, but serious questions remain regarding how and where it should be projected. PMID:12488274

  4. THE OLDER ADULT DRIVER WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David B.; Ott, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Although automobiles remain the transportation of choice for older adults, late life cognitive impairment and dementia often impair the ability to drive safely. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the assessment of older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness. Yet, clinicians are called upon by patients, their families, other health professionals, and often the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. Using the case of Mr W, we describe the challenges of driving with cognitive impairment for both the patient and caregiver, summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessment of fitness-to-drive, and address important ethical and legal issues. We describe the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and DMV referrals that may assist with evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (eg, exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:20424254

  5. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  6. Older Driver and Passenger Collaboration for Wayfinding in Unfamiliar Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryden, Kelly Jane; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer; Lowndes, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Passenger collaboration offers a potential compensatory strategy to assist older drivers who have difficulty driving in unfamiliar areas (wayfinding). This article describes a survey of 194 healthy, community-dwelling older drivers and their regular passengers to investigate how passengers assist drivers, and to identify the characteristics of…

  7. Older driver distraction: a naturalistic study of behaviour at intersections.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Judith L; Catchlove, Matthew; Scully, Michelle; Koppel, Sjaan; Newstead, Stuart

    2013-09-01

    This study examined older driver engagement in distracting behaviours (secondary activities) at intersections using naturalistic driving data from a larger study based in Melbourne, Australia. Of interest was whether engagement in secondary activities at intersections was influenced by factors such as driver gender and situational variables, in particular, those relating to the complexity of the driving environment. Specifically we expected that when making left/right turns, older drivers would reduce the proportion of time engaged in secondary behaviours at intersections which required gap judgements (partly controlled or uncontrolled) compared with intersections that were fully controlled by traffic signals. Consideration was given to engagement in secondary activity with hands off the wheel and when the vehicle was moving versus stationary. Older drivers aged between 65 and 83 years drove an instrumented vehicle (IV) on their regular trips for approximately two weeks. The IV was equipped with a video camera system, enabling recording of the road environment and driver and a data acquisition unit, enabling recording of trip distance, vehicle speed, braking, accelerating, steering and indicator use. Driving experience and demographics were collected and functional abilities were assessed using the Useful Field of View (UFOV), Trail Making Test B, Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The study yielded a total of 371 trips with 4493 km (99.8 h) of naturalistic driving data including 1396 left and right turns. Trips were randomly selected from the dataset and in-depth analysis was conducted on 200 intersection manoeuvres (approximately 50% left turns, 50% right turns). The most frequently observed secondary activities were scratching/grooming (42.5%), talking/singing (30.2%) and manipulating the vehicle control panel (12.2%). Glances "off road" 2s or longer were associated with reading, reaching and manipulation of the

  8. Older adult drivers living in residential care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Ginde, Adit A.; Betz, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Residential care facilities (RCF) provide assistance to older adults who cannot live independently, but it is unclear whether these residents have retired from driving. Here, we characterize older adults living in RCFs who still drive from a national cross-sectional survey of residents (2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities), representing ~733,000 adults living in RCFs such as assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Key resident characteristics were health, function, mobility and community activity indicators, which could be associated with increased driving risk. Of 8,087 residents, 4.5% (95%CI=3.9-5.1) were current drivers. Many drivers were older than 80 years (74%, 95%CI=67-79), in very good health (31%, 95%CI=25-38) or good health (35%, 95%CI=29-42), and had a median of two medical conditions. Most were independent with activities of daily living, though some needed assistance with walking and used gait devices. Given these results, RCF staff and healthcare providers need a heightened awareness of factors associated with driving risk to promote safety of older drivers and provide resources for likely transition to other transportation. PMID:26366125

  9. Older driver population and crash involvement trends, 1974-1988.

    PubMed

    Stutts, J C; Martell, C

    1992-08-01

    North Carolina motor vehicle crash data for even-numbered years 1974-1988, inclusive, are analyzed in conjunction with North Carolina population, licensed driver, and mileage data to examine trends in motor vehicle crash involvement by driver age, sex, and race. Crash rates per licensed driver are presented along with crash rates per estimated vehicle miles travelled calculated on the basis of induced exposure. Results focus particularly on older drivers. They show that older drivers' representation in the licensed driver population has increased at a greater rate than their representation in either the census or crash involvement populations. These trends are particularly strong for females and for nonwhites. Furthermore, crash rates have declined more for drivers aged 55 and older than for younger drivers. The greatest declines, both in terms of crashes per licensed driver and crashes per estimated miles travelled, have been experienced by drivers age 65 and older, particularly nonwhites. Males show higher overall crash rates per miles travelled than females, but this effect decreases with age and disappears entirely in the oldest age categories. Results are discussed in light of the changing nature of the overall driving population and the cohort of older drivers in particular.

  10. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako

    2015-08-01

    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified.

  11. Consensus Statements on the Assessment of Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Hogan MD, David B.; Scialfa, Charles T.; Caird, Jeff K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of older drivers is accentuating the challenges in concurrently identifying older drivers posing an unacceptable risk if they continue to drive, while not discriminating against those capable of safely driving. Attendees of an invitational meeting about the assessment of older drivers were asked to participate in a modified Delphi process designed to develop consensus statements on the assessment of older drivers. Methods Forty-one non-student symposium attendees were invited to participate in two rounds of a survey, in which they were asked to indicate their level of agreement (or disagreement) on a five-point Likert scale to a series of statements about the assessment of older drivers. Consensus was defined as 80% + of respondents either agreeing or disagreeing with a statement. Results More than one-half (n = 23) completed the first round of the survey and 12 participated in the second. There was consensus on the need for a modifiable, fair, rational, and widely accessible multi-step approach to the assessment of older drivers. This would require the engagement and support of physicians and other health-care practitioners in identifying and reporting medically at-risk drivers of any age. At a societal level, alternatives to driving a personal motor vehicle should be developed. Conclusions An on-going dialogue about this complex issue is required. Decisions should be based on explicitly stated principles and informed by the best available evidence. PMID:24883166

  12. Comorbidities and Crash Involvement among Younger and Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Michela; Boccardi, Virginia; Prestano, Raffaele; Angellotti, Edith; Desiderio, Manuela; Marano, Luigi; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies identified comorbidities as predictors of older driver performance and driving pattern, while the direct impact of comorbidities on road crash risk in elderly drivers is still unknown. The present study is a cross-sectional aimed at investigating the association between levels of comorbidity and crash involvement in adult and elderly drivers. 327 drivers were stratified according to age range in two groups: elderly drivers (age ≥70 years old, referred as older) and adult drivers (age <70 years old, referred as younger). Driving information was obtained through a driving questionnaire. Distance traveled was categorized into low, medium and high on the basis of kilometers driven in a year. CIRS-illness severity (IS) and CIRS-comorbidity indices (CI) in all populations were calculated. Older drivers had a significantly higher crash involvements rate (p = .045) compared with the younger group based on the number of licensed drivers. Dividing comorbidity indices into tertiles among all licensed subjects, the number of current drivers significantly decreased (p<.0001) with increasing level of comorbidity. The number of current drivers among older subjects significantly decreased with increasing comorbidity level (p = .026) while no difference among younger group was found (p = .462). Among younger drivers with increasing comorbidity level, the number of road accidents significantly increased (p = .048) and the logistic regression analysis showed that comorbidity level significantly associated with crash involvement independent of gender and driving exposure. Older subjects with high level of comorbidity are able to self-regulate driving while comorbidity burden represents a significant risk factor for crash involvements among younger drivers. PMID:24722619

  13. 55+ Drivers: Needs and Problems of Older Drivers: Survey Results and Recommendations. Proceedings of the Older Driver Colloquium (Orlando, Florida, February 4-7, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malfetti, James L., Ed.

    These proceedings include 11 background papers that were presented by a panel of authorities in traffic safety and/or gerontology who were professionally concerned with older drivers and pedestrians. Papers focus on the needs and problems of older drivers and on what can and should be done to deal with them. Recommendations to improve safety for…

  14. Driving Rehabilitation Specialists’ Perspectives on Older Driver Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jacqueline; Dickerson, Anne; Flaten, Hanna K.; Belmashkan, Saddyna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We explored driving rehabilitation specialists’ (DRSs’) perspectives on older driver evaluations. METHOD. We conducted interviews with 26 DRSs across the United States who evaluate older drivers. Transcript analysis followed general inductive techniques to identify themes related to current systems and barriers to use. RESULTS. Themes, by Social–Ecological Model level, were as follows: (1) individual occupational therapists’ commitment to mobility and safety, perceived responsibilities, and experience; (2) DRSs’ relationships with drivers, medical providers, and licensing bureaus; (3) the community surrounding the DRSs, including the health care system and transportation resources; and (4) societal factors, including DRS reimbursement, reporting requirements and liability coverage, and role of national organizations. CONCLUSIONS. This qualitative study identified barriers to the development of an effective system for older driver evaluations. Future work should verify, refine, and expand these findings by targeting other stakeholder groups. PMID:26943109

  15. Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, A; Coxon, K; Chevalier, A J; Clarke, E; Rogers, K; Brown, J; Boufous, S; Ivers, R; Keay, L

    2017-01-01

    Rapid deceleration occurs when substantial force slows the speed of a vehicle. Rapid deceleration events (RDEs) have been proposed as a surrogate safety measure. As there is concern about crash involvement of older drivers and the effect of age-related declining visual and cognitive function on driving performance, we examined the relationship between RDEs and older driver's vision, cognitive function and driving confidence, using naturalistic driving measures. Participants aged 75 to 94 years had their vehicle instrumented for 12 months. To minimise the chance of identifying false positives, accelerometer data was processed to identify RDEs with a substantial deceleration of >750 milli-g (7.35m/s(2)). We examined the incidence of RDEs amongst older drivers, and how this behaviour is affected by differences in age; sex; visual function, cognitive function; driving confidence; and declines over the 12 months. Almost two-thirds (64%) of participants were involved in at least one RDE, and 22% of these participants experienced a meaningful decline in contrast sensitivity during the 12 months. We conducted regression modelling to examine associations between RDEs and predictive measures adjusted for (i) duration of monitoring and (ii) distance driven. We found the rate of RDEs per distance increased with age; although, this did not remain in the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, we found older drivers who experienced a decline in contrast sensitivity over the 12 months and those with lower baseline driving confidence were at increased risk of involvement in RDEs adjusted for distance driven. In other studies, contrast sensitivity has been associated with increased crash involvement for older drivers. These findings lend support for the use of RDEs as a surrogate safety measure, and demonstrate an association between a surrogate safety measure and a decline in contrast sensitivity of older drivers.

  16. Age-Related Differences in Vehicle Control and Eye Movement Patterns at Intersections: Older and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Fisher, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections. In a driving simulator, older (M = 76 yrs) and middle-aged (M = 58 yrs) drivers completed different driving tasks: (1) travelling straight on a highway while scanning for peripheral information (a visual search task) and (2) navigating intersections with areas potential hazard. The results replicate that the older drivers did not execute glances for potential threats to the sides when turning at intersections as frequently as the middle-aged drivers. Furthermore, the results demonstrate costs of performing two concurrent tasks, highway driving and visual search task on the side displays: the older drivers performed more poorly on the visual search task and needed to correct their steering positions more compared to the middle-aged counterparts. The findings are consistent with the predictions and discussed in terms of a decoupling hypothesis, providing an account for the effects of the active training program. PMID:27736887

  17. Older drivers' road traffic crashes in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

    2010-07-01

    A sample of over 2000 crashes involving drivers aged 60 years or over was considered, from three UK midland police forces, from the years 1994-2007 inclusive. Each case was summarized on a database including the main objective features (such as time and place), a summary narrative, a sketch plan and a list of explanatory factors. The main findings were that older drivers have significant problems with intersection collisions and failing to give right of way; these formed the largest single class of crashes in the sample. Possible behavioural explanations for this will be discussed, along with other findings regarding older driver blameworthiness, fatigue and illness, time of day factors, and 'unintended accelerations'.

  18. Personality and attitudes as predictors of risky driving among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano

    2014-11-01

    Although there are several studies on the effects of personality and attitudes on risky driving among young drivers, related research in older drivers is scarce. The present study assessed a model of personality-attitudes-risky driving in a large sample of active older drivers. A cross-sectional design was used, and structured and anonymous questionnaires were completed by 485 older Italian drivers (Mean age=68.1, SD=6.2, 61.2% males). The measures included personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving (errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and self-reported crash involvement and number of issued traffic tickets in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling showed that personality traits predicted both directly and indirectly traffic violations, errors, and lapses. More positive attitudes toward traffic safety negatively predicted risky driving. In turn, risky driving was positively related to self-reported crash involvement and higher number of issued traffic tickets. Our findings suggest that theoretical models developed to account for risky driving of younger drivers may also apply in the older drivers, and accordingly be used to inform safe driving interventions for this age group.

  19. Capturing the serial nature of older drivers' responses towards challenging events: a simulator study.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Alexandre; Gagnon, Sylvain; Yamin, Stephanie

    2010-05-01

    Older drivers' ability to trigger simultaneous responses in reaction to simulated challenging road events was examined through crash risk and local analyses of acceleration and direction data provided by the simulator. This was achieved by segregating and averaging the simulator's primary measures according to six short time intervals, one before and five during the challenging events. Twenty healthy adults aged 25-45 years old (M=29.5+/-4.32) and 20 healthy adults aged 65 and older (M=73.4+/-5.17) were exposed to five simulated scenarios involving sudden, complex and unexpected maneuvres. Participants were also administered the Useful Field of View (UFOV), single reaction time and choice reaction time tests, a visual secondary task in the simulator, and a subjective workload evaluation (NASA-TLX). Results indicated that the challenging event that required multiple synchronized reactions led to a higher crash rate in older drivers. Acceleration and orientation data analyses confirmed that the drivers who crashed limited their reaction. The other challenging events did not generate crashes because they could be anticipated and one response (braking) was sufficient to avoid crash. Our findings support the proposal (Hakamies-Blomqvist, L., Mynttinen, S., Backman, M., Mikkonen, V., 1999. Age-related differences in driving: are older drivers more serial? International Journal of Behavioral Development 23, 575-589) that older drivers have more difficulty activating car controls simultaneously putting them at risk when facing challenging and time pressure road events.

  20. Stability of physical assessment of older drivers over 1 year.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Marshall, Shawn; Porter, Michelle; Ha, Linda; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Mazer, Barbara; Rapoport, Mark; Tuokko, Holly; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing population of drivers with a valid driver's licence. Also common in this age group are multiple chronic medical conditions that may have an effect on physical function and driving ability. Determining the reliability of physical measures used to assess older drivers' functional ability is important to identifying those who are safe to continue driving. Most previous reliability studies of clinical physical measures of health used test-retest intervals shorter than those between patient visits with a clinician. In the present study we examined a more clinically representative interval of 1 year to determine the stability of commonly used physical measures collected during the Candrive II prospective cohort study of older drivers. Reliability statistics indicate that the sequential finger-thumb opposition, rapid pace walk and the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity tests have adequate stability over 1 year. Poor stability was observed for the one-legged stance and Snellen visual acuity test. Several assessments with nominal data (Marottoli method [functional neck range of motion], whispered voice test, range of motion and strength testing) lacked sufficient variability to conduct reliability analyses; however, a lack of variability between test days suggests consistency over a 1-year time frame. Our results provide evidence that specific physical measures are stable in monitoring functional ability over the course of a year.

  1. Profiles in driver distraction: effects of cell phone conversations on younger and older drivers.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L; Drews, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., driving-only) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was 12% greater, and they took 17% longer to recover the speed that was lost following braking. There was also a twofold increase in the number of rear-end collisions when drivers were conversing on a cell phone. These cell-phone-induced effects were equivalent for younger and older adults, suggesting that older adults do not suffer a significantly greater penalty for talking on a cell phone while driving than compared with their younger counterparts. Interestingly, the net effect of having younger drivers converse on a cell phone was to make their average reactions equivalent to those of older drivers who were not using a cell phone. Actual or potential applications of this research include providing guidance for recommendations and regulations concerning the use of mobile technology while driving.

  2. Seasonal and Weather Effects on Older Drivers' Trip Distances.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glenys A; Porter, Michelle M; Cull, Andrew W; Mazer, Barbara L; Myers, Anita M; Naglie, Gary; Bédard, Michel; Tuokko, Holly A; Vrkljan, Brenda H; Gélinas, Isabelle; Marshall, Shawn C; Rapoport, Mark J

    2016-04-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine if season or weather affected the objectively measured trip distances of older drivers (≥ 70 years; n = 279) at seven Canadian sites. During winter, for all trips taken, trip distance was 7 per cent shorter when controlling for site and whether the trip occurred during the day. In addition, for trips taken within city limits, trip distance was 1 per cent shorter during winter and 5 per cent longer during rain when compared to no precipitation when controlling for weather (or season respectively), time of day, and site. At night, trip distance was about 30 per cent longer when controlling for season and site (and weather), contrary to expectations. Together, these results suggest that older Canadian drivers alter their trip distances based on season, weather conditions, and time of day, although not always in the expected direction.

  3. Predictors of Lane-Change Errors in Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Jefferys, Joan; Gower, Emily W.; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Keay, Lisa; Turano, Kathleen A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the factors that predict errors in executing proper lane changes among older drivers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longitudinal study. Setting Maryland's Eastern Shore. Participants One thousand eighty drivers aged 67 to 87 enrolled in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study. Measurements Tests of vision, cognition, health status, and self-reported distress and a driving monitoring system in each participant's car, used to quantify lane-change errors. Results In regression models, measures of neither vision nor perceived stress were related to lane-change errors after controlling for age, sex, race, and residence location. In contrast, cognitive variables, specifically performance on the Brief Test of Attention and the Beery-Buktenicka Test of Visual-Motor Integration, were related to lane-change errors. Conclusion The current findings underscore the importance of specific cognitive skills, particularly auditory attention and visual perception, in the execution of driving maneuvers in older individuals. PMID:20398113

  4. [The elderly driver's perception of risk: do older drivers still express comparative optimism? ].

    PubMed

    Spitzenstetter, Florence; Moessinger, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    People frequently express comparative optimism ; that is, they believe they are less likely than average to experience negative events. The aim of the present study is, first, to observe whether people of more than 65 years are still optimists when they evaluate driving-related risks; and second, to test the assumption that older drivers show less optimism when they compare themselves with average-age drivers than when they compare themselves with same-age drivers. Our results reveal that drivers of more than 65 years do, indeed, express comparative optimism, but, contrary to our expectation, only in a limited number of cases does the age of the comparison target appear to have an effect. These results are particularly discussed in terms of self-image enhancement.

  5. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Rogers, Kris; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript "Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events", which investigates potential predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016) [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS) data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs) were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s(2)). All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  6. Impact of mandating a driving lesson for older drivers at license renewal in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Inada, Haruhiko

    2015-02-01

    In Japan, a driving lesson consisting of a lecture, a driver aptitude test, on-road driving assessment and a discussion session was added to the driving license renewal procedure for drivers aged 75 years or older in 1998 and for drivers aged 70 years or older in 2002. We investigated whether these additions contributed to a reduction in at-fault motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) by examining the trend of the at-fault MVC rates per licensed driver and the rate ratios of the older drivers relative to those aged 65-69 years for the years 1986-2011. All data were derived from nationwide traffic statistics. If the introduction of the lesson was effective in reducing at-fault MVCs of older drivers, the rate ratio should have declined, given that the lesson targeted only the older drivers. We found this was not the case, i.e., there was no declining trend in the at-fault MVC rate ratios of both drivers aged 75 years or older and drivers aged 70 years or older, relative to drivers aged 65-69 years, after the driving lesson at license renewal became mandatory for these older drivers. Therefore, the mandatory lesson for the older drivers at license renewal needs to be reconsidered.

  7. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  8. Does attention capacity moderate the effect of driver distraction in older drivers?

    PubMed

    Cuenen, Ariane; Jongen, Ellen M M; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Lutin, Mark; Van Vlierden, Karin; Wets, Geert

    2015-04-01

    With age, a decline in attention capacity may occur and this may impact driving performance especially while distracted. Although the effect of distraction on driving performance of older drivers has been investigated, the moderating effect of attention capacity on driving performance during distraction has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether attention capacity has a moderating effect on older drivers' driving performance during visual distraction (experiment 1) and cognitive distraction (experiment 2). In a fixed-based driving simulator, older drivers completed a driving task without and with visual distraction (experiment 1, N=17, mean age 78 years) or cognitive distraction (experiment 2, N=35, mean age 76 years). Several specific driving measures of varying complexity (i.e., speed, lane keeping, following distance, braking behavior, and crashes) were investigated. In addition to these objective driving measures, subjective measures of workload and driving performance were also included. In experiment 1, crash occurrence increased with visual distraction and was negatively related to attention capacity. In experiment 2, complete stops at stop signs decreased, initiation of braking at pedestrian crossings was later, and crash occurrence increased with cognitive distraction. Interestingly, for a measure of lane keeping (i.e., standard deviation of lateral lane position (SDLP)), effects of both types of distraction were moderated by attention capacity. Despite the decrease of driving performance with distraction, participants estimated their driving performance during distraction as good. These results imply that attention capacity is important for driving. Driver assessment and training programs might therefore focus on attention capacity. Nonetheless, it is crucial to eliminate driver distraction as much as possible given the deterioration of performance on several driving measures in those with low and high attention capacity.

  9. Acceptability and validity of older driver screening with the DrivingHealth Inventory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jerri D; Leonard, Kathleen M; Lunsman, Melissa; Dodson, Joan; Bradley, Stacy; Myers, Charlsie A; Hubble, Bridgette

    2008-05-01

    Research has indicated that technology can be effectively used to identify high-risk older drivers. However, adaptation of such technology has been limited. Researchers debate whether older drivers represent a safety problem as well as whether they should be screened for driving fitness. The present study examined how drivers feel regarding technological screening and mandatory state testing. The validity and acceptability of a new technological screening battery for identifying high-risk drivers, the DrivingHealth Inventory (DHI), was also evaluated. In a sample of 258 Alabama drivers aged 18-87, older drivers performed significantly worse than younger drivers on sensory, cognitive, and physical subtests of the DHI, and older drivers with a crash history performed worse than older drivers without crashes. Regardless of age, 90% of participants supported states requiring screening for older drivers' license renewal. The majority of the participants (72%) supported use of technological screening batteries such as the DHI as a driver screening tool. Considering the acceptability and potential efficacy of the DHI, it may be a useful tool in evaluating driving fitness among older adults.

  10. Do Restricted Driver's Licenses Lower Crash Risk among Older Drivers? A Survival Analysis of Insurance Data from British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasvadi, Glenyth Caragata; Wister, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Faced with an aging driving population, interest is increasing in the use of restricted licenses or "graduated delicensing" for older drivers to allow them to safely retain a driver's license. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether restricted licenses are successful at mitigating number of crashes per year…

  11. Individual differences in cognitive functioning predict effectiveness of a heads-up lane departure warning for younger and older drivers.

    PubMed

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Lester, Benjamin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Rizzo, Matthew; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    The effectiveness of an idealized lane departure warning (LDW) was evaluated in an interactive fixed base driving simulator. Thirty-eight older (mean age=77years) and 40 younger drivers (mean age=35years) took four different drives/routes similar in road culture composition and hazards encountered with and without LDW. The four drives were administered over visits separated approximately by two weeks to examine changes in long-term effectiveness of LDW. Performance metrics were number of LDW activations and average correction time to each LDW. LDW reduced correction time to re-center the vehicle by 1.34s on average (95% CI=1.12-1.57s) but did not reduce the number of times the drivers drifted enough in their lanes to activate the system (LDW activations). The magnitude of reductions in average correction RT was similar for older and younger drivers and did not change with repeated exposures across visits. The contribution of individual differences in basic visual and motor function, as well as cognitive function to safety gains from LDW was also examined. Cognitive speed of processing predicted lane keeping performance for older and younger drivers. Differences in memory, visuospatial construction, and executive function tended to predict performance differences among older but not younger drivers. Cognitive functioning did not predict changes in the magnitude of safety benefits from LDW over time. Implications are discussed with respect to real-world safety systems.

  12. Using trip diaries to mitigate route risk and risky driving behavior among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Payyanadan, Rashmi P; Maus, Adam; Sanchez, Fabrizzio A; Lee, John D; Miossi, Lillian; Abera, Amsale; Melvin, Jacob; Wang, Xufan

    2016-10-06

    To reduce exposure to risky and challenging driving situations and prolong mobility and independence, older drivers self-regulate their driving behavior. But self-regulation can be challenging because it depends on drivers' ability to assess their limitations. Studies using self-reports, survey data, and hazard and risk perception tests have shown that driving behavior feedback can help older drivers assess their limitations and adjust their driving behavior. But only limited work has been conducted in developing feedback technology interventions tailored to meet the information needs of older drivers, and the impact these interventions have in helping older drivers self-monitor their driving behavior and risk outcomes. The vehicles of 33 drivers 65 years and older were instrumented with OBD2 devices. Older drivers were provided access to customized web-based Trip Diaries that delivered post-trip feedback of the routes driven, low-risk route alternatives, and frequency of their risky driving behaviors. Data were recorded over four months, with baseline driving behavior collected for one month. Generalized linear mixed effects regression models assessed the effects of post-trip feedback on the route risk and driving behaviors of older drivers. Results showed that post-trip feedback reduced the estimated route risk of older drivers by 2.9% per week, and reduced their speeding frequency on average by 0.9% per week. Overall, the Trip Diary feedback reduced the expected crash rate from 1 in 6172 trips to 1 in 7173 trips, and the expected speeding frequency from 46% to 39%. Thus providing older drivers with tailored feedback of their driving behavior and crash risk could help them appropriately self-regulate their driving behavior, and improve their crash risk outcomes.

  13. The impact of Stereotype Threat on the simulated driving performance of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Joanisse, Mélanie; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Mihnea

    2013-01-01

    Older drivers are perceived as being dangerous and overly cautious by other drivers. We tested the hypothesis that this negative stereotype has a direct influence on the performance of older drivers. Based on the Stereotype Threat literature, we predicted that older driving performance would be altered after exposure to a Stereotype Threat. Sixty-one older drivers aged 65 and above completed a simulated driving assessment course. Prior to testing, half of the participants were told that the objective of the study was to investigate why older adults aged 65 and above were more implicated in on-road accidents (Stereotype Threat condition) and half were showed a neutral statement. Results confirmed that exposure to the threat significantly altered driving performance. Older adults in the Stereotype Threat condition made more driving mistakes than those in the control group. Interestingly, under a Stereotype Threat condition, older adults tended to commit more speeding infractions. We also observed that domain identification (whether driving is deemed important or not) moderated the impact of the threat. Taken together, these results support recent older drivers' performance models suggesting that the interaction between individual and social factors need to be considered when examining older drivers' performance.

  14. Driving a better driving experience: a questionnaire survey of older compared with younger drivers.

    PubMed

    Karali, Sukru; Gyi, Diane E; Mansfield, Neil J

    2017-04-01

    A questionnaire survey of drivers (n = 903) was conducted covering musculoskeletal symptoms, the vehicle seat, access to specific vehicle features, ingress/egress, driving performance and driving behaviours. Significantly, more discomfort was reported by older drivers (aged 65+) in the hips/thighs/buttocks and knees. Older drivers reported more difficulty parallel parking (p ≤ 0.01), driving on a foggy day (p ≤ 0.01), and turning their head and body to reverse (p ≤ 0.001). They also reported that their reactions were slower than they used to be (p ≤ 0.01). Dissatisfaction was found by all drivers with adjusting the headrest (height and distance), seat belt height and opening/closing the boot. There is a growing population of older people globally, and the number of older drivers is showing a parallel increase. Clearly, efforts are needed to ensure car design of the future is more inclusive of older drivers. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes a questionnaire survey of drivers on their driving experience - the vehicle seat, access to specific vehicle features, ingress/egress, driving performance and driving behaviours. Comparisons are made by age and gender. Issues with driving and vehicle design particularly for older drivers in the UK are identified.

  15. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention), or (3) a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85%) completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned orthogonal comparisons. Results: The driving simulator-training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention-training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers' safety on the road. PMID:24860497

  16. AUGMENTED REALITY CUES TO ASSIST OLDER DRIVERS WITH GAP ESTIMATION FOR LEFT-TURNS

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings. PMID:24950128

  17. A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers' speeding behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Coxon, Kristy; Rogers, Kris; Chevalier, Aran John; Wall, John; Brown, Julie; Clarke, Elizabeth; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    There is little objective evidence about the extent older drivers' are involved in speeding or factors that may influence this behaviour. Particular concern exists for the increasing number of older drivers with poor or declining cognitive and visual function. This study investigates whether a reduction in speeding forms part of the self-restrictive driving behaviour evident when older drivers experience poor cognitive and visual function. Driving data over 12 months were collected from 182 volunteers aged 75-94years. Driving speed was estimated using Global Positioning System location, and speed limit data was based on a service-provider database. Speed events were defined as driving 1km/h or more, with 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30s. Almost all participants (99%) were involved in speed events. While, 16-31% of participants experienced a meaningful decline in cognitive or visual function during the 12-months, these declines were not predictive of a change in speed events. Our results indicate speeding behaviour in this age group was highly prevalent, but less so for the oldest drivers whereby the rate of speed events was 7% lower per year older (IRR=0.93, 95%CI=0.89-0.96). Older drivers with worse function were less involved in speed events (unadjusted for distance driven) during 12 months of observation. Weekly distance driven decreased over the year by approximately 0.45km with every week of monitoring for these older drivers. When distance driven was taken into account, decreased function was not predictive of involvement in speed events, indicating the reduction in speed events may be achieved by older drivers with lower function reducing distance driven. These results are important for developing policy to address speeding behaviour of the growing population of older drivers to reduce the incidence of crashes and resulting casualties.

  18. Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety.

    PubMed

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing.

  19. A brief peripheral motion contrast threshold test predicts older drivers' hazardous behaviors in simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Steven; Woods-Fry, Heather; Collin, Charles A; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Misha; Grant, John; Rosenthal, Ted; Allen, Wade

    2015-05-01

    Our research group has previously demonstrated that the peripheral motion contrast threshold (PMCT) test predicts older drivers' self-report accident risk, as well as simulated driving performance. However, the PMCT is too lengthy to be a part of a battery of tests to assess fitness to drive. Therefore, we have developed a new version of this test, which takes under two minutes to administer. We assessed the motion contrast thresholds of 24 younger drivers (19-32) and 25 older drivers (65-83) with both the PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min test and investigated if thresholds were associated with measures of simulated driving performance. Younger participants had significantly lower motion contrast thresholds than older participants and there were no significant correlations between younger participants' thresholds and any measures of driving performance. The PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min thresholds of older drivers' predicted simulated crash risk, as well as the minimum distance of approach to all hazards. This suggests that our tests of motion processing can help predict the risk of collision or near collision in older drivers. Thresholds were also correlated with the total lane deviation time, suggesting a deficiency in processing of peripheral flow and delayed detection of adjacent cars. The PMCT-2min is an improved version of a previously validated test, and it has the potential to help assess older drivers' fitness to drive.

  20. Fragility and crash over-representation among older drivers in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Harding, Anna; Lee, Andy H; Legge, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    This study assessed age-related and gender differences in the relative contribution of fragility and crash over-representation to serious injuries per crash-involved driver in Western Australia. Police-reported crashes for the period 1998-2003 were extracted from the Western Australian Road Injury Database. For each passenger vehicle driver age and gender group, serious injuries per crash-involved driver and driver involvements in crashes per 100 million vehicle-kilometre travelled (VKT) were calculated as the respective measure of fragility and crash over-representation. Results from the decomposition method of analysis showed that older drivers over the age of 70 sustained serious injury rates more than twice as high as those of the 30-59-year-old drivers. Fragility increased with age, contributing between 47% and 95% for drivers above 65 years, but crash over-representation was the dominant factor for male drivers above 80 years. In contrast, fragility contributed little to the excess injury risk of younger drivers under the age of 30. The importance of fragility as a contributing factor to the inflated serious injury risk per vehicle-kilometre travelled for older drivers suggested that road safety initiatives should be directed towards the protection of vehicle occupants as well as screening for their driving ability.

  1. A qualitative exploration of self-regulation behaviors among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Donorfio, Laura K M; Mohyde, Maureen; Coughlin, Joseph; D'Ambrosio, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    While much of the research on aging and driving has focused on sensory and motor changes, little is known about older drivers and the actual self-regulation adjustments they employ to continue driving safely. This research looks at how older drivers have made changes to driving patterns and behaviors that have allowed them to continue to drive without compromising their perceived safety, independence, and quality of life. Nine focus groups were held with older men and women aged 58 to 89 years. Some of the major themes that emerged were the following: older adults are very aware of age-related changes to driving; they perceive that self-regulation behaviors change with age; and they view transportation alternatives as limited or nonexistent. Policy implications include developing functional transit programs for older adults and car manufacturer training workshops to educate older adults on the safety features of newly purchased automobiles.

  2. An approach to vehicle design: In-depth audit to understand the needs of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Karali, Sukru; Mansfield, Neil J; Gyi, Diane E

    2017-01-01

    The population of older people continues to increase around the world, and this trend is expected to continue; the population of older drivers is increasing accordingly. January 2012 figures from the DVLA in the UK stated that there were more than 15 million drivers aged over 60; more than 1 million drivers were aged over 80. There is a need for specific research tools to understand and capture how all users interact with features in the vehicle cabin e.g. controls and tasks, including the specific needs of the increasingly older driving population. This paper describes an in-depth audit that was conducted to understand how design of the vehicle cabin impacts on comfort, posture, usability, health and wellbeing in older drivers. The sample involved 47 drivers (38% female, 62% male). The age distribution was: 50-64 (n = 12), 65-79 (n = 20), and those 80 and over (n = 15). The methodology included tools to capture user experience in the vehicle cabin and functional performance tests relevant to specific driving tasks. It is shown that drivers' physical capabilities reduce with age and that there are associated difficulties in setting up an optimal driving position such that some controls cannot be operated as intended, and many adapt their driving cabins. The cabin set-up process consistently began with setting up the seat and finished with operation of the seat belt.

  3. Identifying crash involvement among older drivers: agreement between self-report and state records.

    PubMed

    McGwin, G; Owsley, C; Ball, K

    1998-11-01

    Older drivers have a high crash rate per vehicle mile of travel. Coupled with the growth of the number of older drivers on the road, this has generated interest in the identification of factors which place older drivers at increased risk. However, much of the existing research on medical and functional risk factors for crash involvement has generally been inconsistent. Methodological differences between studies have been hypothesized as being partly responsible for such inconsistencies. The source of information used to identify crash-involved drivers has been identified as one such difference. This paper reports on the agreement between self-report and state record for identifying crash involved-older drivers. We also sought to determine whether the prevalence of visual and cognitive impairment differs across crash-involved drivers identified by either or both sources. Finally, we assessed whether risk factors for crash involvement differed when crash-involved drivers were identified by either self-report or state records. Results indicated that there was a moderate level of agreement between self-reported and state-recorded crash involvement (kappa = 0.45). However, we did find significant differences between crash-involved drivers identified via state records and/or self-report with respect to demographic (age, race), driving (annual mileage, days per week driven), and vision impairment (acuity, contrast sensitivity, peripheral visual field sensitivity, useful field of view). We also found that the possibility for biased measures of association is real. Useful field of view impairment was associated with both self-reported and state-recorded crash involvement; however, the magnitude of the associations was disparate. Moreover, glaucoma was identified as a significant risk factor when considering state-recorded crashes but not self-reported crashes. While validation of these findings is required, research designed to identify risk factors for crash involvement

  4. Toward best practice in Human Machine Interface design for older drivers: A review of current design guidelines.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Koppel, S; Charlton, J L

    2016-06-30

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the driving population. While there is a strong emphasis for older people to maintain their mobility, the safety of older drivers is a serious community concern. Frailty and declines in a range of age-related sensory, cognitive, and physical impairments can place older drivers at an increased risk of crash-related injuries and death. A number of studies have indicated that in-vehicle technologies such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) may provide assistance to older drivers. However, these technologies will only benefit older drivers if their design is congruent with the complex needs and diverse abilities of this driving cohort. The design of ADAS and IVIS is largely informed by automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) guidelines. However, it is unclear to what extent the declining sensory, cognitive and physical capabilities of older drivers are addressed in the current guidelines. This paper provides a review of key current design guidelines for IVIS and ADAS with respect to the extent they address age-related changes in functional capacities. The review revealed that most of the HMI guidelines do not address design issues related to older driver impairments. In fact, in many guidelines driver age and sensory cognitive and physical impairments are not mentioned at all and where reference is made, it is typically very broad. Prescriptive advice on how to actually design a system so that it addresses the needs and limitations of older drivers is not provided. In order for older drivers to reap the full benefits that in-vehicle technology can afford, it is critical that further work establish how older driver limitations and capabilities can be supported by the system design process, including their inclusion into HMI design guidelines.

  5. Older drivers' reasons for reducing the overall amount of their driving and for avoiding selected driving situations.

    PubMed

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu

    2015-04-01

    Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 840 older drivers to explore their reasons for self-regulating their driving. The main reason for reduced driving was having fewer activities to drive to, and for avoidance of driving situations, reasons also included not liking or feeling insecure about driving in the situation. The lower-functioning participants, but still only a minority, were more likely to indicate decline in vision and reaction time as reasons for avoidance. Women were more likely to indicate lack of confidence as a reason for avoidance. The results suggest that the reduction in driving and avoidance of driving situations are separate types of self-regulatory behavior; that self-regulation of driving is an automatic process, in which older drivers are not aware that they are compensating for functional loss; and that it is important to acknowledge gender differences when designing interventions aimed at enhancing safe mobility.

  6. Cross-modal Warnings for Orienting Attention in Older Drivers with and without Attention Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Monica N.; Cosman, Joshua; Lee, John D.; Vecera, Shaun P.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Older adults are overrepresented in fatal crashes on a per mile basis. Those with useful field of view (UFOV) reductions show a particularly elevated crash risk that might be mitigated with vehicle-based warnings. To evaluate cross-modal cues that could be used in these warnings, we applied a variation of Posner‘s orienting of attention paradigm. Twenty-nine older drivers with UFOV impairments and 32 older drivers without impairments participated. Cues were presented in either a single modality or a combination of modalities (visual, auditory, haptic). Drivers experienced three cue types (valid spatial information, invalid spatial information, neutral) and an uncued baseline. Following each cue, drivers discriminated the direction of a target (a Landolt square with a gap facing up or down) in the visual panorama. Drivers with and without UFOV impairments showed comparable response times (RTs) across the different cue modalities and cue types. Both groups benefited most from auditory and auditory/haptic cues. Redundant visual cues, when paired with auditory cues, undermined performance rather than enhanced it. Overall, drivers responded faster to targets with valid spatial information followed by neutral, invalid, and uncued targets. Cues provide the greatest benefit in alerting rather than orienting the driver. The cue expected to be most effective at orienting attention—the extra-vehicular cue—performs most poorly when the spatial information is either invalid or neutral. Even when the spatial information is valid the extra-vehicular cue underperforms the auditory cues. The results suggest that temporal information dominates spatial information in the ability of cues to speed responses to targets. This study represents a first step in assessing whether combining a cognitive science paradigm and a driving simulator environment can quickly assess how different warning signals alert and orient drivers. PMID:22204895

  7. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  8. Licence restrictions as an under-used strategy in managing older driver safety.

    PubMed

    Langford, Jim; Koppel, Sjaanie

    2011-01-01

    While many older drivers remain unimpaired or otherwise effectively compensate for functional deficits, a minority are currently faced with two main options: either continue to drive with arguably an unacceptable crash risk; or cease driving, perhaps at the instigation of licensing authorities. Licence restrictions represent a possible third option for some older drivers, by better managing crash risk while still allowing acceptable levels of mobility. The present study has explored licence restrictions as applied to Victorian older drivers over a ten-year period. It has identified the types of restrictions and their extent of use in recent years, plus indications of potential safety benefits that may result from restricted licencing practices. Less than 10% of the older driver cohort had a licence restriction and in around 95% of instances, the restriction related to the need to wear corrective lenses; these numbers precluded a conclusive evaluation of safety benefits. However, two important findings emerged. First, the imposition of a licence restriction was usually associated with a reduction in absolute crash rates. Second, three restrictions were identified that most readily form the basis of a graduated driving reduction program.

  9. The Older Driver - A Challenge To The Design Of Automotive Electronic Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Augsburger, Arol; Smith, Stanley W.; Freeman, Scott

    1988-10-01

    Older drivers present unique challenges to the display designer. Approximately 30 percent of all drivers in the U.S. are over 50 years of age. Visual impairment, e.g., presbyopia, begins after 40. After age 55, approximately 91 percent of the population use bifocals. Unfortunately, bifocals with significant add power create zones of decreased acuity in the critical instrument panel viewing distances of 500-800 mm. In this paper, the demands for vision in driving are related to the special visual disabilities associated with the older driver, such as increased sensitivity to glare, high contrast ratio blurring of electronic displays and increased time for target recognition. A computer legibility model is presented to relate the principal factors in design, namely character height and width, viewing distance, contrast ratio and background luminance with legibility impairment associated with various age groups. Implications of model predictions to display design are discussed.

  10. Cognitive basis about risk level classifications for the self-assessment of older drivers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Youl; Lee, Jae Shin

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the cognitive functions according to risk level for the Driver 65 Plus measure, and examined the cognitive basis of self-assessment for screening the driving risk of elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 46 older drivers with a driver’s license participated in this study. All participants were evaluated with Driver 65 Plus. They were classified into three groups of “safe,” “caution” and “stop,” and examined for cognitive functions with Trail Making Test and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-K. The cognitive test results of the three groups were compared. [Results] Trail Making Test-A, Trail Making Test-B, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-K showed a significant difference between the three groups. The safe group showed significantly higher ability than the caution and stop groups in the three cognitive tests. In addition, cognitive functions of naming, attention, language, and delayed recall were significantly different between the three groups. [Conclusion] Self-assessment of older drivers is a useful tool for screening the cognitive aspects of driving risk. The cognitive functions, such as attention and recall, are the critical factors for screening the driving risk of elderly drivers. PMID:28356619

  11. Older drivers' opinions of criteria that inform the cars they buy: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jenny; Porter, Michelle M; Polgar, Jan; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Safe driving in older adulthood depends not only on health and driving ability, but also on the driving environment itself, including the type of vehicle. However, little is known about how safety figures into the older driver's vehicle selection criteria and how it ranks among other criteria, such as price and comfort. For this purpose, six focus groups of older male and female drivers (n=33) aged 70-87 were conducted in two Canadian cities to explore vehicle purchasing decisions and the contribution of safety in this decision. Themes emerged from the data in these categories: vehicle features that keep them feeling safe, advanced vehicular technologies, factors that influence their car buying decisions, and resources that inform this decision. Results indicate older drivers have gaps with respect to their knowledge of safety features and do not prioritize safety at the time of vehicle purchase. To maximize the awareness and uptake of safety innovations, older consumers would benefit from a vehicle design rating system that highlights safety as well as other features to help ensure that the vehicle purchased fits their lifestyle and needs.

  12. Driving with pets as a risk factor for motor vehicle collisions among older drivers.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue.

  13. System facilitators and barriers to discussing older driver safety in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Jones, Jacqueline; Carr, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians play a leading role in counseling older drivers, but discussions often do not occur until safety concerns arise. Prior work suggests that routine questioning about driving might facilitate these difficult conversations. Objective To explore system-level factors affecting driving discussions in primary care settings, in order to inform the design and implementation of a program supporting routine conversations. Methods This qualitative descriptive study used iterative interviews with providers (physicians, nurses, medical assistants, social workers, and administrative staff) working at two clinics (one geriatric, one general internal medicine) at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. General inductive techniques in transcript analysis were used to identify stakeholder-perceived system-level barriers and facilitators to routine conversations with older drivers. Results From fifteen interviews, four themes emerged: (1) complexity of defined provider roles within primary care setting (which can both support team work and hamper efficiency); (2) inadequate resources to support providers (including clinical prompts, local guides, and access to social workers and driving specialists); (3) gaps in education of providers and patients about discussing driving; and (4) suggested models to enhance provider conversations with older drivers (including following successful examples and using defined pathways integrated into the electronic medical record). A fifth theme was that participants characterized their experiences in terms of current and ideal states. Conclusions Physicians have been tasked with assessing older driver safety and guiding older patients through the process of “driving retirement.” Attention to system-level factors such as provider roles, resources, and training can support them in this process. PMID:25617342

  14. Urban and rural differences in older drivers' failure to stop at stop signs.

    PubMed

    Keay, Lisa; Jasti, Srichand; Munoz, Beatriz; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Duncan, Donald D; Baldwin, Kevin; Bandeen-Roche, Karen J; Gower, Emily W; West, Sheila K

    2009-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine visual and cognitive predictors for older drivers' failure to stop at stop signs. 1425 drivers aged between ages 67 and 87 residing in Salisbury Maryland were enrolled in a longitudinal study of driving. At baseline, the participants were administered a battery of vision and cognition tests, and demographic and health questionnaires. Five days of driving data were collected with a Driving Monitoring System (DMS), which obtained data on stop signs encountered and failure to stop at stop signs. Driving data were also collected 1 year later (round two). The outcome, number of times a participant failed to stop at a stop sign at round two, was modeled using vision and cognitive variables as predictors. A negative binomial regression model was used to model the failure rate. Of the 1241 who returned for round two, 1167 drivers had adequate driving data for analyses and 52 did not encounter a stop sign. In the remaining 1115, 15.8% failed at least once to stop at stop signs, and 7.1% failed to stop more than once. Rural drivers had 1.7 times the likelihood of not stopping compared to urban drivers. Amongst the urban participants, the number of points missing in the bilateral visual field was significantly associated with a lower failure rate. In this cohort, older drivers residing in rural areas were less likely to stop at stop-sign intersections than those in urban areas. It is possible that rural drivers frequent areas with less traffic and better visibility, and may be more likely to take the calculated risk of not stopping. In this cohort failure to stop at stop signs was not explained by poor vision or cognition. Conversely in urban areas, those who have visual field loss appear to be more cautious at stop signs.

  15. The acceptability to older drivers of different types of licensing restriction.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Shawn C; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Molnar, Frank; Wilson, Keith G; Blair, Richard

    2007-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of various driving restrictions to older drivers. Licensed drivers aged 65 years or more living in the community in the Ottawa, Ontario area were recruited by means of posters and advertisements in regional and local newspapers. We recruited 86 subjects, 56 men and 30 women with a mean age of 75 years (50 urban and 36 rural residents). The subjects completed a one-hour interview with one of two trained study nurses during which their driving restriction preferences (utilities) were determined using a modified standard gamble technique. Highly endorsed restrictions included regular assessment by the Ministry of Transportation (mean utility 0.94), driving with vehicle adaptations (0.94) and daytime driving only (0.93). Less acceptable restrictions included avoidance of roads with a speed limit greater than 60 km/h (0.50), limitation of destinations (0.45), driving only within a 10-km radius of home (0.45) and requirement of another licensed driver in the vehicle (0.42). Our subjects' preferences appeared to be inversely related to the impact on autonomy and the ability to access the community. These findings may be useful to motor transport administrators in designing effective restricted licensing programs that are acceptable to older drivers.

  16. Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system.

    PubMed

    Dotzauer, Mandy; de Waard, Dick; Caljouw, Simone R; Pöhler, Gloria; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2015-01-01

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the ages of 20 and 25 years. Participants repeatedly drove 25 km city routes in eight sessions on separate days over a period of two months in a driving simulator. In each age group, participants were randomly assigned to the control (no ADAS) and treatment (ADAS) group. The control group completed the whole experiment without the ADAS. The treatment group drove two sessions without (sessions 1 and 7) and six times with ADAS. Results indicate effects of ADAS on driving safety for young and older drivers, as intersection time and percentage of stops decreased, speed and critical intersection crossings increased, the number of crashes was lower for treatment groups than for control groups. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety.

  17. Occupational Therapy and Older Drivers: Research, Education, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stav, Wendy B.

    2008-01-01

    Occupational therapists facilitate independence and support participation in occupations that are personally meaningful to clients to enhance well-being and quality of life. Among the occupations addressed by occupational therapists is the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) of driving. Occupational therapists are particularly concerned…

  18. The American Medical Association Older Driver Curriculum for Health Professionals: Changes in Trainee Confidence, Attitudes, and Practice Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuser, Thomas M.; Carr, David B.; Irmiter, Cheryl; Schwartzberg, Joanne G.; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F.

    2010-01-01

    Few gerontology and geriatrics professionals receive training in driver fitness evaluation, state reporting of unfit drivers, or transportation mobility planning yet are often asked to address these concerns in the provision of care to older adults. The American Medical Association (AMA) developed an evidence-based, multi-media Curriculum to…

  19. Does Online Social Connectedness Buffer Risk of Depression Following Driving Cessation? An Analysis of Older Drivers and Ex-Drivers.

    PubMed

    Challands, Kristina G; Lacherez, Philippe; Obst, Patricia L

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the role of online social connectedness as a buffer against depression in older adults who cease driving. A survey of 108 over-65 year olds (M = 73.7, SD = 7.37) was conducted. Measures included online and offline social connectedness; depression; online activities; and general health. The online activities in which older adults most frequently engaged were communicating with family and friends, reading the news, and banking. Face-to-face social connectedness was by far the strongest predictor of depression. However, online social connectedness did significantly moderate the effects of driving cessation on depression. The results suggest that online social connectedness can help protect older people from depressive symptoms following driving cessation.

  20. Comparing the Glance Patterns of Older versus Younger Experienced Drivers: Scanning for Hazards while Approaching and Entering the Intersection

    PubMed Central

    Romoser, Matthew R. E.; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald L.; Williams, Carrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Older drivers are known to look less often for hazards when turning at T-intersections or at four way intersections. The present study is an extension of Romoser & Fisher (2009) and attempts to further analyze the differences in scanning behavior between older and experienced younger drivers in intersections. We evaluated four hypotheses that attempt to explain the older drivers’ failure to properly scan in intersections: difficulty with head movements, decreases in working memory capacity, increased distractibility, and failure to recall specific scanning patterns. To test these hypotheses, older and younger experienced drivers’ point-of-gaze was monitored while they drove a series of simulated intersections with hidden hazards outside of the turning path. Our results suggest that none of these hypotheses can fully explain our finding that older adults are more likely to remain fixated on their intended path of travel and look less than younger drivers towards other areas where likely hazards might materialize. Instead, the results support a complementary hypothesis that at least some of the difficulties older adults have scanning intersections are due to a specific attentional deficit in the older drivers’ ability to inhibit what has become their prepotent goal of monitoring the vehicle’s intended path of travel, thereby causing older drivers to fail to scan hazardous areas outside this intended path of travel. PMID:23148130

  1. The NPs Role of Assessing and Intervening with Older Adult Drivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As the silver tsunami continues, assessing and intervening with older adult drivers are becoming an essential aspect of the comprehensive geriatric exam. The current lack of time efficient clinical guidelines is a concern and barrier for NPs. The purpose of this study was to identify strategies currently used by NPs. The critical incident technique was used to obtain data from a convenience sample of NPs. A total of 89 incidents were collected. The perspective of the NP can provide important information for developing clinical guidelines to promote individual and community safety. PMID:27843646

  2. Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Young Driver Behaviour: A fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Hannah J.; Runham, Patrick; Chapman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic accidents consistently show a significant over-representation for young, novice and particularly male drivers. This research examines the prefrontal cortex activation of young drivers and the changes in activation associated with manipulations of mental workload and inhibitory control. It also considers the explanation that a lack of prefrontal cortex maturation is a contributing factor to the higher accident risk in this young driver population. The prefrontal cortex is associated with a number of factors including mental workload and inhibitory control, both of which are also related to road traffic accidents. This experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal cortex activity during five simulated driving tasks: one following task and four overtaking tasks at varying traffic densities which aimed to dissociate workload and inhibitory control. Age, experience and gender were controlled for throughout the experiment. The results showed that younger drivers had reduced prefrontal cortex activity compared to older drivers. When both mental workload and inhibitory control increased prefrontal cortex activity also increased, however when inhibitory control alone increased there were no changes in activity. Along with an increase in activity during overtaking manoeuvres, these results suggest that prefrontal cortex activation is more indicative of workload in the current task. There were no differences in the number of overtakes completed by younger and older drivers but males overtook significantly more than females. We conclude that prefrontal cortex activity is associated with the mental workload required for overtaking. We additionally suggest that the reduced activation in younger drivers may be related to a lack of prefrontal maturation which could contribute to the increased crash risk seen in this population. PMID:27227990

  3. Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Young Driver Behaviour: A fNIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Foy, Hannah J; Runham, Patrick; Chapman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic accidents consistently show a significant over-representation for young, novice and particularly male drivers. This research examines the prefrontal cortex activation of young drivers and the changes in activation associated with manipulations of mental workload and inhibitory control. It also considers the explanation that a lack of prefrontal cortex maturation is a contributing factor to the higher accident risk in this young driver population. The prefrontal cortex is associated with a number of factors including mental workload and inhibitory control, both of which are also related to road traffic accidents. This experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal cortex activity during five simulated driving tasks: one following task and four overtaking tasks at varying traffic densities which aimed to dissociate workload and inhibitory control. Age, experience and gender were controlled for throughout the experiment. The results showed that younger drivers had reduced prefrontal cortex activity compared to older drivers. When both mental workload and inhibitory control increased prefrontal cortex activity also increased, however when inhibitory control alone increased there were no changes in activity. Along with an increase in activity during overtaking manoeuvres, these results suggest that prefrontal cortex activation is more indicative of workload in the current task. There were no differences in the number of overtakes completed by younger and older drivers but males overtook significantly more than females. We conclude that prefrontal cortex activity is associated with the mental workload required for overtaking. We additionally suggest that the reduced activation in younger drivers may be related to a lack of prefrontal maturation which could contribute to the increased crash risk seen in this population.

  4. The instructional impact of the American Medical Association's Older Drivers Project online curriculum.

    PubMed

    Meuser, Thomas M; Carr, David B; Berg-Weger, Marla; Irmiter, Cheryl; Peters, Karen E; Schwartzberg, Joanne G

    2014-01-01

    The Older Drivers Project (ODP) of the American Medical Association has provided evidence-based training for clinicians since 2003. More than 10,000 physicians and other professionals have been trained via an authoritative manual, the Physician's Guide to Assessing & Counseling Older Drivers, and an associated continuing medical education five-module curriculum offered formally by multidisciplinary teams from 12 U.S. States from 2003 to 2008. An hour-long, online version was piloted with medical residents and physicians (N = 259) from six academic and physician office sites from 2010 to 2011. Pre/postsurveys were completed. Most rated the curriculum of high quality and relevant to their practice. A majority (88%) reported learning a new technique or tool, and 89% stated an intention to incorporate new learning into their daily clinical practice. More than one half (62%) reported increased confidence in addressing driving. This transition from in-person to online instruction will allow the ODP to reach many more clinicians, at all levels of training, in the years to come.

  5. Measuring situational avoidance in older drivers: An application of Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jessica; Conlon, Elizabeth; Ownsworth, Tamara; Morrissey, Shirley

    2016-02-01

    Situational avoidance is a form of driving self-regulation at the strategic level of driving behaviour. It has typically been defined as the purposeful avoidance of driving situations perceived as challenging or potentially hazardous. To date, assessment of the psychometric properties of existing scales that measure situational avoidance has been sparse. This study examined the contribution of Rasch analysis to the situational avoidance construct. Three hundred and ninety-nine Australian drivers (M=66.75, SD=10.14, range: 48-91 years) completed the Situational Avoidance Questionnaire (SAQ). Following removal of the item Parallel Parking, the scale conformed to a Rasch model, showing good person separation, sufficient reliability, little disordering of thresholds, and no evidence of differential item functioning by age or gender. The residuals were independent supporting the assumption of unidimensionality and in conforming to a Rasch model, SAQ items were found to be hierarchical or cumulative. Increased avoidance was associated with factors known to be related to driving self-regulation more broadly, including older age, female gender, reduced driving space and frequency, reporting a change in driving in the past five years and poorer indices of health (i.e., self-rated mood, vision and cognitive function). Overall, these results support the use of the SAQ as a psychometrically sound measure of situational avoidance. Application of Rasch analysis to this area of research advances understanding of the driving self-regulation construct and its practice by drivers in baby boomer and older adult generations.

  6. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Sherrilene; Lopez, Ellen DS; Winter, Sandra; Awadzi, Kezia D; Ferree, Nita; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2007-01-01

    The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research), and views (qualitative research) of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long-term outcomes. After completing the detailed plan we will test the effectiveness of this intervention on multiple levels. PMID:18225470

  7. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  8. Driving Task: How Older Drivers' On-Road Driving Performance Relates to Abilities, Perceptions, and Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Langford, Jim; Di Stefano, Marilyn; MacDonald, Wendy; Vlahodimitrakou, Zafiroula; Mazer, Barbara L; Gelinas, Isabelle; Vrkljan, Brenda; Eliasz, Kinga; Myers, Anita; Tuokko, Holly A; Marshall, Shawn C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined a cohort of 227 older drivers and investigated the relationship between performance on the electronic Driver Observation Schedule (eDOS) driving task and: (1) driver characteristics; (2) functional abilities; (3) perceptions of driving comfort and abilities; and (4) self-reported driving restrictions. Participants (male: 70%; age: M = 81.53 years, SD = 3.37 years) completed a series of functional ability measures and scales on perceived driving comfort, abilities, and driving restrictions from the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocol, along with an eDOS driving task. Observations of participants' driving behaviours during the driving task were recorded for intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low-speed maneuvers, and maneuver-free driving. eDOS driving task scores were high (M = 94.74; SD = 5.70) and significantly related to participants' perceived driving abilities, reported frequency of driving in challenging situations, and number of driving restrictions. Future analyses will explore potential changes in driving task scores over time.

  9. Associations between Visual, Hearing, and Dual Sensory Impairments and History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement by Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kimberly A.; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between visual and hearing impairment and motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in older drivers. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting North central Alabama Participants Population-based sample of 2,000 licensed-drivers, age 70 and older. Measurements Visual acuity was measured using the Electronic Visual Acuity test. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Pelli-Robson chart. Presence of subjective hearing loss and other health conditions were determined using a general health questionnaire. Information regarding MVCs for all participants spanning the five years prior to study enrollment was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Results Following adjustment for age, race, gender, number of miles driven, number of medical conditions, general cognitive status, and visual processing speed, older drivers having both visual acuity and hearing impairment (rate ratio RR 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI 1.01–2.30), contrast sensitivity impairment alone (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00–2.02), and both contrast sensitivity and hearing impairment (RR 2.41, 95% CI 1.62–3.57) had elevated MVC rates, compared to drivers with no visual or hearing impairments. Drivers with visual acuity loss alone or hearing loss alone did not have significantly different MVC rates when compared to the no impairment group after adjustment for multiple variables. Conclusion Older drivers with dual sensory impairment are at greater MVC risk than those with only a visual acuity or a hearing deficit alone. A combined screening approach of screening for both hearing impairment and visual impairment may be a useful tool to identify older drivers at risk for MVC involvement. PMID:23350867

  10. A strategy to reduce older driver injuries at intersections using more accommodating roundabout design practices.

    PubMed

    Lord, Dominique; van Schalkwyk, Ida; Chrysler, Susan; Staplin, Loren

    2007-05-01

    This paper briefly summarizes a laboratory study investigating strategies designed to improve the ability of our most vulnerable drivers, the elderly, to safely negotiate the most dangerous and demanding of all traffic situations--intersections--through increased use of modern roundabouts. Compared to conventional intersections, roundabouts have demonstrated the potential to significantly reduce the most injurious (angle) type of crashes and slow the operating speed of all vehicles, while maintaining a high capacity for moving traffic through an intersection. This research sought to develop and evaluate countermeasures with the potential to improve the perceived comfort, confidence, and/or safety of seniors in using roundabouts. Research methods included focus groups and structured interviews utilizing photographs, which had been edited to include novel traffic control devices. The results suggest that design elements that improve the path guidance for older drivers are necessary to encourage roundabout use by this group. Recommendations for improved practice related to advance warning signs, guide signs, yield treatments, directional signs, and exit treatments are presented.

  11. Video Feedback Intervention to Enhance the Safety of Older Drivers With Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Bixby, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To demonstrate that g-force technology can be used to help older adults with cognitive impairment improve their driving safety as part of an in-car video feedback intervention. METHOD. Unsafe driving events triggered g-forces leading to capture of video clips. The program included 3 mo of monitoring without intervention, 3 mo of intervention (weekly written progress reports, a DVD of unsafe driving events, and weekly telephone contacts), and 3 mo of postintervention monitoring. RESULTS. Mean total unsafe driving events per 1,000 miles were reduced from baseline by 38% for 9 of 12 participants during the intervention and by 55% for 7 participants during postintervention monitoring. Mean total unsafe driving severity scores per 1,000 miles were reduced from baseline by 43% during the intervention and by 56% during postintervention monitoring. CONCLUSION. Preliminary results suggest that driving safety among older drivers with cognitive impairment can be improved using a behavior modification approach aimed at problem behaviors detected in their natural driving environment. PMID:28218593

  12. A novel active heads-up display for driver assistance.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Anup; Cheng, Shinko Yuanhsien; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel laser-based wide-area heads-up windshield display which is capable of actively interfacing with a human as part of a driver assistance system. The dynamic active display (DAD) is a unique prototype interface that presents safety-critical visual icons to the driver in a manner that minimizes the deviation of his or her gaze direction without adding to unnecessary visual clutter. As part of an automotive safety system, the DAD presents alerts in the field of view of the driver only if necessary, which is based upon the state and pose of the driver, vehicle, and environment. This paper examines the effectiveness of DAD through a comprehensive comparative experimental evaluation of a speed compliance driver assistance system, which is implemented on a vehicular test bed. Three different types of display protocols for assisting a driver to comply with speed limits are tested on actual roadways, and these are compared with a conventional dashboard display. Given the inclination, drivers who are given an overspeed warning alert reduced the time required to slow down to the speed limit by 38% (p < 0.01) as compared with the drivers not given the alert. Additionally, certain alerts decreased distraction levels by reducing the time spent looking away from the road by 63% (p < 0.01). Ultimately, these alerts demonstrate the utility and promise of the DAD system.

  13. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among older adults: do the relationships differ by driving status?

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; King, Abby C

    2014-07-01

    Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver's license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults' leisure walking.

  14. Filipino Older Adults’ Beliefs About Exercise Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D.; Serafica, Reimund C.; Tse, Alice

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. METHODOLOGIES A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. FINDINGS While focusing on the older adults’ beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults’ engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. IMPLICATIONS Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. PMID:22029767

  15. Development of a valid measurement instrument to understand self-regulatory driving practices among older drivers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Sok Foon; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Oxley, Jennifer; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Rashid, Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd

    2016-07-01

    Self-regulatory driving is a term used to describe a strategy used by older drivers to preserve mobility and safety, through the adjustment of driving behaviors to match declining physical functions. It can be regarded as a way to prolong driving, or as a process leading to the cessation of driving. Previous studies have striven to explore and understand how older drivers self-regulate their driving. This paper aims to provide an overview of the relevant theories, to explicate the factors that contribute to the adoption of self-regulated driving and the scales used to measure self-regulatory behaviors. This paper also reports on the development and psychometric testing of a Self-Regulatory Driving Practices (SRDP) scale in the Malaysian context. Based on the reviewed theories, adoption of self-regulatory driving practices is a process and involves cognitive thinking that reflects a set of actions. Existing instruments to measure self-regulatory driving practices have been developed and used to identify the behavioral components of self-regulation. Based on literature reviews and a thematic analysis from focus group discussions, a SRDP scale was developed, accommodating the Malaysian context. There were 498 surveys completed by older drivers for further psychometric testing purposes. Results revealed that the final 12-item SRDP scale (α=0.81) consists of four subscales that are planning, avoidance, reduction and alternatives. Suggestions for future research are also recommended.

  16. The Impact of Red Light Running Camera Flashes on Younger and Older Drivers' Attention and Oculomotor Control

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Timothy J.; Vitale, Thomas; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence suggests that the flashes associated with red light running cameras (RLRCs) distract younger drivers, pulling attention away from the roadway and delaying processing of safety-relevant events. Considering the perceptual and attentional declines that occur with age, older drivers may be especially susceptible to the distracting effects of RLRC flashes, particularly in situations in which the flash is more salient (a bright flash at night compared to the day). The current study examined how age and situational factors potentially influence attention capture by RLRC flashes using covert (cuing effects) and overt (eye movement) indices of capture. We manipulated the salience of the flash by varying its luminance and contrast with respect to the background of the driving scene (either day or night scenes). Results of two experiments suggest that simulated RLRC flashes capture observers' attention, but, surprisingly, no age differences in capture were observed. However, an analysis examining early and late eye movements revealed that older adults may have been strategically delaying their eye movements in order to avoid capture. Additionally, older adults took longer to disengage attention following capture, suggesting at least one age-related disadvantage in capture situations. Findings have theoretical implications for understanding age differences in attention capture, especially with respect to capture in real-world scenes, and inform future work that should examine how the distracting effects of RLRC flashes influence driver behavior. PMID:26479014

  17. Driving cessation and self-reported car crashes in older drivers: the impact of cognitive impairment and dementia in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lafont, Sylviane; Laumon, Bernard; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2008-09-01

    The complexity of driving activity has incited numerous developed countries to initiate evaluative procedures in elderly people, varying according to first evaluation age, frequency, and screening tools. The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge of the driving cessation process regarding factors associated with crash involvement. Driving cessation and self-reported crashes during the past 5 years were analyzed with multivariate models, in a cross-sectional study including a population-based sample of 1051 drivers aged 65 years and more. Visual trouble, Parkinson disease, dementia, and stroke history were associated with driving cessation. Future dementia was associated with self-reported crashes only. Attentional and executive deficits were associated with both outcomes. The detection of attentional and executive deficits should be included in driving evaluation procedures to improve awareness of these deficits by older drivers.

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of the safe driving behavior measure and the driving habits questionnaire for older self-drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kweon-Young; Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and the Driving Habits Questionnaire in community-dwelling older self-drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five older participated in this study, to measure the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated along with cut-off values and overall accuracy of each measure as determined by the participants operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify predictors of driving abilities. [Results] The sensitivities were 0.538 for Safe Driving Behavior Measure, and 0.577, 0.423, and 0.615 for the difficulty, crash and citations, and driving space on domains of the Driving Habits Questionnaire, respectively. The specificities of the person-vehicle domain, person-environment domain, and person-vehicle-environment domain of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure were 0.474, 0.526, and 0.421, respectively, while the Driving Habits Questionnaire domains, the specificities of difficulty, crash and citations, and driving space were 0.526, 0.211, and 0.421, respectively. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that factors related to the accident history of older self-drivers were not well-explained, although the Safe Driving Behavior Measure and Driving Habits Questionnaire domains have the potential to determine driving-related accident history. PMID:27821942

  19. Can Active Navigation Be as Good as Driving? A Comparison of Spatial Memory in Drivers and Backseat Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stulpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2012-01-01

    When driving a vehicle, either the driver or a passenger (henceforth: backseat driver) may be responsible for navigation. Research on active navigation, primarily addressed in virtual environments, suggests that controlling navigation is more central for spatial learning than controlling movement. To test this assumption in a real-world scenario,…

  20. Driving with pets and motor vehicle collision involvement among older drivers: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Levitan, Emily B.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is a major cause of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement. Pets have been identified as potential distraction to drivers, particularly in the front. This type of distraction could be worse for those with impairment in the cognitive aspects of visual processing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between driving with pets and rates of motor vehicle collision involvementin a cohort of older drivers. Methods A three-year prospective was conducted in a population-based sample of 2000 licensed drivers aged 70 years and older. At the baseline visit, a trained interviewer asked participants about pet ownership, whether they drive with pets, how frequently, and where the pet sits in the vehicle. Motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement during the three-year study period was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. At-fault status was determined by the police officer who arrived on the scene. Participants were followed until the earliest of death, driving cessation, or end of the study period. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RR) examining the association between pet ownership, presence of a pet in a vehicle, frequency of driving with a pet, and location of the pet inside with vehicle with any and at-fault MVC involvement. We examined whether the associations differed by higher order visual processing impairment status, as measured by Useful Field Of View, Trails B, and Motor-free Visual Perception Test. Results Rates of crash involvement were similar for older adults who have ever driven with a pet compared to those who never drove with their pet (RR=1.15, 95% CI 0.76-1.75). Drivers who reported always or sometimes driving with their pet had higherMVC rates compared topet owners who never drive with a pet, but this association was not statistically significant (RR=1.39, 95% CI 0.86-2.24). In terms of location, those reporting having a pet frequently ride in the

  1. The Driving Visual Field and a History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement in Older Drivers: A Population-Based Examination

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Wood, Joanne; Owsley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We designed a visual field test focused on the field utilized while driving to examine associations between field impairment and motor vehicle collision involvement in 2000 drivers aged 70 years or older. Methods. The “driving visual field test” involved measuring light sensitivity for 20 targets in each eye, extending 15° superiorly, 30° inferiorly, 60° temporally, and 30° nasally. The target locations were selected on the basis that they fell within the field region utilized when viewing through the windshield of a vehicle or viewing the dashboard while driving. Monocular fields were combined into a binocular field based on the more sensitive point from each eye. Severe impairment in the overall field or a region was defined as average sensitivity in the lowest quartile of sensitivity. At-fault collision involvement for 5 years prior to enrollment was obtained from state records. Poisson regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted rate ratios (RRs) examining the association between field impairment and at-fault collision involvement. Results. Drivers with severe binocular field impairment in the overall driving visual field had a 40% increased rate of at-fault collision involvement (RR, 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.83). Impairment in the lower and left fields was associated with elevated collision rates (RR, 1.40; 95% CI: 1.07–1.82 and RR, 1.49; 95% CI: 1.15–1.92, respectively), whereas impairment in the upper and right field regions was not. Conclusions. Results suggest that older drivers with severe impairment in the lower or left region of the driving visual field are more likely to have a history of at-fault collision involvement. PMID:25395488

  2. Research Data Management and Libraries: Relationships, Activities, Drivers and Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M.; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a ‘jurisdictional’ driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against

  3. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    PubMed

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  4. Physical activity in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) in older people is critically important in the prevention of disease, maintenance of independence and improvement of quality of life. Little is known about the physical activity of the older adults or their compliance with current physical activity guidelines. Methods A systematic literature search of the published literature was conducted. Included were published reports of original research that independently reported: the PA level of non-institutional older adults (aged 60 years and over); and the proportion of older adults in the different samples who met PA recommendations or guidelines. The review was restricted to studies published since 2000 to provide a current picture of older adults’ PA levels. Results Fifty three papers were included in the review. The percentage of older adults meeting recommended physical activity ranged from 2.4 – 83.0% across the studies. Definitions of “recommended” physical activity in older adults varied across the studies as did approaches to measurement which posed methodological challenges to data analysis. Older age groups were less likely than the reference group to be regularly active, and women were less likely than men to achieve regular physical activity, especially leisure time physical activity, when measured by both subjective and objective criteria. Conclusion The review highlights the need for studies which recruit representative random samples of community based older people and employ validated measurement methods consistently to enable comparison of PA levels over time and between countries. PMID:23648225

  5. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  6. Car egress analysis of younger and older drivers for motion simulation.

    PubMed

    Chateauroux, Elodie; Wang, Xuguang

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of car egress motion by younger and older participants. The objective of these analyses is to gather knowledge about egress motion in order to simulate them using a Digital Human Model. Seven young (from 20 to 35 years old) and eighteen older volunteers (from 63 to 82 years old) participated in the experiment. Their ingress and egress motions were captured for 4 different types of car. Motions were reconstructed through inverse kinematics using the RPx Software and the RAMSIS model. Motions were analysed through the interactions between the participant and the environment. Key-frames were defined in order to split the motionsup. Two main car egress strategies were observed: 'Left Leg first' (LLF) and 'Two Legs Out' (TLO). Only older participants used the TLO strategy. For each strategy, a detailed motion description is presented together with the identification of sub-strategies and constraints. The motion descriptions and the constraints also help to better understand the difficulties of older people when getting out of a car. All motion constraints described in this study should be considered to simulate realistic egress motion.

  7. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  8. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  9. Perception-response speed and driving capabilities of brain-damaged and older drivers.

    PubMed

    Korteling, J E

    1990-02-01

    Three experiments including reaction time (RT) tasks and driving tasks were conducted to identify variables that may be sensitive to the effects of brain damage or aging and to determine how RT tasks relate to driving performance. In Experiment 1 mean RTs of the brain-damaged and older subjects disproportionately increased relative to those of controls, with increasing difference between subsequent compound stimuli. In Experiment 2 response accuracy of brain-damaged subjects deteriorated more than that of controls when the similarity of a task to actual driving increased. In Experiment 3 brain-damaged patients were slower and less accurate than the controls on all measures of a platoon car-following task, whereas the older subjects were only less accurate. Compared with those of the controls, brake RTs of neither the older subjects nor the patients were disproportionately affected by increasing task load. Performance on the platoon driving task could be successfully predicted by a laboratory RT task on time estimation only for the brain-damaged subjects.

  10. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS) to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP). Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886. PMID:23379593

  11. Can active navigation be as good as driving? A comparison of spatial memory in drivers and backseat drivers.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2012-06-01

    When driving a vehicle, either the driver or a passenger (henceforth: backseat driver) may be responsible for navigation. Research on active navigation, primarily addressed in virtual environments, suggests that controlling navigation is more central for spatial learning than controlling movement. To test this assumption in a real-world scenario, we manipulated movement control through seating participants in the front or the back position of a tandem bike, and navigation control by presenting differently detailed maps to participants unfamiliar (Experiment 1) or familiar (Experiment 2) with an environment. Landmark knowledge was tested with recognition tasks. For participants unfamiliar with the environment (Experiment 1), passive navigation enabled better landmark recognition than active navigation, but there was no effect of movement control. For participants more familiar with the environment (Experiment 2), there was no effect of navigation control, but drivers showed better landmark recognition than backseat drivers. These findings are discussed in relation to action memory research. Measures of route and survey knowledge demonstrated that good performance resulted from active navigation (Experiment 1-2). Moreover, with regard to these measures, driving compensated for passive navigation if the environment was familiar (Experiment 2). An additional experiment in a lab setting (Experiment 3) validated the manipulation of navigation control and the used tasks and demonstrated the importance of real environment exposure. As our findings suggest, driving may be more relevant for remembering landmarks, but actively controlling navigation (even as a backseat driver) is more relevant for remembering a route than maneuvering a vehicle.

  12. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  13. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  14. Biogeochemical drivers of phosphatase activity in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Joana; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Although nitrogen has become a major concern for wetlands scientists dealing with eutrophication problems, phosphorous represents another key element, and consequently its biogeochemical cycling has a crucial role in eutrophication processes. Microbial communities are a central component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes on coastal systems, since most of the processes in sediments are microbial-mediated due to enzymatic action, including the mineralization of organic phosphorus carried out by acid phosphatase activity. In the present work, the authors investigate the biogeochemical sediment drivers that control phosphatase activities. Authors also aim to assess biogeochemical factors' influence on the enzyme-mediated phosphorous cycling processes in salt marshes. Plant rhizosediments and bare sediments were collected and biogeochemical features, including phosphatase activities, inorganic and organic phosphorus contents, humic acids content and pH, were assessed. Acid phosphatase was found to give the highest contribution for total phosphatase activity among the three pH-isoforms present in salt marsh sediments, favored by acid pH in colonized sediments. Humic acids also appear to have an important role inhibiting phosphatase activity. A clear relation of phosphatase activity and inorganic phosphorous was also found. The data presented reinforces the role of phosphatase in phosphorous cycling.

  15. Acceptability of wristband activity trackers among community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tara; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Hathaway, Donna; Armstrong, Shannon; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wristband activity trackers have become widely used among young adults. However, few studies have explored their use for monitoring and improving health outcomes among older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of activity tracker use among older adults for monitoring activity, improving self-efficacy, and health outcomes. A 12-week pilot study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and utility of mobile wristband activity trackers. The sample (N = 34) was 65% women 73.5 ± 9.4 years of age who had a high school diploma or GED (38%) and reported an income ≤$35,000 (58%). Participants completing the study (95%) experienced a decrease in waist circumference (p > 0.009), however no change in self-efficacy. Participants found activity trackers easy to use which contributed to minimal study withdrawals. It was concluded that activity trackers could be useful for monitoring and promoting physical activity and improving older adults' health.

  16. Predicting participation in meaningful activity for older adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Muss, Hyman B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Participation in activity that is personally meaningful leads to improved emotional and physical well-being and quality of life. However, little is known about what predicts participation in meaningful activity by older adults with cancer. Methods Seventy-one adults aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of cancer were enrolled. All adults were evaluated with the following: a brief geriatric assessment, the meaningful activity participation assessment (MAPA), and the Possibilities for Activity Scale (PActS). The MAPA measures participation in meaningful activity, and the PActS measures what older adults believe they should and could be doing. A regression approach was used to assess the predictors of meaningful activity participation. Results The PActS (B = .56, p < .001) was the strongest predictor of meaningful activity participation. Conclusions What older adults with cancer feel they should and could do significantly predicted meaningful participation in activities above and beyond clinical and demographic factors. In future research, perceptions of possibilities for activity may be useful in the design of interventions targeted to improve meaningful participation in older adults with cancer. PMID:25381123

  17. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000–2025, CRADA No. ORNL98-0500 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S.; Jones, Donald W.; Reuscher, Timothy; Schmoyer, Richard S.; Truett, Lorena F.

    2000-04-01

    At the turn of the century – the 20th century that is – the median age in the United States was under 30 years; America was 60% rural in nature; and there were only 36 highway fatalities all year. As we leave the 20th century behind, the route into the 21st century is very different. “Intelligent” cars speed down multi-lane “smart” highways in a nation that is 75% urban. According to the Federal Highway Administration’s Highway Statistics, there are 28,000 times more vehicles on the road in 2000 than there were in 1900, and these vehicles travel about 2.6 trillion miles each year. Annual fatalities resulting from highway crashes have also increased – by over 1100%. We see other changes as well. The face of America is changing. It is growing older. In 2025, persons 65 and over will make up 18.5% of the total population. The number of persons aged 85 and over is increasing more rapidly than any other age group. More importantly, the elderly are taking more trips, driving further, and continuing to drive much later in life. These conditions lead to concerns about traffic safety. Although the elderly are healthier and drive safer cars than they did just two decades ago, their frailty makes them more susceptible to injury than younger persons involved in traffic crashes of the same severity. In addition, visual, physical, and cognitive skills, all of which contribute to driving abilities, decrease with advancing age. The familiar “U”-shaped curve depicting the rate of fatalities per vehicle miles traveled, shows that the elderly experience a higher highway fatality rate than any other age group except teenagers. While the overall number of highway fatalities has decreased regularly since 1972, the number of fatalities of elderly travelers has continued to increase steadily. This increase is cause for concern for both the elderly driver and for other persons on the roads who migh tbe placed in danger through crashes involving elderly drivers.

  18. The pleasurable recreational activities among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Joji; Masuda, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Yusuke; Gotoh, Tadao; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify what pleasurable recreational activities older adults like to participate in, and to investigate the relationship between those activities and quality of life (QOL). Questionnaires were delivered to older residents (65 years and above) in a Japanese rural area. The residents' background information, the amount of pleasure for various activities, and the QOL were surveyed. The QOL was evaluated by the revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center (PGC) morale scale. The amount of pleasure taken in a majority of the activities, such as conversation with family or neighbors showed a significant association with the happiness score, but only a few activities showed significant association between the revised PGC morale scale and the amount of pleasure. The multiple regression analyses indicated that the amount of pleasure in exercise, the difficulty in managing finances, and amount of pleasure taken in watching TV were significant variables for predicting the happiness score. The results indicated that the amount of pleasure older adults experienced when engaging in activities such as conversation with family or neighbors showed significant association with the older adults' happiness. These results may be helpful in understanding contributions of various activities to the perception of pleasure in older adults.

  19. Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Kelly M; Ohlman, Thomas; Naugle, Keith E; Riley, Zachary A; Keith, NiCole R

    2017-03-01

    Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults. This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activity, while controlling for demographic, psychological, and test variables. The results indicated that sedentary time and LPA significantly predicted pain inhibitory function on the CPM test, with less sedentary time and greater LPA per day associated with greater pain inhibitory capacity. Additionally, MVPA predicted pain facilitation on the TS test, with greater MVPA associated with less TS of pain. These results suggest that different types of physical activity behavior may differentially impact pain inhibitory and facilitatory processes in older adults.

  20. Physical activity, disability, and quality of life in older adults.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2010-05-01

    This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States.

  1. Physical Activity among Older People and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Ann; While, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the duration, intensity and type of physical activity undertaken by people aged 60 years and over in relation to their reported levels of participation in social activities and their perceptions of their neighbourhood. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of older people attending two luncheon and eight social…

  2. The Older Woman: Increased Psychosocial Benefits from Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakat, Diane; Odom, Sarah

    1982-01-01

    Older women who participate in physical activity programs find physical benefits in the improvement of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The psychosocial benefits which result from physical activity include an increase in self-esteem, increased social contacts, a counteraction to depression, and improved stress management. Suggestions…

  3. Learning Activities of Disadvantaged Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisel, Marsel A.

    1986-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how 132 poor, urban, elderly black persons engage in formal and informal learning activities and the relation of such activities to educational histories and current life satisfaction. Findings show that the population is involved in purposeful learning activities and is motivated to pursue educational interests.…

  4. Biogeochemical drivers of microbial community convergence across actively retreating glaciers

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, Sarah C.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Grandy, A. Stuart; Leff, Jonathan W.; Graham, Emily B.; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steven K.; Wickings, Kyle; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2016-10-01

    The ecological processes that influence biogeographical patterns of microorganisms are actively debated. To investigate how such patterns emerge during ecosystem succession, we examined the biogeochemical drivers of bacterial community assembly in soils over two environmentally distinct, recently deglaciated chronosequences separated by a distance of more than 1,300 kilometers. Our results show that despite different geographic, climatic, and soil chemical and physical characteristics at the two sites, soil bacterial community structure and decomposer function converged during plant succession. In a comparative analysis, we found that microbial communities in early succession soils were compositionally distinct from a group of diverse, mature forest soils, but that the differences between successional soils and mature soils decreased from early to late stages of succession. Differences in bacterial community composition across glacial sites were largely explained by pH. However, successional patterns and community convergence across sites were more consistently related to soil organic carbon and organic matter chemistry, which appeared to be tightly coupled with bacterial community structure across both young and mature soils.

  5. Drivers` activities and information needs in an automated highway system. Working paper, August 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Levitan, L.; Bloomfield, J.

    1996-10-01

    In most visions of the AHS--including that of the National Automated Highway System Consortium--it has been assumed that when a vehicle was under automated control, the driver would be allowed to engage in any of a variety of activities not related to driving (e.g, working, reading, sleeping). The objective of the first study reported here--one of the noncommuter studies--was to determine what drivers do when traveling under automated control, and whether the age of and/gender or the driver and/or the intrastring gap have an influence on those activities. One the objectives of the commuter experiment--of relevance for this report--was to determine whether what drivers do when traveling under automated control changes as a function of experience with the AHS (i.e., across trials). As conceptualization of the AHS proceeds, the details of the interface between the driver and the in-vehicle system will become more important. One part of that interface will be information supplied by the AHS to the driver, perhaps about such things as traffic conditions ahead predicted trip time to the driver`s selected exit, and so on. To maximize the utility of that information, it is important to determine what it is that drivers would like to know when traveling under automated control. The objective of the third study reported here--the second of the five noncommuter experiments--was to provide a first investigation of that issue.

  6. Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.; Noreau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of older adults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (≥1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease. PMID

  7. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  8. Services for Older Adults. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…

  9. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation.

  10. Valuation of active blind spot detection systems by younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Souders, Dustin J; Best, Ryan; Charness, Neil

    2016-08-24

    Due to their disproportional representation in fatal crashes, younger and older drivers both stand to benefit from in-vehicle safety technologies, yet little is known about how they value such technologies, or their willingness to adopt them. The current study investigated older (aged 65 and greater; N=49) and younger (ages 18-23; N=40) adults' valuation of a blind spot monitor and asked if self-reported visual difficulties while driving predicted the amount participants were willing to pay for a particular system (BMW's Active Blind Spot Detection System) that was demonstrated using a short video. Large and small anchor values ($250 and $500, respectively) were used as between subjects manipulations to examine the effects of initial valuation, and participants proceeded through a short staircase procedure that offered them either the free installation of the system on their current vehicle or a monetary prize ($25-$950) that changed in value according to which option they had selected in the previous step of the staircase procedure. Willingness to use other advanced driver assistance systems (lane-departure warning, automatic lane centering, emergency braking, adaptive cruise control, and self-parking systems) was also analyzed, additionally controlling for prior familiarity of those systems. Results showed that increased age was associated with a higher valuation for the Active Blind Spot Detection System in both the large and small anchor value conditions controlling for income, gender, and technology self-efficacy. Older adults valued blind spot detection about twice as much ($762) as younger adults ($383) in the large anchor condition, though both groups' values were in the range for the current cost of an aftermarket system. Similarly, age was the most robust positive predictor of willingness to adopt other driving technologies, along with system familiarity. Difficulties with driving-related visual factors also positively predicting acceptance levels for

  11. An Investigation of Activity Profiles of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Michelle; Lee, Yung Soo; Greenfield, Jennifer C.; Inoue, Megumi; Chen, Huajuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In this study, we advance knowledge about activity engagement by considering many activities simultaneously to identify profiles of activity among older adults. Further, we use cross-sectional data to explore factors associated with activity profiles and prospective data to explore activity profiles and well-being outcomes. Method. We used the core survey data from the years 2008 and 2010, as well as the 2009 Health and Retirement Study Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (HRS CAMS). The HRS CAMS includes information on types and amounts of activities. We used factor analysis and latent class analysis to identify activity profiles and regression analyses to assess antecedents and outcomes associated with activity profiles. Results. We identified 5 activity profiles: Low Activity, Moderate Activity, High Activity, Working, and Physically Active. These profiles varied in amount and type of activities. Demographic and health factors were related to profiles. Activity profiles were subsequently associated with self-rated health and depression symptoms. Discussion. The use of a 5-level categorical activity profile variable may allow more complex analyses of activity that capture the “whole person.” There is clearly a vulnerable group of low-activity individuals as well as a High Activity group that may represent the “active ageing” vision. PMID:24526690

  12. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life.

  13. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  14. Trunk extensor and flexor strength of long-distance race car drivers and physically active controls.

    PubMed

    Baur, Heiner; Muller, Steffen; Pilz, Frederike; Mayer, Patrizia; Mayer, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Seventy percent of motor sports athletes report low back pain. Information on the physical capacity of race car drivers is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum trunk extensor and flexor strength of elite race car drivers and physically active controls. Thirteen elite race car drivers and 13 controls were measured in concentric mode for maximal trunk flexion and extension at 60° x s(-1) and 120° x s(-1). Peak torque (mean ± s) at 60° x s(-1) in trunk extension was 283 ± 80 N x m in the drivers and 260 ± 88 N x m in controls (P > 0.05). At 120° x s(-1), drivers produced peak torques of 248 ± 55 N x m compared with 237 ± 74 N x m for controls (P > 0.05). Peak torques in flexion were less than in extension for both groups (60° x s(-1): drivers 181 ± 56 N x m, controls 212 ± 54 N x m, P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): drivers 191 ± 57 N x m, controls 207 ± 48 N x m, P > 0.05). Individual ratios of flexion to extension forces exhibited ratios of 0.88 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.93 (120° x s(-1)) for controls and 0.66 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.77 (120° x s(-1)) for drivers (60° x s(-1): P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): P > 0.05). The maximum strength performance capacity of the trunk muscles of elite motor sport athletes competing in long-distance racing did not differ from that of anthropometrically matched and physically active controls.

  15. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Harrah, C H; Chance, J M; Filos, S

    1982-05-01

    Two measures of social function designed for community studies of normal aging and mild senile dementia were evaluated in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. An examining and a reviewing neurologist and a neurologically trained nurse independently rated each on a Scale of Functional Capacity. Interrater reliability was high (examining vs. reviewing neurologist, r = .97; examining neurologist vs. nurse, tau b = .802; p less than .001 for both comparisons). Estimates correlated well with an established measure of social function and with results of cognitive tests. Alternate informants evaluated participants on the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. The Functional Activities Questionnaire was superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily scores. Used alone as a diagnostic tool, the Functional Activities Questionnaire was more sensitive than distinguishing between normal and demented individuals.

  16. Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Older Adults Delivered via Videoconferencing: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…

  17. 78 FR 14402 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection: Driver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection: Driver Qualification Files AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...., Washington, DC between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., e.t., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays....

  18. Hippocampal activity mediates the relationship between circadian activity rhythms and memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Mumford, Jeanette A; Schnyer, David M

    2015-08-01

    Older adults experience parallel changes in sleep, circadian rhythms, and episodic memory. These processes appear to be linked such that disruptions in sleep contribute to deficits in memory. Although more variability in circadian patterns is a common feature of aging and predicts pathology, little is known about how alterations in circadian activity rhythms within older adults influence new episodic learning. Following 10 days of recording sleep-wake patterns using actigraphy, healthy older adults underwent fMRI while performing an associative memory task. The results revealed better associative memory was related to more consistent circadian activity rhythms, independent of total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and level of physical activity. Moreover, hippocampal activity during successful memory retrieval events was positively correlated with associative memory accuracy and circadian activity rhythm (CAR) consistency. We demonstrated that the link between consistent rhythms and associative memory performance was mediated by hippocampal activity. These findings provide novel insight into how the circadian rhythm of sleep-wake cycles are associated with memory in older adults and encourage further examination of circadian activity rhythms as a biomarker of cognitive functioning.

  19. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  20. Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity as Perceived by Older Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain…

  1. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  2. Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

  3. Sensorimotor Peripheral Nerve Function and Physical Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Newman, Anne B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Jakicic, John M.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Zivkovic, Sasa; Dam, Tien; Caserotti, Paolo; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n=328, age 78.8±4.7 years), conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction (latencies, amplitudes: CMAP and SNAP for motor and sensory amplitude, respectively), 1.4g/10g monofilament (dorsum of the great toe), and neuropathy symptoms. ANOVA and multivariate linear regression modeled PN associations with PA (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and SenseWear Armband). After multivariable adjustment, better motor latency was associated with higher PASE scores (160.5±4.8 vs 135.6±6.7, p<0.01). Those without vs. with neuropathy symptoms had higher PASE scores (157.6±5.3 vs 132.9±7.1, p<0.01). Better vs. worse SNAP was associated with slightly more daily vigorous activity (9.5±0.8 vs. 7.3±0.7, p=0.05). Other PN measures were not associated with PA. Certain PN measures were associated with lower PA, suggesting a potential pathway for disability. PMID:26964668

  4. Increased activity in frontal motor cortex compensates impaired speech perception in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Grady, Cheryl L.; Alain, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Understanding speech in noisy environments is challenging, especially for seniors. Although evidence suggests that older adults increasingly recruit prefrontal cortices to offset reduced periphery and central auditory processing, the brain mechanisms underlying such compensation remain elusive. Here we show that relative to young adults, older adults show higher activation of frontal speech motor areas as measured by functional MRI during a syllable identification task at varying signal-to-noise ratios. This increased activity correlates with improved speech discrimination performance in older adults. Multivoxel pattern classification reveals that despite an overall phoneme dedifferentiation, older adults show greater specificity of phoneme representations in frontal articulatory regions than auditory regions. Moreover, older adults with stronger frontal activity have higher phoneme specificity in frontal and auditory regions. Thus, preserved phoneme specificity and upregulation of activity in speech motor regions provide a means of compensation in older adults for decoding impoverished speech representations in adverse listening conditions. PMID:27483187

  5. Notch activation as a driver of osteogenic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianning; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Jiang, Lichun; Salvo, Jason S; Zeng, Huan-Chang; Dawson, Brian; Bertin, Terry K; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Chen, Rui; Donehower, Lawrence A; Gannon, Francis; Lee, Brendan H

    2014-09-08

    Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is a deadly skeletal malignancy whose cause is unknown. We report here a mouse model of OS based on conditional expression of the intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD). Expression of the NICD in immature osteoblasts was sufficient to drive the formation of bone tumors, including OS, with complete penetrance. These tumors display features of human OS; namely, histopathology, cytogenetic complexity, and metastatic potential. We show that Notch activation combined with loss of p53 synergistically accelerates OS development in mice, although p53-driven OS is not Rbpj dependent, which demonstrates a dual dominance of the Notch oncogene and p53 mutation in the development of OS. Using this model, we also reveal the osteoblasts as the potential sources of OS.

  6. Education and Recreation Activities of Older Asian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Junhyoung; Dattilo, John; Heo, Jinmoo

    2011-01-01

    Older Asian immigrants experience a variety of challenges when attempting to adapt to life in a new society. Adjustment difficulties associated with cultural differences among older Asian immigrants and the host country may result in a certain levels of acculturative stress. This stress is negatively associated with health and quality of life. In…

  7. Violence Against Older Women: Activism, Social Justice, and Social Change.

    PubMed

    Mears, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Older Women's Network (OWN) of New South Wales (NSW) is an activist organization dedicated to promoting the rights of older women, preventing gender- and aged-based violence, and working toward social justice and social change. In 2007, the OWN NSW Inc. initiated the Prevention of Violence Against Older Women Working Party to research and document current knowledge and understanding of violence against older women; focus public attention on this issue; and bring about changes in public perceptions, policy, and practice. Presented here is an overview of the major achievements of the OWN Working Party, including a meta-analysis of three research projects, with their findings, recommendations, and outcomes. In conclusion, research conducted by activist organizations such as OWN can make a significant contribution to furthering our understanding of violence against older women and to policy and practice.

  8. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided.

  9. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  10. Forecasting the Solar Drivers of Severe Space Weather from Active-Region Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Solar drivers of severe space weather can be predicted from line-of-sight magnetograms, via a free-energy proxy measured from the neutral lines. This can be done in near real time. In addition to depending strongly on the free magnetic energy, an active region's chance of having a major eruption depends strongly on other aspects of the evolving magnetic field (e.g., its complexity and flux emergence).

  11. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  12. Understanding Older Adults' Physical Activity Behavior: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodesky, Janene M.; Kosma, Maria; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2006-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a health issue with serious consequences for older adults. Investigating physical activity promotion within a multi-theoretical approach may increase the predictive strength of physical activity determinants and facilitate the development and implementation of effective interventions for older adults. This article examines…

  13. "Activities of Older Adults" Survey: Tapping into Student Views of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtele, Sandy K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an exercise used in a life span developmental psychology course to tap into undergraduates' perceptions of activities of the elderly. Students were asked to generate items to be included in a hypothetical Activities of Older Adults survey (to be administered to people 65 years and older). Responses from 1,340 students over a…

  14. Age and physical activity status effects on appetite and mood state in older humans.

    PubMed

    Apolzan, John W; Flynn, Michael G; McFarlin, Brian K; Campbell, Wayne W

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the influences of age and chronic physical activity status on appetite and mood state. Groups of younger inactive, younger active, older inactive, and older active men and women completed questionnaires each waking hour, rating appetite and mood state for 1 day. Maximal oxygen consumption was 20% lower in older than in younger (p < 0.001) subjects, and 32% lower in inactive than in active (p < 0.001) subjects. Mean hunger (older, 4 +/- 1; younger, 5 +/- 1 arbitrary units (AU); p < 0.01) and desire to eat (older, 3 +/- 1; younger, 4 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.01) were lower in older than in younger subjects. Nadir arousal was higher for the active subjects (active, 3 +/- 1; inactive, 2 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.05). Nadir arousal, nadir pleasantness, and mean pleasantness were higher for the older subjects (p < 0.05). Physical activity status does not influence appetite or the age-associated declines in hunger or desire to eat. The increased nadir arousal of the physically active and older groups is consistent with these subjects experiencing less extreme sleepiness.

  15. A Physical Activity Program to Mobilize Older People: A Practical and Sustainable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter A.; Lee, Andy H.; Shilton, Trevor; Fisher, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, it remains difficult to motivate older adults to start and maintain regular physical activity. This study tested an innovative intervention for mobilizing older adults into a neighborhood-based walking program. Design and Methods: Researchers recruited a total of 260 healthy but…

  16. Physical Activity and Executive Control: Implications for Increased Cognitive Health during Older Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Charles H.; Belopolsky, Artem V.; Snook, Erin M.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Electrocortical and behavioral responses of low, moderate, and high physically active older adults where compared with a younger control group on neutral and incompatible conditions of a flankers task. Compared to younger adults, high and moderate active older adults exhibited increased event-related potentials component P3 amplitude for the…

  17. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  18. Measurement of activity in older adults: reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B; Nahm, E S; Orwig, D; Zimmerman, S S; Magaziner, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor (SAM) when used with older adults. A total of 30 subjects with a mean age of 86 +/- 6.1 participated in the study. Sixty one-minute walks were measured with the SAM, and two observers visually counted steps. Four participants wore the SAM for 6 to 48 hours and maintained activity diaries. The intraclass correlation for the SAM recordings was R = .84. There was an overall step counting accuracy of 96%. The diaries supported the SAM data for those who wore the SAM for extended periods. The SAM is an easy to use, comfortable, valid, and reliable measure of activity in older adults and particularly may be useful to triangulate measurement of activity in these individuals.

  19. Evaluation of Driver-vehicle Matching using Neck Muscle Activity and Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yoshiki; Umetsu, Daisuke; Ozaki, Shigeru

    Objective measurement of a car driver's feeling has been a subject of automobile researches. In the present study, we aimed at quantifying the matching between the physiological response of a driver and the vehicle motion. Assuming that the performance of a head stabilization mechanism, the vestibulo-collic reflex, affects driving feeling, we recorded the activity of neck muscles that help maintain the head position. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) using active electrodes and a compact amplifier. Vehicle acceleration and gas pedal movement were recorded with small accelerometers. Subjects were required to perform straight-line acceleration. Four road cars with different characteristics were used. EMG signals were filtered, full-wave rectified and averaged across trials. Main results are summarized as follows. First, the EMG response of a driver's neck muscle depended not only on vehicle acceleration but on its time derivative, jerk. A quantitative analysis showed that, for the data obtained with the four cars, the EMG profile can be reproduced by a linear sum of acceleration and jerk. The correlation coefficient, an index of goodness of matching, ranged from ~0.8 to ~0.95. Second, our analysis indicated that the relationship between the muscle response and the vehicle motion can be characterized by two parameters: the optimal weight for the jerk term and the optimal time lag. The current study proposes a method for characterizing a physiological response of a driver to dynamic vehicle motion. It remains to be investigated whether these parameters are related to the driving feeling.

  20. Using targeted messaging to increase physical activity in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Rachel E; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for older adults; however, motivating older adults to engage in and maintain optimal levels of physical activity can be challenging for health care providers. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether any evidence-based methods of delivery or particular content for targeted messaging exist that result in actual improvements in physical activity of older adults. Findings of the review demonstrate that messaging directed toward older adults to be physically active resulted in improvements in physical activity up to 1 year. Across studies many different modes of message delivery were shown to be effective. Message content, whether tailored or not, resulted in significant increases in physical activity. There is evidence to support the use of environmentally mediated messaging (i.e., local walking paths) for stronger results. Targeting the client's stage of change, having an activity partner if preferred, and scheduling physical activity also contribute to improved effects.

  1. A Gaggle of Raging Grannies: The Empowerment of Older Canadian Women through Social Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narushima, Miya

    2004-01-01

    This article explores a particular expression of social activism by older Canadian women to consider its implications for later life learning. 'Older women', despite their heterogeneity, have tended to be pathologized as a part of the 'problem' of ageing and languishing welfare societies--i.e. stereotyped as passive recipients of welfare and…

  2. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  3. Preserving older adults' routine outdoor activities in contrasting neighborhood environments through a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Salvo, Deborah; Banda, Jorge A; Ahn, David K; Chapman, James E; Gill, Thomas M; Fielding, Roger A; Demons, Jamehl; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Rosso, Andrea; Pahor, Marco; Frank, Lawrence D

    2017-03-01

    While neighborhood design can potentially influence routine outdoor physical activities (PA), little is known concerning its effects on such activities among older adults attempting to increase their PA levels. We evaluated the effects of living in neighborhoods differing in compactness on changes in routine outdoor activities (e.g., walking, gardening, yard work) among older adults at increased mobility disability risk participating in the LIFE-Pilot PA trial (2003-07; ages 70-89years; from Dallas, TX, San Francisco Bay area, Pittsburgh, PA, and Winston-Salem, NC). Analyses were conducted on the 400 LIFE-Pilot participants randomized to a one-year endurance-plus-strengthening PA intervention or health education control that completed one-year PA assessment (CHAMPS questionnaire). Outcomes of interest were exercise and leisure walking, walking for errands, and moderate-intensity gardening. Neighborhood compactness was assessed objectively using geographic information systems via a subsequent grant (2008-12). PA increased weekly exercise and leisure walking relative to control, irrespective of neighborhood compactness. However, walking for errands decreased significantly more in PA relative to control (net mean [SD] difference=16.2min/week [7.7], p=0.037), particularly among those living in less compact neighborhoods (net mean [SD] difference=29.8 [10.8] minutes/week, p=0.006). PA participants living in less compact neighborhoods maintained or increased participation in gardening and yard work to a greater extent than controls (net mean [SD] difference=29.3 [10.8] minutes/week, p=0.007). The results indicate that formal targeting of active transport as an adjunct to structured PA programs may be important to diminish potential compensatory responses in functionally impaired older adults. Structured endurance-plus-strengthening PA may help older adults maintain or increase such routine activities over time.

  4. Destinations That Older Adults Experience Within Their GPS Activity Spaces Relation to Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Meghan; Ashe, Maureen C.; Clarke, Philippa; McKay, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces. Regardless of neighborhood definition, adjusted associations between destinations and physical activity generally failed to reach statistical significance. However, within pedestrian and bicycling-based activity spaces each additional destination type was associated with 243.3 more steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0, 450.7). Traditional buffers may not accurately portray the geographic space or neighborhood resources experienced by older adults. Pedestrian and bicycling activity spaces elucidate the importance of destinations for facilitating active transportation. PMID:26783370

  5. “It’s good for me”: Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, E.; Slater, M.; Jeste, D.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity interventions to improve the physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but not available. Older adults with schizophrenia may have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of older adults with schizophrenia about barriers and facilitators to engage in physical activities that promote physical function. We conducted qualitative interviews with 16 older adults with schizophrenia. Data were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. Participants expressed interest in becoming more physically active for a variety of perceived benefits including psychiatric symptom management and maintenance of basic function. Key barriers and facilitators to physical activity emerged in five broad categories: Mental Health, No longer a spring chicken, Pride and Sense of Well-being, Comfort and Safety, and Belonging. Interventions in this population should address negative attitudes towards aging and promote routine physical activities that enhance well-being and companionship. PMID:23748553

  6. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state.

  7. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    PubMed

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies.

  8. Mature Stuff. Physical Activity for the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David K., Ed.

    This book on physical education for the older adult is divided into three parts. The first part contains a chapter that introduces the reader to the topic of aging in American society and ties that topic to the interests of health professionals. Chapters 2 through 6 address the foundation areas of health, physical education, recreation and dance…

  9. Considerations on the implementation and modeling of an active mass driver with electric torsional servomotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, Filippo; Venanzi, Ilaria; Comanducci, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    The current trend in full-scale applications of active mass drivers for mitigating buildings' vibrations is to rely on the use of electric servomotors and low friction transmission devices. While similar full-scale applications have been recently documented, there is still the need for deepening the understanding of the behavior of such active mass drivers, especially as it concerns their reliability in the case of extreme loading events. This paper presents some considerations arisen in the physical implementation of a prototype active mass driver system, fabricated by coupling an electric torsional servomotor with a ball screw transmission device, using state-of-the-art electronics and a high speed digital communication protocol between controller and servomotor drive. The prototype actuator is mounted on top of a scaled-down five-story frame structure, subjected to base excitation provided by a sliding table actuated by an electrodynamic shaker. The equations of motion are rigorously derived, at first, by considering the torque of the servomotor as the control input, in agreement with other literature work. Then, they are extended to the case where the servomotor operates under kinematic control, that is, by commanding its angular velocity instead of its torque, including control-structure-interaction effects. Experiments are carried out by employing an inherently stable collocated skyhook control algorithm, proving, on the one hand, the control effectiveness of the device but also revealing, on the other hand, the possibility of closed-loop system instability at high gains. Theoretical interpretation of the results clarifies that the dynamic behavior of the actuator plays a central role in determining its control effectiveness and is responsible for the observed stability issues, operating similarly to time delay effects. Numerical extension to the case of earthquake excitation confirms the control effectiveness of the device and highlights that different

  10. Stop and revive? The effectiveness of nap and active rest breaks for reducing driver sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher N; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two commonly utilized sleepiness countermeasures: a nap break and an active rest break. The effects of the countermeasures were evaluated by physiological (EEG), subjective, and driving performance measures. Participants completed 2 h of simulated driving, followed by a 15-min nap break or a 15-min active rest break, then completed the final hour of simulated driving. The nap break reduced EEG and subjective sleepiness. The active rest break did not reduce EEG sleepiness, with sleepiness levels eventually increasing, and resulted in an immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness. No difference was found between the two breaks for the driving performance measure. The immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness after the active rest break could leave drivers with erroneous perceptions of their sleepiness, particularly with increases of physiological sleepiness after the break.

  11. Building a foundation for systems change: increasing access to physical activity programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Lachenmayr, Sue; Mackenzie, Geraldine

    2004-10-01

    Although 25% of U.S. adults are physically inactive, this percentage increases dramatically for older adults. Organizational change theory guided a state health department in identifying system gaps and developing strategies to expand programming for seniors. A survey of provider agencies in New Jersey assessed (a) capacity for physical activity programs for older adults, (b) accessibility of programs, and (c) barriers to providing programs. One hundred sixty agencies provided physical activity programs to almost 184,000 individuals annually. Fewer than one half of the agencies provided exercise programs for people with disabilities, and only 44% provided in-home programs. Eighty-two percent of program providers wanted to expand programming but cited lack of trained instructors and peer leaders, inadequate facility space, insufficient funding, and limited transportation resources as barriers. Sustaining older adult behavior change requires infrastructure that will ensure access to diverse physical activities. This article provides strategies to expand access to physical activity programs for older adults.

  12. Emotion in younger and older adults: retrospective and prospective associations with sleep and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ready, Rebecca E; Marquez, David X; Akerstedt, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Older adults may have superior emotion regulation skills than younger adults and the authors suggest that as emotion regulation capacities increase with age, emotions may be less swayed by external events or even by internal traits. The current retrospective and prospective study further tested this hypothesis by determining if the emotions of younger adults were more reactive to two behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sleep) than for older adults. Results supported predictions. Specifically, retrospective self-reports and prospective diary data about physical activity and sleep exhibited stronger associations with emotion for younger than older persons. Implications for emotional well-being across the life span are discussed.

  13. Exploring beliefs around physical activity among older adults in rural Canada

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laurie; Rempel, Gwen; Murray, Terra C.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh; Vallance, Jeff K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods This qualitative description explored the perceptions of physical activity among older adults living in two rural communities in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults aged 69–94. Using content analysis techniques, transcribed interview data were coded and categorized. Results Participants identified socio-ecological elements facilitating physical activity such as improved health, independence, and mobility as well as social cohesion and having opportunities for physical activity. The most common perceived environmental barrier to engaging in physical activity was the fear of falling, particularly on the ice during the winter months. Participants also cited adverse weather conditions, aging (e.g., arthritis), and family members (e.g., encouraged to “take it easy”) as barriers to physical activity. Conclusion Hearing directly from older adults who reside in rural Saskatchewan was determined to have the potential to improve awareness of physical activity in rural communities to support the implementation of programs and practices that will facilitate active lifestyles for older adults. PMID:27834180

  14. Social activities of older men who require daily support and the purpose of such activities.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Michiyo; Saeki, Kazuko; Ueda, Izumi; Honda, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the social activities of older men who require daily support, and to clarify the purpose of such activities, in order to develop effective living support and preventive long-term care service, suitable for this population.Methods Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 older men. Data were analyzed using inductive and qualitative methods.Results Four categories of social activities were identified, and four categories of purposes of these social activities were extracted. The following were the identified social activities: maintenance of "comfortable relationships with others," including family, relatives, friends, and neighbors; "participation and use of services and programs with clear objectives and relationships with others," such as long-term care insurance system services, clubs for the elderly, and hobby groups; maintenance of "relationships with former colleagues, depending on their experience of working with them," where some individuals actively participated in gatherings with former colleagues, while others did not keep in touch at all; and participation in "activities to enrich their feelings and quality of life within their living space," such as reading, watching TV, and doing household chores. The purposes of the observed social activities were to build "relationships with society through communication with other people" and to have a "sense of security by spending time with people of the same age and with those older than them." Hence, participants engaged in clubs for the elderly, as well as in hobby groups. In addition, participants made time for exercising regularly, which maintained their cognitive function and was intended for the "maintenance and activation of their physical functions by continuing to exercise," and "continuing to learn by thinking." Furthermore, participants engaged in the exercise or hobby groups that they were interested in, in order to

  15. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  16. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  17. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  18. A longitudinal examination of sleep quality and physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.

  19. Physical activity in the older adults related to commuting and leisure, Maceió, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Ana Raquel de Carvalho; Novais, Francini Vilela; Andreoni, Solange; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the level of physical activity of older adults by commuting and leisure time and associated factors. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study carried out with a population-based sample of 319 older individuals in Maceió, AL, Northeastern Brazil, in 2009. The level of physical activity in leisure and commuting was measured by applying the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, long version. The variables analyzed were: age, schooling, sex, per capita income and perceived health. We used descriptive analysis, Fisher's exact test and multiple regression analysis of prevalence rates. RESULTS We classified 87.5% as insufficiently active in commuting, being significantly higher among those individuals with older ages, with more education and who feel dissatisfied with their physical health. The prevalence of older people who are insufficiently active in leisure time activity was 76.2%, being more frequent in women, in men with advanced age; older adults with lower per capita income, and dissatisfaction with comparative physical health and self-perceived mental health. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of insufficiently active was high in commuting and leisure time activities. Factors such as age, gender and income should be considered, especially with regards leisure, in order to ensure fairness in the development of policies to promote health and physical activity in this population. PMID:24626549

  20. Experiences of Habitual Physical Activity in Maintaining Roles and Functioning among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  2. Steps for Improving Physical Activity Orientation Among Health-care Providers of Older Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Attaining appropriate levels of physical activity can have many potential physiological and psychological benefits in older adults with cardiovascular disease. However, these individuals often report low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior. Older adults encounter many potential “barriers” to physical activity, but numerous studies have demonstrated the ability to positively influence this important health behavior using well-established behavior change theories and models. The information provided in this review is directed at health-care providers who have the potential to impact physical activity behaviors during regular, often brief, clinical interactions. In addition to providing the latest physical activity recommendations, this update will provide a brief summary of some of the more widely used behavioral skills and strategies for promoting physical activity in older adults with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25396112

  3. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  4. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  5. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  6. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  7. Physical activity and working memory in healthy older adults: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the effects of physical activity on working memory in older adults using both behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Older adults were assigned to either a higher or lower physical activity group, and event-related potentials were recorded during assessments of a modified Sternberg task. The results indicated that older adults in the higher physical activity group exhibited shorter response times, independent of the working memory load. Enhanced P3 and N1 amplitudes and a decreased P3 latency were observed in the higher physical activity group. These findings suggested that physical activity facilitates working memory by allocating more attentional resources and increasing the efficiency of evaluating the stimulus during the retrieval phase as well as engaging more attentional resources for the early discriminative processes during the encoding phase of a working memory task.

  8. Older People and Social Connectedness: How Place and Activities Keep People Engaged

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H.; Shim, Janet K.; Martinez, Airin D.; Barker, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    To understand how older adults perceive and navigate their neighborhoods, we examined the implications of activity in their neighborhoods for their health. We interviewed 38 adults (ages 62–85) who lived in San Francisco or Oakland, California. Seven key themes emerged: (1) people express a wide range of expectations for neighborliness, from “we do not bother each other” to “we have keys to each other's houses”, (2) social distance between “other” people impede a sense of connection, (3) ethnic differences in living arrangements affect activities and activity locations, (4) people try to stay busy, (5) people able to leave their homes do many activities outside their immediate residential neighborhoods, (6) access to a car is a necessity for most, and (7) it is unusual to plan for the future when mobility might become limited. Multiple locations influence older adults' health, including residential neighborhoods. Older adults value mobility, active lives, and social connections. PMID:22272374

  9. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  10. Viewing Marine Bacteria, Their Activity and Response to Environmental Drivers from Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, D. Jay; Ford, Tim E.; Colwell, Rita R.; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions. PMID:24477922

  11. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V-1s-1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up.

  12. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V−1s−1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up. PMID:25234244

  13. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines.

  14. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-02-19

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  15. Toward a typology of technology users: how older people experience technology's potential for active aging.

    PubMed

    Gjevjon, Edith Roth; Oderud, Tone; Wensaas, Gro H; Moen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines an emerging typology of older users of information and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate active aging. Through inductive data analysis from focus groups, iterative workshops, and personal interviews, we suggest three types of technology users. These types are "the Excluded," "the Entertained," and "the Networker." Clearly, ICT offers several benefits to those who are enthusiastic and frequent users, exemplified as the Entertained and the Networker. Hence, our findings support the notion of technology as a tool to maintain or increase an older person's engagement and activity level. Conversely, for those reluctant, uninterested, or incapable of using ICT, such potentials are limited and imply fewer opportunities for participation in activities.

  16. Effects of Non-Driving Cognitive Activity on Driver's Eye Movement and Their Individual Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper investigates effects on driver's eye movement when the driver is distracted by a secondary cognitive task that demands a high mental workload. By observing drivers behavior in a fixed-base driving simulator, we analyze how the time lengths of eye fixations change when a driver is imposed to perform a cognitive secondary task. The results show that two types (Type 1: the number of short fixations increases, Type 2: the number of short fixations decreases) are found. Interestingly, our data show that both types can be seen even in one driver depending on traffic conditions. It is also shown that likelihood of occurring Type 1 or Type 2 effects depends on driver. The data suggest that it is possible to predict which effect is likely to occur for a driver if we analyze his or her eye movement under normal conditions. With these findings, this study developed and improved a driver-adaptable algorithm for detecting the state of being under high mental workload. The results suggest that the time length of an eye fixation can be useful index at least several drivers.

  17. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gothe, Neha P.; Kendall, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults. PMID:28138500

  18. Therapy students' recommendations of physical activity for managing persistent low back pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Cormac G; Schofield, Patricia; Martin, Denis J

    2013-07-01

    Negative views of older adults can lead to suboptimal care. For older adults with persistent low back pain (LBP), promotion of physical activity by health care professionals is important. Health care professionals' views of older adults are influenced by their training. This study aimed to compare recommendations for physical activity for managing persistent LBP offered by students in physiotherapy and occupational therapy to an older person vs. a younger person. In a cross-sectional online survey, participants (N = 77) randomly received a vignette of either a 40-yr-old or 70-yr-old patient with persistent LBP. Other than age, the vignettes were identical. There was no difference between the younger and older vignettes in the likelihood of participants making overall appropriate physical activity recommendations--63% vs. 59%, OR (95% CI) = 1.19 (0.48-2.99), p = .71--although there was a trend toward age bias on recommendations specific to daily activity. Postqualification education may be where ageist views need to be addressed.

  19. Memory monitoring performance and PFC activity are associated with 5-HTTLPR genotype in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Beevers, Christopher G.; McGeary, John E.; Schnyer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults show extensive variability in cognitive performance, including episodic memory. A portion of this variability could potentially be explained by genetic factors. Recent literature shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays an important role in memory processes, as enhancements of brain serotonin have led to memory improvement. Here, we have begun to explore genetic contributions to the performance and underlying brain activity associated with source memory monitoring. Using a source recognition memory task during fMRI scanning, this study offers evidence that older adults who carry a short allele (S-car) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the SLC6A4 gene show specific deficits in source memory monitoring relative to older adults who are homozygous for the long allele (LL). These deficits are accompanied by less neural activity in regions of prefrontal cortex that have been shown to support accurate memory monitoring. Moreover, while the older adult LL group’s behavioral performance does not differ from younger adults, their brain activation reveals evidence of compensatory activation that likely supports their higher performance level. These results provide preliminary evidence that the long-allele homozygous profile is cognitively beneficial to older adults, particularly for memory functioning. PMID:22705442

  20. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity as perceived by older adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain insight into facilitators and barriers to engaging into PA. Fourteen in-depth interviews and four focus groups were undertaken, with a total of 40 older adults with mild and moderate ID included in the analysis. NVivo software was used for analysing the transcribed verbatim interviews. In total, 30 codes for facilitators and barriers were identified. Themes concerning facilitators to PA were enjoyment, support from others, social contact and friendship, reward, familiarity, and routine of activities. Themes concerning barriers to PA were health and physiological factors, lack of self-confidence, lack of skills, lack of support, transportation problems, costs, and lack of appropriate PA options and materials. The results of the present study suggest that older adults with ID may benefit from specific PA programs, adapted to their individual needs and limitations. Results can be used for developing feasible health promotion programs for older adults with ID.

  1. Brain activation during interference resolution in young and older adults: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, David C; Zacks, Rose T; Slade, Jill M

    2010-04-01

    A rapid event-related fMRI arrow flanker task was used to study aging-associated decline in executive functions related to interference resolution. Older adults had more difficulty responding to Incongruent cues during the flanker task compared to the young adults; the response time difference between the Incongruent and Congruent conditions in the older group was over 50% longer compared to the young adults. In the frontal regions, differential activation ("Incongruent-Congruent" conditions) was observed in the inferior and middle frontal gyri in within-group analyses for both groups. However, the cluster was smaller in the older group and the centroid location was shifted by 19.7 mm. The left superior and medial frontal gyri also appeared to be specifically recruited by older adults during interference resolution, partially driven by errors. The frontal right lateralization found in the young adults was maintained in the older adults during successful trials. Interestingly, bilateral activation was observed when error trials were combined with successful trials highlighting the influence of brain activation associated with errors during cognitive processing. In conclusion, aging appears to result in modified functional regions that may contribute to reduced interference resolution. In addition, error processing should be considered and accounted for when studying age-related cognitive changes as errors may confound the interpretation of task specific age-related activation differences.

  2. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  3. Does neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  4. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  5. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  6. The Prescribed Amount of Physical Activity in Randomized Clinical Trials in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past two decades, a consensus has formed that increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults are important for physical and cognitive health. Although there is strong evidence that regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases, a major concern is ensuring that…

  7. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  8. Relation of Physical Activity to Memory Functioning in Older Adults: The Memory Workout Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.; Plude, Dana J.

    2001-01-01

    The Memory Workout, a CD-ROM program designed to help older adults increase changes in physical and cognitive activity influencing memory, was tested with 24 subjects. Results revealed a significant relationship between exercise time, exercise efficacy, and cognitive function, as well as interest in improving memory and physical activity.…

  9. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature…

  10. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  11. Electronics drivers for high voltage dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) can be used in actuation, sensing and energy harvesting applications, but driving the DEAP based actuators and generators has three main challenges from a power electronics standpoint, i.e. high voltage (around 2.5 kV), nonlinearity, and capacitive behavior. In this paper, electronics divers for heating valves, loud speakers, incremental motors, and energy harvesting are reviewed, studied and developed in accordance with their corresponding specifications. Due to the simplicity and low power capacity (below 10W), the reversible Fly-back converters with both magnetic and piezoelectric transformers are employed for the heating valve and incremental motor application, where only ON/OFF regulation is adopted for energy saving; as for DEAP based energy harvesting, the noisolated Buck/Boost converter is used, due to the system high power capacity (above 100W), but the voltage balancing across the series-connected high voltage IGBTs is a critical issue and accordingly a novel gate driver circuitry is proposed and equipped; due to the requirements of the audio products, such as low distortion and noise, the multi-level Buck converter based Class-D amplifier, because of its high control linearity, is implemented for the loud speaker applications. A synthesis among those converter topologies and control techniques is given; therefore, for those DEAP based applications, their diversity and similarity of electronics drivers, as well as the key technologies employed are analyzed. Therefore a whole picture of how to choose the proper topologies can be revealed. Finally, the design guidelines in order to achieve high efficiency and reliability are discussed.

  12. Cortical activity predicts which older adults recognize speech in noise and when.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-03-04

    Speech recognition in noise can be challenging for older adults and elicits elevated activity throughout a cingulo-opercular network that is hypothesized to monitor and modify behaviors to optimize performance. A word recognition in noise experiment was used to test the hypothesis that cingulo-opercular engagement provides performance benefit for older adults. Healthy older adults (N = 31; 50-81 years of age; mean pure tone thresholds <32 dB HL from 0.25 to 8 kHz, best ear; species: human) performed word recognition in multitalker babble at 2 signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = +3 or +10 dB) during a sparse sampling fMRI experiment. Elevated cingulo-opercular activity was associated with an increased likelihood of correct recognition on the following trial independently of SNR and performance on the preceding trial. The cingulo-opercular effect increased for participants with the best overall performance. These effects were lower for older adults compared with a younger, normal-hearing adult sample (N = 18). Visual cortex activity also predicted trial-level recognition for the older adults, which resulted from discrete decreases in activity before errors and occurred for the oldest adults with the poorest recognition. Participants demonstrating larger visual cortex effects also had reduced fractional anisotropy in an anterior portion of the left inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, which projects between frontal and occipital regions where activity predicted word recognition. Together, the results indicate that older adults experience performance benefit from elevated cingulo-opercular activity, but not to the same extent as younger adults, and that declines in attentional control can limit word recognition.

  13. 77 FR 74267 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection Request: Driver and Carrier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... used by motor carriers or enforcement personnel to harass drivers and/or monitor driver productivity... productivity monitoring or would be barred by other statutory or regulatory provisions; Whether use of EOBRs... operators. However, the devices may be used to monitor productivity of the operators. As a result of...

  14. Altered activation of the antagonist muscle during practice compromises motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Kwon, MinHyuk; Fox, Emily J; Christou, Evangelos A

    2014-08-15

    Aging impairs the activation of muscle; however, it remains unclear whether it contributes to deficits in motor learning in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether altered activation of antagonistic muscles in older adults during practice inhibits their ability to transfer a motor task ipsilaterally. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 yr; 10 men, 10 women) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 yr; 10 men, 10 women) participated. Half of the subjects practiced 100 trials of a rapid goal-directed task with ankle dorsiflexion and were tested 1 day later with elbow flexion (transfer). The rest did not perform any ankle practice and only performed the task with elbow flexion. The goal-directed task consisted of rapid movement (180 ms) to match a spatiotemporal target. For each limb, we recorded the EMG burst activity of the primary agonist and antagonist muscles. The rate of improvement during task acquisition (practice) was similar for young and older adults (P > 0.3). In contrast, only young adults were able to transfer the task to the upper limb. Specifically, young adults who practiced ankle dorsiflexion exhibited ∼30% (P < 0.05) lower movement error and ∼60% (P < 0.05) lower antagonist EMG burst activity compared with older adults who received equal practice and young adults who did not receive any ankle dorsiflexion practice. These results provide novel evidence that the deficient motor learning in older adults may be related to a differential activation of the antagonist muscle, which compromises their ability to acquire the task during practice.

  15. Outcomes of a multicomponent physical activity program for sedentary, community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Toto, Pamela E; Raina, Ketki D; Holm, Margo B; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Rubinstein, Elaine N; Rogers, Joan C

    2012-07-01

    This single-group repeated-measures pilot study evaluated the effects of a 10-wk, multicomponent, best-practice exercise program on physical activity, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), physical performance, and depression in community-dwelling older adults from low-income households (N = 15). Comparison of pretest and posttest scores using a one-tailed paired-samples t test showed improvement (p < .05) for 2 of 3 ADL domains on the Activity Measure-Post Acute Care and for 6 physical-performance measures of the Senior Fitness Test. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for 3 of 8 physical activity measures using the Yale Physical Activity Scale. Retention rate was 78.9%, and the adherence rate for group sessions was 89.7%. Results suggest that participation in a multicomponent, best-practice physical activity program may positively affect sedentary, community-dwelling older adults' physical activity, ADL performance, and physical performance.

  16. Exercise and physical activity in older adults with knee pain: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Elaine E.; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M.; Foster, Nadine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe and explore current exercise and physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain in the UK. Methods. A survey was mailed to 2234 adults ≥50 years of age registered with one general practice within the UK to determine the presence and severity of knee pain and levels of physical activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 questionnaire responders with knee pain. Results. The questionnaire response rate was 59% (n = 1276) and 611 respondents reported knee pain. Only ∼40% of individuals with knee pain were sufficiently active to meet physical activity recommendations. Interviews revealed individual differences in the type and setting of physical activity completed and some self-monitored their symptoms in response to physical activity in order to guide future behaviour. Conclusion. Innovative interventions that can be adapted to suit individual needs and preferences are required to help older adults with knee pain become more physically active. PMID:25187640

  17. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  18. Changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in older adults living in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunhwan; Kim, Jinhee; Han, Eun Sook; Chae, Songi; Ryu, Mikyung; Ahn, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity may be beneficial in preserving cognition in late life. This study examined the association between baseline and changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older people. Data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, with 2605 aged 65 years and older subjects interviewed in 2006 and followed up for 2 years. Cognitive decline was defined by calculating the Reliable Change Index using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Physical activity levels were categorized as sedentary, low, or high. Changes in physical activity were classified as inactive, decreaser, increaser, or active. Logistic regression analysis of baseline and changes in physical activity with cognitive decline was performed. Compared with the sedentary group at baseline, both the low and high activity groups were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The active (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.68) and increaser (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI 0.27-0.74) group, compared with the inactive counterpart, demonstrated a significantly lower likelihood of cognitive decline. Older adults who remained active or increased activity over time had a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Engagement in physical activity in late life may have cognitive health benefits.

  19. Activities with higher influence on quality of life in older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Ito, Emi

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of 10 activities on quality of life (QOL) in Japanese older adults and to verify which activities had higher influence on QOL level. The subjects were 465 Japanese community-dwelling older adults. QOL was assessed by the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) and the complementary assessment to measure the QOL of older adults (WHOQOL-OLD) module. Activity and participation were measured through a questionnaire concerning frequency of engagement in several activities. The activity with the highest influence on WHOQOL-BREF was physical activity (β = 0.209, p < 0.01), followed by art activity (β = 0.169, p < 0.01) and reading and writing (β = 0.141, p < 0.01). The activity with the highest influence on WHOQOL-OLD was social activity (β = 0.222, p < 0.01), followed by reading and writing activity (β = 0.118, p < 0.05). The limitations of this study were the proportion of subjects and the place of recruitment. Further studies investigating in deep the relation between QOL and activity and participation, and other subjective and environmental factors that may influence the QOL are still needed among a higher and homogeneous subjects sample.

  20. Cerebral Activation During Initial Motor Learning Forecasts Subsequent Sleep-Facilitated Memory Consolidation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    King, Bradley R; Saucier, Philippe; Albouy, Genevieve; Fogel, Stuart M; Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Klann, Juliane; Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Classen, Joseph; Karni, Avi; Doyon, Julien

    2016-01-21

    Older adults exhibit deficits in motor memory consolidation; however, little is known about the cerebral correlates of this impairment. We thus employed fMRI to investigate the neural substrates underlying motor sequence memory consolidation, and the modulatory influence of post-learning sleep, in healthy older adults. Participants were trained on a motor sequence and retested following an 8-h interval including wake or diurnal sleep as well as a 22-h interval including a night of sleep. Results demonstrated that a post-learning nap improved offline consolidation across same- and next-day retests. This enhanced consolidation was reflected by increased activity in the putamen and the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, regions that have previously been implicated in sleep-dependent neural plasticity in young adults. Moreover, for the first time in older adults, the neural substrates subserving initial motor learning, including the putamen, cerebellum, and parietal cortex, were shown to forecast subsequent consolidation depending on whether a post-learning nap was afforded. Specifically, sufficient activation in a motor-related network appears to be necessary to trigger sleep-facilitated consolidation in older adults. Our findings not only demonstrate that post-learning sleep can enhance motor memory consolidation in older adults, but also provide the system-level neural correlates of this beneficial effect.

  1. Brain activation changes during locomotion in middle-aged to older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Manuel E; Holtzer, Roee; Chaparro, Gioella; Jean, Kharine; Balto, Julia M; Sandroff, Brian M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Motl, Robert W

    2016-11-15

    Mobility and cognitive impairments are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and are expected to worsen with increasing age. However, no studies, to date, in part due to limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, have examined changes in brain activation patterns during active locomotion in older patients with MS. This study used functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to evaluate real-time neural activation differences in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) between middle-aged to older adults with MS and healthy controls during single (Normal Walk; NW) and dual-task (Walking While Talking; WWT) locomotion tasks. Eight middle-aged to older adults with MS and eight healthy controls underwent fNIRS recording while performing the NW and WWT tasks with an fNIRS cap consisting of 16 optodes positioned over the forehead. The MS group had greater elevations in PFC oxygenation levels during WWT compared to NW than healthy controls. There was no walking performance difference between groups during locomotion. These findings suggest that middle-aged to older individuals with MS might be able to achieve similar levels of performance through the use of increased brain activation. This study is the first to investigate brain activation changes during the performance of simple and divided-attention locomotion tasks in MS using fNIRS.

  2. Assessing Daily Physical Activity in Older Adults: Unraveling the Complexity of Monitors, Measures, and Methods.

    PubMed

    Schrack, Jennifer A; Cooper, Rachel; Koster, Annemarie; Shiroma, Eric J; Murabito, Joanne M; Rejeski, W Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B

    2016-08-01

    At the 67th Gerontological Society of America Annual Meeting, a preconference workshop was convened to discuss the challenges of accurately assessing physical activity in older populations. The advent of wearable technology (eg, accelerometers) to monitor physical activity has created unprecedented opportunities to observe, quantify, and define physical activity in the real-world setting. These devices enable researchers to better understand the associations of physical activity with aging, and subsequent health outcomes. However, a consensus on proper methodological use of these devices in older populations has not been established. To date, much of the validation research regarding device type, placement, and data interpretation has been performed in younger, healthier populations, and translation of these methods to older populations remains problematic. A better understanding of these devices, their measurement properties, and the data generated is imperative to furthering our understanding of daily physical activity, its effects on the aging process, and vice versa. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highlights of the preconference workshop, including properties of the different types of accelerometers, the methodological challenges of employing accelerometers in older study populations, a brief summary of ongoing aging-related research projects that utilize different types of accelerometers, and recommendations for future research directions.

  3. A trend analysis of global fire activity. Is it land use or climate the main driver?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Silva, Joao M. N.; Lopez-Saldaña, Gerardo; Pereira, Jose M. C.

    2016-04-01

    We perform a global trend analysis of active fire counts at 0.5o spatial resolution, using 156 months (January 2001 - December 2013) of MODIS Climate Modelling Grid data (TERRA). We use the Contextual Mann-Kendall (CMK) test to assess the statistical significance at cell level and found that 13% of the global land area displays statistically significant active fire count trends, with a slight predominance of negative trends (50.63% of the total significant cells). We perform the same trend analysis with the unexplained variability (residuals) between active fires and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that is used as a proxy for climate. There is agreement between the main patterns from the trend analysis coming from the residuals and the active fire trends, implying that the main contemporary fire trends are not climate driven. Spatially coherent patches with significant trends were found in all continents (with the obvious exception of Antarctica). The majority of significant trends occur in areas of high fire incidence, and both increasing and decreasing trends appear to be associated with land use change processes. The analysis reveals large negative trends at the Sahel and between Russia and Kazakhstan, whereas a massive and coherent positive trend appears in southeastern Asia. Smaller patches of positive trends appear in southeastern United States and in Mexico, as well as in Brazil and between Argentina and Paraguay, and in Asia in India. There are also negative trends in Brazil, Argentina and in Australia. The study highlights the land use activities as the main driver of these trends, but also the need for data driven analyses and longer time series for future studies in order to gain better knowledge on fire occurrence.

  4. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  5. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  6. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  7. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  8. A Cost Analysis of a Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3x weekly for 8 weeks, 2x weekly for weeks 9-24 and we...

  9. Outdoor Built Environment Barriers and Facilitators to Activity among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Huang, Deborah L.; Simonovich, Shannon D.; Belza, Basia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain better understanding of how the built environment impacts neighborhood-based physical activity among midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Design and methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 adults over age 50, which used an assistive device and lived in King County, Washington, U.S. In addition,…

  10. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  11. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  12. Prevention Activities for Older Adults: Social Structures and Personal Competencies That Maintain Useful Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…

  13. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  14. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  15. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  16. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  17. Active microorganisms as drivers of dynamic processes in soil: integration of basic teaching into research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally lecture courses, seminars and even practical training are disconnected from real experimental studies and from ongoing research projects. As a result students passively participate in lectures and are helpless when they come to the laboratory to prepare their BSc or MSc theses. We introduce a training course, which is developed for Bachelor students to integrate the basic knowledge on soil microbiology and modern microbiological methods in ecological studies. The training course is focused on the importance of active microbial biomass as biogeochemical driver of soil processes. According to our concept soil functioning is closely related to and depends on the microbial activities, and only active microorganisms drive all processes. Despite this importance of active microorganisms, the most of methods are focused on the estimation of the total microbial biomass and fail to evaluate its activity. Our course demonstrates how the active physiological state of soil microorganisms can be related to the activity indicators such as respiration, molecular biomarkers and viable cell compartments (ATP, PLFA, RNA) determined in situ in soil. Each lecture begins with the set of provocative questions "What is wrong?" which help students to activate their knowledge from previous lectures. Information on on-going soil incubation experiments is integrated in the lectures as a special block. The students are required not only to learn the existing methods but to compare them and to evaluate critically the applicability of these methods to explain the results of on-going experiments. The seminars foreseen within training course are focused on critical discussions of the protocols and their adaptations to current experimental tasks. During practical part of training courses the students are associated in small research groups with a certain ecological tasks. Each group uses soil sub-samples from ongoing experiments and thus, the experimental data obtaining during the

  18. Active coping, personal satisfaction, and attachment to land in older African-American farmers.

    PubMed

    Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-05-01

    Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.

  19. Losing Faith and Using Faith: Older African Americans Discuss Spirituality, Religious Activities, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jin Hui; Lewis, Lisa M.; Barg, Frances K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Older African Americans are often under diagnosed and under treated for depression. Given that older African Americans are more likely than whites to identify spirituality as important in depression care, we sought to understand how spirituality may play a role in the way they conceptualize and deal with depression in order to inform possible interventions aimed at improving the acceptability and effectiveness of depression treatment. Design Cross-sectional qualitative interview study of older African American primary care patients. Participants and Setting Forty-seven older African American patients recruited from primary care practices in the Baltimore, MD area, interviewed in their homes. Measurements Semi-structured interviews lasting approximately 60 minutes. Interviews were transcribed and themes related to spirituality in the context of discussing depression were identified using a grounded-theory approach. Main Results Participants in this study held a faith-based explanatory model of depression with a particular emphasis on the cause of depression and what to do about it. Specifically, participants described depression as being due to a “loss of faith” and faith and spiritual/religious activities were thought to be empowering in the way they can work together with medical treatments to provide the strength for healing to occur. Conclusions The older African Americans in this study described an intrinsically spiritual explanatory model of depression. Addressing spirituality in the clinical encounter may lead to improved detection of depression and treatments that are more congruent with patient’s beliefs and values. PMID:19156471

  20. Adherence to a Videogame-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Erin M.; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the older adult population. Evidence suggests that they engage in limited physical activity. Interventions are needed that are tailored around their unique limitations. An active videogame-based physical activity program that can be offered at a treatment facility can overcome these barriers and increase motivation to engage in physical activity. The purpose of this report is to describe the adherence to a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect® for Xbox® 360 game system (Microsoft®, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive longitudinal study among 34 older adults with schizophrenia to establish the adherence to an active videogame-based physical activity program. In our ongoing program, once a week for 6 weeks, participants played an active videogame, using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system, for 30 minutes. Adherence was measured with a count of sessions attended and with the total minutes attended out of the possible total minutes of attendance (180 minutes). Results: Thirty-four adults with schizophrenia enrolled in the study. The mean number of groups attended was five out of six total (standard deviation=2), and the mean total minutes attended were 139 out of 180 possible (standard deviation=55). Fifty percent had perfect attendance. Conclusions: Older adults with schizophrenia need effective physical activity programs. Adherence to our program suggests that videogames that use the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system are an innovative way to make physical activity accessible to this population. PMID:26192371

  1. Gender differences in physical activity patterns among older adults who fall☆

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Albert, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study describes gender differences in the level and pattern of physical activity in groups of older adults who were frequent fallers, intermittent fallers, or non-fallers. Methods Interviews were conducted with adults aged 50 years and older (N = 1834) at senior centers across Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2011. Self-reported falls and validated measures of physical activity were collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Results Complete follow-up data were available for 1487 participants. Men who fell frequently decreased in recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work compared to the intermittent fallers and non-fallers. This association remained even when controlling for baseline health status. All women—regardless of fall group—engaged in similar levels of recreational/leisure activity and household/yard work over time. For both men and women, frequent fallers also showed a greater decrease in walking activities compared to intermittent fallers and non-fallers. Discussion Frequent falling among older adults is associated with declines in common leisure, household, and walking activities. The effect of falling frequency on physical activity appears to affect men and women differently, generating the hypothesis that interventions to promote physical activity among fallers need to be gender specific. PMID:25535677

  2. Trajectory of Declines in Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Women: Social Cognitive Influences

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katherine S.; Motl, Robert W.; White, Siobhan M.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Hu, Liang; Doerksen, Shawna E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies examining physical activity behavior suggest that activity levels decline with age. Such declines are particularly problematic among older adults in light of the research suggesting a protective effect of physical activity on numerous physical health outcomes associated with independent living. Despite a growing recognition of the importance of a physically active lifestyle, little is known about the role of demographic and psychosocial variables on this trajectory of change. In this study, the roles played by outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and functional limitations on changes in physical activity levels over a 2-year period in older women were assessed using latent growth curve modeling. Data were obtained from 249 community-dwelling older women (M age = 68.12, n = 81 Black, and n = 168 White). Demographic, health status, and psychosocial data were collected via self-report upon entry into the study. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and again at 12 and 24 months. As expected, physical activity declined over the 2-year period. Self-efficacy demonstrated an indirect association with the trajectory of decline in physical activity through functional limitations. Importantly, the pattern of relationships appears independent of demographic factors and chronic health conditions. PMID:19528360

  3. Trajectory of declines in physical activity in community-dwelling older women: social cognitive influences.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Edward; Hall, Katherine S; Motl, Robert W; White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Hu, Liang; Doerksen, Shawna E

    2009-09-01

    Studies examining physical activity behavior suggest that activity levels decline with age. Such declines are particularly problematic among older adults in light of the research suggesting a protective effect of physical activity on numerous physical health outcomes associated with independent living. Despite a growing recognition of the importance of a physically active lifestyle, little is known about the role of demographic and psychosocial variables on this trajectory of change. In this study, the roles played by outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and functional limitations on changes in physical activity levels over a 2-year period in older women were assessed using latent growth curve modeling. Data were obtained from 249 community-dwelling older women (M age = 68.12, n = 81 Black, and n = 168 White). Demographic, health status, and psychosocial data were collected via self-report upon entry into the study. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and again at 12 and 24 months. As expected, physical activity declined over the 2-year period. Self-efficacy demonstrated an indirect association with the trajectory of decline in physical activity through functional limitations. Importantly, the pattern of relationships appears independent of demographic factors and chronic health conditions.

  4. An Active Substrate Driver for Enabling Mixed-Voltage SOI Systems-On-A-Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, S. A.; Blalock, B. J.; Mojarradi, M. M.; Li, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    The current trend for space application systems is towards fully integrated systems-on-a-chip. To facilitate this drive, high-voltage transistors must reside on the same substrate as low-voltage transistors. These systems must also be radiation tolerant, particularly for space missions such as the Europa Lander and Titan Explorer. SOI CMOS technology offers high levels of radiation hardness. As a result, a high-voltage lateral MOSFET has been developed in a partially-depleted (PD) SOI technology. Utilizing high voltages causes a parasitic transistor to have non-negligible effects on a circuit. Several circuit architectures have been used to compensate for the radiation induced threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back-channel transistor. However, a new architecture for high-voltage systems must be employed to bias the substrate to voltage levels insuring all parasitic transistors remain off. An active substrate driver has been developed to accomplish task. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. A Structured Physical Activity and Fitness Programme for Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of a Cluster-Randomised Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schijndel-Speet, M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; van Wijck, R.; van Montfort, K. C. A. G. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical activity level of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is extremely low, and their fitness levels are far beneath accepted norms for older people with normal intelligence and comparable with frail older people. A physical activity programme, including an education programme, was developed for older adults with…

  6. Are Older Adults Physically Active Enough – A Matter of Assessment Method? The Generation 100 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zisko, Nina; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for general health. As a result, adults around the world are recommended to undertake regular PA of either absolute or relative intensity. Traditionally, adherence to PA recommendation is assessed by accelerometers that record absolute intensity thresholds. Since ageing often results in a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), older adults (aged > 65 years) might be more susceptible to not meeting the PA recommendation when measured in absolute terms. The aim of the present study was to compare the adherence to the PA recommendation using both absolute and relative thresholds. Additionally, we aimed to report the reference values for overall PA in a large sample of Norwegian older adults. Methods PA was assessed for 7 days using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer in 1219 older adults (624 females) aged 70–77 years. Overall PA was measured as counts per minute (CPM) and steps. Absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) thresholds were applied to quantify adherence to PA recommendation. The relative MVPA thresholds were developed specifically for the Generation 100 population sample. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Results Proportions meeting PA recommendation were 29% and 71% when utilizing absolute and relative MVPA, respectively. More females met the relative PA recommendation compared to males. Overall PA was higher among the youngest age group. Older adults with medium- and high levels of CRF were more physically active, compared to those with the lowest levels of CRF. Conclusion This is the first study to compare adherence to PA recommendation, using absolute and relative intensity thresholds among older adults. The present study clearly illustrates the consequences of using different methodological approaches to surveillance of PA across age, gender and CRF in a population of older adults. PMID:27893785

  7. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.

  8. Executive control function, brain activation and white matter hyperintensities in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Vijay K.; Aizenstein, Howard; Guralnik, Jack; Newman, Anne B.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher; Studenski, Stephanie; Launer, Lenore; Pahor, Marco; Williamson, Jeff; Rosano, Caterina

    2009-01-01

    Context Older adults responding to executive control function (ECF) tasks show greater brain activation on functional MRI (fMRI). It is not clear whether greater fMRI activation indicates a strategy to compensate for underlying brain structural abnormalities while maintaining higher performance. Objective To identify the patterns of fMRI activation in relationship with ECF performance and with brain structural abnormalities. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Main variables of interest: fMRI activation, accuracy while performing an ECF task (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), volume of white matter hyperintensities and of total brain atrophy. Setting Cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Participants Data were obtained on 25 older adults (20 women, 81 years mean age). Outcome Measure Accuracy (number of correct response / total number of responses) while performing the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Results Greater accuracy was significantly associated with greater peak fMRI activation, from ECF regions, including left middle frontal gyrus and right posterior parietal cortex. Greater WMH was associated with lower activation within accuracy-related regions. The interaction of accuracy by white matter hyperintensities volume was significant within the left posterior parietal region. Specifically, the correlation of white matter hyperintensities volume with fMRI activation varied as a function of accuracy and it was positive for greater accuracy. Associations with brain atrophy were not significant. Conclusions Recruitment of additional areas and overall greater brain activation in older adults is associated with higher performance. Posterior parietal activation may be particularly important to maintain higher accuracy in the presence of underlying brain connectivity structural abnormalities. PMID:19922803

  9. Forecasting the Solar Drivers of Severe Space Weather from Active-Region Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare (GOES class M or X) during the past 24 hours before the time of the measured magnetogram. By empirically determining the conversion of the value of free-energy proxy measured from a GONG or HMI magnetogram to that which would be measured from an MDI magnetogram, we have made GONG and HMI magnetograms useable with

  10. Application and Reliability of the Retrospective Interview Procedure to Trace Physical Activity Patterns in Master Athletes and Nonactive Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Horton, Sean; Kraemer, Krista; Weir, Patricia; Deakin, Janice M.; Cote, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies. The purpose of the first study was to determine if lifestyle variables and past involvement in physical activity was related to current activity levels in master athletes and sedentary older adults. Retrospective interviews were conducted with 12 master athletes and 12 sedentary older adults. Results…

  11. "We're Not Just Sitting on the Periphery": A Staff Perspective of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Targeted physical activity interventions to improve the poor physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but currently not available. Given disordered thought processes and institutionalization, it is likely that older adults with schizophrenia have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. It is necessary to…

  12. The Impact of Perceived Stress, Social Support, and Home-Based Physical Activity on Mental Health among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…

  13. Older women's personal goals and exercise activity: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Saajanaho, Milla; Viljanen, Anne; Read, Sanna; Rantakokko, Merja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Kaprio, Jaakko; Jylhä, Marja; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the associations of personal goals with exercise activity, as well as the relationships between exercise-related and other personal goals, among older women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used with a sample of 308 women ages 66-79 at baseline. Women who reported exercise-related personal goals were 4 times as likely to report high exercise activity at baseline than those who did not report exercise-related goals. Longitudinal results were parallel. Goals related to cultural activities, as well as to busying oneself around the home, coincided with exercise-related goals, whereas goals related to own and other people's health and independent living lowered the odds of having exercise-related goals. Helping older adults to set realistic exercise-related goals that are compatible with their other life goals may yield an increase in their exercise activity, but this should be evaluated in a controlled trial.

  14. Association Between Social and Physical Activities and Insomnia Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Endeshaw, Yohannes W.; Yoo, Wonsuk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between organized social activity, walking exercise, and insomnia symptoms. Material and Method Data for analysis are derived from the National Health Aging Trends Study (NHATS). At baseline, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, sleep-related problems, and health status were assessed using questionnaires. Results Data for 7,162 community-dwelling older adults were available for analysis. Difficulty falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and both insomnia symptoms were reported by 12%, 5%, and 11% of the participants, respectively. The proportion of participants who reported engaging in organized social activity, walking exercise, and both activities were 11%, 35%, and 26%, respectively. Participants who reported engaging in organized social activity and/or walking exercise were significantly less likely to report insomnia symptoms. Conclusion These results have important implications for future studies that plan to implement nonpharmacological interventions for management of insomnia among older adults. PMID:26690253

  15. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  16. Seasonal Drivers of Pneumococcal Disease Incidence: Impact of Bacterial Carriage and Viral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Daniel M.; Grant, Lindsay R.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Weatherholtz, Robert; Santosham, Mathuram; Viboud, Cécile; O'Brien, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Winter-seasonal epidemics of pneumococcal disease provide an opportunity to understand the drivers of incidence. We sought to determine whether seasonality of invasive pneumococcal disease is caused by increased nasopharyngeal transmission of the bacteria or increased susceptibility to invasive infections driven by cocirculating winter respiratory viruses. Methods. We analyzed pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease data collected from children <7 years old in the Navajo/White Mountain Apache populations between 1996 and 2012. Regression models were used to quantify seasonal variations in carriage prevalence, carriage density, and disease incidence. We also fit a multivariate model to determine the contribution of carriage prevalence and RSV activity to pneumococcal disease incidence while controlling for shared seasonal factors. Results. The seasonal patterns of invasive pneumococcal disease epidemics varied significantly by clinical presentation: bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia incidence peaked in late winter, whereas invasive nonpneumonia pneumococcal incidence peaked in autumn. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence and density also varied seasonally, with peak prevalence occurring in late autumn. In a multivariate model, RSV activity was associated with significant increases in bacteremic pneumonia cases (attributable percentage, 15.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%–26.1%) but was not associated with invasive nonpneumonia infections (8.0%; 95% CI, −4.8% to 19.3%). In contrast, seasonal variations in carriage prevalence were associated with significant increases in invasive nonpneumonia infections (31.4%; 95% CI, 8.8%–51.4%) but not with bacteremic pneumonia. Conclusions.The seasonality of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia could be due to increased susceptibility to invasive infection triggered by viral pathogens, whereas seasonality of other invasive pneumococcal infections might be primarily driven by increased nasopharyngeal

  17. Physical activity barriers and enablers in older Veterans with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Boyko, Edward J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Arterburn, David E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the types of physical activities that older individuals with lower-limb loss perform, correlates of regular physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators to PA. We conducted an exploratory study in 158 older Veterans from the Pacific Northwest with a partial foot (35%), below-knee (39%) and above-knee (26%) amputation. Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents were male, on average 65 yr of age and 15 yr postamputation; 36% of amputations were trauma-related. The most commonly reported physical activities were muscle strengthening (42%), yard work and/or gardening (30%), and bicycling (11%). Forty-three percent were classified as physically active based on weekly moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA. History of vigorous preamputation PA was positively associated with being active, while low wealth and watching ≥5 h/d of television/videos were inversely associated. While pain- and resource-related barriers to PA were most frequently reported, only knowledge-related and interest/motivation-related barriers were inversely associated with being active. Family support and financial assistance to join a gym were the most commonly reported factors that would facilitate PA. To increase PA in the older amputee population, interventions should address motivational issues, knowledge gaps, and television watching; reduce financial barriers to exercising; and consider involving family members.

  18. Balancing protein stability and activity in cancer: a new approach for identifying driver mutations affecting CBL ubiquitin ligase activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C.; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L.; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus provide mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than did random non-cancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two-thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  19. The Association Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life Domains Among Older Women.

    PubMed

    Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether the weekly volume and frequency of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light walking (LW) were associated with quality of life (QOL) domains of 1,806 older women from Brazil. The WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD instruments were used to measure QOL, while the weekly volume and frequency of MVPA and LW were assessed by IPAQ. An ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. The weekly volumes of MVPA and LW were associated with several domains of QOL. Higher frequency of MVPA was associated with better scores in 10 QOL domains. The weekly frequency of LW, in turn, was associated with all QOL domains. In conclusion, promoting active transport and encouraging physical activity in older adults, for at least 150 min and distributed several days per week, help to increase QOL.

  20. Correlates of Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Midlife and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Holly N.; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life for women across their lifespan. Prior studies show a decline in sexual activity with age, but these studies often fail to consider the role of sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to give updated prevalence estimates of sexual activity among women and to elucidate factors associated with sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. METHODS We report a cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 28 to 84 years, the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. The survey used self-administered questionnaires to assess demographic data, self-rated physical and mental health, medical problems and medication use, relationship factors, and sexual activity and satisfaction. RESULTS Of 2,116 women who answered the questions regarding sexuality, 1,345 (61.8%) women were sexually active in the previous 6 months. The proportion of women who were sexually active decreased with advancing age. Women who were married or cohabitating had approximately 8 times higher odds of being sexually active (odds ratio = 7.91, 95% CI, 4.16–15.04; P <.001). Among women aged 60 years and older who were married or cohabitating, most (59.0%) were sexually active. Among women who were sexually active, higher relationship satisfaction (P <.001), better communication (P = .011), and higher importance of sex P = .040) were related to higher sexual satisfaction, but age was not (P = .79). CONCLUSIONS A considerable proportion of midlife and older women remain sexually active if they have a partner available. Psychosocial factors (relationship satisfaction, communication with romantic partner, and importance of sex) matter more to sexual satisfaction than aging among midlife and older women. PMID:26195678

  1. Daytime Physical Activity and Sleep in Hospitalized Older Adults: Association with Demographic Characteristics and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Claire; Knutson, Kristen; Spampinato, Lisa; Flores, Andrea; Meltzer, David O.; Van Cauter, Eve; Arora, Vineet M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess objectively measured daytime physical activity and sleep duration and efficiency in hospitalized older adults and explore associations with demographic characteristics and disease severity. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University of Chicago Medical Center general medicine wards. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling inpatients aged 50 and older (N = 120) MEASUREMENTS Physical activity and sleep were measured using wrist accelerometers. Information on Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of stay was collected from charts. Random-effects linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between in-hospital sleep and physical activity. RESULTS From March 2010 to May 2013, 120 participants wore wrist actigraphy monitors for at least 2 nights and 1 intervening day. Median activity level over the waking period was 77 counts/min (interquartile range 51–121 counts/min), an activity level that approximately corresponds to sitting while watching television (65 counts/min). Mean sleep duration the night before the activity interval was 289 ± 157 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency the night before the activity interval was 65.2 ± 26.9%. Mean activity counts/min were lowest for the oldest participants (oldest quartile 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50–75; youngest quartile 121, 95% CI = 98–145, trend test P < .001) and those with highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (highest tertile 71, 95% CI = 60–83; lowest tertile 125, 95% CI = 104–147, trend test P = .01). Controlling for severity of illness and demographic characteristics, activity declined by 3 counts/min (95% CI = −5.65 to −0.43, P = .02) for each additional hour of inpatient sleep. CONCLUSION Older, sicker adults are less physically active during hospitalization. In contrast to studies in the community, inpatients who slept more were not more active. This may highlight that need for sleep is greater in the hospital than in the community. PMID:26131982

  2. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  3. Structural Relationships Between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve model captured longitudinal changes in depression and tested the impact of social activities while controlling for residential relocation, health status, insurance, and sociodemographics. Results: We found 3 different patterns of participation across 8 social activities. Specific activities of volunteering and exercise, self-perception of social activity level as “enough,” and a higher participation level pattern were associated with lower initial status and longitudinal changes in depression. Implications: Assessing involvement in multiple social activities is important when using social activities to prevent and treat depression. Future work with improved measures can further clarify how specific activities may reduce risk for depression. PMID:19362999

  4. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  5. Physical activity levels of older community-dwelling adults are influenced by summer weather variables.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Caitlin A; Gill, Dawn P; Speechley, Mark; Gilliland, Jason; Jones, Gareth R

    2009-04-01

    Adequate daily physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining functional capacity and independence in older adults. However, most older adults in Canada do not engage in enough PA to sustain fitness and functional independence. Environmental influences, such as warmer daytime temperatures, may influence PA participation; however, few studies have examined the effect of summertime temperatures on PA levels in older adults. This investigation measured the influence of summertime weather variables on PA in 48 community-dwelling older adults who were randomly recruited from a local seniors' community centre. Each participant wore an accelerometer for a single 7-consecutive-day period (between 30 May and 9 August 2006) during waking hours, and completed a PA logbook to remark on major daily PA events. Local weather variables were collected from a national weather service and compared with PA counts per minute. Regression analysis revealed a curvilinear relationship between log-transformed PA and mean daily temperature (r2 = 0.025; p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects models that accounted for repeated measures nested within individuals were performed for monthly periods, meteorological variables, sex, age, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption, with PA as the dependent variable. Age and Air Quality Index remained significant variables within the model. Higher fitness levels had no effect on allowing individuals to perform more vigorous PA in warmer temperatures.

  6. Effects of indoor slippers on plantar pressure and lower limb EMG activity in older women.

    PubMed

    Yick, K L; Tse, L T; Lo, W T; Ng, S P; Yip, J

    2016-09-01

    Open-toe mule slippers are popular footwear worn at home especially by older women. However, their biomechanical effects are still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to therefore evaluate the physical properties of two typical types of open-toe mule slippers and the changes in plantar pressure and lower limb muscle activity of older women when wearing these slippers. Five walking trials have been carried out by ten healthy women. The results indicate that compared to barefoot, wearing slippers results in significant increases in the contact area of the mid-foot regions which lead to plantar pressure redistribution from metatarsal heads 2-3 and the lateral heel to the midfoot regions. However, there is no significant difference in the selected muscle activity across all conditions. The findings enhance our understanding of slipper features associated with changes in biomechanical measures thereby providing the basis of slipper designs for better foot protection and comfort.

  7. Gardening as a potential activity to reduce falls in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tuo-Yu; Janke, Megan C

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether participation in gardening predicts reduced fall risk and performance on balance and gait-speed measures in older adults. Data on adults age 65 and older (N = 3,237) from the Health and Retirement Study and Consumption and Activities Mail Survey were analyzed. Participants who spent 1 hr or more gardening in the past week were defined as gardeners, resulting in a total of 1,585 gardeners and 1,652 nongardeners. Independent t tests, chi square, and regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between gardening and health outcomes. Findings indicate that gardeners reported significantly better balance and gait speed and had fewer chronic conditions and functional limitations than nongardeners. Significantly fewer gardeners than nongardeners reported a fall in the past 2 yr. The findings suggest that gardening may be a potential activity to incorporate into future fall-prevention programs.

  8. A bidirectional relationship between physical activity and executive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Daly, Michael; McMinn, David; Allan, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4555 older adults tracked across four waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each wave executive function was assessed using a verbal fluency test and a letter cancelation task and participants reported their physical activity levels. Fixed effects regressions showed that changes in executive function corresponded with changes in physical activity. In longitudinal multilevel models low levels of physical activity led to subsequent declines in executive function. Importantly, poor executive function predicted reductions in physical activity over time. This association was found to be over 50% larger in magnitude than the contribution of physical activity to changes in executive function. This is the first study to identify evidence for a robust bidirectional link between executive function and physical activity in a large sample of older adults tracked over time.

  9. Perceptions and Beliefs about the Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Brain Health in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…

  10. Self-Efficacy and Participation in Physical and Social Activity among Older Adults in Spain and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Multhaup, Kristi S.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Barton, Cole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We explored Bandura's self-efficacy theory as applied to older adult (aged 63-92) participation in physical and social activity in a cross-cultural study. Design and Methods: Older adults in Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 55) completed questions regarding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and participation in physical and…

  11. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  12. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level . Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model. PMID:26907278

  13. 78 FR 30954 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection: Driver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    .... Frequency of Response: Responses to some regulatory requirements of the driver qualification rules occur on... year thereafter. The time-of-hiring requirement results in a random frequency of response, but, thereafter, the annual requirement results in a fixed frequency of response. Estimated Total Annual Burden:...

  14. Physical Activity is Associated with Better Neurocognitive and Everyday Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Marquine, Maria J.; Dufour, Catherine; Henry, Brook L.; Montoya, Jessica; Gouaux, Ben; Moore, Raeanne C.; Letendre., Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V.; Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p=0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p=0.04). Higher levels of moderate PA were also associated with lower odds of IADL Dependence (p = 0.03), although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08) when including covariates. Follow-up analysis showed those with both NCI and IADL Dependence had lower moderate PA than those with neither (p=0.03). While these cross-sectional findings suggest PA is associated with better neurocognitive and everyday functioning in older HIV+ adults, longitudinal studies utilizing objective PA methods are needed to evaluate directionality and mechanisms. PMID:25731660

  15. Neuroprotective pathways: lifestyle activity, brain pathology, and cognition in cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Miranka; Haase, Claudia M; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Vogel, Jacob; Jagust, William J

    2014-08-01

    This study used path analysis to examine effects of cognitive activity and physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults, through pathways involving beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden, cerebrovascular lesions, and neural injury within the brain regions affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety-two cognitively normal older adults (75.2 ± 5.6 years) reported lifetime cognitive activity and current physical activity using validated questionnaires. For each participant, we evaluated cortical Aβ burden (using [(11)C] labeled Pittsburgh-Compound-B positron emission tomography), cerebrovascular lesions (using magnetic resonance imaging-defined white matter lesion [WML]), and neural integrity within AD regions (using a multimodal neuroimaging biomarker). Path models (adjusted for age, gender, and education) indicated that higher lifetime cognitive activity and higher current physical activity was associated with fewer WMLs. Lower WML volumes were in turn related to higher neural integrity and higher global cognitive functioning. As shown previously, higher lifetime cognitive activity was associated with lower [(11)C] labeled Pittsburgh-Compound-B retention, which itself moderated the impact of neural integrity on cognitive functioning. Lifestyle activity may thus promote cognitive health in aging by protecting against cerebrovascular pathology and Aβ pathology thought to be relevant to AD development.

  16. Purpose and pleasure in late life: Conceptualising older women's participation in art and craft activities.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David W

    2013-12-01

    The fourth age, as the last stage of life, represents a final challenge to find personal meaning in the face of changing capacities, illness and disability. Participation in valued activities is important for sustaining interest in life and has been associated with enhanced health and well-being. Art and craft activities are a popular form of participation amongst women in late life with growing international interest in the potential for these types of activities to maintain health and well-being and address problems of social isolation. Drawing on open text comments from 114 women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and in-depth interviews with 23 women all aged in their eighties, this paper explores the nature of older women's participation in art and craft activities and conceptualises links between participation in these activities and health and well-being in late life. Participation in art and craft activities is complex and dynamic, comprising cognitive and physical processes infused with emotion and occurs in the context of social relationships, physical spaces, physical ailments and beliefs about the value of the activities. By participating in art and craft activities, older women find purpose in their lives, contributing to their subjective well-being whilst helping and being appreciated by others. They develop a self view as enabled and as such take on new art and craft challenges, continue to learn and develop as art and craft makers and remain open to new possibilities.

  17. Neuroprotective Pathways: Lifestyle activity, brain pathology and cognition in cognitively normal older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Miranka; Haase, Claudia M.; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Vogel, Jacob; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used path analysis to examine effects of cognitive activity and physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults, through pathways involving beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden, cerebrovascular lesions, and neural injury within brain regions affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ninety-two cognitively normal older adults (75.2±5.6 years) reported lifetime cognitive activity and current physical activity using validated questionnaires. For each participant, we evaluated cortical Aβ burden (using PIB-PET), cerebrovascular lesions (using MRI-defined white matter lesion (WML)), and neural integrity within AD regions (using a multimodal biomarker). Path models (adjusted for age, gender, and education) indicated that higher lifetime cognitive activity and higher current physical activity was associated with fewer WMLs. Lower WML volumes were in turn related to higher neural integrity and higher global cognitive functioning. As shown previously, higher lifetime cognitive activity was associated with lower PIB retention, which itself moderated the impact of neural integrity on cognitive functioning. Lifestyle activity may thus promote cognitive health in aging by protecting against cerebrovascular pathology and Aβ pathology thought to be relevant to AD development. PMID:24656834

  18. Physical Activity in Community Dwelling Older People: A Systematic Review of Reviews of Interventions and Context

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The promotion and maintenance of higher physical activity (PA) levels in the older population is an imperative for cognitive and healthy ageing but it is unclear what approaches are best suited to achieve this for the increasing number of older people living in the community. Effective policies should be informed by robust, multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional evidence, which not only seeks what works, but in ‘what context? In addition to evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of PA for maintaining cognitive health, social contexts such as ‘how do we actually get older people to partake in PA?’ and ‘how do we sustain that activity long-term?’ also need highlighting. This review is part of a comprehensive evidence synthesis of preventive interventions in older age, with a focus on healthy behaviours to identify evidence gaps and inform policy relating to ageing well and cognitive health. An overview of systematic reviews of PA was conducted to explore three topics: (1) PA efficacy or effectiveness for primary prevention of cognitive decline in 55+; (2) Interventions efficacious or effective for increasing PA uptake and maintenance in 55+; (3) barriers and facilitators to PA in 55+. Methods Multiple databases were searched for studies in English from OECD countries between 2000 and 2016. Quality of included reviews in questions (1) and (2) were assessed using AMSTAR. Review protocols were registered on PROSPERO (CRD42014015554, 42014015584, CRD42014015557) and reviews follow PRISMA guideline. Findings Overall, 40 systematic reviews were included. Question 1 (n = 14). 8,360 participants. Evidence suggests that PA confer mild positive effects on cognition in older adults with and without previous cognitive impairment. However, there is insufficient evidence of a dose-response relationship. Evidence on the effects of PA on delay of dementia onset is inconclusive. Question 2 (n = 17). 79,650 participants. Evidence supports the effectiveness

  19. Older Adults’ Experiences Using a Commercially Available Monitor to Self-Track Their Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity contributes to older adults’ autonomy, mobility, and quality of life as they age, yet fewer than 1 in 5 engage in activities as recommended. Many older adults track their exercise using pencil and paper, or their memory. Commercially available physical activity monitors (PAM) have the potential to facilitate these tracking practices and, in turn, physical activity. An assessment of older adults’ long-term experiences with PAM is needed to understand this potential. Objective To assess short and long-term experiences of adults >70 years old using a PAM (Fitbit One) in terms of acceptance, ease-of-use, and usefulness: domains in the technology acceptance model. Methods This prospective study included 95 community-dwelling older adults, all of whom received a PAM as part of randomized controlled trial piloting a fall-reducing physical activity promotion intervention. Ten-item surveys were administered 10 weeks and 8 months after the study started. Survey ratings are described and analyzed over time, and compared by sex, education, and age. Results Participants were mostly women (71/95, 75%), 70 to 96 years old, and had some college education (68/95, 72%). Most participants (86/95, 91%) agreed or strongly agreed that the PAM was easy to use, useful, and acceptable both 10 weeks and 8 months after enrolling in the study. Ratings dropped between these time points in all survey domains: ease-of-use (median difference 0.66 points, P=.001); usefulness (median difference 0.16 points, P=.193); and acceptance (median difference 0.17 points, P=.032). Differences in ratings by sex or educational attainment were not statistically significant at either time point. Most participants 80+ years of age (28/37, 76%) agreed or strongly agreed with survey items at long-term follow-up, however their ratings were significantly lower than participants in younger age groups at both time points. Conclusions Study results indicate it is feasible for older

  20. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license. PMID:27505020

  1. Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity Program Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bethancourt, Hilary J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Beatty, Tara; Arterburn, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regular physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional health. However, few older adults engage in routine PA, and even fewer take advantage of programs designed to enhance PA participation. Though most managed Medicare members have free access to the Silver Sneakers and EnhanceFitness PA programs, the vast majority of eligible seniors do not utilize these programs. The goal of this qualitative study was to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of PA and participation in PA programs among older adults. Design This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews. Setting Focus groups took place at three Group Health clinics in King County, Washington. Participants Fifty-two randomly selected Group Health Medicare members between the ages of 66 to 78 participated. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 13 participants each. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach and a social-ecological framework. Results Men and women were nearly equally represented among the participants, and the sample was largely white (77%), well-educated (69% college graduates), and relatively physically active. Prominent barriers to PA and PA program participation were physical limitations due to health conditions or aging, lack of professional guidance, and inadequate distribution of information on available and appropriate PA options and programs. Facilitators included the motivation to maintain physical and mental health and access to affordable, convenient, and stimulating PA options. Conclusion Older adult populations may benefit from greater support and information from their providers and health care systems on how to safely and successfully improve or maintain PA levels through later adulthood. Efforts among health care systems to boost PA among older adults may need to consider patient-centered adjustments to current PA programs, as

  2. Use, perceptions, and benefits of automotive technologies among aging drivers.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Zhang, Liang; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Stanciu, Sergiu

    2016-12-01

    Advanced in-vehicle technologies have been proposed as a potential way to keep older adults driving for as long as they can safely do so, by taking into account the common declines in functional abilities experienced by older adults. The purpose of this report was to synthesize the knowledge about older drivers and advanced in-vehicle technologies, focusing on three areas: use (how older drivers use these technologies), perception (what they think about the technologies), and outcomes (the safety and/or comfort benefits of the technologies). Twelve technologies were selected for review and grouped into three categories: crash avoidance systems (lane departure warning, curve speed warning, forward collision warning, blind spot warning, parking assistance); in-vehicle information systems (navigation assistance, intelligent speed adaptation); and other systems (adaptive cruise control, automatic crash notification, night vision enhancement, adaptive headlight, voice activated control). A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted for each technology to collect related publications. 271 articles were included into the final review. Research findings for each of the 12 technologies are synthesized in relation to how older adults use and think about the technologies as well as potential benefits. These results are presented separately for each technology. Can advanced in-vehicle technologies help extend the period over which an older adult can drive safely? This report answers this question with an optimistic "yes." Some of the technologies reviewed in this report have been shown to help older drivers avoid crashes, improve the ease and comfort of driving, and travel to places and at times that they might normally avoid.

  3. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  4. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that “attentional” brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction—compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional

  5. Effect of Electronic Messaging on Physical Activity Participation among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Antoine Parker, Chantrell; Ellis, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA) among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n = 28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51–74 years). Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message) or the control condition (an evening text message). Participants self-reported min of completed aerobic PA by cell phone text. The 1-way within-subjects ANOVA showed significant group differences (p < 0.05). Specifically, when participants were in the treatment condition, they reported significantly greater average weekly min of aerobic PA (M = 96.88 min, SD = 62.9) compared to when they completed the control condition (M = 71.68 min, SD = 40.98). Electronic messaging delivered via cell phones was effective at increasing min of aerobic PA among older adults. PMID:27293891

  6. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  7. Physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem: longitudinal relationships in older adults.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Hu, Liang; Marquez, David X

    2005-09-01

    We examined the structure of the expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in a sample of older adults (N = 174; age, M = 66.7 years) across a 4-year period. A panel analysis revealed support for the indirect effects of physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy (SE) on physical self-worth and global esteem through subdomain levels of esteem. These relationships were consistent across the 4-year period. Over time, older adults reporting greater reductions in SE and PA also reported greater reductions in subdomain esteem. This is one of the first studies to examine these relationships longitudinally in the PA domain and offers further support for the hierarchical and multidimensional nature of self-esteem at the physical level. We recommend further testing of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model, with special attention being paid to assessing multiple aspects of PA and SE.

  8. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (<5,000 steps/day) were significantly different from the high-level activity participants (>7,500 steps/day) in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns. PMID:28138503

  9. Effectiveness of the Vital Aging program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aging is not only a population phenomenon but also an experience and an individual reality. Vital Aging® is a program that considers active aging as the lifelong adaptation process of maximizing health and independence, physical and cognitive functioning, positive affect regulation and control, and social engagement. Through its different versions and editions, it has demonstrated being an effective program to promote active aging. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the “face-to-face” and “combined” versions of the program to promote active aging in Mexican older adults trial. Methods Seventy-six older adults aged 60 years and over participated in a quasi-experimental study and were recruited in a senior center to participate in the two experimental conditions: Vital Aging face-to-face (VA-FF) (n=35) and Vital Aging combined (VA-C; multimedia/face-to-face) (n=15), and the remaining 26 adults were assigned to a control group. Pretest and posttest assessments were performed after the theoretical–practical intervention. Mean differences and size effects were calculated for estimating the effect of the program. Results At the end of the study, participants showed improvements in the active aging outcome measures. Positive effects were observed in the frequency of intellectual, cultural – artistic, and social activities, perceptions of aging, satisfaction with social relationships, and self-efficacy for aging. Additionally, those who participated in VA-FF showed better memory performance, meta-memory, and a trend to report less memory problems, while older persons in VA-C showed a trend to have better life satisfaction. No effects were observed in physical activity, frequency of social relationships, and subjective health. Conclusion Findings show that the Vital Aging program in face-to-face and combined versions encourages active aging in Mexican older persons. These results are in general similar to those found in

  10. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  11. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  12. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE - Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  13. Impact of Physical Activity on the Self-Perceived Quality of Life in Non-Frail Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Jones, Janelle; Wolbert, Kristin; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults increases, healthy aging has become a global public health issue. Physical activity can help older adults reclaim or maintain a healthy aging process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between physical activity, physical performance, quality of life and cognition in non-frail adults aged 65 and older. English articles in peer-reviewed journals about healthy, non-frail adults aged 65 and older were included in the present review. Additionally, articles were obtained from reviewing the reference lists of the aforementioned articles. Research proves an overwhelmingly positive correlation between physical activity and the reduction of preventable chronic illnesses, lower healthcare costs, improved cognition, improved muscle function, decreased fear of falling, and thereby, inevitably, an increased self-perceived quality of life. There is research evidence on healthy aging and the effect of physical activity, which could be of importance in a public health perspective. PMID:26124903

  14. The importance of culturally meaningful activity for health benefits among older Korean immigrant living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Han, Areum; Chin, Seungtae

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that participation in culturally meaningful activity is beneficial for immigrants’ health and well-being, yet older Korean immigrants struggle with accepting new cultural perspectives, which can negatively affect their health and well-being. Using in-depth interviews, this study was designed to capture the value of culturally meaningful activities for health among older Korean immigrants. Three themes were identified: (a) improved psychological well-being, (b) enhanced positive emotions and feelings, and (c) social connections developed with others. The findings suggest that by engaging in various culturally meaningful activities, older Korean immigrants gain a sense of social, cultural, and psychological significance in life. This study also provided evidence that older Korean immigrants maintain and develop their cultural identity through culturally meaningful activities. PMID:26084272

  15. Changes in Cortical Activation Patterns in Language Areas following an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Bruce; Mammino, Kevin; McGregor, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic “Spin” exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance). Thirty participants completed their assigned intervention (16 Spin; 14 Balance) with pre- and postintervention assessments of a semantic verbal fluency task during fMRI and estimated VO2max testing. There was a significant increase in the change scores for estimated VO2max of the Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Semantic verbal fluency output within the scanner was also improved in the Spin group as compared to controls at postassessment. Group fMRI comparisons of IFG activity showed lower activity in the right IFG following the intervention in the aerobic Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Regression analysis of imaging data with change in both estimated VO2max and semantic verbal fluency was negatively correlated with activity in right IFG. The current work is registered as clinical trial with NCT01787292 and NCT02787655. PMID:28367334

  16. Physical activity and quality of life in community dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been consistently associated with enhanced quality of life (QOL) in older adults. However, the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. In this study of community dwelling older adults, we examined the proposition that physical activity influences global QOL through self-efficacy and health-status. Methods Participants (N = 321, M age = 63.8) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, global QOL, physical self worth, and disability limitations. Data were analyzed using covariance modeling to test the fit of the hypothesized model. Results Analyses indicated direct effects of a latent physical activity variable on self-efficacy but not disability limitations or physical self-worth; direct effects of self-efficacy on disability limitations and physical self worth but not QOL; and direct effects of disability limitations and physical self-worth on QOL. Conclusion Our findings support the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between physical activity and QOL as well as an expanded QOL model including both health status indicators and global QOL. These findings further suggest future PA promotion programs should include strategies to enhance self-efficacy, a modifiable factor for improving QOL in this population. PMID:19200385

  17. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  18. Openness to experience and activity engagement facilitate the maintenance of verbal ability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Staff, Roger T; Bunting, Brendan P; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    The current study used data from the Aberdeen Birth Cohort, 1936, to investigate the hypothesis that the positive effects of the personality trait Openness on cognitive ability are mediated by activity levels. Results of latent growth modeling analysis revealed that higher Openness predicted better reading ability, inductive reasoning, and memory performance across three testing occasions when participants were aged 64-68 years. Higher Openness predicted higher activity levels, and higher activity levels in turn predicted higher reading ability, but not higher performance on measures of inductive reasoning, memory, and speed of processing. Overall, Openness and activity engagement appear related to preserved higher cognitive ability in older adults, with Openness having a direct effect on marker tests of fluid ability and with the combined influence of Openness and activity being particularly important for marker tests of crystallized intelligence.

  19. A Data Mining Approach for Examining Predictors of Physical Activity Among Urban Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunmoo; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    The current study applied innovative data mining techniques to a community survey dataset to develop prediction models for two aspects of physical activity (i.e., active transport and screen time) in a sample of urban, primarily Hispanic, older adults (N=2,514). Main predictors for active transport (accuracy=69.29%, precision=0.67, recall=0.69) were immigrant status, high level of anxiety, having a place for physical activity, and willingness to make time for physical activity. The main predictors for screen time (accuracy=63.13%, precision=0.60, recall=0.63) were willingness to make time for exercise, having a place for exercise, age, and availability of family support to access health information on the Internet. Data mining methods were useful to identify intervention targets and inform design of customized interventions.

  20. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  1. Strength training and light physical activity reduces the apnea-hypopnea index in institutionalized older adults

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Bliwise, Donald L.; Puri, Shipra; Rogers, Sandy; Richards, Kathy C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of 7-weeks of resistance training and walking on the apneahypopnea index (AHI) in institutionalized older adults compared to a usual care control group. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled-trial. Setting Ten nursing and three assisted living facilities in Arkansas. Participants Institutionalized older adults. Interventions Exercise group (EG) performed supervised resistance training to arm and hip extensors on 3 days a week with additional 2 days a week of light walking. Usual care group (UC) participated in the usual activities provided within their living facility. Measurements 2 nights of polysomnography before and following 7-week intervention. Results Adjusted means in the EG group showed a decrease in AHI from 20.2 (SD±1.3) at baseline to 16.7 (SD±0.9) at 7 weeks. Absolute strength gains were not associated with improved AHI. Conclusion Supervised resistance training and light walking reduced the severity of OSA in institutionalized older adults. PMID:25294621

  2. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  3. Older People’s Perspectives on Health, Physical Activity and Nutritional Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Leila; Salehi, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and physical activity (PA) this study was conducted in 2012. Methods: Participants in this qualitative study were selected through purposeful sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted with 60 older adults in 3 elderly centers in Tehran. A moderator’s guideline that consisted of general and specific questions was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: Participants explained their perspectives regarding health, healthy eating and PA in the following 5 categories: meaning of health was represented based on issues such as absence of pain and disorder, complete body wellbeing, staying away from hazards, complete individual satisfaction, experiencing positive events, effective communication, faithfulness and trust in God. The healthy eating category was featured by adequate eating, age balanced diet, refraining from under or over nutrition and sensible consumption of fruits and vegetables. The PA was described - according to the level of performing outdoor activities or household tasks. Expressions about the perceived benefits and barriers of healthy eating and PA were aligned the two remaining categories. Conclusions: Participants have referred to the association between both PA and dietary practices and health. Understanding how older people define physical activity and nutritional behavior and recognition of the most important perceived benefits and barriers that might contribute to have a healthy eating or adequate PA profile could procure insight into the type of interventions that are required to promote healthy lifestyle among Iranian older adults. PMID:26933648

  4. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ≥4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was

  5. Effects of an active accelerator pedal on driver behaviour and traffic safety after long-term use in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Várhelyi, András; Hjälmdahl, Magnus; Hydén, Christer; Draskóczy, Magda

    2004-09-01

    The long-term effects of the active accelerator pedal (AAP) were evaluated in the city of Lund in 2000 and 2001. The system, installed in 284 vehicles, produced a counterforce in the accelerator pedal at the speed limit. It could, however be overridden by pressing the accelerator pedal harder. The results showed that test drivers' compliance with the speed limits improved considerably. Reduction in average speeds and less speed variation by the test vehicles indicate a great traffic-safety potential. Travel times were unaffected, while emission volumes decreased significantly.

  6. Functional fitness and physical activity of Portuguese community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Maia, José A; Beunen, Gaston P; Blimkie, Cameron J; Fena, Ercília M; Freitas, Duarte L

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate functional-fitness norms for Portuguese older adults, to determine age and sex differences, and to analyze the physical activity-associated variation in functional fitness. The sample was composed of 802 older adults, 401 men and 401 women, age 60-79 yr. Functional fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test. Physical activity level was estimated via the Baecke questionnaire. The P50 values decreased from 60 to 64 to 75 to 79 yr of age. A significant main effect for age group was found in all functional-fitness tests. Men scored significantly better than women in the chair stand, 8-ft up-and-go, and 6-min walk. Women scored significantly better than men in chair sit-and-reach and back scratch. Active participants scored better in functional-fitness tests than their average and nonactive peers. This study showed a decline in functional fitness with age, better performance of men, and increased proficiency in active participants.

  7. Positive association between physical activity and PER3 expression in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Tahara, Yu; Aoki, Natsumi; Fukazawa, Mayuko; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Takashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many physiological functions including physical activity and feeding patterns. In addition, scheduled exercise and feeding themselves can affect the circadian clock. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical/feeding activity and expression of clock genes in hair follicle cells in older adults. Twenty adult men (age, 68 ± 7 years, mean ± SE) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to hair follicle cell collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for one week. The timings of breakfast, lunch, and dinner were also recorded. Hair follicle cells were then collected over a 24 h period at 4 h intervals. The amplitude of PER3 expression was positively correlated with moderate and vigorous physical activity (r = 0.582, p = 0.007) and peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.481, p = 0.032), but these correlations were not observed for NR1D1 or NR1D2. No association was noted between meal times and the amplitude or the acrophase for any of these three clock genes. These findings suggest that rhythmic expression of the circadian clock gene PER3 is associated with the amount of daily physical activity and physical fitness in older adults. PMID:28045078

  8. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  9. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  10. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65 years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8 m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  11. Assessment of physical activity in older people with and without cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Klaus; Lord, Stephen R; Lindemann, Ulrich; Lamb, Sarah E; Aminian, Kamiar; Schwenk, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new interview-administered physical activity questionnaire (Assessment of Physical Activity in Frail Older People; APAFOP) in older people with and without cognitive impairment. The authors assessed feasibility, validity, and test-retest reliability in 168 people (n = 78 with, n = 88 without cognitive impairment). Concurrent validity was assessed against an inertia-based motion sensor and an established questionnaire. Sensitivity to change was tested in an ongoing study in patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 81). Assessment of physical activity by the APAFOP and the motion sensor correlated well in the total sample (TS; p = .705), as well as in the subsamples with cognitive impairment (CI; p = .585) and without CI (p = .787). Excellent feasibility with an acceptance rate of 100%, test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .973 (TS) to .975 (CI) to .966 (no CI), and sensitivity to change (effect sizes: 0.35-1.47) were found in both subsamples.

  12. Accelerometer‐determined physical activity, muscle mass, and leg strength in community‐dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Foong, Yi Chao; Chherawala, Nabil; Aitken, Dawn; Winzenberg, Tania; Jones, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between accelerometer‐determined physical activity (PA), muscle mass, and lower‐limb strength in community‐dwelling older adults. Methods Six hundred thirty‐six community‐dwelling older adults (66 ± 7 years) were studied. Muscle mass was measured using dual‐energy x‐ray absorptiometry, whilst lower limb strength was measured via dynamometry. We measured minutes/day spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Results Participants spent a median of 583(Interquartile ratio (IQR) 522–646), 225(176–271), 27(12–45) and 0(0–0) min in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, respectively. PA intensity was positively associated with both lean mass percentage and lower limb strength in a dose–response fashion. Sedentary activity was negatively associated with lean mass percentage, but not lower‐limb strength. There was a positive association between PA and appendicular lean mass in men only. There was an interaction between age and activity; as age increased, the magnitude of the association of PA with lean mass percentage decreased. Those who adhered to the Australian Department of Health PA guidelines (moderate/vigorous PA >/=150 min/week) had greater lean mass percentage, appendicular lean mass, and lower limb strength. Conclusions Using accelerometer technology, both the amount and intensity of accelerometer‐determined PA had an independent, dose–response relationship with lean mass percentage and lower limb strength, with the largest effect for vigorous activity. Time spent in sedentary activity was negatively associated with lean mass percentage, but was not associated with lower limb strength. The magnitude of the association between PA and lean mass percentage decreased with age, suggesting that PA programmes may need to be modified with increasing age. PMID:27239404

  13. Physical activity and resting pulse rate in older adults: findings from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Pahor, Marco; Buford, Thomas W.; Dodson, John A.; Forman, Daniel E.; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated resting pulse rate (RPR) is a well-recognized risk factor for adverse outcomes. Epidemiological evidence supports the beneficial effects of regular exercise for lowering RPR, but studies are mainly confined to persons younger than 65 years. We set out to evaluate the utility of a physical activity (PA) intervention for slowing RPR among older adults. Methods A total of 424 seniors (ages 70-89 years) were randomized to a moderate intensity PA intervention or an education-based “successful aging” (SA) health program. RPR was assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Longitudinal differences in RPR were evaluated between treatment groups using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, reporting unstandardized beta coefficients (β) with robust standard errors (SE). Results Increased frequency and duration of aerobic training was observed for the PA group at 6 and 12 months as compared with the SA group (P <0.001). In both groups, RPR remained unchanged over the course of the 12-month study period (P =0.67). No significant improvement was observed (β [SE] = 0.58 [0.88], P =0.51) for RPR when treatment groups were compared using the GEE method. Comparable results were found after omitting participants with a pacemaker, cardiac arrhythmia, or who were receiving beta-blockers. Conclusions Twelve months of moderate intensity aerobic training did not improve RPR among older adults. Additional studies are needed to determine whether physical activity of longer duration and/or greater intensity can slow RPR in older persons. PMID:25262271

  14. Validity of the Fitbit activity tracker for measuring steps in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Serene S; Tiedemann, Anne; Hassett, Leanne M; Ramsay, Elisabeth; Kirkham, Catherine; Chagpar, Sakina; Sherrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercially available activity monitors, such as the Fitbit, may encourage physical activity. However, the accuracy of the Fitbit in older adults remains unknown. This study aimed to determine (1) the criterion validity of Fitbit step counts compared to visual count and ActiGraph accelerometer step counts and (2) the accuracy of ActiGraph step counts compared to visual count in community-dwelling older people. Methods Thirty-two community-dwelling adults aged over 60 wore Fitbit and ActiGraph devices simultaneously during a 2 min walk test (2MWT) and then during waking hours over a 7-day period. A physiotherapist counted the steps taken during the 2MWT. Results There was excellent agreement between Fitbit and visually counted steps (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1)=0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) from the 2MWT, and good agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC2,1=0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.82), and between ActiGraph and visually counted steps (ICC2,1=0.60, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.79). There was excellent agreement between the Fitbit and ActiGraph in average steps/day over 7 days (ICC2,1=0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Percentage agreement was closest for Fitbit steps compared to visual count (mean 0%, SD 4%) and least for Fitbit average steps/day compared to the ActiGraph (mean 13%, SD 25%). Conclusions The Fitbit accurately tracked steps during the 2MWT, but the ActiGraph appeared to underestimate steps. There was strong agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph counted steps. The Fitbit tracker is sufficiently accurate to be used among community-dwelling older adults to monitor and give feedback on step counts. PMID:27900119

  15. Why older people engage in physical activity: an exploratory study of participants in a community-based walking program.

    PubMed

    Capalb, Darren J; O'Halloran, Paul; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2014-01-01

    While older people experience substantial physical and mental health benefits from regular physical activity, participation rates among older people are low. There is a need to gather more information about why older people do and do not engage in physical activity. This paper aims to examine the reasons why older men and women chose to engage in a community-based physical activity program. Specific issues that were examined included reasons why older people who had been involved in a community-based program on a regular basis: commenced the program; continued with the program; and recommenced the program after they had dropped out. Ten participants (eight females and two males) aged between 62 and 75 years, who had been participating in a community-based physical activity program for a minimum of 6 months, were individually interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three major themes emerged, including 'time to bond: social interaction' with sub-themes 'bona fide friendships' and 'freedom from being isolated'; 'I want to be healthy: chronic disease management'; and 'new lease on life'. Two of the primary reasons why older people both commenced and recommenced the program were the promise of social interaction and to be able to better manage their chronic conditions.

  16. ERBB activation modulates sensitivity to MEK1/2 inhibition in a subset of driver-negative melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Katherine E; Johnson, Douglas B; Johnson, Adam S; Sanchez, Violeta; Kuba, Maria; Lu, Pengcheng; Chen, Xi; Kelley, Mark C; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Zhongming; Kris, Mark; Berger, Michael F; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Pao, William

    2015-09-08

    Melanomas are characterized by activating "driver" mutations in BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11. Resultant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling makes some melanomas susceptible to BRAF (BRAF V600 mutations), MEK1/2 (BRAF V600, L597, fusions; NRAS mutations), or other kinase inhibitors (KIT), respectively. Among driver-negative ("pan-negative") patients, an unexplained heterogeneity of response to MEK1/2 inhibitors has been observed. Analysis of 16 pan-negative melanoma cell lines revealed that 8 (50%; termed Class I) are sensitive to the MEK1/2 inhibitor, trametinib, similar to BRAF V600E melanomas. A second set (termed Class II) display reduced trametinib sensitivity, paradoxical activation of MEK1/2 and basal activation of ERBBs 1, 2, and 3 (4 lines, 25%). In 3 of these lines, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway signaling is abrogated using the ERBB inhibitor, afatinib, and proliferation is even further reduced upon the addition of trametinib. A potential mechanism of ERBB activation in Class II melanomas is minimal expression of the ERK1/2 phosphatase, DUSP4, as ectopic restoration of DUSP4 attenuated ERBB signaling through potential modulation of the ERBB ligand, amphiregulin (AREG). Consistent with these data, immunohistochemical analysis of patient melanomas revealed a trend towards lower overall DUSP4 expression in pan-negative versus BRAF- and NRAS-mutant tumors. This study is the first to demonstrate that differential ERBB activity in pan-negative melanoma may modulate sensitivity to clinically-available MEK1/2 inhibitors and provides rationale for the use of ERBB inhibitors, potentially in combination with MEK1/2 inhibitors, in subsets of this disease.

  17. The Impact of Patient Activity Level on Wrist Disability after Distal Radius Malunion in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gregory N.; Stepan, Jeffrey G.; Osei, Daniel A.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if high-activity older adults are adversely affected by distal radius malunion. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hand clinics at a tertiary institution. Participants 96 patients ≥60 years old at time of fracture evaluated at least 1 year following distal radius fracture. Intervention Physical Activity Scale of the Elderly (PASE) scores stratified participants into high- and low-activity groups. Malunions were defined radiographically by change of ≥20° of lateral tilt, ≥15° radial inclination, ≥4 mm of ulnar variance, or ≥4 mm intra-articular gap or step-off, compared to the uninjured wrist. Main Outcome Measure Patient-rated disability of the upper-extremity was measured by the QuickDASH and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) for pain/function. Strength and motion measurements objectively quantified wrist function. Results High-activity participants with a distal radius malunion were compared to high-activity participants with well-aligned fractures. There was no significant difference in QuickDASH scores, VAS function, strength, and wrist motion despite statistically, but not clinically relevant, increases in VAS pain scores (difference 0.5, p=0.04) between the groups. Neither PASE score (β= 0.001, 95%CI: −0.002 to 0.004) nor malunion (β=0.133, 95%CI: −0.26 to 0.52) predicted QuickDASH scores in regression modeling after accounting for age, sex, and treatment. Operative management failed to improve outcomes and resulted in decreased grip strength (p=0.05) and more frequent complications (26% vs 7%, p=0.01) when compared to nonoperatively management. Conclusion Even among highly active older adults, distal radius malunion does not impact functional outcomes. Judicious use of operative management is warranted provided heightened complication rates. PMID:25233158

  18. Losartan improves measures of activity, inflammation, and oxidative stress in older mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Hao; Yang, Huanle; Xue, Qian-Li; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Roy, Cindy N; Abadir, Peter; Walston, Jeremy D

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function that is multifactorial in etiology. Age-related changes in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), increased oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation likely all contribute to its development. Losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) decreases RAS activity and likely influences oxidative stress and inflammation. Given this, we hypothesized that losartan would improve activity levels and parameters related to inflammation and oxidative stress in older mice. We sought to test this hypothesis by comparing functional and molecular parameters between 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice treated with 50-70 mg/kg/day of losartan over a 4 month-period and age- and gender-matched mice receiving placebo. Losartan treatment significantly improved several activity measurements during treatment period compared to placebo controlled group, including increased time on treadmill, traveling activity, standing activity, and decreased grid contacts (p-values<0.05, 0.001, 0.01; and 0.04 respectively). Grip strength did not improve in treatment group relative to control group over time. Serum IL-6 level in the treated group was significantly lower than that in the control group at the end of treatment (30.3±12.9 vs. 173.0±59.5pg/ml, p<0.04), and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes catalase (3.9±0.9 vs. 1.0±0.4) and glutathione peroxidase (4.7±1.1 vs. 1.0±0.4) was significantly higher (p-value: 0.02, and 0.03 respectively) in quadriceps muscle after 4 months of treatment in treated and control groups. These results support the hypothesis that chronic losartan treatment improves skeletal muscle related activity measures in older mice, and that it is associated with more favorable relevant biological profiles in the treatment group. Additional studies are needed to 1) further quantify this functional improvement, 2) further identify mechanisms that influence this improvement, and 3) provide additional

  19. Light-Intensity Activity Attenuates Functional Decline in Older Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Cindy K.; Morey, Miriam C.; Desmond, Renee A.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Sloane, Richard; Snyder, Denise C.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    While moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities (MVPA) confer the greatest health benefits, evidence suggests that light-intensity activities are also beneficial, particularly for older adults and individuals with moderate-severe comorbidities. Purpose To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between light-intensity activity and physical function in older cancer survivors at increased risk for age- and treatment-related comorbidities, including accelerated functional decline. Methods The analysis included data from 641 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors (54% female) aged 65 and older who participated in a 1-year, home-based diet and exercise intervention designed to reduce the rate of physical function decline. ANCOVA was used to compare means of physical function across levels of PA intensity (low-light (LLPA): 1.5-2.0 METs; high-light (HLPA): 2.1-2.9 METs; MVPA: ≥3.0 METs). Results In cross-sectional analyses, increasing tertiles of light-intensity activity were associated with higher scores for all 3 measures of physical function (all p-values <0.005), after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, comorbidity, symptoms, and MVPA. Associations were stronger for HLPA than for LLPA. Compared with survivors who decreased or remained stable in MVPA and HLPA at the post-intervention follow-up, those who increased in HLPA, but decreased or remained stable in MVPA, reported higher physical function scores (LSMeans (95% CI): SF-36 physical function subscale: -5.58 (-7.96, -3.20) vs. -2.54 (-5.83, 0.75), p=0.14; basic lower extremity function: -2.00 (-3.45, -0.55) vs. 0.28 (-1.72, 2.28), p=0.07; advanced lower extremity function: -2.58 (-4.00, -1.15) vs. 0.44 (-1.52, 2.40), p=0.01). Conclusion Our findings suggest that increasing light-intensity activities, especially HLPA, may be a viable approach to reducing the rate of physical function decline in individuals who are unable or reluctant to initiate or maintain adequate levels of moderate

  20. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  1. Outdoor Built Environment Barriers and Facilitators to Activity among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain better understanding of how the built environment impacts neighborhood-based physical activity among midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Design and methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 adults over age 50, which used an assistive device and lived in King County, Washington, U.S. In addition, participants wore Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices for 3 days prior to the interview. The GPS maps were used as prompts during the interviews. Open coding of the 35 interviews using latent content analysis resulted in key themes and subthemes that achieved consensus between coders. Two investigators independently coded the text of each interview. Results: Participants were on average of 67 years of age (range: 50–86) and predominantly used canes (57%), walkers (57%), or wheelchairs (46%). Key themes pertained to curb ramp availability and condition, sidewalk availability and condition, hills, aesthetics, lighting, ramp availability, weather, presence and features of crosswalks, availability of resting places and shelter on streets, paved or smooth walking paths, safety, and traffic on roads. Implications: A variety of built environment barriers and facilitators to neighborhood-based activity exist for midlife and older adults with mobility disabilities. Preparing our neighborhood environments for an aging population that uses assistive devices will be important to foster independence and health. PMID:23010096

  2. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Krzysztof; Kozdron, Ewa; Szczypiorski, Piotr; Frysztak, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA). Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC), improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI), and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years. PMID:26106642

  3. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of physical activity in older adults: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), only one-third of older adults meet the recommended levels. The present study focused on psychosocial determinants of PA following retirement. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was used to better understand pre- and post-retirement adults’ thoughts about PA, the reasons why some individuals are more active than others, and how PA is incorporated into daily life after retirement. Design: Seven focus groups of older adults (N = 37, M = 64, SD = 5.20; males = 20) representing a range of PA levels and retirement length participated in one of seven focus groups. Results: Aligned with SCT, self-efficacy beliefs along with perceptions about barriers and benefits of PA were among the major determinants of PA. Findings highlighted the importance of social support, positive outcome expectations and self-regulatory strategies as motivators. The lack of structure in retirement was a hindrance to incorporating PA into daily routine but, when incorporated, PA provided a sense of purpose in the lives of retired individuals. Conclusion: It is important to understand the meaning of retirement as a life transition and how it affects beliefs about PA to inform SCT-based health promotion interventions targeting individuals in retirement age. PMID:26964473

  4. Drivers shaping the diversity and biogeography of total and active bacterial communities in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Dai, Minhan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that different drivers shape the diversity and biogeography of the total and active bacterial community, we examined the bacterial community composition along two transects, one from the inner Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS) and the other from the Luzon Strait to the SCS basin, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene (V1-3 regions) and thereby characterizing the active and total bacterial community, respectively. The diversity and biogeographic patterns differed substantially between the active and total bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the total and active bacterial community was strongly correlated with environmental factors and weakly correlated with geographic distance, the active bacterial community displayed higher environmental sensitivity than the total community and particularly a greater distance effect largely caused by the active assemblage from deep waters. The 16S rRNA vs. rDNA relationships indicated that the active bacteria were low in relative abundance in the SCS. This might be due to a high competition between active bacterial taxa as indicated by our community network models. Based on these analyses, we speculate that high competition could cause some dispersal limitation of the active bacterial community resulting in a distinct distance-decay relationship. Altogether, our results indicated that the biogeographic distribution of bacteria in the SCS is the result of both environmental control and distance decay. PMID:24684298

  5. Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

    According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…

  6. Trends in Global Vegetation Activity and Climatic Drivers Indicate a Decoupled Response to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schut, Antonius G T; Ivits, Eva; Conijn, Jacob G; Ten Brink, Ben; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982-2010) derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW) was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR) with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS-NPP) and TBW per biome and land-use type. The simple linear and Thiel-Sen trends did not differ much whereas PWR increased the fraction of explained variation, depending on the NDVI metric considered. A positive trend in TBW indicating more favorable climatic conditions was found for 24% of pixels on land, and for 5% a negative trend. A decoupled trend, indicating positive TBW trends and monotonic negative or segmented and negative NDVI trends, was observed for 17-36% of all productive areas depending on the NDVI metric used. For only 1-2% of all pixels in productive areas, a diverging and greening trend was found despite a strong negative trend in TBW. The choice of NDVI metric used strongly affected outcomes on regional scales and differences in the fraction of explained variation in MODIS-NPP between biomes were large, and a combination of NDVI metrics is recommended for global studies. We have found an increasing difference between trends in climatic drivers and observed NDVI for large parts of the globe. Our findings suggest that future scenarios must consider impacts of constraints on plant growth such as extremes in weather and nutrient availability to predict changes in NPP and CO2 sequestration capacity.

  7. Trends in Global Vegetation Activity and Climatic Drivers Indicate a Decoupled Response to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Antonius G. T.; Ivits, Eva; Conijn, Jacob G.; ten Brink, Ben; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982–2010) derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW) was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR) with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS-NPP) and TBW per biome and land-use type. The simple linear and Thiel-Sen trends did not differ much whereas PWR increased the fraction of explained variation, depending on the NDVI metric considered. A positive trend in TBW indicating more favorable climatic conditions was found for 24% of pixels on land, and for 5% a negative trend. A decoupled trend, indicating positive TBW trends and monotonic negative or segmented and negative NDVI trends, was observed for 17–36% of all productive areas depending on the NDVI metric used. For only 1–2% of all pixels in productive areas, a diverging and greening trend was found despite a strong negative trend in TBW. The choice of NDVI metric used strongly affected outcomes on regional scales and differences in the fraction of explained variation in MODIS-NPP between biomes were large, and a combination of NDVI metrics is recommended for global studies. We have found an increasing difference between trends in climatic drivers and observed NDVI for large parts of the globe. Our findings suggest that future scenarios must consider impacts of constraints on plant growth such as extremes in weather and nutrient availability to predict changes in NPP and CO2 sequestration capacity. PMID:26466347

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Circadian Activity Rhythm Disturbances in Community-Dwelling Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Tranah, Greg J.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Aging is associated with changes in circadian rhythms. Current evidence supports a role for circadian rhythms in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little is known about the relationship between depressive symptoms and circadian activity rhythms in older adults. We examined this association in community-dwelling older women. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3,020 women (mean age: 83.55 ± 3.79 years) enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as “normal” (0–2; referent group, N = 1,961), “some depressive symptoms” (3–5, N = 704), or “depressed” (≥6, N = 355). Circadian activity rhythm variables were measured using wrist actigraphy. Results In age-adjusted and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures site–adjusted models, greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with decreased amplitude (height; df = 3,014, t = −11.31, p for linear trend <0.001), pseudo F-statistic (robustness; df =3,014, t =−8.07, p for linear trend <0.001), and mesor (mean modeled activity; df = 3014, t = −10.36, p for linear trend <0.001) of circadian activity rhythms. Greater levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with increased odds of being in the lowest quartile for amplitude (df =1, χ2 =9240, p for linear trend <0.001), pseudo F-statistic (df =1, χ2 =49.73, p for linear trend <0.001), and mesor (df =1, χ2 =81.12, p for linear trend <0.001). These associations remained significant in multivariate models. Post-hoc analyses comparing mean amplitude, mesor, and pseudo F-statistic values pair-wise between depression-level groups revealed significant differences between women with “some depressive symptoms” and the “normal” group. Conclusion These data suggest a graded association between greater levels of depressive symptoms and more desynchronization of circadian activity rhythms in community

  9. Understanding the relationships between the physical environment and physical activity in older adults: a systematic review of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While physical activity (PA) provides many physical, social, and mental health benefits for older adults, they are the least physically active age group. Ecological models highlight the importance of the physical environment in promoting PA. However, results of previous quantitative research revealed inconsistencies in environmental correlates of older adults’ PA that may be explained by methodological issues. Qualitative studies can inform and complement quantitative research on environment-PA relationships by providing insight into how and why the environment influences participants’ PA behaviors. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review of qualitative studies exploring the potential impact of the physical environment on older adults’ PA behaviors. Methods A systematic search was conducted in databases of various disciplines, including: health, architecture and urban planning, transportation, and interdisciplinary databases. From 3,047 articles identified in the physical activity, initial search, 31 articles published from 1996 to 2012 met all inclusion criteria. An inductive content analysis was performed on the extracted findings to identify emerging environmental elements related to older adults’ PA. The identified environmental elements were then grouped by study methodologies [indoor interviews (individual or focus groups) vs spatial methods (photo-voice, observations, walk-along interviews)]. Results This review provides detailed information about environmental factors that potentially influence older adults’ PA behaviors. These factors were categorized into five themes: pedestrian infrastructure, safety, access to amenities, aesthetics, and environmental conditions. Environmental factors especially relevant to older adults (i.e., access to facilities, green open spaces and rest areas) tended to emerge more frequently in studies that combined interviews with spatial qualitative methods. Conclusions Findings showed that

  10. A phenomenological study of obesity and physical activity in southern African American older women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Pamela G; Eaves, Yvonne D; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D

    2015-04-01

    African American women are more likely to be classified as overweight or obese than European American women and little is known about this phenomenon. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of overweight and obese African American older women living in the southern regions of the United States. Semistructured, audiotaped interviews were conducted to elicit narratives from nine participants. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and then coded and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis framework. Three major categories emerged: impact of health conditions, incongruent perceptions, and the desire for independence. The focus of culturally appropriate interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for this group should incorporate activities that will help them remain independent, because weight loss is not a primary motivator.

  11. Fatal Traffic Crashes Involving Drinking Drivers: What have we Learned?

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Voas, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol involvement in fatal crashes (any driver with a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] = .01g/dL or greater) in 2007 was more than three times higher at night (6 p.m.–6 a.m.) than during the day (6 a.m.–6 p.m.) (62% versus 19%). Alcohol involvement was 35% during weekdays compared to 54% on weekends. Nearly one in four drivers (23%) of personal vehicles (e.g., passenger cars or light trucks) and more than one in four motorcyclists (27%) in fatal crashes were intoxicated (i.e., had a BAC equal to or greater than the .08 g/dL illegal limit in the United States). In contrast, only 1% of the commercial drivers of heavy trucks had BACs equal to .08 g/dL or higher. More than a quarter (26%) of the drivers with high BACs (≥.15 g/dL) did not have valid licenses. The 21- to 24-age group had the highest proportion (35%) of drivers with BACs≥.08 g/dL, followed by the 25- to 34-age group (29%). The oldest and the youngest drivers had the lowest percentages of BACs≥ .08 g/dL: those aged 75 or older were at 4%, and those aged 16 to 20 were at 17%. Utah had the lowest rate of intoxicated drivers in fatal crashes at one in every eight drivers (12%), followed by Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, New Hampshire, and Kansas, all at 17%. Montana (31%), South Carolina (31%), and North Dakota (39%) all had more than 3 in 10 drivers in fatal crashes who were intoxicated in 2007. The United States enjoyed a remarkable downward trend in alcohol-related crashes between 1982 and 1995, which has since leveled off. That trend coincided with a period during which per capita national alcohol consumption declined, the number of young drivers decreased, and the proportion of female drivers increased. Those factors alone, however, did not appear to account for the overall reduction. This provides further evidence that impaired-driving laws and safety program activity may have been responsible for at least some of the decline. However, there was a general worldwide decline in alcohol

  12. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  13. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. PMID:28327543

  14. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility.

  15. Comparative optimism among drivers: an intergenerational portrait.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Dominique; Gagnon, Sylvain; Stinchcombe, Arne; Joanisse, Mélanie

    2010-03-01

    We describe a large cross-sectional study examining comparative optimism (CO) regarding the risk of car crash in three age cohorts (17-26, 27-64, 65 and older). The participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to indicate their personal risk of being in an at-fault crash over nine driving related events in comparison to young drivers, mid-aged drivers, and older drivers. The results indicated that all three age groups exhibited CO, but that the level varied according to the age group on which they had to base their comparative judgment. Interestingly, greater CO was constantly observed when the three age groups compared themselves to older drivers. Also, young males exhibited greater CO than female of the same age group.

  16. The Role of Physical Activity and Physical Function on the Risk of Falls in Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between physical activity and physical function on the risk of falls over time in a cohort of Mexican-American adults aged 75 and older from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). Participants were divided into four groups according to their level of physical activity and physical function: low physical activity and low physical function (n = 453); low physical activity and high physical function (n = 54); high physical activity and low physical function (n = 307); and high physical activity and high physical function (n = 197). Using generalized linear equation estimation, we showed that participants with high physical activity and low physical function had a greater fall risk over time, followed by the high physical activity and high physical function group. Participants seldom took part in activities that improve physical function. To prevent falls, modifications to physical activity should be made for older Mexican Americans.

  17. Irregular 24-hour Activity Rhythms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Lim, Andrew S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms – near 24-hour intrinsic biological rhythms – modulate many aspects of human physiology and hence disruption of circadian rhythms may have an important impact on human health. Experimental work supports a potential link between irregular circadian rhythms and several key risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome. While several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between shift-work and the components of the metabolic syndrome in working-age adults, there is a relative paucity of data concerning the impact of non-occupational circadian irregularity in older women and men. To address this question, we studied 7 days of actigraphic data from 1137 older woman and men participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of the chronic conditions of aging. The regularity of activity rhythms was quantified using the nonparametric interdaily stability metric, and was related to the metabolic syndrome and its components obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. More regular activity rhythms were associated with a lower odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.60–0.80, p=5.8×10−7), being obese (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.85, p=2.5×10−5), diabetic (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.65–0.90, p=9.3×10−4), hypertensive (OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.66–0.91, p=2.0×10−3), or dyslipidemic (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.72–0.92, p=1.2×10−3). These associations were independent of differences in objectively measured total daily physical activity or rest, and were not accounted for by prevalent coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Moreover, more regular activity rhythms were associated with lower odds of having cardiovascular disease (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.73–0.95, p=5.7×10−3), an effect that was statistically mediated by the metabolic syndrome. We conclude that irregular activity

  18. Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes.

  19. Use of a Wearable Activity Device in Rural Older Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batsis, John A.; Naslund, John A.; Gill, Lydia E.; Masutani, Rebecca K.; Agarwal, Nayan; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female) with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m2. We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03) but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9). All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5%) found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5%) found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%]) were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence. PMID:28138502

  20. Use of a Wearable Activity Device in Rural Older Obese Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Naslund, John A; Gill, Lydia E; Masutani, Rebecca K; Agarwal, Nayan; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the feasibility and acceptability of Fitbit for supporting behavioral change in rural, older adults with obesity. Method: Eight adults aged ≥65 with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m(2) were recruited from a rural practice and provided a Fitbit Zip device for 30 days. Participants completed validated questionnaires/interviews. Results: Mean age was 73.4 ± 4.0 years (50% female) with a mean BMI of 34.5 ± 4.5kg/m(2). We observed reductions in exercise confidence (sticking to it: 34.5 ± 3.3 to 30.9 ± 4.3, p = .04; making time: 18.9 ± 1.3 to 17.0 ± 2.6, p = .03) but no changes in patient activation (45.4 ± 4.3 vs. 45.0 ± 3.9). All reported high satisfaction, seven (87.5%) found Fitbit easy to use, and five (62.5%) found the feedback useful. The majority (n = 6 [75.0%]) were mostly/very satisfied with the intervention. Consistent themes emerged regarding the benefit of self-monitoring and participant motivation. Common concerns included finding time to exercise and lack of a peer group. Conclusion: Use of Fitbit is feasible/acceptable for use among older rural obese adults but may lead to reduced confidence.

  1. [Behavioral competence among community dwelling older people with disability in basic activities of daily living].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, T; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, T; Shibata, H; Yoshida, H; Yasumura, S; Niino, N

    2000-07-01

    This study observed the status of independence in behavioral competence among older people who have any disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) living in a rural community in Japan. Study participants (N = 76) who were regarded as bedridden were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in July to August 1996. The independence variables were age, sex, BADL status, hearing impairment, visual impairment, history of stroke, and cognitive impairment. The dependent variable was each item of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence, which is a multidimensional 13-item index of behavioral competence. Percentages of subjects who were independent in each item of the TMIG Index of Competence varied from 1% to 36%. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that BADL status was independently associated with independence in using a telephone, being interested in news stories or programs dealing with health, being called on for advice, and initiating conversations with young people, after adjustment for age, sex, hearing impairment, visual impairment, history of stroke, and cognitive impairment. These findings suggest that programs for preventing decline in behavioral competence of older people with BADL disability might be important as well as physical therapy for them.

  2. Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5±3.0 y; BMI, 25.9±3.3 kg.m-2) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ±3.3 y; BMI, 27.1±.4.0 kg.m-2). Pre- and post-supplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T MRI scanner while functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling (ASL) technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p<0.001), as well as significant improvements in grey matter perfusion in the parietal (5.0±1.8 vs -2.9±2.4 %, p=0.013) and occipital (8.0±2.6 vs -0.7±3.2 %, p=0.031) lobes. There was also evidence suggesting improvement in working memory (two back test) after blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p=0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  3. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  4. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Turesky, Ted K; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Eden, Guinevere F

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders.

  5. A community-organizing approach to promoting physical activity in older adults: the southeast senior physical activity network.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Egger, Ruth; LoGerfo, James P; Walwick, Julie; Schwartz, Sheryl

    2010-03-01

    This article describes a community organizing approach to promoting physical activity among underserved older adults in southeast Seattle: the Southeast Senior Physical Activity Network (SESPAN). The organizing strategy involves networking with a variety of community-based organizations, with two broad objectives: (a) program objective-to make connections between two (or more) community-based organizations to create senior physical activity programs where none existed before; and (b) coalition objective-to build a broader network or coalition of groups and organizations to assist in making larger scale environmental and policy changes. Networking among organizations led to the creation of a number of potentially sustainable walking and exercise programs that are reaching previously underserved communities within Southeast Seattle. In addition, a major community event led to the establishment of a health coalition that has the potential to continue to generate new broad-based programs and larger scale environmental changes.

  6. The Potential for Active Mentoring to Support the Transition into Retirement for Older Adults with a Lifelong Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Bigby, Christine; Balandin, Susan; Craig, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Older people with a lifelong disability, such as intellectual disability, face significant barriers to enjoying "active ageing" as they transition into retirement. Active ageing involves enhancement of quality of life through optimising the health, participation, and security of individuals and populations (World Health Organization [WHO], 2002).…

  7. Visually Impaired Older Adults and Home-Based Leisure Activities: The Effects of Person-Environment Congruence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Ratchford, Regina; Krause, Airi

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the effect of person-environment congruence on participation in homebased leisure activities by two legally blind older adults who lived independently in the community. The results indicated that visual impairment increased the time spent in home-based leisure activities and that the participants used various…

  8. Test-retest reliability of Yale Physical Activity Survey among older Mexican American adults: a pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Pennathur, Arunkumar; Magham, Rohini; Contreras, Luis Rene; Dowling, Winifred

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper is to assess test-retest reliability of Yale Physical Activity Survey Total Time, Estimated Energy Expenditure, Activity Dimension Indices, and Activities Check-list in older Mexican American men and women. A convenience-based healthy sample of 49 (42 women and 7 men) older Mexican American adults recruited from senior recreation centers aged 68 to 80 years volunteered to participate in this pilot study. Forty-nine older Mexican American adults filled out the Yale Physical Activity Survey for this study. Fifteen (12 women and 3 men) of the 49 volunteers responded twice to the Yale Physical Activity Survey after a 2-week period, and helped assess the test-retest reliability of the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Results indicate that based on a 2-week test-retest administration, the Yale Physical Activity Survey was found to have moderate (rhoI= .424, p < .05) to good reliability (rs = .789, p < .01) for physical activity assessment in older Mexican American adults who responded.

  9. Gender Differences in Pain-Physical Activity Linkages among Older Adults: Lessons Learned from Daily Life Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Amy; Ashe, Maureen C.; DeLongis, Anita; Graf, Peter; Khan, Karim M.; Hoppmann, Christiane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many older adults know about the health benefits of an active lifestyle, but, frequently, pain prevents them from engaging in physical activity. The majority of older adults experience pain, a complex experience that can vary across time and is shaped by sociocultural factors like gender. Objectives. To describe the time-varying associations between daily pain and physical activity and to explore differences in these associations between women and men. Methods. One hundred and twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were asked to report their pain levels three times daily over a 10-day period and wear an accelerometer to objectively capture their daily physical activity (step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity). Results. Increased daily step counts and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity were associated with increased daily pain, especially among women. Confirming past literature and contrasting findings for daily pain reports, overall pain levels across the study period were negatively associated with minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Conclusions. Findings highlight that pain is significantly associated with physical activity in old age. The nature of this association depends on the time scale that is considered and differs between women and men. PMID:27445599

  10. Exploring the Effects of an "Everyday" Activity Program on Executive Function and Memory in Older Adults: Experience Corps[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Rebok, George W.; Seeman, Teresa; Glass, Thomas A.; McGill, Sylvia; Tielsch, James; Frick, Kevin D.; Hill, Joel; Fried, Linda P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is little empirical translation of multimodal cognitive activity programs in "real-world" community-based settings. This study sought to demonstrate in a short-term pilot randomized trial that such an activity program improves components of cognition critical to independent function among sedentary older adults at greatest risk.…

  11. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  12. Florida Driver Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Susan H.

    This student edition contains the same basic information as the official Florida Driver Handbook, but the reading difficulty of the material has been sharply reduced. It also provides activity-oriented exercises and review tests on this material. Introductory materials include a complete listing of all activities given, some vocabulary exercises…

  13. Acute effects of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.

  14. Visual–Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual–somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals’ RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation. PMID:26152050

  15. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.

  16. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  17. Self-efficacy: Implications for Physical Activity, Function, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Szabo, Amanda; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuating the physical decline and increases in disability associated with the aging process is an important public health priority. Evidence suggests that regular physical activity participation improves functional performance, such as walking, standing balance, flexibility, and getting up out of a chair, and also plays an important role in the disablement process by providing a protective effect against functional limitations. Whether these effects are direct or indirect has yet to be reliably established. In this review, the authors take the perspective that such relationships are indirect and operate through self-efficacy expectations. They first provide an introduction to social cognitive theory followed by an overview of self-efficacy's reciprocal relationship with physical activity. They then consider the literature that documents the effects of physical activity on functional performance and functional limitations in older adults and the extent to which self-efficacy might mediate these relationships. Furthermore, they also present evidence that suggests that self-efficacy plays a pivotal role in a model in which the protective effects conferred by physical activity on functional limitations operate through functional performance. The article concludes with a brief section making recommendations for the development of strategies within physical activity and rehabilitative programs for maximizing the major sources of efficacy information. PMID:24353482

  18. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration.

  19. Viewing marine bacteria, their activity and response to environmental drivers from orbit: satellite remote sensing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D Jay; Ford, Tim E; Colwell, Rita R; Baker-Austin, Craig; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Subramaniam, Ajit; Capone, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of marine microorganisms has become a useful tool in predicting human health risks associated with these microscopic targets. Early applications were focused on harmful algal blooms, but more recently methods have been developed to interrogate the ocean for bacteria. As satellite-based sensors have become more sophisticated and our ability to interpret information derived from these sensors has advanced, we have progressed from merely making fascinating pictures from space to developing process models with predictive capability. Our understanding of the role of marine microorganisms in primary production and global elemental cycles has been vastly improved as has our ability to use the combination of remote sensing data and models to provide early warning systems for disease outbreaks. This manuscript will discuss current approaches to monitoring cyanobacteria and vibrios, their activity and response to environmental drivers, and will also suggest future directions.

  20. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population.

  1. Adaptations in muscular activation of the knee extensor muscles with strength training in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; Kamen, G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of muscular activation during maximal voluntary knee extension contractions in old and young individuals and to examine the effects of resistance training on muscular activation in each group. The interpolated twitch technique was used to estimate muscular activation during two pre-training baseline tests, and after two and six weeks of resistance training. Throughout the study, the older group was 30% less strong than the young group (p=0.02). The training protocol was effective in both groups with overall isometric strength gains of 30 and 36% in the older (p=0.01) and young (p<0.01) groups, respectively. 10-RM training loads increased by 66% in the old group (p<0.01) and by 77% in the young group (p<0.01) throughout training. At the first baseline test, a 2% difference in muscular activation between groups (p=0.3) did not explain the large disparity in strength. Muscular activation increased by 2% in both groups throughout training (p<0.01). Despite considerably less muscular strength in the older group, muscular activation was greater than 95% of maximum and appears to be equal in both young and older individuals. Both groups demonstrated similar but small increases in muscular activation throughout training.

  2. Activation to self-management and exercise in overweight and obese older women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kawi, Jennifer; Schuerman, Sue; Alpert, Patricia T; Young, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 1 in 10 adults in the United States, with higher prevalence in women, aggravated by increased weight. This quasi-experimental pilot study implemented an online self-management (SM) program for older overweight and obese women with knee OA combined with a two-arm progressive exercise trial (walking and stepping groups). After the 10-week intervention using an interprofessional approach, activation to SM scores were significantly higher in all participants (N = 16) and between groups, with a higher increase in the stepping group. Those with higher activation scores pre-intervention obtained higher scores post-intervention. Activation levels also increased significantly among all participants with majority at the highest activation level. Follow-up data at 6 weeks and 6 months showed sustained SM and health-directed behaviors. These findings, although preliminary, highlight the value of combined SM and progressive exercise intervention using an interprofessional approach. Further investigations are essential toward potential practice and policy changes.

  3. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  4. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  5. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  6. Increasing risk awareness and facilitating safe sexual activity among older adults in senior housing.

    PubMed

    Gedin, Tonii C; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV in older adults is rising. This increase can be attributed to inconsistent condom use, low perceived disease susceptibility, and a sexual health knowledge gap found in older adults. Yet, little to no health promotion for older adults focuses on sex education. This study sought to determine the feasibility of a group-based educational program in senior housing settings and consider the utility of a self-efficacy based group education program on knowledge of disease risk and preventive techniques among older adults living in senior housing.

  7. Temperature and substrate chemistry as major drivers of interregional variability of leaf microbial decomposition and cellulolytic activity in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Encarnación; Casas, J Jesús; Díaz-López, Manuel; Rubio, Juan; Guil-Guerrero, J Luís; Moyano-López, Francisco J

    2016-11-01

    Abiotic factors, substrate chemistry and decomposers community composition are primary drivers of leaf litter decomposition. In soil, much of the variation in litter decomposition is explained by climate and substrate chemistry, but with a significant contribution of the specialisation of decomposer communities to degrade specific substrates (home-field advantage, HFA). In streams, however, HFA effects on litter decomposition have not been explicitly tested. We evaluated responses of microbial decomposition and β-glucosidase activity to abiotic factors, substrate and decomposer assemblages, using a reciprocal litter transplant experiment: 'ecosystem type' (mountain vs lowland streams) × 'litter chemistry' (alder vs reed). Temperature, pH and ionic concentration were higher in lowland streams. Decomposition for both species was faster in lowland streams. Decomposition of reed was more accelerated in lowland compared with mountain streams than that of alder, suggesting higher temperature sensitivity of decomposition in reed. Q10 (5°C-15°C) values of β-glucosidase activity were over 2. The alkaline pH and high ionic concentration of lowland streams depleted enzyme activity. We found similar relationships of decomposition or enzyme activity with abiotic factors for both species, suggesting limited support to the HFA hypothesis. Overall, our results suggest a prime role of temperature interacting with substrate chemistry on litter decomposition.

  8. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF. PMID:27594875

  9. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Cognitive Function in Older Adults - The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697

  10. Folic acid supplementation increases cutaneous vasodilator sensitivity to sympathetic nerve activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-22

    During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. In protocol 1, esophageal temperature (Tes) was increased by 1.0ºC (water-perfused suit) while SSNA (peroneal microneurography) and red cell flux in the innervated dermatome (laser Doppler flowmetry; dorsum of the foot) were continuously measured. In protocol 2, two intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the lateral calf for graded infusions of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10) to 10(-1)M) with and without nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade (20mM L-NAME). Folic acid improved reflex vasodilation (46±4% vs. 31±3 %CVCmax for placebo; P<0.001) without affecting the increase in SSNA (Δ506±104% vs. Δ415±73% for placebo; NS). Folic acid increased the slope of the SSNA:CVC relation (0.08±0.02 vs. 0.05±0.01 for placebo; P<0.05) and extended the response range. Folic acid augmented ACh-induced vasodilation (83±3% vs. 66±4 %CVCmax for placebo; P=0.002); however there was no difference between treatments at the NOS-inhibited site (53±4% vs. 52±4% CVCmax for placebo; NS). These data demonstrate that folic acid supplementation enhances reflex vasodilation by increasing the sensitivity of skin arterioles to central sympathetic nerve outflow during hyperthermia in aged human subjects.

  11. A positive association between active lifestyle and hemispheric lateralization for motor control and learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; D'Amato, Arthur; Bambrough, Jennifer; Swartz, Ann M; Miller, Nora E

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is well known to have general health benefits for older adults, but it is unclear whether it can also positively affect brain function involved in motor control and learning. We have previously shown that interlimb transfer of visuomotor adaptation occurs asymmetrically in young adults, while that occurs symmetrically in older adults, which suggests that the lateralized function of each hemisphere during motor tasks is diminished with aging. Here, we investigated the association between the level of PA and hemispheric motor lateralization by comparing the pattern of interlimb transfer following visuomotor adaptation between physically active and inactive older adults. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their PA level (active, inactive). They were further divided into two groups, such that a half of the subjects in each group adapted to a 30° rotation during targeted reaching movements with the left arm first, then with the right arm; and the other half with the right arm first, then with the left arm. Results indicated asymmetrical transfer (from left to right only) in the active subjects, whereas symmetrical transfer (from left to right, and vice versa) was observed in the inactive subjects. These findings suggest that older adults who maintain active lifestyle have a central nervous system that is more intact in terms of its lateralized motor function as compared with those who are inactive.

  12. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women.

    PubMed

    Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  13. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed. PMID:28138487

  14. Older Drivers: How Health Affects Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of consciousness or a seizure. People with diabetes-related complications should consult their healthcare team for guidance on driving. (Watch the video to learn more about driving with diabetes.) Macular degeneration can distort a person’s central vision ...

  15. Evaluation of a Peer-Led, Low-Intensity Physical Activity Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…

  16. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  17. Older Workers in the 21st Century: Active and Educated, a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besl, John R.; Kale, Balkrishna D.

    1996-01-01

    A case study of the Wisconsin labor market suggests that in future older adults will have higher educational attainment and labor force participation rates than today's older cohorts. Changes in retirement programs and greater growth in white-collar occupations and women's employment are some of the causal factors. (SK)

  18. The Reading of Older Americans Who View Learning as a Lifelong Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    A study examined the reading behavior of 101 older adults enrolled in a summer "elderhostel" program offered by a small eastern college. Each subject responded to a questionnaire concerning reading habits, interests, attitudes, and motivations. Results showed that the older adults had a wide range of reading interests, including mysteries,…

  19. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  20. An fMRI comparison of neural activity associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Ritu; Cuddy, Lola L.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Vanstone, Ashley D.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies of semantic memory in non-musical domains involving recognition of items from long-term memory have shown an age-related shift from the medial temporal lobe structures to the frontal lobe. However, the effects of aging on musical semantic memory remain unexamined. We compared activation associated with recognition of familiar melodies in younger and older adults. Recognition follows successful retrieval from the musical lexicon that comprises a lifetime of learned musical phrases. We used the sparse-sampling technique in fMRI to determine the neural correlates of melody recognition by comparing activation when listening to familiar vs. unfamiliar melodies, and to identify age differences. Recognition-related cortical activation was detected in the right superior temporal, bilateral inferior and superior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, bilateral precentral, and left supramarginal gyri. Region-of-interest analysis showed greater activation for younger adults in the left superior temporal gyrus and for older adults in the left superior frontal, left angular, and bilateral superior parietal regions. Our study provides powerful evidence for these musical memory networks due to a large sample (N = 40) that includes older adults. This study is the first to investigate the neural basis of melody recognition in older adults and to compare the findings to younger adults. PMID:26500480

  1. Cost effectiveness of the LIFE physical activity intervention for older adults at increased risk for mobility disability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Losing the ability to walk safely and independently is a major concern for many older adults. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders study recently demonstrated that a physical activity (PA) intervention can delay the onset of major mobility disability. Our objective is ...

  2. Reliability of accelerometric measurement of physical activity in older adults-the benefit of using the trimmed sum.

    PubMed

    Trampisch, Ulrike Sonja; Platen, Petra; Trampisch, Matthias; Moschny, Anna; Thiem, Ulrich; Hinrichs, Timo

    2012-10-01

    There is general consensus that physical activity is important for preserving functional capacities of older adults and positively influencing quality of life. While accelerometry is widely accepted and applied to assess physical activity in studies, several problems with this method remain (e.g., low retest reliability, measurement errors). The aim of this study was to test the intra-instrumental retest reliability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in a 3-day measurement of physical activity in older adults and to compare different estimators. A sample of 123 older adults (76.5 ± 5.1 years, 59 % female) wore a uniaxial accelerometer continuously for 1 week. The data were split into two repeated measurement values (week set) of 3 days each. The sum, the 80-99th quantiles and the 80-99th trimmed sums were built for each week set. Retest reliability was assessed for each estimator and graphically demonstrated by Bland-Altman plots. The intraclass correlation of the retest reliability ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. Retest reliability increases when a more robust estimator than the overall sum is used. Therefore, the trimmed sum can be recommended as a conservative estimate of the physical activity level of older adults.

  3. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Luten, Karla A; Jansen, Carel J M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in community-dwelling older adults. The authors also assessed whether the associations between health literacy and health behaviors are mediated by social cognitive factors. Data from a study among community-dwelling older adults (55 years and older) in a relatively deprived area in The Netherlands were used (baseline n=643, response: 43%). The authors obtained data on health literacy, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and potential social cognitive mediators (attitude, self-efficacy, and risk perception). After adjustment for confounders, inadequate health literacy was marginally significantly associated with poor compliance with guidelines for physical activity (OR=1.52, p=.053) but not with poor compliance with guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.20, p=.46). Self-efficacy explained 32% of the association between health literacy and compliance with physical activity guidelines. Further research may focus on self-efficacy as a target for interventions to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate health literacy.

  4. "You feel like people are looking at you and laughing": older adults' perceptions of aquatic physical activity.

    PubMed

    Evans, A B; Sleap, M

    2012-12-01

    Older adults' participation in Physical Activity (PA) in the United Kingdom remains low. Moreover, although the subjective and narrative elements of aging are increasingly studied, promotion of healthy behaviours such as aquatic PA still frequently reduces older adults to passive recipients who rely on health professionals for their wellbeing. Using a figurational perspective, the relationship between participants' perceptions of the aging body and participation in aquatic activity was investigated. Interviews were completed with 22 adults aged over 50 years (7 men, 15 women). Participants highlighted a number of perceptual barriers that were contoured by wider social representations of older adults. Perceptions focussed upon the perceived limitations of the aging body. The need for regular participation in PA was recognised. However the potential for angst when wearing a bathing costume in the presence of 'others' was expressed, particularly amongst those considering themselves overweight. Participants objectified their bodies and compared them with those of other participants. The difficulties of managing physical (e.g. injury and illness) and environmental risk were described. At the same time, participants experienced the development of new webs of interdependence. These webs were both enabling and constraining. Some participants felt empowered. However, the exclusivity of many aquatic activity sessions re-emphasised the status of older adults as outsiders in the wider figuration of physical activity.

  5. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Center-Based or Combined Physical Activity Intervention among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc

    2015-01-01

    With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…

  6. Can a Website-Delivered Computer-Tailored Physical Activity Intervention Be Acceptable, Usable, and Effective for Older People?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammann, Rahel; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Vries, Hein; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity levels are low and declining with age. A continued increase of Internet access allows for website-delivered interventions to be implemented across age-groups, though older people have typically not been considered for this type of intervention. Therefore, the purpose of this study…

  7. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Academic research center. Participants: Eighty-two community-dwelling men >/= 65 years of age with self-report...

  8. Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alan; Roberts, Chrissy H.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew; Scholes, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Background Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty. Objective We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous) performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood’s Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25). Methods Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50–54; 55–59; 60–64; 65–69; 70–74; 75–79; 80+) on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above) and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults. Conclusion Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories. PMID:28152084

  9. PM2: a partitioning-mining-measuring method for identifying progressive changes in older adults' sleeping activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Daqing; Connelly, Kay; Zhou, Xingshe; Ni, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.

  10. Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Rao, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Leisure-time physical activity (PA) and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-ε4) allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-ε4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD. PMID:24961307

  11. Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Are Beneficial for White Matter in Low-Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455

  12. Preliminary Findings of The Brief Everyday Activities Measurement (BEAM) in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scharaga, Elyssa A.; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Functional losses are common in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. However, subtle declines in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not always detected in self-reports. Performance IADL measurements are financially and time burdensome, restricting their use in varied settings. To address these limitations, we developed the Brief Everyday Activities Measure (BEAM), a short (< 5 minutes) objective IADL measure that assesses medication and finance management. Design & Participants The BEAM was administered to 209 cognitively non-demented community-dwellers (ages 65–95 years). Measurements Participants completed standardized motor, neuropsychological, psychological, and self-report functional assessments. Results BEAM completion time ranged from 54.16 to 259.31 seconds. Interclass correlations (ICC) for total BEAM completion time was moderate (0.65, 95% CI [.43 –.78]). Accuracy for total BEAM performance was in the low-moderate range (Kappa = 0.38, p < .001, 95% CI [.18 –.54]). As predicted, lower accuracy and longer time to complete the BEAM were both associated with worse executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Conclusions Medication and finance management can be efficiently assessed within five minutes. The BEAM may be a valuable screening tool to evaluate these functional abilities. PMID:26482695

  13. Driving Retirement in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Jami; Meuser, Thomas M.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Carr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the driving and mobility status of older adults with dementia, a questionnaire was mailed to 527 informants; 119 were returned. The majority of patients were diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Only 28% were actively driving at the time of survey. Informants rated 53% of current or recently retired drivers as potentially unsafe. Few informants reported using community/educational resources. Individuals with progressive dementia retire from driving for differing reasons, many subsequent to family recognition of impaired driving performance. Opportunities for education and supportive assistance exist but are underutilized. PMID:20161565

  14. Physical Activity and Falls in Older Men: The Critical Role of Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERIS, BARBARA J.; MEROM, DAFNA; SARTINI, CLAUDIO; WANNAMETHEE, S. GOYA; ASH, SARAH; LENNON, LUCY T.; ILIFFE, STEVE; KENDRICK, DENISE; WHINCUP, PETER H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity (PA) has many health benefits but may increase falls risk among older adults. We study how objectively measured habitual daily PA is related to falls by exploring the modifying effect of mobility limitations and the mediating roles of fitness and lower-limb strength. Methods One thousand six hundred fifty-five (53%) of 3137 surviving participants (men age 71–91 yr) in an ongoing UK-population-based cohort study wore an ActiGraph GT3x accelerometer over the hip for 1 wk in 2010–2012 to measure PA (exposure) and reported demographic and health status, including mobility limitations. One year later, 825 men reported falls history (outcome). Results Seven hundred of 825 men had ≥600 min·d−1 of accelerometer wear for ≥3 d. Nineteen percent (n = 128) reported falls 1 yr later. Associations between PA and falls differed by presence of mobility limitations. Among 66% (n = 471) of men without mobility limitations, number of falls increased incrementally (for every 30 min of moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA]: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.03, adjusted for falls risk factors). Step count was not related to number of falls below 9000 steps per day but was related to number of falls ≥9000 steps per day (for every additional 1000 steps per day: IRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16–2.18). Among 33% (n = 229) of men with mobility limitations, falls risk declined with increasing activity (for every 1000 steps per day: IRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70–0.91; for every 30 min of MVPA: IRR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.89; for every additional 30 min of sedentary behavior ≥600 min·d−1: IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07–1.40). Conclusions Interventions to promote MVPA in older men should incorporate falls prevention strategies. Among adults with mobility limitations, trials should investigate whether increasing MVPA levels can reduce falls risk. PMID:25668406

  15. Increasing lateralized motor activity in younger and older adults using Real-time fMRI during executed movements.

    PubMed

    Neyedli, Heather F; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Kirkman, Matthew A; Havard, David; Lührs, Michael; Ramsden, Katie; Flitney, David D; Clare, Stuart; Goebel, Rainer; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2017-02-15

    Neurofeedback training involves presenting an individual with a representation of their brain activity and instructing them to alter the activity using the feedback. One potential application of neurofeedback is for patients to alter neural activity to improve function. For example, there is evidence that greater laterality of movement-related activity is associated with better motor outcomes after stroke; so using neurofeedback to increase laterality may provide a novel route for improving outcomes. However, we must demonstrate that individuals can control relevant neurofeedback signals. Here, we performed two proof-of-concept studies, one in younger (median age: 26years) and one in older healthy volunteers (median age: 67.5years). The purpose was to determine if participants could manipulate laterality of activity between the motor cortices using real-time fMRI neurofeedback while performing simple hand movements. The younger cohort trained using their left and right hand, the older group trained using their left hand only. In both studies participants in a neurofeedback group were able to achieve more lateralized activity than those in a sham group (younger adults: F(1,23)=4.37, p<0.05; older adults: F(1,15)=9.08, p<0.01). Moreover, the younger cohort was able to maintain the lateralized activity for right hand movements once neurofeedback was removed. The older cohort did not maintain lateralized activity upon feedback removal, with the limitation being that they did not train with their right hand. The results provide evidence that neurofeedback can be used with executed movements to promote lateralized brain activity and thus is amenable for testing as a therapeutic intervention for patients following stroke.

  16. Everyday activities and social contacts among older deaf sign language users: relationships to health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Werngren-Elgström, Monica; Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the everyday activities and social contacts among older deaf sign language users, and to investigate relationships between these phenomena and the health and well-being within this group. The study population comprised deaf sign language users, 65 years or older, in Sweden. Data collection was based on interviews in sign language, including open-ended questions covering everyday activities and social contacts as well as self-rated instruments measuring aspects of health and subjective well-being. The results demonstrated that the group of participants was homogeneous in their productive and leisure activities, regardless of gender and age. The number of productive activities was related to all aspects of health, while the number of leisure activities was related to perceived health and subjective well-being. No significant relationship was found between aspects of health and subjective well-being and the frequency of social contacts with family/relatives or visiting the deaf club and meeting friends. It is concluded that the variety of activities at the deaf clubs are important for the subjective well-being of older deaf sign language users. Further research should investigate the importance and perceived value of the various activities at the deaf clubs. When evaluating the results of this study, the fact that the total number of participants was small, and the dropout rate was high, has to be borne in mind.

  17. Can exergames impart health messages? Game play, framing, and drivers of physical activity among children.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Malik, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of incorporating exergaming into physical education lessons as a platform for imparting health education messages and influencing children's beliefs about and attitudes toward physical activity. The authors launched a 6-week intervention program using Nintendo Wii games coupled with protection motivation theory-based health messaging among 5th-grade school children in Singapore. Results indicated that when children who were exposed to threat-framed messages played Wii exergames during physical education lessons, they reported more positive physical activity attitude, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control than did those who underwent regular physical education lessons and were exposed to the same message. In addition, among children playing Wii, the threat and coping frames had similar effects on the degree of message influence on physical activity attitudes and beliefs. The implications for schools, parents, and health policy are discussed.

  18. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  19. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Test Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  20. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Testing Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  1. Drivers of Engagement in Professional Development Activity: A Study of Undergraduate Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Corinne M.

    2012-01-01

    Since college and university students typically vary in their utilization of student services and resources, the variance in undergraduate business student engagement levels in professional development activity was explored by this quantitative study. Professional development is defined as career-related preparation of students for entry into the…

  2. Perceptions of participating in high-intensity functional exercise among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL).

    PubMed

    Lindelöf, N; Rosendahl, E; Gustafsson, S; Nygaard, J; Gustafson, Y; Nyberg, L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how older people, dependent in ADL perceive their participation in a high-intensity, functional exercise program compared to the perceptions of those participating in a control activity. Forty-eight older people living in residential care facilities answered a questionnaire about their perceptions of participating in an activity for three months. They were aged 65-98, had a mean score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 14 on Barthel ADL Index. The participants had been randomized to exercise (n=20) or control activity (n=28). Differences in responses between exercise and control activity were evaluated using logistic and ordinal regression analyses. The results show that a majority of the exercise group perceived positive changes in lower limb strength, balance, and in the ability to move more safely and securely compared to a minority of the control group (p<0.001). Significantly more respondents in the exercise activity answered that they felt less tired due to the activity (p=0.027) and that they prioritized this activity above other activities (p=0.010). More exercise participants reported that meeting for three months was too short, and fewer that it was too long compared to the control group (p=0.038). This study shows that older people living in residential care facilities, dependent in ADL, and with mild or no cognitive impairment had positive perceptions about participating in high-intensity functional exercise. The findings support the use of a high-intensity exercise program in this population of older people.

  3. Hypofrontal activity during word retrieval in older adults: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Shigeru; Hara, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) has been regarded as a third speech area. The SMA is anatomically classified into two regions, pre-SMA and SMA proper, but the functional specialization of speech production between the two regions remains unknown. Although word retrieval difficulties were often observed in older adults, there was no report as to whether the SMA would be involved in the retrieval difficulties. We focused on the SMA as a function of word production and then used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with the verbal fluency task (VFT) to explore the possible mechanism underlying the retrieval difficulties related to aging. Based on the anatomical differences within the SMA, we relied on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to compare the brain activation patterns in the SMA during VFT between 11 healthy elder and 11 younger subjects in the situation where both groups show comparable task performance. Notably, the anterior VFT-related SMA response was more robust in the younger than in the elder group. Furthermore, anterior SMA responses in the elder group may only have a positive correlation with the VFT performance. The findings imply that anterior SMA hypoactivity in elders may cause word retrieval difficulties, while bilateral prefrontal cortices, having close connection with the pre-SMA, may contribute to the compensatory process that enables equivalent performance of the elder group with the younger one.

  4. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in Older Adults’ Memory for Spoken Discourse: Findings from the ACTIVE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Brennan R.; Gross, Alden L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Sisco, Shannon M.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory shows substantial declines with advancing age, but research on longitudinal trajectories of spoken discourse memory (SDM) in older adulthood is limited. Using parallel process latent growth curve models, we examined 10 years of longitudinal data from the no-contact control group (N = 698) of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial in order to test (a) the degree to which SDM declines with advancing age, (b) predictors of these age-related declines, and (c) the within-person relationship between longitudinal changes in SDM and longitudinal changes in fluid reasoning and verbal ability over 10 years, independent of age. Individuals who were younger, White, had more years of formal education, were male, and had better global cognitive function and episodic memory performance at baseline demonstrated greater levels of SDM on average. However, only age at baseline uniquely predicted longitudinal changes in SDM, such that declines accelerated with greater age. Independent of age, within-person decline in reasoning ability over the 10-year study period was substantially correlated with decline in SDM (r = .87). An analogous association with SDM did not hold for verbal ability. The findings suggest that longitudinal declines in fluid cognition are associated with reduced spoken language comprehension. Unlike findings from memory for written prose, preserved verbal ability may not protect against developmental declines in memory for speech. PMID:24304364

  5. Intervention of multi-modal activities for older adults with dementia translation to rural communities.

    PubMed

    La Rue, Asenath; Felten, Kristen; Turkstra, Lyn

    2015-08-01

    A Language-Enriched Exercise Plus Socialization (LEEPS) Program for older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) was implemented in rural Wisconsin communities. Patterned after a university-based research intervention, (1) the LEEPS protocol entailed ongoing weekly to biweekly sessions with a trained volunteer and an individual with dementia, with exercise and language stimulation sessions interspersed with social or volunteer outings. Of 64 persons with ADRD who enrolled, 29 completed an initial follow-up assessment at an average of 10.65 months, and 8 completed a second follow-up at an average of 20.55 months. Results generally show stability in cognition, mood, and physical performance. Improvement was noted at the initial retest on 1 of the 3 physical fitness measures (arm curls; t = 2.61, P = .015), but self-rated quality of life declined slightly from baseline to the first retest (t = -2.09, P = .048). Change in the Mini-Mental State Examination at the first and second follow-ups (mean = +0.18 and -1.0, respectively) was negligible. The maintenance of function observed with LEEPS is an encouraging outcome, given the progressive nature of ADRD, but controlled investigations are needed to establish the efficacy of LEEPS. Barriers to implementation of an intensive activities-focused intervention in rural communities are discussed.

  6. Analyzing free-living physical activity of older adults in different environments using body-worn activity monitors.

    PubMed

    Grant, P Margaret; Granat, Malcolm H; Thow, Morag K; Maclaren, William M

    2010-04-01

    This study measured objectively the postural physical activity of 4 groups of older adults (> or =65 yr). The participants (N = 70) comprised 3 patient groups--2 from rehabilitation wards (city n = 20, 81.8 +/- 6.7 yr; rural n = 10, 79.4 +/- 4.7 yr) and the third from a city day hospital (n = 20, 74.7 +/- 7.9 yr)--and a healthy group to provide context (n = 20, 73.7 +/- 5.5 yr). The participants wore an activity monitor (activPAL) for a week. A restricted maximum-likelihood-estimation analysis of hourly upright time (standing and walking) revealed significant differences between day, hour, and location and the interaction between location and hour (p < .001). Differences in the manner in which groups accumulated upright and sedentary time (sitting and lying) were found, with the ward-based groups sedentary for prolonged periods and upright for short episodes. This information may be used by clinicians to design appropriate rehabilitation interventions and monitor patient progress.

  7. Self-efficacy and environmental correlates of physical activity among older women and women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Katherine S; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2008-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a major health problem in the United States, particularly in elderly and disabled populations. Little research exists examining the relationships between aspects of the built environment and physical activity in older adults and individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). We adopted a social cognitive perspective to examine the independent roles of perceptions of the environmental, self-efficacy and functional limitations in understanding physical activity levels among elderly women and women with MS. Older women (n=136) and women diagnosed with MS (n=173) were recruited to participate in separate cross-sectional studies. Individuals completed a battery of questionnaires and wore an activity monitor for 7 days. All measures were issued and collected through the mail with the use of self-addressed, pre-paid envelopes. Initial correlational analyses indicated that self-efficacy, functional limitations and environmental perceptions were significantly related to physical activity. Among older women, self-efficacy, functional limitations and street connectivity demonstrated independent contributions to physical activity behavior. Only self-efficacy and functional limitations demonstrated significant associations among women with MS. The prospective contributions of the environment and individual factors to changes in physical activity need to be determined.

  8. The impact of perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity on mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this study. Structural equation modeling using LISREL 8.71 was performed to assess the effects of stress, support, and physical activity on mental health. The findings indicate that perceived stress predicted higher levels of depression, social support predicted lower levels of loneliness and fatigue, and physical activity predicted lower levels of fatigue among older adults. Social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health, except depression. In conclusion, the relative impacts of perceived stress, social support, and physical activity on types of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression) were different. Furthermore, stress had direct and indirect effects on each construct of mental health (e.g., fatigue, loneliness, and depression).

  9. Active social participation and mortality risk among older people in Japan: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    A large literature suggests that active social participation contributes to the well-being of older people. Japan provides a compelling context to test this hypothesis due to its rapidly growing elderly population and the phenomenal health of the population. Using the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examines how social participation, measured by group membership, is related to the risk of overall mortality among Japanese elders aged 65 and older. Results from Cox proportional hazards models show that group affiliation confers advantages against mortality risk, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, physical health measures, and family relationship variables. In particular, activities geared more toward self-development, such as postretirement employment and lifelong learning, are strongly associated with lower levels of mortality. Findings suggest that continued social participation at advanced ages produces positive health consequences, highlighting the importance of active aging in achieving successful aging in the Japanese context.

  10. Changes in Neural Activity Underlying Working Memory after Computerized Cognitive Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tusch, Erich S.; Alperin, Brittany R.; Ryan, Eliza; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Mohammed, Abdul H.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2016-01-01

    Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back). The anterior P3a served as an index of directing attention and the posterior P3b as an index of categorization/WM updating. We hypothesized that adaptive CCT would be associated with decreased P3 amplitude at low WM demand and increased P3 amplitude at high WM demand. The adaptive CCT group exhibited a training-related increase in the amplitude of the anterior P3a and posterior P3b in response to target stimuli across n-back tasks, while subjects in the active control CCT group demonstrated a post-training decrease in the anterior P3a. Performance did not differ between groups or sessions. Larger overall P3 amplitudes were strongly associated with better task performance. Increased post-CCT P3 amplitude correlated with improved task performance; this relationship was especially robust at high task load. Our findings suggest that adaptive WM training was associated with increased orienting of attention, as indexed by the P3a, and the enhancement of categorization/WM updating processes, as indexed by the P3b. Increased P3 amplitude was linked to improved performance; however. there was no direct association between adaptive training and improved performance. PMID:27877122

  11. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  12. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  13. Aboveground and belowground plant traits as drivers of microbial abundance and activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxendale, Catherine; Lavorel, Sandra; Grigulis, Karl; Legay, Nicolas; Krainer, Ute; Bahn, Michael; Kastl, Eva; Pommier, Thomas; Bardgett, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the roles that plant-soil interactions play in regulating ecosystem processes, our understanding of the role that specific aboveground and belowground plant traits play in defining them is limited. In this study, we aimed to develop a conceptual model linking plant functional trait impacts on soil microbial functional diversity and their coupled effects on ecosystem processes. This was done by replicating three mesocosm studies, based on model sub-alpine grasslands, across three sites in different parts of Europe as part of the pan-European project, VITAL. We manipulated community plant traits by planting communities of varying abundance and dominance of 4 common grassland species. After 1.5 years, we then measured aboveground traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen and carbon content and leaf C:N ratio), belowground traits (specific root length, average diameter, root dry matter content, root nitrogen and carbon content and root C:N ratio) microbial community abundance (using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and gene abundance of nitrifier and denitrifier communities), and microbial activity (via potential nitrification and denitrification rates). We present links between manipulated community traits, microbial properties and ecosystem processes, supporting the role of plant traits in driving microbial properties.

  14. Measuring physical activity in older adults: calibrating cut-points for the MotionWatch 8©

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Falck, Ryan S.; Beets, Michael W.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Given the world’s aging population, the staggering economic impact of dementia, the lack of effective treatments, and the fact a cure for dementia is likely many years away – there is an urgent need to develop interventions to prevent or at least delay dementia’s progression. Thus, lifestyle approaches to promote healthy aging are an important line of scientific inquiry. Good sleep quality and physical activity (PA) are pillars of healthy aging, and as such, are an increasing focus for intervention studies aimed at promoting health and cognitive function in older adults. However, PA and sleep quality are difficult constructs to evaluate empirically. Wrist-worn actigraphy (WWA) is currently accepted as a valid objective measure of sleep quality. The MotionWatch 8© (MW8) is the latest WWA, replacing the discontinued Actiwatch 4 and Actiwatch 7. In the current study, concurrent measurement of WWA and indirect calorimetry was performed during 10 different activities of daily living for 23 healthy older adults (aged 57–80 years) to determine cut-points for sedentary and moderate-vigorous PA – using receiver operating characteristic curves – with the cut-point for light activity being the boundaries between sedentary and moderate to vigorous PA. In addition, simultaneous multi-unit reliability was determined for the MW8 using inter-class correlations. The current study is the first to validate MW8 activity count cut-points – for sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous PA – specifically for use with healthy older adults. These cut-points provide important context for better interpretation of MW8 activity counts, and a greater understanding of what these counts mean in terms of PA. Hence, our results validate another level of analysis for researchers using the MW8 in studies aiming to examine PA and sleep quality concurrently in older adults. PMID:26379546

  15. On the transition from strombolian to fountaining activity: a thermal energy-based driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombrun, Maxime; Spampinato, Letizia; Harris, Andrew; Barra, Vincent; Caltabiano, Tommaso

    2016-02-01

    Since 1999, Mount Etna's (Italy) South-East crater system has been characterised by episodic lava fountaining. Each episode is characterised by initial strombolian activity followed by transition to sustained fountaining to feed high-effusion rate lava flow. Here, we use thermal infrared data recorded by a permanent radiometer station to characterise the transition to sustained fountaining fed by the New South-East crater that developed on the eastern flank of the South-East crater starting from January 2011. We cover eight fountaining episodes that occurred between 2012 and 2013. We first developed a routine to characterise event waveforms apparent in the precursory, strombolian phase. This allowed extraction of a database for thermal energy and waveform shape for 1934 events. We detected between 66 and 650 events per episode, with event durations being between 4 and 55 s. In total, 1508 (78 %) of the events had short waxing phases and dominant waning phases. Event frequency increased as climax was approached. Events had energies of between 3.0 × 106 and 5.8 × 109 J, with rank order analysis indicating the highest possible event energy of 8.1 × 109 J. To visualise the temporal evolution of retrieved parameters during the precursory phase, we applied a dimensionality reduction technique. Results show that weaker events occur during an onset period that forms a low-energy "sink". The transition towards fountaining occurs at 107 J, where subsequent events have a temporal trend towards the highest energies, and where sustained fountaining occurs when energies exceed 109 J. Such an energy-based framework allows researchers to track the evolution of fountaining episodes and to predict the time at which sustained fountaining will begin.

  16. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Beaudreau, Anne H.; Whitney, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at least 25 marine

  17. Sunspot Rotation as a Driver of Major Solar Eruptions in the NOAA Active Region 12158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Cheng, X.; Ravindra, B.

    2016-09-01

    We studied the development conditions of sigmoid structure under the influence of the magnetic non-potential characteristics of a rotating sunspot in the active region (AR) 12158. Vector magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and coronal EUV observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal that the erupting inverse-S sigmoid had roots at the location of the rotating sunspot. The sunspot rotates at a rate of 0°-5° h-1 with increasing trend in the first half followed by a decrease. The time evolution of many non-potential parameters had a good correspondence with the sunspot rotation. The evolution of the AR magnetic structure is approximated by a time series of force-free equilibria. The non-linear force-free field magnetic structure around the sunspot manifests the observed sigmoid structure. Field lines from the sunspot periphery constitute the body of the sigmoid and those from the interior overlie the sigmoid, similar to a flux rope structure. While the sunspot was rotating, two major coronal mass ejection eruptions occurred in the AR. During the first (second) event, the coronal current concentrations were enhanced (degraded), consistent with the photospheric net vertical current; however, magnetic energy was released during both cases. The analysis results suggest that the magnetic connections of the sigmoid are driven by the slow motion of sunspot rotation, which transforms to a highly twisted flux rope structure in a dynamical scenario. Exceeding the critical twist in the flux rope probably leads to the loss of equilibrium, thus triggering the onset of the two eruptions.

  18. Drivers of Time-Activity Budget Variability during Breeding in a Pelagic Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Rishworth, Gavin M.; Tremblay, Yann; Green, David B.; Connan, Maëlle; Pistorius, Pierre A.

    2014-01-01

    During breeding, animal behaviour is particularly sensitive to environmental and food resource availability. Additionally, factors such as sex, body condition, and offspring developmental stage can influence behaviour. Amongst seabirds, behaviour is generally predictably affected by local foraging conditions and has therefore been suggested as a potentially useful proxy to indicate prey state. However, besides prey availability and distribution, a range of other variables also influence seabird behavior, and these need to be accounted for to increase the signal-to-noise ratio when assessing specific characteristics of the environment based on behavioural attributes. The aim of this study was to use continuous, fine-scale time-activity budget data from a pelagic seabird (Cape gannet, Morus capensis) to determine the influence of intrinsic (sex and body condition) and extrinsic (offspring and time) variables on parent behaviour during breeding. Foraging trip duration and chick provisioning rates were clearly sex-specific and associated with chick developmental stage. Females made fewer, longer foraging trips and spent less time at the nest during chick provisioning. These sex-specific differences became increasingly apparent with chick development. Additionally, parents in better body condition spent longer periods at their nests and those which returned later in the day had longer overall nest attendance bouts. Using recent technological advances, this study provides new insights into the foraging behaviour of breeding seabirds, particularly during the post-guarding phase. The biparental strategy of chick provisioning revealed in this study appears to be an example where the costs of egg development to the female are balanced by paternal-dominated chick provisioning particularly as the chick nears fledging. PMID:25551620

  19. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  20. Unsatisfied basic needs of older patients in emergency care environments - obstacles to an active role in decision making.

    PubMed

    Nydén, Kristoffer; Petersson, Martin; Nyström, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Little attention is paid in Emergency Care Units (ECUs) in Sweden to the special needs of older people. The aim of this study was thus to analyse older people's basic needs in the emergency care environment. The study was carried out with a life-world interpretative approach, and the theoretical framework for interpretation was Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and personality. Seven informants aged between 65 and 88 years, with various experiences of being patients with urgent as well as non-urgent health-related problems, were interviewed about their experiences of ECU care. Their basic needs at the lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy were well-represented in the data. Higher needs, such as desire to know and understand, appeared to be totally neglected. Safety needs dominated the whole situation. Our conclusion is that standards of care must be developed in Sweden to make older patients feel safer and more secure in ECUs. Furthermore, the principles of nursing care for older patients need to be defined in order to encourage them to take an active part in their own health process.

  1. (Un)Healthy Immigrant Citizens: Naturalization and Activity Limitations in Older Age*

    PubMed Central

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D.; Van hook, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants’ political, social and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life-course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008–2010 American Community Surveys and 1998–2010 Integrated Health Interview Surveys, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared to non-citizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared to non-citizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act. PMID:24311754

  2. The origins of active galactic nuclei obscuration: the 'torus' as a dynamical, unstable driver of accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Narayanan, Desika; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Recent multiscale simulations have made it possible to follow gas inflows responsible for high-Eddington ratio accretion on to massive black holes (BHs) from galactic scales to the BH accretion disc. When sufficient gas is driven towards a BH, gravitational instabilities generically form lopsided, eccentric discs that propagate inwards from larger radii. The lopsided stellar disc exerts a strong torque on the gas, driving inflows that fuel the growth of the BH. Here, we investigate the possibility that the same disc, in its gas-rich phase, is the putative 'torus' invoked to explain obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the cosmic X-ray background. The disc is generically thick and has characteristic ˜1-10 pc sizes and masses resembling those required of the torus. Interestingly, the scale heights and obscured fractions of the predicted torii are substantial even in the absence of strong stellar feedback providing the vertical support. Rather, they can be maintained by strong bending modes and warps/twists excited by the inflow-generating instabilities. A number of other observed properties commonly attributed to 'feedback' processes may in fact be explained entirely by dynamical, gravitational effects: the lack of alignment between torus and host galaxy, correlations between local star formation rate (SFR) and turbulent gas velocities and the dependence of obscured fractions on AGN luminosity or SFR. We compare the predicted torus properties with observations of gas surface density profiles, kinematics, scale heights and SFR densities in AGN, and find that they are consistent in all cases. We argue that it is not possible to reproduce these observations and the observed column density distribution without a clumpy gas distribution, but allowing for simple clumping on small scales the predicted column density distribution is in good agreement with observations from NH˜ 1020-1027 cm-2. We examine how the NH distribution scales with galaxy and AGN properties

  3. High LPL Activity and Adipocyte Hypertrophy Reduce Visceral Fat and Metabolic Risk in Obese, Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C.; Ryan, Alice S.; Sorkin, John D.; Favors, Knachelle H.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if higher subcutaneous adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity (AT-LPLA) is associated with greater triglyceride (TG) storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), thereby reducing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. Design and Method Obese postmenopausal women (60±1 yrs; mean±SEM; N=101) had body composition by DXA and CT, fat aspirations for fat-cell weight (FCW) and AT-LPLA. Women were ranked by visceral to total abdominal fat ratio (VAT/TAF), and the lowest and highest groups (n=24) matched for % fat and age. Results The prevalence of metabolic dysfunction was 7–10 fold higher in women with high VAT/TAF (P’s<0.01). Women with low VAT/TAF had 11% and 6% lower abdominal and gluteal FCWs, but 28% and 54% higher AT-LPLA/106 cells in abdominal and gluteal fat, respectively. Abdominal FCW correlated with AT-LPLA in women with low (r=0.63, P<0.01), but not high (r=0.14, P=0.52) VAT/TAF, and these lines differed in slope (P<0.05) and intercept (P<0.01), suggesting greater capacity for TG storage with low VAT/TAF. There were no relationships between gluteal FCW and AT-LPLA. The relationship between SAT and abdominal AT-LPLA (r=0.39, P<0.01) suggests that higher AT-LPLA promotes TG storage. Conclusions These results suggest that higher AT-LPLA is associated with SAT adipocyte hypertrophy, which reduces visceral adiposity and metabolic risk in obese, older women. PMID:25612068

  4. Incorporating prosocial behavior to promote physical activity in older adults: Rationale and design of the Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE)☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Capri G.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Case, L. Douglas; Harris, Susan J.; Massa-Fanale, Carol; Hopley, Richard J.; Gardner, Leah; Rudiger, Nicole; Yamamoto, Kathryn; Swain, Brittany; Goff, David C.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Booth, Deborah; Gaspari, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the benefits of regular physical activity among older adults, physical activity rates are low in this population. The Program for Active Aging and Community Engagement (PACE) is an ongoing randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effects of two interventions on physical activity at 12 months among older adults. A total of 300 men and women aged 55 years or older will be randomized into either a healthy aging (HA) control intervention (n = 150), which is largely based upon educational sessions, or a prosocial behavior physical activity (PBPA) intervention (n = 150), which incorporates structured physical activity sessions, cognitive-behavioral counseling, and opportunities to earn food for donation to a regional food bank based on weekly physical activity and volunteering. The PBPA intervention is delivered at a local YMCA, and a regional grocery store chain donates the food to the food bank. Data will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is physical activity as assessed by the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include physical function and health-related quality of life. If successful, the PACE study will demonstrate that prosocial behavior and volunteerism may be efficaciously incorporated into interventions and will provide evidence for a novel motivating factor for physical activity. PMID:23876672

  5. Funny things happen at the Grange: introducing comedy activities in day services to older people with dementia--innovative practice.

    PubMed

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish

    2013-11-01

    This paper shares outcomes from the evaluation of a community project where comedy activities were introduced into a day centre for older people with dementia as a result of a partnership between the day centre, a local university and a specialist comedy provider. Four workshops were provided using improvisatory activities and comedy, as a medium to engage older people in reflecting on aspects of their care environment. The main output resulted in a 30 minute 'mockumentary' of the 'Her Majesty the Queen' visiting the day centre, in the form of a digital reusable learning object to be used by social work and mental health professionals. The evaluation demonstrated some additional outcomes for those involved and highlighted the benefits of laughter and fun in promoting a positive climate.

  6. Aging and well-being in French older adults regularly practicing physical activity: a self-determination perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Nasarre, Sandra; Hautier, Christophe; Bonnefoy, Marc

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles of physically active older adults and to achieve a better understanding of their perceived motives to explain their regular physical activity behavior in relation to self-determination theory (SDT). To address these aims, this study used quantitative and qualitative approaches. Older adults (n = 92; M = 74.95, SD = 4.6) completed the French version of the Sport Motivational Scale. A cluster analysis showed two motivational profiles with differential motivational patterns. The first was named the high combined profile, with high scores on intrinsic motivation and introjected regulation and low levels of external regulation. The second profile was the low to moderate motivational profile, with low scores on intrinsic motivation and moderate scores on introjected regulation. The qualitative study's results demonstrate the usefulness of SDT in explaining the relationship between these motivational profiles and the intertwining of the three basic psychological needs.

  7. Aerobic exercise plus weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and increases skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in older men.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alice S; Katzel, Leslie I; Prior, Steven J; McLenithan, John C; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ortmeyer, Heidi K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m(2)). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m(2)/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (-9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men.

  8. Aerobic Exercise Plus Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Katzel, Leslie I.; Prior, Steven J.; McLenithan, John C.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ortmeyer, Heidi K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m2). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (−9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men. PMID:24357038

  9. Older American Indians’ Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. Methods In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. Results The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Conclusions Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed. PMID:27337558

  10. Relations of sex, age, perceived fitness, and aerobic activity with social physique anxiety in adults sixty years and older.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Bowden, Rodney G; Owens, Robin; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2004-12-01

    Self-reported physical activity, and perceived fitness were examined to assess their effects on social physique anxiety in a sample of older individuals (N= 249; M age=70.4 yr., SD=8.2). Participants reported their fitness as "average" to "above average." There were no significant effects of perceived fitness or age on social physique anxiety scores. The women had significantly higher social physique anxiety scores than the men.

  11. Strategic priorities for increasing physical activity among adults age 50 and older: the national blueprint consensus conference summary report.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2003-12-01

    On May 1, 2001, a coalition of national organizations released a major planning document designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was developed with input from 46 organizations with expertise in health, medicine, social and behavioral sciences, epidemiology, gerontology/geriatrics, clinical science, public policy, marketing, medical systems, community organization, and environmental issues. The Blueprint notes that, despite a wealth of evidence about the benefits of physical activity for mid-life and older persons, there has been little success in convincing age 50+ Americans to adopt physically active lifestyles. The Blueprint identifies barriers in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical systems, public policy and advocacy, and marketing and communications. In addition to identifying barriers, the Blueprint proposes a number of concrete strategies that could be employed in order to overcome the barriers to physical activity in society at large. This report summarizes the outcome of the National Blueprint Consensus Conference that was held in October 2002. In this conference, representatives of more than 50 national organizations convened in Washington, D.C. with the goal of identifying high priority and high feasibility strategies which would advance the National Blueprint and which could be initiated within the next 12 to 24 months. Participants in the consensus conference were assigned to one of five breakout groups: home and community, marketing, medical systems, public policy, and research. Each breakout group was charged with identifying the three highest priority strategies within their area for effectively increasing physical activity levels in the mid-life and older adult population. In addition to the 15 strategies identified by the breakout groups, three

  12. High work ability in the scientific activity of older and experienced academics.

    PubMed

    Kristjuhan, Ulo; Taidre, Erika

    2012-01-01

    At present the health of people in theirs 60s is the same as in theirs 50s around fifty years ago. Using older academics is a topical problem for universities in remaining efficient. Data regarding academics' scientific productivity at universities were collected and questionnaires compiled in the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of Tallinn University of Technology in Estonia. Studies showed that the productivity of academics at university increases as they grow older (into their 60s). These academics are valuable to the university. The choice of academics should be made according to the candidates' knowledge and ability to work.

  13. Effects of interactive physical-activity video-game training on physical and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors developed an active video game training program using a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 × 1 hr of training) with a control group without treatment. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, assessing executive control, visuospatial functions, and processing speed, to measure the cognitive impact of the program. They were also given a battery of functional fitness tests to measure the physical impact of the program. The trainees improved significantly in measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in measures of physical function and cognitive measures of executive control and processing speed, but not on visuospatial measures. It was encouraging to observe that, engagement in physically simulated sport games yielded benefits to cognitive and physical skills that are directly involved in functional abilities older adults need in everyday living (e.g., Hultsch, Hertzog, Small, & Dixon, 1999).

  14. A Continuing Analysis of Possible Activity Drivers for the Enigmatic Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambeau, Charles; Fernández, Yanga; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Sarid, Gal; Meech, Karen Jean; Woodney, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We present results from our effort to understand activity drivers in Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (SW1). In a nearly circular orbit around 6 AU, outside of the water-sublimation zone, SW1 is continuously active and experiences frequent outbursts. Our group's effort is focusing on finding constraints on physical and dynamical properties of SW1's nucleus and their incorporation into a thermophysical model [1,2] to explain this behavior. We are currently analyzing coma morphology of SW1 before, during, and after outburst placing constraints on the spin-pole direction, spin period, and surface areas of activity. In addition, we are using the thermal model to investigate if the continuous activity comes from one or multiple processes, such as the release of trapped supervolatiles during the amorphous to crystalline (A-C) water ice phase transition and/or the direct sublimation of pockets of supervolatile ices. The supervolatile ices may be primordial or from the condensation of gases released during the A-C phase transition. To explain the possibly quasi-periodic but frequent outbursts, we are looking into subsurface cavities where internal pressures can build, reaching and exceeding surrounding material strengths [3,4] and/or thermal waves reaching a pocket of supervolatile ices, causing a rapid increase in the sublimation rate. For all these phenomena, the model is constrained by comparing the output dust mass loss rate and its variability with what has been observed through optical imaging of the comet at various points in its orbit. We will present preliminary thermal modeling of a homogeneous progenitor nucleus that evolves into a body showing internal material layering, the generation of CO and CO2 ice pockets, and the production of outbursts, thus bringing us closer to explaining the behavior of this intriguing comet. [1] Sarid, G., et al.: 2005, PASP, 117, 843. [2] Sarid, G.: 2009, PhD Thesis, Tel Aviv Univ. [3] Gronkowski, P., 2014, Astron. Nachr./AN 2, No

  15. A Continuing Analysis of Possible Activity Drivers for the Enigmatic Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambeau, Charles Alfred; Fernandez, Yanga; Samarasinha, Nalin; Sarid, Gal; Mueller, Beatrice; Meech, Karen; Woodney, Laura

    2015-11-01

    We present results from our continuing effort to understand activity drivers in Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (SW1). While being in a nearly circular orbit around 6 AU, SW1 is continuously active and experiences frequent outbursts. Our group’s effort is focusing on finding constraints on physical and dynamical properties of SW1’s nucleus and their incorporation into a thermophysical model [1,2] to explain this behavior. Now we are analyzing coma morphology of SW1 before, during, and after outburst to place constraints on the spin-pole direction, spin period, and surface areas of activity (a spin period lower limit has been measured). Also, we are using the thermal model to investigate if the continuous activity comes from one or multiple processes, such as the release of trapped supervolatiles during the amorphous to crystalline (A-C) water ice phase transition and/or the direct sublimation of pockets of supervolatile ices, which may be primordial or from the condensation of gases released during the A-C phase transition. To explain the possibly quasi-periodic but frequent outbursts, we are looking into subsurface cavities where internal pressures can build, reaching and exceeding surrounding material strengths [3,4] and/or thermal waves reaching a pocket of supervolatile ices, causing a rapid increase in the sublimation rate. For all these phenomena, the model is constrained by comparing the output dust mass loss rate and its variability with what has been observed through optical imaging of the comet at various points in its orbit. We will present preliminary thermal modeling of a homogeneous progenitor nucleus that evolves into a body showing internal material layering, the generation of CO and CO2 ice pockets, and the production of outbursts, thus bringing us closer to explaining the behavior of this intriguing comet.[1] Sarid, G., et al.: 2005, PASP, 117, 843. [2] Sarid, G.: 2009, PhD Thesis, Tel Aviv Univ. [3] Gronkowski, P., 2014, Astron. Nachr./AN 2

  16. The Relationship between Older Adults' Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2015-12-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984-1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with walking

  17. Older Shallow Hydrothermal Activity Along the North Edge of the Yellowstone Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, P. B.; Cosca, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Yano, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Park, is incised into more than 300 vertical meters of hydrothermally altered post-caldera rhyolites (Tuff of Sulfur Creek and Canyon Flow, 480 ka). The alteration was produced by older hydrothermal activity that predates cutting of the canyon (latest Pleistocene?), not by the modern hot springs. The Seven Mile Hole area, in the canyon about 5 km below the lower falls of the Yellowstone River and located along the north edge of the caldera, is pervasively altered in the canyon walls north of the river. Two alteration assemblages have been found along and just below the modern rim that was very near the paleo-surface and exposes paleo-hot spring sinter, 1. Illite-silica (quartz and/or opal)-pyrite, and, 2. kaolinite-alunite-silica (quartz and/or opal)-pyrite. Quartz-sulfide veins and quartz and/or opal space fillings crosscut both assemblages. The alteration grades downward to pervasive vuggy silicification (quartz) with illite and disseminated pyrite, about 100 to 200 m below the canyon rim. One alunite sample yields an Ar-Ar age of 138 ka. Preliminary O isotope ratios for silica (quartz) space fillings associated with the alunite alteration range from 2.0 to -2.2 per mil. The mineral assemblages indicate that both acid-sulfate and alkali-chloride hydrothermal fluids altered the rocks in the Seven Mile Hole area. The silica O ratios suggest that the near- surface fluid had an O ratio less than -15 per mil. Projecting this fluid to depth along the hydrostatic boiling curve, accounting for batch steam separation, and ignoring near-surface mixing with shallow local meteoric groundwater, suggest a deep reservoir fluid O ratio less than -20 per mil. The Ar-Ar age shows that the hydrothermal system in this area of the Yellowstone caldera, located near and along the northern caldera wall, has been active for at least 138 ka, and may extend as far back as the age of the Tuff of Sulfur Creek at 480 ka.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity with Hip Accelerometry among U.S. Older Adults: How Many Days Are Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249

  19. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments. PMID:26554842

  20. Intra-Individual Variability of Physical Activity in Older Adults With and Without Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Lesa; Templin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity shows promise for protection against cognitive decline in older adults with and without Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To better understand barriers to adoption of physical activity in this population, a clear understanding of daily and weekly activity patterns is needed. Most accelerometry studies report average physical activity over an entire wear period without considering the potential importance of the variability of physical activity. This study evaluated individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity and determined whether these differences could be predicted by AD status, day of wear, age, gender, education, and cardiorespiratory capacity. Physical activity was measured via accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X+) over one week in 86 older adults with and without AD (n = 33 and n = 53, respectively). Mixed-effects location-scale models were estimated to evaluate and predict individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with AD averaged 21% less activity, but averaged non-significantly greater intra-individual variability. Women and men averaged similar amounts of physical activity, but women were significantly less variable. The amount of physical activity differed significantly across days of wear. Increased cardiorespiratory capacity was associated with greater average amounts of physical activity. Investigation of individual differences in the amount and intra-individual variability of physical activity provided insight into differences by AD status, days of monitor wear, gender, and cardiovascular capacity. All individuals regardless of AD status were equally consistent in their physical activity, which may have been due to a highly sedentary sample and/or the early disease stage of those participants with AD. These results highlight the value of considering individual differences in both the amount

  1. Sport for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  2. Impaired neural activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in functional mobility are common with advancing age, though the physiological determinants underlying this problem are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that muscle power, the product of force and velocity, is an independent predictor of mobility function in older adul...

  3. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  4. Predictors of Quality of Life, Sexual Intercourse, and Sexual Satisfaction among Active Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penhollow, Tina M.; Young, Michael; Denny, George

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the sexual behaviors of older people, and the relationship between quality of life and sexuality has not been fully explored. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sociological, cultural, and psychological factors to further explain variance beyond biological changes that…

  5. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  6. Teaching Driver Education Technology to Novice Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anthony

    A cybernetic unit in driver education was developed to help grade 10 students develop the skills needed to acquire and process driver education information and prepare for the driving phase of driver education in grade 11. Students used a simulator to engage in a series of scenarios designed to promote development of social, behavioral, and mental…

  7. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB. PMID:27338426

  8. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults' Physical Activity and Sedentary Time.

    PubMed

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-06-07

    This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults' PA and limit SB.

  9. Activation of the mercury laser: a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Bibeau, C; Beach, R J; Ebbers, C A; Kanz, K; Nakano, H; Orth, C D; Payne, S A; Powell, H T; Schaffers, K I; Seppala, L; Skulina, K; Smith, L K; Sutton, S B; Zapata, L E

    2000-09-19

    Initial measurements are reported for the Mercury laser system, a scalable driver for rep-rated high energy density physics research. The performance goals include 10% electrical efficiency at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length.

  10. Relationship of blood pressure, behavioral mood state, and physical activity following caffeine ingestion in younger and older women.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the age-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and behavioral mood state after caffeine ingestion in younger and older women. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 10 younger (Y; 18-22 years) and 10 older (O; 50-67 years) healthy women who were moderate consumers of caffeine (self-reported mean intake: Y, 139 +/- 152 mg.day-1; O, 204 +/- 101 mg.day-1) were investigated. All volunteers were characterized for fasting plasma glucose, insulin, free-fatty acids and caffeine levels, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, and energy intake. Before and after placebo and caffeine ingestion (5 mg.kg-1 fat-free mass; approximately 208-270 mg) test days, the following variables were measured in all subjects: plasma caffeine levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and behavioral mood state. Results showed that, following caffeine ingestion: (i) both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the older women (SBP, 128.4 +/- 14.2 vs. 132.1 +/- 13.0 mm Hg (3%); DBP, 80.2 +/- 6.9 vs. 83.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg (4%), whereas only DBP increased in the younger women (67.1 +/- 4.7 vs. 69.9 +/- 5.4 mm Hg (4.2%); p < 0.05); (ii) heart rate decreased significantly (Y, 59.2 +/- 8.7 to 53.9 +/- 10.6 beats.min-1 (p < 0.05); O, 61.9 +/- 9.2 to 59.2 +/- 8.4 beats.min-1 (p < 0.05)) in both groups; and (iii) self-reported feelings of tension and vigor increased and feelings of fatigue decreased (p < 0.05) in younger women, whereas depression decreased (p < or = 0.05) in older women. Self-reported level of physical activity was inversely related to change in DBP following caffeine ingestion in younger women. In conclusion, blood pressure response is augmented and subjective feelings of behavioral mood state are attenuated to a greater degree in older than in younger women following acute caffeine ingestion. Less physically active younger women are more vulnerable

  11. The influence of Driving Status on Transportation Challenges Experienced by Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; Stadnyk, Robin; Begley, Lorraine; MacDonald, Dany J

    2015-06-01

    We explored the severity, number, and reasons for transportation challenges experienced by older adult drivers, nondrivers who live with a driver, and nondrivers who do not live with a driver. A random sample of 1,670 Atlantic Canadian community-dwelling older adults completed a mailed survey. Drivers comprised 80% of the participants. Just more than one fifth of participants experienced at least occasional transportation challenges. Two thirds of nondrivers who lived with a driver reported having no transportation challenges. Almost half of the nondrivers who did not live with a driver indicated never experiencing transportation challenges, and 84% of drivers had no transportation challenges. Nondrivers who did not live with a driver experienced greater frequency and severity of transportation challenges. This research contributes to our understanding of the characteristics of older adults with different driving statuses and their transportation challenges, which can contribute to providing appropriate transportation supports for older adults in the future.

  12. A comparison of older adults' subjective experience with virtual and real environments during dynamic balance activities

    PubMed Central

    Proffitt, Rachel; Lange, Belinda; Chen, Christina; Winstein, Carolee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of older adults interacting with both virtual and real environments. Thirty healthy older adults engaged with real and virtual tasks of similar motor demands: reaching to a target in standing and stepping stance. Immersive tendencies and absorption scales were administered before the session. Game engagement and experience questionnaires were completed after each task, followed by a semi-structured interview at the end of the testing session. Data were analyzed respectively using paired t-tests and grounded theory methodology. Participants preferred the virtual task over the real task. They also reported an increase in presence and absorption with the virtual task, describing an external focus of attention. Findings will be used to inform future development of appropriate game-based balance training applications that could be embedded in the home or community settings as part of evidence-based fall prevention programs. PMID:24334299

  13. Adaptation to Resistance Training Is Associated with Higher Phagocytic (but Not Oxidative) Activity in Neutrophils of Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomeu-Neto, João; Brito, Ciro José; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Sousa, Vinícius Carolino; Oliveira Toledo, Juliana; Silva Paula, Roberta; Alves, David Junger Fonseca; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Franco Moraes, Clayton; Córdova, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Failure in antimicrobial activity contributes to high morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Little is known about the potential effect of resistance training (RT) on the functional properties of the innate immunity. This study aimed to investigate the influence of long-term RT on the endocytic and oxidative activities of neutrophils and monocytes in healthy older women. Our results indicate that the phagocytosis index (PhI) of neutrophils (but not of monocytes) in the RT-adapted group was significantly higher (P < 0.001; effect size, (d) = 0.90, 95% CI: [0.75–1.04]) compared to that in sedentary subjects. In contrast, the oxidative activity of either neutrophils or monocytes was not significantly influenced by RT. Also, total energy and carbohydrate intake as well as serum IL6 levels had a significant influence on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils (P = 0.04), being considered in the model. Multivariate regression identified the physical condition of the subject (β = 0.425; P = 0.01) as a significant predictor of PhI. In conclusion, circulating neutrophils of older women adapted to a long-term RT program expressed higher phagocytic activity. PMID:26524964

  14. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Quality of Life Between Physically Active and Underactive Older Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Samara; Krägeloh, Chris; Shepherd, Daniel; Ryan, Clare; Masters, Jonathan; Osborne, Sue; MacLeod, Rod D; Gray, Marion; Keogh, Justin W

    2016-10-01

    Men with prostate cancer experience many side effects and symptoms that may be improved by a physically active lifestyle. It was hypothesized that older men with prostate cancer who were physically active would report significantly higher levels of quality of life (QOL) as assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-OLD. Of the 348 prostate cancer survivors who were invited to participate in the present postal survey, 137 men returned the questionnaires. Those who were physically active had significantly lower prostate specific antigen (PSA) scores and higher social participation than those insufficiently active. These findings offer some support for the benefits of physical activity (PA) within the prostate cancer population in managing the adverse side effects of their treatments on aspects of their QOL. Future research should more closely examine what types of PA best promote improvements in varying aspects of QOL and psychological well-being for prostate cancer survivors.

  15. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations: immigration and other factors associated with institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Chi, Monica

    2012-09-07

    This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203), Korean (n = 131), Japanese (n = 193), Filipino (n = 309), Asian Indian (n = 169), Chinese (n = 404), Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54), and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040) aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8%) (p < 0.001). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively). When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  16. Promoting sustainable community change in support of older adult physical activity: evaluation findings from the Southeast Seattle Senior Physical Activity Network (SESPAN).

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Egger, Ruth; LoGerfo, James P; Schwartz, Sheryl; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have identified as effective and worthy of broader dissemination a variety of intervention strategies to promote physical activity among older adults. This paper reports results of a community-organizing approach to disseminating evidence-based interventions in a sustainable way: The Southeast Seattle Senior Physical Activity Network (SESPAN). SESPAN was implemented in Southeast Seattle, a group of multicultural neighborhoods extending 8 miles southeast of downtown Seattle, with a population of 56,469 in 2000, with 12% (7,041) aged 65 and older. The SESPAN organizing strategy involved networking to: (1) make connections between two or more community organizations to create new senior physical activity programs; and (2) build coalitions of community groups and organizations to assist in making larger scale environmental and policy changes to increase senior physical activity. The SESPAN evaluation used an uncontrolled prospective design focusing on sustainable community changes, including new or modified programs, policies, and practices. Networking among organizations led to the creation of 16 ongoing exercise classes and walking groups, serving approximately 200 older adults in previously underserved Southeast Seattle communities. In addition, the project's health coalition is sustaining current activities and generating new programs and environmental changes. The success of the SESPAN organizing model depended on identifying and involving champions in partner organizations who provided support and resources for implementing programs.

  17. Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, R. Gavin; Clough, Launa G.; Dirain, Marvin; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes, including myogenesis and angiogenesis, are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely 2 (T2) and 7 (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women, aged 18-30 and ≥70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n = 15; 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n = 15; 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group, returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, postinjury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole+ and paired box 7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, postinjury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF and kinase insert domain receptor) did not differ significantly between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se. PMID:23493365

  18. Can active music making promote health and well-being in older citizens? Findings of the music for life project

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although there is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people’s well-being, little attention has been paid to the potential for music making to effect a significant contribution to the quality of life of older people. The research summarised here explored the role of music in older people’s lives and how participation in community music making can enhance their social, emotional and cognitive well-being. The research comprised three UK case study sites, each offering a variety of musical activities. At each site, a sample of people aged 50+ (total N = 398), some of whom had recently begun musical activities and others who were more experienced, were recruited to complete questionnaires that assessed quality of life. A control group (N = 102) completed the same measures. In-depth interviews were carried out with a representative sample, followed by observations of musical activities, focus groups and interviews with the facilitators of the activities. Higher scores on the quality of life measures were found consistently among the music participants, in comparison with the control group with ongoing benefits into the 4th age. Analysis of the qualitative data demonstrated: (1) cognitive benefits including challenge, the acquisition of new skills, a sense of achievement, and improvements in concentration and memory; (2) health benefits including increased vitality, improved mental health and mobility and feelings of rejuvenation; and (3) emotional benefits including protection against stress, protection against depression, support following bereavement, a sense of purpose, positive feelings, confidence and opportunities for creativity. Participants also identified a number of barriers to participation including lack of information about opportunities for making music. Ways that GP surgeries might support participation in music making are considered. PMID:28250825

  19. Can active music making promote health and well-being in older citizens? Findings of the music for life project.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Susan; Creech, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although there is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being, little attention has been paid to the potential for music making to effect a significant contribution to the quality of life of older people. The research summarised here explored the role of music in older people's lives and how participation in community music making can enhance their social, emotional and cognitive well-being. The research comprised three UK case study sites, each offering a variety of musical activities. At each site, a sample of people aged 50+ (total N = 398), some of whom had recently begun musical activities and others who were more experienced, were recruited to complete questionnaires that assessed quality of life. A control group (N = 102) completed the same measures. In-depth interviews were carried out with a representative sample, followed by observations of musical activities, focus groups and interviews with the facilitators of the activities. Higher scores on the quality of life measures were found consistently among the music participants, in comparison with the control group with ongoing benefits into the 4th age. Analysis of the qualitative data demonstrated: (1) cognitive benefits including challenge, the acquisition of new skills, a sense of achievement, and improvements in concentration and memory; (2) health benefits including increased vitality, improved mental health and mobility and feelings of rejuvenation; and (3) emotional benefits including protection against stress, protection against depression, support following bereavement, a sense of purpose, positive feelings, confidence and opportunities for creativity. Participants also identified a number of barriers to participation including lack of information about opportunities for making music. Ways that GP surgeries might support participation in music making are considered.

  20. Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; MacNeil, R Gavin; Clough, Launa G; Dirain, Marvin; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-06-01

    Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes, including myogenesis and angiogenesis, are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely 2 (T2) and 7 (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women, aged 18-30 and ≥70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n = 15; 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n = 15; 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group, returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, postinjury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole+ and paired box 7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, postinjury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF and kinase insert domain receptor) did not differ significantly between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se.

  1. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  2. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  3. Built environment attributes related to GPS measured active trips in mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Carlson, Jordan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Belza, Basia

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding factors which may promote walking in mid-life and older adults with mobility impairments is key given the association between physical activity and positive health outcomes. Objective To examine the relationship between active trips and objective measures of the home neighborhood built environment. Methods Global positioning systems (GPS) data collected on 28 adults age 50+ with mobility disabilities were analyzed for active trips from home. Objective and geographic information systems (GIS) derived measures included Walk Score, population density, street connectivity, crime rates, and slope within the home neighborhood. For this cross-sectional observational study, we conducted mean comparisons between participants who took active trips from home and those who did not for the objective measures. Effect sizes were calculated to assess the magnitude of group differences. Results Nine participants (32%) took active trips from home. Walking in the home neighborhood was significantly associated with GIS derived measures (Walk Score, population density, and street density; effect sizes .9-1.2). Participants who used the home neighborhood for active trips had less slope within 1 km of home but the difference was not significant (73.5 meters±22 vs. 100.8 meters ±38.1, p=.06, d=0.8). There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for crime rates between those with active trips from home and those without. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary evidence that more walkable environments promote active mobility among mid-life and older adults with mobility disabilities. The data suggest that this population can and does use active transportation modes when the built environment is supportive. PMID:25637503

  4. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Dorien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Geus, Bas; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17–18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. Methods A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course ‘Driving Licence at School’ in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course ‘Driving Licence at School’. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. Results A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow

  5. Visual Behavior Differences in Drivers Across the Lifespan: A Digital Billboard Simulator Study

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinos, Despina; Mosley, Peyton R.; Wittig, Shannon M.; Johnson, Haley D.; Decker, John S.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Welburn, Sharon C.

    2016-01-01

    Driver distraction is implicated in a significant portion of motor vehicle collisions; evidence has suggested that billboards can contribute to such distraction, but many knowledge gaps remain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various types of billboards (static, 250-foot digital transition, 500-foot digital transition, and a control [no billboard] condition) and age group (teen, middle, and older) on visual behavior through the use of a driving simulator. To address gaps in the existing literature, the effects of age group and billboard type on the following visual attention variables were considered: percent of time participants looked at billboards, average glance length, number of glances, and glance pattern activity. Significant main effects of age group were found, suggesting that teen drivers exhibited significantly different visual behavior as compared to drivers in the other age groups. An Age Group x Billboard Type interaction for one outcome provided some evidence that percent of time spent looking at billboards significantly increased as billboard transition time increased for drivers, except for older adults, who spent more time looking at static billboards. This study helps lay the groundwork for future studies that may consider how young drivers’ differential scanning patterns impact driving safety. PMID:27909391

  6. Neighborhood and individual factors in activity in older adults: results from the neighborhood and senior health study.

    PubMed

    King, Diane

    2008-04-01

    This study examined whether features of the built environment and residents' perceptions of neighborhood walkability, safety, and social cohesion were associated with self-reported physical activity (PA) and community-based activity among a sample of 190 older adults (mean age 74) residing in 8 Denver neighborhoods. Neighborhood walking audits were conducted to assess walkability and social capital. In multilevel analyses, a few walkability variables including curb cuts, crosswalks, and density of retail predicted greater frequency of walking for errands (p < .05), but mean frequency of walking for errands for this sample was low (<1/wk). Contrary to expectations, total PA and community-based activity were highest in neighborhoods with fewer walkability variables but higher respondent perceptions of safety and social cohesion (p < .01). For seniors, the importance of characteristics of the built environment in promoting PA and general activity engagement might be secondary to attributes of the social environment that promote safety and social cohesion.

  7. Healthy older humans exhibit augmented carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity with aspirin during muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation.

    PubMed

    Drew, Rachel C; Blaha, Cheryl A; Herr, Michael D; Stocker, Sean D; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-10-01

    Low-dose aspirin inhibits thromboxane production and augments the sensitivity of carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of heart rate (HR) during concurrent muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in healthy young humans. However, it is unknown how aging affects this response. Therefore, the effect of low-dose aspirin on carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during muscle mechanoreflex with and without metaboreflex activation in healthy older humans was examined. Twelve older subjects (6 men and 6 women, mean age: 62 ± 1 yr) performed two trials during two visits preceded by 7 days of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) or placebo. One trial involved 3 min of passive calf stretch (mechanoreflex) during 7.5 min of limb circulatory occlusion (CO). In another trial, CO was preceded by 1.5 min of 70% maximal voluntary contraction isometric calf exercise (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex). HR (ECG) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; Finometer) were recorded. CBR function was assessed using rapid neck pressure application (+40 to -80 mmHg). Aspirin significantly decreased baseline thromboxane B2 production by 83 ± 4% (P < 0.05) but did not affect 6-keto-PGF1α. After aspirin, CBR-HR maximal gain and operating point gain were significantly higher during stretch with metabolite accumulation compared with placebo (maximal gain: -0.23 ± 0.03 vs. -0.14 ± 0.02 and operating point gain: -0.11 ± 0.03 vs. -0.04 ± 0.01 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) for aspirin and placebo, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that low-dose aspirin augments CBR-HR sensitivity during concurrent muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in healthy older humans. This increased sensitivity appears linked to reduced thromboxane sensitization of muscle mechanoreceptors, which consequently improves CBR-HR control.

  8. Age differences in the takeover of vehicle control and engagement in non-driving-related activities in simulated driving with conditional automation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Hallie; Feng, Jing

    2016-09-26

    High-level vehicle automation has been proposed as a valuable means to enhance the mobility of older drivers, as older drivers experience age-related declines in many cognitive functions that are vital for safe driving. Recent research attempted to examine age differences in how engagement in non-driving-related activities impact driving performance, by instructing drivers to engage in mandatory pre-designed activities. While the mandatory engagement method allows a precise control of the timing and mental workload of the non-driving-related activities, it is different from how a driver would naturally engage in these activities. This study allowed younger (age 18-35, mean age=19.9years) and older drivers (age 62-81, mean age=70.4years) to freely decide when and how to engage in voluntarily chosen non-driving-related activities during simulated driving with conditional automation. We coded video recordings of participants' engagement in non-driving-related activities. We examined the effect of age, level of activity-engagement and takeover notification interval on vehicle control performance during the takeover, by comparing between the high and low engagement groups in younger and older drivers, across two takeover notification interval conditions. We found that both younger and older drivers engaged in various non-driving-related activities during the automated driving portion, with distinct preferences on the type of activity for each age group (i.e., while younger drivers mostly used an electronic device, older drivers tended to converse). There were also significant differences between the two age groups and between the two notification intervals on various driving performance measures. Older drivers benefited more than younger drivers from the longer interval in terms of response time to notifications. Voluntary engagement in non-driving-related activities did not impair takeover performance in general, although there was a trend of older drivers who were

  9. Contextual Correlates of Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Neighborhood Environment-Wide Association Study (NE-WAS).

    PubMed

    Mooney, Stephen J; Joshi, Spruha; Cerdá, Magdalena; Kennedy, Gary J; Beard, John R; Rundle, Andrew G

    2017-04-01

    Background: Few older adults achieve recommended physical activity levels. We conducted a "neighborhood environment-wide association study (NE-WAS)" of neighborhood influences on physical activity among older adults, analogous, in a genetic context, to a genome-wide association study.Methods: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and sociodemographic data were collected via telephone survey of 3,497 residents of New York City aged 65 to 75 years. Using Geographic Information Systems, we created 337 variables describing each participant's residential neighborhood's built, social, and economic context. We used survey-weighted regression models adjusting for individual-level covariates to test for associations between each neighborhood variable and (i) total PASE score, (ii) gardening activity, (iii) walking, and (iv) housework (as a negative control). We also applied two "Big Data" analytic techniques, LASSO regression, and Random Forests, to algorithmically select neighborhood variables predictive of these four physical activity measures.Results: Of all 337 measures, proportion of residents living in extreme poverty was most strongly associated with total physical activity [-0.85; (95% confidence interval, -1.14 to -0.56) PASE units per 1% increase in proportion of residents living with household incomes less than half the federal poverty line]. Only neighborhood socioeconomic status and disorder measures were associated with total activity and gardening, whereas a broader range of measures was associated with walking. As expected, no neighborhood meaZsures were associated with housework after accounting for multiple comparisons.Conclusions: This systematic approach revealed patterns in the domains of neighborhood measures associated with physical activity.Impact: The NE-WAS approach appears to be a promising exploratory technique. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 495-504. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial

  10. Total daily activity measured with actigraphy and motor function in community-dwelling older persons with and without dementia.

    PubMed

    James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A; Buchman, Aron S

    2012-01-01

    Actigraphic measures of physical activity do not rely on participants' self-report and may be of particular importance for examining the health benefits of physical activity across the full spectrum of older individuals, especially those with dementia, a group in which loss of motor function is particularly salient. We tested whether actigraphy could be used to examine the relationship between total daily physical activity and motor function in community-dwelling older persons both with (n = 70) and without (n = 624) clinical dementia. Total daily activity was measured using actigraphy for a median of 9 (range: 2-16) days. All participants also underwent a structured examination, including 9 muscle strength and 9 motor performance measures summarized as a composite measure. In linear regression models controlling for age, sex, and education, total daily activity was associated with global motor scores (β = 0.13, SD = 0.01, P < 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for body composition, cognition, depressive symptoms, disability, vascular risk factors, and diseases (β = 0.07, SD = 0.01, P < 0.001). The association did not vary by dementia status (interaction P = 0.53). In persons without dementia, the association was independent of self-reported physical activity. Total daily activity was associated with both muscle strength (β = 0.10, SD = 0.02, P < 0.001) and motor performance (β = 0.16, SD = 0.02, P < 0.001). Actigraphy can be used in the community setting to provide objective measures of total daily activity that are associated with a broad range of motor performances. These associations did not vary by dementia status. Actigraphy may provide a means to more fully explicate the nature and course of motor impairment in old age.

  11. How to Tackle Key Challenges in the Promotion of Physical Activity among Older Adults (65+): The AEQUIPA Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Forberger, Sarah; Bammann, Karin; Bauer, Jürgen; Boll, Susanne; Bolte, Gabriele; Brand, Tilman; Hein, Andreas; Koppelin, Frauke; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Pischke, Claudia R; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-04-04

    The paper introduces the theoretical framework and methods/instruments used by the Physical Activity and Health Equity: Primary Prevention for Healthy Ageing (AEQUIPA) prevention research network as an interdisciplinary approach to tackle key challenges in the promotion of physical activity among older people (65+). Drawing on the social-ecological model, the AEQUIPA network developed an interdisciplinary methodological design including quantitative/qualitative studies and systematic reviews, while combining expertise from diverse fields: public health, psychology, urban planning, sports sciences, health technology and geriatrics. AEQUIPA tackles key challenges when promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults: tailoring of interventions, fostering community readiness and participation, strengthening intersectoral collaboration, using new technological devices and evaluating intervention generated inequalities. AEQUIPA aims to strengthen the evidence base for age-specific preventive PA interventions and to yield new insights into the explanatory power of individual and contextual factors. Currently, the empirical work is still underway. First experiences indicate that thenetwork has achieved a strong regional linkage with communities, local stakeholders and individuals. However, involving inactive persons and individuals from minority groups remained challenging. A review of existing PA intervention studies among the elderly revealed the potential to assess equity effects. The results will add to the theoretical and methodological discussion on evidence-based age-specific PA interventions and will contribute to the discussion about European and national health targets.

  12. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-24

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community.

  13. Occupational Fatalities Among Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers in the United States, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang X.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Wu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background This study provides a national profile of occupational fatalities among truck drivers and driver-sales workers. Methods Data from the 2003–2008 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries were used. Cases were extracted specifically for occupational subcategories included in the Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers occupational category: Driver/Sales Workers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers, and Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers. Results In 2003–2008, the group Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers had 5,568 occupational fatalities, representing 17% of all occupational fatalities in the United States. The majority of these fatalities were in the subgroup Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers (85%) and due to transportation incidents (80%). Older and male drivers had higher fatality rates than their counterparts. Conclusions Findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to reduce highway fatalities among heavy truck drivers. Better employment data are needed to separate the three occupational subcategories by worker characteristic and employment history for use in research and prevention efforts. PMID:24811905

  14. “We’re Not Just Sitting on the Periphery”: A Staff Perspective of Physical Activity in Older Adults With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Leutwyler, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Targeted physical activity interventions to improve the poor physical function of older adults with schizophrenia are necessary but currently not available. Given disordered thought processes and institutionalization, it is likely that older adults with schizophrenia have unique barriers and facilitators to physical activity. It is necessary to consider the perspective of the mental health staff about barriers and facilitators to physical activity to design a feasible intervention. Purpose of This Study: To describe the perceptions of mental health staff about barriers and facilitators to engage in physical activities that promote physical function among older adults with schizophrenia. Design and Method: We conducted qualitative interviews with 23 mental health staff that care for older adults with schizophrenia. The data were collected and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. Results: The participants were interested in promoting physical activity with older adults with schizophrenia. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity identified were mental health, role models and rewards, institutional factors, and safety. Implications: In order to design successful physical activity interventions for this population, the intervention may need to be a routine part of the mental health treatment program and patients may need incentives to participate. Staff should be educated that physical activity may provide the dual benefit of physical and mental health treatment. PMID:22936534

  15. A case study on the perception of aging and participation in physical activities of older Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Koo, Fung Kuen

    2011-10-01

    This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong ChineseAustralians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one's physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one's social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.

  16. Physical activity, sleep, and C-reactive protein as markers of positive health in resilient older men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alison J; Hoyt, Robert E; Linnville, Steven E; Moore, Jeffery L

    2016-09-01

    This study explored whether physical activity and sleep, combined with the biomarker C-reactive protein, indexed positive health in older men. Many were former prisoners of war, with most remaining psychologically resilient and free of any psychiatric diagnoses. Activity and sleep were recorded through actigraphy in 120 veterans (86 resilient and 34 nonresilient) for 7 days. Resilient men had higher physical activity, significantly lower C-reactive protein levels, and 53 percent had lower cardiac-disease risk compared to nonresilient men. Sleep was adequate and not associated with C-reactive protein. Results suggest continued study is needed in actigraphy and C-reactive protein as means to index positive health.

  17. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living In Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O’Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. Objectives To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Design Expert panel survey. Setting Web-based platform. Participants Eleven experts from eight academic medical centers and 300 community dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery from two academic medical centers. Methods Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Main Outcome Measurements Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychological tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Results Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, while walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychological performance (r=0.13–0.23, p<.05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r=0.15–0.46, p<.05). Conclusions Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, post-acute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. PMID:25661463

  18. Less wiring, more firing: low-performing older adults compensate for impaired white matter with greater neural activity.

    PubMed

    Daselaar, Sander M; Iyengar, Vijeth; Davis, Simon W; Eklund, Karl; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto E

    2015-04-01

    The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decreases with age, the fibers that remain show higher synaptic field potentials (less wiring, more firing). Extrapolating to system-level measures in humans, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that greater activity in OAs compensates for impaired white-matter connectivity. Using a neuropsychological test battery, we measured individual differences in executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and memory functions associated with the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity for successful versus unsuccessful trials during a source memory task. Finally, we measured white-matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. The study yielded 3 main findings. First, low-executive OAs showed greater success-related activity in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs showed greater success-related activity in the MTLs. Second, low-executive OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the MTLs. Finally, in both prefrontal and MTL regions, white-matter decline and success-related activations occurred in close proximity and were negatively correlated. This finding supports the less-wiring-more-firing hypothesis, which provides a testable account of compensatory over-recruitment in OAs.

  19. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  20. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  1. Pilot study: can older inactive adults learn how to reach the required intensity of physical activity guideline?

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Langlois, Marie-France; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Farand, Paul; Paulin, Mathieu; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE) at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG). One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR) monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9); manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8); or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8). Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01), but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07). Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception of intensity. PMID:23662053

  2. Pilot study: can older inactive adults learn how to reach the required intensity of physical activity guideline?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Langlois, Marie-France; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Farand, Paul; Paulin, Mathieu; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE) at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG). One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR) monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9); manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8); or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8). Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01), but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07). Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception of intensity.

  3. A Qualitative Exploration of Factors Associated with Walking and Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Latino Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, David X.; Aguiñaga, Susan; Campa, Jeanine; Pinsker, Eve; Bustamante, Eduardo E.; Hernandez, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ethnic/racial minorities often live in neighborhoods that are not conducive to physical activity (PA) participation. We examined perceived factors related to walking/PA among Spanish- and English-speaking older Latinos in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighborhood. METHODS Exploratory focus group study with Latinos stratified by preferred language and gender: English speaking women (n=7, M age=74.6); English speaking men (n=3, M age=69.3); Spanish speaking women (n=5, M age=66.4); Spanish speaking men (n=5, M age=74.0). Focus group audio files were transcribed, and qualitative research software was used to code and analyze documents. RESULTS At the individual-level, reasons for exercising (improved health) and positive health outcome expectancies (weight loss and decreased knee pain) were discussed. Neighborhood/environmental factors of safety (fear of crime), neighborhood changes (lack of jobs and decreased social networks), weather, and destination walking were discussed. DISCUSSION Individual and environmental factors influence physical activity of older, urban Latinos, and should be taken into consideration in health promotion efforts. PMID:24832017

  4. Physical Activity Measurement by Accelerometry Among Older Malay Adults Living in Semi-Rural Areas-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported 'no issues' with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

  5. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  6. White matter hyperintensities among older adults are associated with futile increase in frontal activation and functional connectivity during spatial search.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Samuel N; Luck, Steven J; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control.

  7. Activation of the Mercury Laser: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Driver for Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Bibeau, C; Beach, R J; Chanteloup, J C; Ebbers, C A; Kanz, K; Nakano, H; Payne, S A; Powell, H T; Schaffers, K I; Seppala, L; Skulina, K; Smith, L K; Sutton, S B; Zapata, L E

    2001-03-07

    Initial measurements are reported for the Mercury laser system, a scalable driver for rep-rated high energy density physics research. The performance goals include 10% electrical efficiency at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length. This laser is an angularly multiplexed 4-pass gas-cooled amplifier system based on image relaying to minimize wavefront distortion and optical damage risk at the 10 Hz operating point. The efficiency requirements are fulfilled using diode laser pumping of ytterbium doped strontium fluorapatite crystals.

  8. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant incre