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Sample records for active optical elements

  1. Conformal optical elements for correcting wavefront distortions in YAG : Nd{sup 3+} active elements

    SciTech Connect

    Korolkov, V P; Nasyrov, R K; Poleshchuk, A G; Arapov, Yu D; Ivanov, A F

    2013-02-28

    Correction of the wavefront is studied for the light beam passing wide-aperture YAG : Nd3+ single-crystal rods, which are used as active elements in high-power solid-state lasers. A nonideal character of the crystal structure is responsible for the deformation of the wavefront of passing radiation. By using the halftone technology we have developed conformal aberration correctors capable of compensating rod nonuniformities and reducing the laser radiation divergence by an order of magnitude. The results obtained make it possible to employ optically nonuniform active elements in laser constructions. (laser optics 2012)

  2. Optical activity of catalytic elements of hetero-metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Apell, S. Peter; Wadell, Carl; Langhammer, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of light with metals in the form of surface plasmons is used in a wide range of applications in which the scattering decay channel is important. The absorption channel is usually thought of as unwanted and detrimental to the efficiency of the device. This is true in many applications, however, recent studies have shown that maximization of the decay channel of surface plasmons has potentially significant uses. One of these is the creation of electron-hole pairs or hot electrons which can be used for e.g. catalysis. Here, we study the optical properties of hetero-metallic nanostructures that enhance light interaction with the catalytic elements of the nanostructures. A hybridized LSPR that matches the spectral characteristic of the light source is excited. This LSPR through coupling between the plasmonic elements maximizes light absorption in the catalytic part of the nanostructure. Numerically calculated visible light absorption in the catalytic nanoparticles is enhanced 12-fold for large catalytic disks and by more 30 for small nanoparticles on the order of 5 nm. In experiments we measure a sizable increase in the absorption cross section when small palladium nanoparticles are coupled to a large silver resonator. These observations suggest that heterometallic nanostructures can enhance catalytic reaction rates.

  3. Sun-tracking optical element realized using thermally activated transparency-switching material.

    PubMed

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Lilliu, Samuele; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-07-27

    We present a proof of concept demonstration of a novel optical element: a light-responsive aperture that can track a moving light beam. The element is created using a thermally-activated transparency-switching material composed of paraffin wax and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Illumination of the material with a focused beam causes the formation of a localized transparency at the focal spot location, due to local heating caused by absorption of a portion of the incident light. An application is proposed in a new design for a self-tracking solar collector. PMID:26367692

  4. Three-dimensional display utilizing a diffractive optical element and an active matrix liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Gregory P.; Jones, Michael W.; Kulick, Jeffrey H.; Lindquist, Robert G.; Kowel, Stephen T.

    1996-12-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of the first real-time autostereoscopic 3D display based on the partial pixel 3D display architecture. The primary optical components of the 3D display are an active-matrix liquid crystal display and a diffractive optical element (DOE). The display operates at video frame rates and is driven with a conventional VGA signal. 3D animations with horizontal motion parallax are readily viewable as sets of stereo images. Formation of the virtual viewing slits by diffraction from the partial pixel apertures is experimentally verified. The measured contrast and perceived brightness of the display are excellent, but there are minor flaws in image quality due to secondary images. The source of these images and how they may be eliminated is discussed. The effects of manufacturing-related systematic errors in the DOE are also analyzed.

  5. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  6. Active thermal lensing elements for mode matching optimization in optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulda, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In interferometric gravitational wave detectors of the advanced era and beyond, the high laser powers used lead to the generation of thermal lenses in the optics. This can lead to a reduction in the coupling between the various optical cavities comprising the detector, thus reducing its overall sensitivity. We present here an active device which can be used to compensate for such thermal effects, as well as static mismatches between cavities. The device uses a 4 segmented heater to heat a transmissive optic, generating a spherical or astigmatic lens which can be used to compensate other thermal lenses within an optical system. We report on in-vacuum tests of the device, including an interferometric measurement of the wavefront distortions induced by the device, and measurements of the dynamic range and response time. The device was shown to have no observable detrimental effect on wavefront distortion, a focal power dynamic range of 0 to -40 mD, and a response time of the order 1000 s. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1205512.

  7. Stress-engineered optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Alexis Katherine Koenig

    Stress in an optical window induces very intriguing and useful polarization effects. In particular, an applied pressure creates polarization vortices which have the potential to aid in many optical imaging applications, including lithography and confocal microscopy. A particularly fascinating double focus effect is observed when a stressed window is illuminated and analyzed with circularly polarized light. A stressed window, in such an arrangement, creates an optical system with two focal points. An overview of the history of stress birefringence and the influence of polarization vortices on optical systems is introduced. Theory of stress and strain is presented and the impact of stress and strain on an optical window is explored through finite element modeling, Jones matrix analysis, theoretical simulations and experimental methods. This thesis also explores ways in which stress is applied to a transparent window, the characterization of the effect of stressed windows in both the pupil and image planes and the influence of the induced polarization vortices on imaging. A zone plate model and mean-square estimate are presented to describe a double focus effect that is observed when the stress exceeds a certain threshold. Applications of stress-induced polarization vortices as well as future work are also discussed. The development and experimental characterization of space-variant, stress birefringent optical elements is the first such effort directed toward the creation of polarization vortices.

  8. Finite element analyses of thin film active grazing incidence x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2010-09-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, with its sub-arc second resolution, has revolutionized X-ray astronomy by revealing an extremely complex X-ray sky and demonstrating the power of the X-ray window in exploring fundamental astrophysical problems. Larger area telescopes of still higher angular resolution promise further advances. We are engaged in the development of a mission concept, Generation-X, a 0.1 arc second resolution x-ray telescope with tens of square meters of collecting area, 500 times that of Chandra. To achieve these two requirements of imaging and area, we are developing a grazing incidence telescope comprised of many mirror segments. Each segment is an adjustable mirror that is a section of a paraboloid or hyperboloid, aligned and figure corrected in situ on-orbit. To that end, finite element analyses of thin glass mirrors are performed to determine influence functions for each actuator on the mirrors, in order to develop algorithms for correction of mirror deformations. The effects of several mirror mounting schemes are also studied. The finite element analysis results, combined with measurements made on prototype mirrors, will be used to further refine the correction algorithms.

  9. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Reich, Frederich R.; Schwankoff, Albert R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

  10. Active element pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1994-08-01

    This review article will discuss the use of the active element pattern for prediction of the scan performance of large phased array antennas. The introduction and application of the concept of the active element pattern goes back at least 30 years (1) -(6) , but the subject is generally not covered in modern antenna engineering textbooks or handbooks, and many contemporary workers are unfamiliar with this simple but powerful idea. In addition, early references on this subject do not provide a rigorous discussion or derivation of the active element pattern, relying instead on a more qualitative interpretation. The purpose of this communication is to make the technique of active element patterns more accessible to antenna engineers, and to provide a new derivation of the basic active element pattern relations in terms of scattering parameters.

  11. COMPONENTS AND PARAMETERS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Thermal depolarization of optical radiation in a laser active element made of GSGG:Cr3+:Nd3+ crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, A. A.; Nikol'skiĭ, M. Yu; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.

    1987-08-01

    Investigations were made of the thermal depolarization in a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (GSGG) crystal doped with neodymium and chromium. It was found that at average optical pump powers higher than 250-300 W, inhomogeneities of the active medium make a substantial contribution to the thermal depolarization. A method is proposed for the control of the thermal depolarization by additional heating of the active element.

  12. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  13. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  14. Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.

  15. Scattering Optical Elements: Stand-Alone Optical Elements Exploiting Multiple Light Scattering.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongchan; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Park, Chunghyun; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, Heon; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2016-07-26

    Optical design and fabrication techniques are crucial for making optical elements. From conventional lenses to diffractive optical elements and to recent metasurfaces, various types of optical elements have been proposed to manipulate light where optical materials are fabricated into desired structures. Here, we propose a scattering optical element (SOE) that exploits multiple light scattering and wavefront shaping. Instead of fabricating optical materials, the SOE consists of a disordered medium and a photopolymer-based wavefront recorder, with shapes impinging on light on demand. With the proposed stand-alone SOEs, we experimentally demonstrate control of various properties of light, including intensity, polarization, spectral frequency, and near field. Due to the tremendous freedom brought about by disordered media, the proposed approach will provide unexplored routes to manipulate arbitrary optical fields in stand-alone optical elements.

  16. Optically intraconnected computer employing dynamically reconfigurable holographic optical element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An optically intraconnected computer and a reconfigurable holographic optical element employed therein. The basic computer comprises a memory for holding a sequence of instructions to be executed; logic for accessing the instructions in sequence; logic for determining for each the instruction the function to be performed and the effective address thereof; a plurality of individual elements on a common support substrate optimized to perform certain logical sequences employed in executing the instructions; and, element selection logic connected to the logic determining the function to be performed for each the instruction for determining the class of each function and for causing the instruction to be executed by those the elements which perform those associated the logical sequences affecting the instruction execution in an optimum manner. In the optically intraconnected version, the element selection logic is adapted for transmitting and switching signals to the elements optically.

  17. Method and apparatus for staking optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for staking two optical elements together in order to retain their alignment is disclosed. The apparatus includes a removable adaptor made up of first and second adaptor bodies each having a lateral slot in their front and side faces. The adaptor also includes a system for releasably attaching each adaptor body to a respective optical element such that when the two optical elements are positioned relative to one another the adaptor bodies are adjacent and the lateral slots therein are aligned to form key slots. The adaptor includes keys which are adapted to fit into the key slots. A curable filler material is employed to retain the keys in the key slots and thereby join the first and second adaptor bodies to form the adaptor. Also disclosed is a method for staking together two optical elements employing the adaptor of the present invention.

  18. Method and apparatus for staking optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Robert O.

    1988-10-04

    A method and apparatus for staking two optical elements together in order to retain their alignment is disclosed. The apparatus includes a removable adaptor made up of first and second adaptor bodies each having a lateral slot in their front and side faces. The adaptor also includes a system for releasably attaching each adaptor body to a respective optical element such that when the two optical elements are positioned relative to one another the adaptor bodies are adjacent and the lateral slots therein are aligned to form key slots. The adaptor includes keys which are adapted to fit into the key slots. A curable filler material is employed to retain the keys in the key slots and thereby join the first and second adaptor bodies to form the adaptor. Also disclosed is a method for staking together two optical elements employing the adaptor of the present invention.

  19. Sputter metalization of Wolter type optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledger, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical task showed that the coating thickness distribution for both internal and external optical elements coated using either electron beam or sputter sources can be made uniform and will not affect the surface figure of coated elements. Also, sputtered samples of nickel, molybdenum, iridium and ruthenium deposited onto both hot and cold substrates showed excellent adhesion.

  20. Applications of advanced diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, W. Hudson; Morris, James E.; Feldman, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Digital Optics Corporation is a UNC-Charlotte spin-off company, established to transfer technology developed at UNC-Charlotte for the design and manufacture Computer Generated Holograms (CGH's) and to market products based on CGH technology. DOC acquired core technologies from UNC-Charlotte including: (1) a CGH encoding process that can provide holograms with extremely high diffraction efficiency; (2) a low cost, high precision CGH manufacturing process; and (3) extensive holographic and refractive element design capabilities for design and evaluation of complex optical systems. These technologies have been used to design and/or manufacture optical components for a variety of applications including: (1) generation of Spot arrays; (2) fiber optic coupling elements; (3) optical interconnects between VLSI chips within and between multichip modules; and (4) imaging systems for head-mounted displays (HMD's).

  1. Spectrograph Measures Contamination Of Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flint, Bruce K.; Fancy, Robert D.; Jarratt, Robert V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Scanning-monochromator spectrograph designed to measure contamination on surfaces of optical elements as function of time. Repeatedly exposes samples to environment, then measures their transmittances or reflectances over range of wavelengths. Intended for use at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths to evaluate effects of outgassing, heating, and cooling on optical instruments. Principle of operation also applicable to spectral monitoring of time-dependent contamination at other wavelengths and in laboratory, industrial, or other settings.

  2. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    DOEpatents

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  3. Quantum state sharing using linear optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2008-10-01

    Motivated by protocols [G. Gordon, G. Rigolin, Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 062316] and [N.B. An, G. Mahler, Phys. Lett. A 365 (2007) 70], we propose a linear optical protocol for quantum state sharing of polarization entangled state in terms optical elements. Our protocol can realize a near-complete quantum state sharing of polarization entangled state with arbitrary coefficients, and it is possible to achieve unity fidelity transfer of the state if the parties collaborate. This protocol can also be generalized to the multi-party system.

  4. Optical sensing: recognition elements and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauglitz, Guenter G.

    2012-09-01

    The requirements in chemical and biochemical sensing with respect to recognition elements, avoiding non-specific interactions, and high loading of the surface for detection of low concentrations as well as optimized detection systems are discussed. Among the many detection principles the optical techniques are classified. Methods using labeled compounds like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) and direct optical methods like micro reflectometry or refractometry are discussed in comparison. Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) is presented as a robust simple method for biosensing. As applications, trace analysis of endocrine disruptors in water, hormones in food, detection of viruses and bacteria in food and clinical diagnostics are discussed.

  5. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  6. Optical design and active optics methods in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2013-03-01

    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis.

  7. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  8. Micro optical spatial and spectral elements (MOSSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Pradeep; Yilmaz, Yigit O.; Johnson, Eric G.

    2009-08-01

    Interference transmission filters that have a defect layer incorporated photonic crystal structure provide a narrow transmission notch within a wide stop band. The location and width of transmission notch can be tuned by changing the thickness of the defect layer. In this paper, we propose and implement interference filters with defect layers patterned with diffractive optical elements. The spectral transmission is a function of the local defect layer thickness while the spatial transmission follows contours of equal optical thickness. The novel devices have multiplexed spectral and spatial transmission characteristics. Alternating layers of silicon oxide (SiOx) and silicon nitride (SixNy) were grown onto a clean silicon substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). A thick defect layer of SiOx was grown and the wafer was removed from the growth chamber. The wafer was then patterned with charge 2, 8-level vortex structures on a GCA 6300 g-line stepper tool. The devices were interrogated with a collimated beam from a tunable laser source that operates from 1520 nm to 1630 nm. The spectral transmission was measured by separately illuminating each level of diffractive element and the spatial transmission was imaged on to a CCD camera. Spectral transmission peaks whose location varies as a function of level height were obtained. The spatial transmission profiles consist of triangular zones with wavelength dependent orientation. The elements have potential applications in hyper spectral imaging, pupil filtering, and engineered illumination systems.

  9. Stochastic optical active rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Shin, Yongdae; Kim, Sun Taek; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a stochastic based method for performing active rheology using optical tweezers. By monitoring the displacement of an embedded particle in response to stochastic optical forces, a rapid estimate of the frequency dependent shear moduli of a sample is achieved in the range of 10-1-103 Hz. We utilize the method to probe linear viscoelastic properties of hydrogels at varied cross-linker concentrations. Combined with fluorescence imaging, our method demonstrates non-linear changes of bond strength between T cell receptors and an antigenic peptide due to force-induced cell activation.

  10. Optical activity and evolution.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, M M; Gladyshev, G P

    1980-09-01

    It is noted that the chemical reactions occurring in rarefied cosmic clouds (molecular concentration less than or approximately to 10(2) cm-3) differ from similar laboratory reactions by the much greater effect on the outcome of external force fields. In this light it is hypothesized that the synthesis of optically active substances may occur in the outer space under the conjoint stereospecific effect of a magnetic and other molecule-orienting field. It is further conjectured that the optically active substances of the Solar System had been produced in the course of its formation out of the primal rarefield cloud.

  11. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  12. Method of holding optical elements without deformation during their fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hed, P. Paul

    1997-01-01

    An improved method for securing and removing an optical element to and from a blocking tool without causing deformation of the optical element. A lens tissue is placed on the top surface of the blocking tool. Dots of UV cement are applied to the lens tissue without any of the dots contacting each other. An optical element is placed on top of the blocking tool with the lens tissue sandwiched therebetween. The UV cement is then cured. After subsequent fabrication steps, the bonded blocking tool, lens tissue, and optical element are placed in a debonding solution to soften the UV cement. The optical element is then removed from the blocking tool.

  13. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and investigated the use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. For example, rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis makes a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOEs for use at the first three harmonic wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers. The diffraction efficiency, diffraction angle, focal length, focal spot size and optical losses were measured for several HOEs and holographic gratings, and found to be suitable for use as lidar receiver telescopes, and in many cases could also serve as the final collimating and beam steering optic for the laser transmitter. Two lidar systems based on this technology have been designed, built, and successfully tested in atmospheric science applications. This technology will enable future spaceborne lidar missions by significantly lowering the size, weight, power requirement and cost of a large aperture, narrow field of view scanning telescope.

  14. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    PubMed

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-01

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc. PMID:27137530

  15. Transmissive Diffractive Optical Element Solar Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard; Moynihan, Philip; Price, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Solar-thermal-radiation concentrators in the form of transmissive diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have been proposed as alternatives to mirror-type solar concentrators now in use. In comparison with functionally equivalent mirror-type solar concentrators, the transmissive, diffractive solar concentrators would weigh and cost less, and would be subject to relaxed mechanical tolerances. A DOE concentrator would be made from a thin, flat disk or membrane of a transmissive material having a suitable index of refraction. By virtue of its thinness, the DOE concentrator would have an areal mass density significantly less than that of a functionally equivalent conventional mirror. The DOE concentrator would have a relatively wide aperture--characterized by a focal-length/aperture-diameter ratio ('f number') on the order of 1. A kinoform (a surface-relief phase hologram) of high diffractive order would be microfabricated onto one face of the disk. The kinoform (see figure) would be designed to both diffract and refract incident solar radiation onto a desired focal region, without concern for forming an image of the Sun. The high diffractive order of this kinoform (in contradistinction to the low diffractive orders of some other kinoforms) would be necessary to obtain the desired f number of 1, which, in turn, would be necessary for obtaining a desired concentration ratio of 2,500 or greater. The design process of optimizing the concentration ratio of a proposed DOE solar concentrator includes computing convolutions of the optical bandwidth of the Sun with the optical transmission of the diffractive medium. Because, as in the cases of other non-imaging, light-concentrating optics, image quality is not a design requirement, the process also includes trading image quality against concentration ratio. A baseline design for one example calls for an aperture diameter of 1 m. This baseline design would be scalable to a diameter as large as 10 m, or to a smaller diameter for a

  16. Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    SciTech Connect

    Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu

    2009-02-28

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

  17. Holographic optical elements by dry photopolymer embossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Felix P.

    1991-07-01

    New dry photopolymer embossing (DPE) technology was developed recently at Du Pont to replicate highly efficient, deep groove surface relief holographic optical elements (HOEs). DPE technology utilizes Du Pont proprietary materials and processes to replicate with very high degree of precision almost any kind of surface relief or embossed holograms. Very sophisticated embossed HOEs with the width/depth aspect ratio of 1:20 were faithfully replicated by this technology. Dimensions of the replicated grooves or other structures vary from 0.1 micrometers to 3.5 micrometers . Such HOEs can be produced in different geometrical configurations and sizes, which are actually dictated by the master hologram. Embossed HOEs can be fabricated on a plastic film or sheet substrate of different types, thicknesses and shapes. Also glass and other inorganic materials can be used as substrates for these deep groove HOEs. To replicate high quality HOEs the master hologram must be recorded in metal, glass, or other hard surface material. DPE technology may provide substantial technological and economical advantage over existing conventional replication processes, such as injection molding, thermo-embossing, reaction molding or 2P (photo-polymerization) process, in replication of different types of embossed holograms and surface relief HOEs.

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  19. Method of holding optical elements without deformation during their fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hed, P.P.

    1997-04-29

    An improved method for securing and removing an optical element to and from a blocking tool without causing deformation of the optical element is disclosed. A lens tissue is placed on the top surface of the blocking tool. Dots of UV cement are applied to the lens tissue without any of the dots contacting each other. An optical element is placed on top of the blocking tool with the lens tissue sandwiched therebetween. The UV cement is then cured. After subsequent fabrication steps, the bonded blocking tool, lens tissue, and optical element are placed in a debonding solution to soften the UV cement. The optical element is then removed from the blocking tool. 16 figs.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Coupling Optical Elements To Optoelectronic Devices For Manufacturing Optical Transceiver Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Mitchell, Robert T.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Rising, Merideth A.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-06-14

    A process is provided for aligning and connecting at least one optical fiber to at least one optoelectronic device so as to couple light between at least one optical fiber and at least one optoelectronic device. One embodiment of this process comprises the following steps: (1) holding at least one optical element close to at least one optoelectronic device, at least one optical element having at least a first end; (2) aligning at least one optical element with at least one optoelectronic device; (3) depositing a first non-opaque material on a first end of at least one optoelectronic device; and (4) bringing the first end of at least one optical element proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that the first non-opaque material contacts the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element. The optical element may be an optical fiber, and the optoelectronic device may be a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. The first non-opaque material may be a UV optical adhesive that provides an optical path and mechanical stability. In another embodiment of the alignment process, the first end of at least one optical element is brought proximate to the first end of at least one optoelectronic device in such a manner that an interstitial space exists between the first end of at least one optoelectronic device and the first end of at least one optical element.

  1. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    DOEpatents

    Sridharan, Arun K; Pax, Paul H; Heebner, John E; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2016-06-21

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  2. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  3. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  4. Scalar limitations of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric G.; Hochmuth, Diane; Moharam, M. G.; Pommet, Drew

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, scalar limitations of diffractive optic components are investigated using coupled wave analyses. Results are presented for linear phase gratings and fanout devices. In addition, a parametric curve is given which correlates feature size with scalar performance.

  5. Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part I. Transmission holographic optical elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Choi, B S; Kim, S I; Kim, J M; Bjelkhagen, H I; Phillips, N J

    2001-02-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOE's). The drawback of DCG is its low sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-high-resolution silver halide emulsions. An optimized processing technique for transmission HOE's recorded in these materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained for transmissive diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOE's.

  6. System and method for reproducibly mounting an optical element

    DOEpatents

    Eisenbies, Stephen; Haney, Steven

    2005-05-31

    The present invention provides a two-piece apparatus for holding and aligning the MEMS deformable mirror. The two-piece apparatus comprises a holding plate for fixedly holding an adaptive optics element in an overall optical system and a base spatially fixed with respect to the optical system and adapted for mounting and containing the holding plate. The invention further relates to a means for configuring the holding plate through adjustments to each of a number of off-set pads touching each of three orthogonal plane surfaces on the base, wherein through the adjustments the orientation of the holding plate, and the adaptive optics element attached thereto, can be aligned with respect to the optical system with six degrees of freedom when aligning the plane surface of the optical element. The mounting system thus described also enables an operator to repeatedly remove and restore the adaptive element in the optical system without the need to realign the system once that element has been aligned.

  7. Phase encryption of biometrics in diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E G; Brasher, J D

    1996-08-15

    A new technique for the optical encoding of images is presented. The method of generalized projections is used to design diffractive optical elements for the phase encryption of biometrics for security applications. The encryption algorithm converges rapidly, and the decryption is seen to be secure and tolerant to additive noise. PMID:19876322

  8. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks. PMID:25361349

  9. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks.

  10. Diffractive micro-optical element with nonpoint response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, Victor A.; Golub, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    Common-use diffractive lenses have microrelief zones in the form of simple rings that provide only an optical power but do not contain any image information. They have a point-image response under point-source illumination. We must use a more complicated non-point response to focus a light beam into different light marks, letter-type images as well as for optical pattern recognition. The current presentation describes computer generation of diffractive micro- optical elements with complicated curvilinear zones of a regular piecewise-smooth structure and grey-level or staircase phase microrelief. The manufacture of non-point response elements uses the steps of phase-transfer calculation and orthogonal-scan masks generation or lithographic glass etching. Ray-tracing method is shown to be applicable in this task. Several working samples of focusing optical elements generated by computer and photolithography are presented. Using the experimental results we discuss here such applications as laser branding.

  11. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  12. HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu

    2009-02-01

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

  13. SORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY ACTIVATED CARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms and rate of elemental mercury (HgO) capture by activated carbons have been studied using a bench-scale apparatus. Three types of activated carbons, two of which are thermally activated (PC-100 and FGD) and one with elemental sulfur (S) impregnated in it (HGR), were...

  14. Holographic optical element for visual display applications.

    PubMed

    McCauley, D G; Simpson, C E; Murbach, W J

    1973-02-01

    Off-axis and off-bisector reflection-type holographic visual display elements have been recorded in dichromated gelatin deposited on planar or spherical shell substrates of glass or Plexiglas. A procedure for bonding gelatin to Plexiglas is given. Holographic elements are recorded at the argon wavelength of 514.5 nm and reconstructed with spectral lines from a low pressure mercury arc lamp. Measured image characteristics for a flat substrate hologram agree with ray-tracing calculations. A swelling of the gelatin by approximately 6.6% after processing does not perceptibly affect the dispersion, astigmatism, or distortion in the image, that is, the grating equation depends on the spacing between the fringes on the surface of the gelatin and is not affected by the swelling or shrinking. However, the Bragg equation depends on the distance normal to the fringe planes and is affected by thickness changes of the gelatin. Therefore, this thickness change is taken as an independent parameter and used to adjust the wavelength for maximum diffraction efficiency, without affecting the image angle. Data reveal a near linear relationship between the dichromate concentration of 0.5-10% used to photosensitive the gelatin and the display wavelength of maximum diffraction efficiency. Lateral dispersion is 0.12 +/- 0.01 degrees / nanometer for both planar and spherical shell substrate elements recorded in quite similar geometry, but their astigmatisms are not alike. PMID:20125273

  15. Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part 2. Reflection holographic optical elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Choi, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I; Phillips, Nicholas J

    2002-03-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such away that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

  16. Optical Computing Using Interference Filters as Nonlinear Optical Logic Gates and Holographic Optical Elements as Optical Interconnects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lon A.

    This dissertation experimentally explores digital optical computing and optical interconnects with theoretical supports, from the physics of materials and the optimization of devices to system realization. The trend of optical computing is highlighted with the emphasis on the current development of its basic constituent elements, and a couple of algorithms selected to pave the way for utilizing bistable devices for their optical implementations. Optical bistable devices function as "optical transistors" in optical computing. The physics of dispersive optical bistability is briefly described. Bistable ZnS interference filters are discussed in detail regarding their linear and nonlienar characteristics. The optimization of switching characteristics for a bistable ZnS interference filter is discussed, and experimental results are shown. Symbolic substitution which fully takes advantage of regular optical interconnects constitutes two steps: pattern recognition and symbol scription. Two experiments on two digital pattern recognitions and one on a simple but complete symbolic substitution have been demonstrated. The extension of these experiments is an implementation of a binary adder. A one-bit full adder which is a basic block for a computer has been explored experimentally and demonstrated in an all-optical way. The utilization of a bistable device as a nonlinear decision-making element is further demonstrated in an associative memory experiment by incorporating a Vander Lugt matched filter to discriminate two partial fingerprints. The thresholding function of a bistable device enhances the S/N ratio and helps discrimination in associative memory. As the clocking speed of a computer goes higher, e.g. greater than several GHz, the clock signal distribution and packaging become serious problems in VLSI technology. The use of optical interconnects introduces a possible solution. A unique element for holographic optical interconnects, which combines advantages of

  17. Micro-optical elements for optical wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xian; Guerrero, Daniel; Klukas, Richard; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2013-09-01

    Customized high-contact-angle microlenses are presented for optical wireless communication (OWC) and optical wireless location (OWL) applications. These microlenses are fabricated by way of an electro-dispensing technique to establish wide field-of-views (FOVs). Each microlens is formed from dispensed UV-curable polymer with pressurecontrol defining the microlens volume and a voltage on the metal needle tip defining the microlens shape (by way of electrowetting). UV curing is then applied. Microlenses with FOVs up to 90° are fabricated for high-density integration above a CMOS imaging sensor for wide-FOV operation in emerging OWC and OWL applications. Both theoretical raytracing analyses and experimental imaging results are presented with good agreement.

  18. Spectral diffraction efficiency characterization of broadband diffractive optical elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Junoh; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Tanbakuchi, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    Diffractive optical elements, with their thin profile and unique dispersion properties, have been studied and utilized in a number of optical systems, often yielding smaller and lighter systems. Despite the interest in and study of diffractive elements, the application has been limited to narrow spectral bands. This is due to the etch depths, which are optimized for optical path differences of only a single wavelength, consequently leading to rapid decline in efficiency as the working wavelength shifts away from the design wavelength. Various broadband diffractive design methodologies have recently been developed that improve spectral diffraction efficiency and expand the working bandwidth of diffractive elements. We have developed diffraction efficiency models and utilized the models to design, fabricate, and test two such extended bandwidth diffractive designs.

  19. Stability of optical elements in the NIF target area building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trummer, David J.; Foley, Richard J.; Shaw, Gene S.

    1999-07-01

    The target Area Building (TAB) of the NIF is 300 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 100 feet tall and is comprised of a cylindrical target building and two switchyard space frames. The reinforced concrete target building houses the target chamber, target positioner, turning mirrors, final optics assemblies, and diagnostics, while the steel switchyard space frames support turning mirrors and diagnostic equipment. Within the TAB, the 192 independent laser beams of the NIF laser system are required to be accurately positioned. In order to satisfy the engineering system requirement for optical system positioning, the TAB must provide a stable platform for optical elements before and during a shot. This paper summarizes the stability analyses that were performed in support of the TAB and optical system design. Sources that influence optic stability are structural excitations, such as ambient and wind induced vibrations, and thermal transients, such as diurnal and HVAC temperature changes. A positioning error budget has been developed for the NIF project for use in the design and evaluation of structures which support optical elements. To satisfy the error budget requirements, vibrational stability will be achieved through a combination of facility design, optical support structure design, and passive damping. Thermal stability will be accomplished by using thermal-mass concrete structures, conditioned air flow, and a reduction of heat sources. Finite element analysis has been used to evaluate the design of the TAB and optical support structures. A detailed structural model of the TAG that includes the target positioner, target chamber, turning mirrors, and diagnostics, has been used for stability evaluations. Finite element analyses covering ambient ground vibration, thermal loads, pressure fluctuations, and wind excitations have demonstrated that the current design of the TAB provides a stable platform for maintaining beam alignment.

  20. Method and system for high power reflective optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros G.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Negres, Raluca A.

    2013-03-12

    A method of repairing damage in an optical element includes providing a laser system including at least one optical element having a coating layer having an incident light surface and directing a laser pulse from the laser system to impinge on the incident light surface. The method also includes sustaining damage to a portion of the incident light surface and melting the damaged portion of the incident light surface and a region adjacent to the damaged portion. The method further includes flowing material from the region adjacent the damaged portion to the damaged portion and solidifying the material in the damaged portion and the region adjacent to the damaged portion.

  1. Diffractive Optical Elements for Lidar Beam Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordin, Gregory P.

    1996-01-01

    Wind measurement from space can provide critical data for understanding weather patterns and large-scale storm phenomena. An instrument for providing such measurements is currently under development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The instrument utilizes a pulsed coherent lidar system operating at a wavelength of 2.06 micrometers in order to achieve decreased weight, size, and cost compared to systems operating at longer wavelengths, and it is being developed to be compatible with the capabilities of small satellites. A key aspect of such an orbital lidar system is that the beam must be conically scanned after it exits the final beam expansion telescope. Previous work indicates that the aperture of the beam expansion telescope should be 50 cm with a scanner half-angle of 300 and a rotation rate of 10 RPM. The critical requirements for the beam scanning element include a 50 cm aperture, an induced wavefront error of less than lambda/10, and high efficiency deflection (i.e., 95+ % of the incident light is deflected). This report is intended to provide a brief overview and discussion of potential technologies for space-borne laser radar (lidar) beam scanning.

  2. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in maize

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mobile genetic elements represent a high proportion of the Eukaryote genomes. In maize, 85% of genome is composed by transposable elements of several families. First step in transposable element life cycle is the synthesis of an RNA, but few is known about the regulation of transcription for most of the maize transposable element families. Maize is the plant from which more ESTs have been sequenced (more than two million) and the third species in total only after human and mice. This allowed us to analyze the transcriptional activity of the maize transposable elements based on EST databases. Results We have investigated the transcriptional activity of 56 families of transposable elements in different maize organs based on the systematic search of more than two million expressed sequence tags. At least 1.5% maize ESTs show sequence similarity with transposable elements. According to these data, the patterns of expression of each transposable element family is variable, even within the same class of elements. In general, transcriptional activity of the gypsy-like retrotransposons is higher compared to other classes. Transcriptional activity of several transposable elements is specially high in shoot apical meristem and sperm cells. Sequence comparisons between genomic and transcribed sequences suggest that only a few copies are transcriptionally active. Conclusions The use of powerful high-throughput sequencing methodologies allowed us to elucidate the extent and character of repetitive element transcription in maize cells. The finding that some families of transposable elements have a considerable transcriptional activity in some tissues suggests that, either transposition is more frequent than previously expected, or cells can control transposition at a post-transcriptional level. PMID:20973992

  3. Design of fixed correctors used in conformal optical system based on diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Zuo, Baojun; Chen, Shouqian; Xiao, Haosu; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-01-20

    A conformal dome was designed and the aberration characteristics of the dome were analyzed using Zernike aberration theory. By deriving the equation used to correct Zernike aberrations, the phase coefficients and the phase orders of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) used to correct primary Zernike aberrations were obtained. DOEs were simulated to correct the aberrations of the conformal dome by using optical design software, and the aberrations of the conformal dome decreased dramatically. Finally, a complete cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the number of the fixed corrector's elements decreases by using DOEs, and the optical system has better imaging quality.

  4. Cascaded diffractive optical elements for improved multiplane image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gülses, A Alkan; Jenkins, B Keith

    2013-05-20

    Computer-generated phase-only diffractive optical elements in a cascaded setup are designed by one deterministic and one stochastic algorithm for multiplane image formation. It is hypothesized that increasing the number of elements as wavefront modulators in the longitudinal dimension would enlarge the available solution space, thus enabling enhanced image reconstruction. Numerical results show that increasing the number of holograms improves quality at the output. Design principles, computational methods, and specific conditions are discussed.

  5. Optically imprinted reconfigurable photonic elements in a VO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jostmeier, Thorben; Zimmer, Johannes; Karl, Helmut; Krenner, Hubert J.; Betz, Markus

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the optical and thermal hysteresis of single-domain vanadium dioxide nanocrystals fabricated by ion beam synthesis in a fused silica matrix. The nanocrystals exhibit a giant hysteresis, which permits to optically generate a long-time stable supercooled metallic phase persistent down to practically room temperature. Spatial patterns of supercooled and insulating nanocrystals feature a large dielectric contrast, in particular, for telecom wavelengths. We utilize this contrast to optically imprint reconfigurable photonic elements comprising diffraction gratings as well as on- and off-axis zone plates. The structures allow for highly repetitive (>104) cycling through the phase transition without structural damage.

  6. Programmable diffractive optical elements for extending the depth of focus in ophthalmic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Lenny A.; Millán, María. S.; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Kołodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The depth of focus (DOF) defines the axial range of high lateral resolution in the image space for object position. Optical devices with a traditional lens system typically have a limited DOF. However, there are applications such as in ophthalmology, which require a large DOF in comparison to a traditional optical system, this is commonly known as extended DOF (EDOF). In this paper we explore Programmable Diffractive Optical Elements (PDOEs), with EDOF, as an alternative solution to visual impairments, especially presbyopia. These DOEs were written onto a reflective liquid cystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM). Several designs of the elements are analyzed: the Forward Logarithmic Axicon (FLAX), the Axilens (AXL), the Light sword Optical Element (LSOE), the Peacock Eye Optical Element (PE) and Double Peacock Eye Optical Element (DPE). These elements focus an incident plane wave into a segment of the optical axis. The performances of the PDOEs are compared with those of multifocal lenses. In all cases, we obtained the point spread function and the image of an extended object. The results are presented and discussed.

  7. Wave front sensor based on holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, M. S.; Krasin, G. K.; Malinina, P. I.; Odinokov, S. B.; Sagatelyan, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    A wavefront sensor (WFS) based on holographic optical elements, namely computer generated Fourier holograms is proposed as a perspective alternative to the Shack-Hartmann sensor. A possibility of single and multimode sensor and the dependence of their characteristics were investigated.

  8. Analog of Optical Elements for Sound Waves in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul; Perkalskis, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Optical elements manipulate light waves. They may be used to focus the light or to change the phase, the polarization, the direction, or the intensity of light. Many of these functions are often demonstrated with microwaves, since the devices normally available in teaching laboratories produce wavelengths in the centimeter range and are therefore…

  9. Finite Element Studies Of Tangent Mounted Conical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneking, J.; Casstevens, J.; Stillman, D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical results from a study investigating the effect of centrifugal force and gravity on two candidate mirror fixture designs to be used on a diamond-turning ma-chine. The authors illustrate and discuss the use of the finite element method as an aid in the design and fabrication of high precision metallic optical components.

  10. The application of diffractive optical elements in the optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, D. I.; Tsyganok, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article investigates the possibility of using diffractive optical elements on an example of the kinoform in the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The article gives a brief overview of modern methods of research in the OCT, the expediency of development hyperchromatic lenses for spectral OCT systems. The authors made the aberration analysis of diffractive optical element (DOE), conducted a review of its application, and the DOE proposed to use in the example of a kinoform as the main force component of the hyperchromatic lens. In conclusion, the article provides examples of developed hybrid lenses for two spectral ranges, lens transmittance analysis and the assessment of their adaptability.

  11. Optical activity of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V.; Blinov, D.; Konstantinova, T.

    2012-04-01

    We perform optical photometric and R-band polarimetric monitoring of BL Lac using 70-cm AZT-8 (CrAO, Ukraine) and 0.4-m LX-200 (St.Petersburg, Russia) telescopes, as a part of GASP project. As reported in Atel#4028, this blazar was found by Fermi LAT in active state on 2012 April 9. Our data show that a sharp optical maximum was reached on the date 2012-04-08UT02:20, R=13.10, while on 2012-04-11UT01:30 R=13.40.

  12. Optical Studies of Active Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    This grant was to support optical studies of comets close enough to the sun to be outgassing. The main focus of the observations was drawn to the two extraordinarily bright comets Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp, but other active comets were also studied in detail during the period of funding. Major findings (all fully published) under this grant include: (1) Combined optical and submillimeter observations of the comet/Centaur P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 were used to study the nature of mass loss from this object. The submillimeter observations show directly that the optically prominent dust coma is ejected by the sublimation of carbon monoxide. Simultaneous optical-submillimeter observations allowed us to test earlier determinations of the dust mass loss rate. (2) We modelled the rotation of cometary nuclei using time-resolved images of dust jets as the primary constraint. (3) We obtained broad-band optical images of several comets for which we subsequently attempted submillimeter observations, in order to test and update the cometary ephemerides. (4) Broad-band continuum images of a set of weakly active comets and, apparently, inactive asteroids were obtained in BVRI using the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. These images were taken in support of a program to test the paradigm that many near-Earth asteroids might be dead or dormant comets. We measured coma vs. nucleus colors in active comets (finding that coma particle scattering is different from, and cannot be simply related to, nucleus color). We obtained spectroscopic observations of weakly active comets and other small bodies using the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck 10-m telescope. These observation place sensitive limits to outgassing from these bodies, aided by the high (40,000) spectral resolution of HIRES.

  13. Tunable Diffractive Optical Elements Based on Shape-Memory Polymers Fabricated via Hot Embossing.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Senta; Meier, Tobias; Reinhard, Maximilian; Röhrig, Michael; Schneider, Marc; Heilig, Markus; Kolew, Alexander; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-04-13

    We introduce actively tunable diffractive optical elements fabricated from shape-memory polymers (SMPs). By utilizing the shape-memory effect of the polymer, at least one crucial attribute of the diffractive optical element (DOE) is tunable and adjustable subsequent to the completed fabrication process. A thermoplastic, transparent, thermoresponsive polyurethane SMP was structured with diverse diffractive microstructures via hot embossing. The tunability was enabled by programming a second, temporary shape into the diffractive optical element by mechanical deformation, either by stretching or a second embossing cycle at low temperatures. Upon exposure to the stimulus heat, the structures change continuously and controllable in a predefined way. We establish the novel concept of shape-memory diffractive optical elements by illustrating their capabilities, with regard to tunability, by displaying the morphing diffractive pattern of a height tunable and a period tunable structure, respectively. A sample where an arbitrary structure is transformed to a second, disparate one is illustrated as well. To prove the applicability of our tunable shape-memory diffractive optical elements, we verified their long-term stability and demonstrated the precise adjustability with a detailed analysis of the recovery dynamics, in terms of temperature dependence and spatially resolved, time-dependent recovery. PMID:26998646

  14. Tunable Diffractive Optical Elements Based on Shape-Memory Polymers Fabricated via Hot Embossing.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Senta; Meier, Tobias; Reinhard, Maximilian; Röhrig, Michael; Schneider, Marc; Heilig, Markus; Kolew, Alexander; Worgull, Matthias; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-04-13

    We introduce actively tunable diffractive optical elements fabricated from shape-memory polymers (SMPs). By utilizing the shape-memory effect of the polymer, at least one crucial attribute of the diffractive optical element (DOE) is tunable and adjustable subsequent to the completed fabrication process. A thermoplastic, transparent, thermoresponsive polyurethane SMP was structured with diverse diffractive microstructures via hot embossing. The tunability was enabled by programming a second, temporary shape into the diffractive optical element by mechanical deformation, either by stretching or a second embossing cycle at low temperatures. Upon exposure to the stimulus heat, the structures change continuously and controllable in a predefined way. We establish the novel concept of shape-memory diffractive optical elements by illustrating their capabilities, with regard to tunability, by displaying the morphing diffractive pattern of a height tunable and a period tunable structure, respectively. A sample where an arbitrary structure is transformed to a second, disparate one is illustrated as well. To prove the applicability of our tunable shape-memory diffractive optical elements, we verified their long-term stability and demonstrated the precise adjustability with a detailed analysis of the recovery dynamics, in terms of temperature dependence and spatially resolved, time-dependent recovery.

  15. Method of Bonding Optical Elements with Near-Zero Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; McClelland, Ryan; Byron, Glenn; Evans, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Project seeks to build an x-ray telescope using thousands of pieces of thin and flexible glass mirror segments. Each mirror segment must be bonded into a housing in nearly perfect optical alignment without distortion. Forces greater than 0.001 Newton, or displacements greater than 0.5 m of the glass, cause unacceptable optical distortion. All known epoxies shrink as they cure. Even the epoxies with the least amount of shrinkage (<0.01%) cause unacceptable optical distortion and misalignment by pulling the mirror segments towards the housing as it cures. A related problem is that the shrinkage is not consistent or predictable so that it cannot be accounted for in the setup (i.e., if all of the bonds shrunk an equal amount, there would be no problem). A method has been developed that allows two components to be joined with epoxy in such a way that reduces the displacement caused by epoxy shrinking as it cures to less than 200 nm. The method involves using ultraviolet-cured epoxy with a displacement sensor and a nanoactuator in a control loop. The epoxy is cured by short-duration exposures to UV light. In between each exposure, the nano-actuator zeroes out the displacement caused by epoxy shrinkage and thermal expansion. After a few exposures, the epoxy has cured sufficiently to prevent further displacement of the two components. Bonding of optical elements has been done for many years, but most optics are thick and rigid elements that resist micro-Newton-level forces without causing distortion. When bonding thin glass optics such as the 0.40-mm thick IXO X-ray mirrors, forces in the micro- and milli-Newton levels cause unacceptable optical figure error. This innovation can now repeatedly and reliably bond a thin glass mirror to a metal housing with less than 0.2 m of displacement (<200 nm). This is an enabling technology that allows the installation of virtually stress-free, undistorted thin optics onto structures. This innovation is

  16. The Study of Optically Induced Effects due to Bending and Twisting using Vector Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Dacles-Mariani, J; Rodrigue, G

    2005-05-11

    We study the effects of macroscopic bends and twists in an optical waveguide and how they influence the transmission capabilities of a waveguide. These mechanical stresses and strains distort the optical indicatrix of the medium producing optical anisotropy. The spatially varying refractive indices are incorporated into the full-wave Maxwell's equations. The governing equations are discretized using a vector finite element method cast in a high-order finite element approximation. This approach allows us to study the complexities of the mechanical deformation within a framework of a high-order formulation which can in turn, reduce the computational requirement without degrading its performance. The optical activities generated, total energy produced and power loss due to the mechanical stresses and strains are reported and discussed.

  17. Precision compression molding of chalcogenide glass optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chaowei; Ma, Tao; Chen, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Precision glass molding process (GMP) is a promising process to manufacture small precision optical elements in large volume. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of a molded chalcogenide glass lens as an optical element. A set of mold was designed and manufactured with silicon carbide material for the molding test. The structure of the mold set was semi-closed and detachable which can make the molded lens easy releasing with non-invasion. The surfaces of the mold cores are coated with thin protecting DLC film to relieve adhesion problem and increase the working life. Experiments were also performed using a precision glass molding machine Toshiba GMP-311V to determine the molding parameters i.e. molding temperature, pressure and cooling rate. The glass lens breakage during precision molding process was analyzed according to the glass property and the molding parameters. By modifying the mold design and optimization the processing parameters, ultimately achieve the desired molded lens.

  18. A novel method for fabricating an optical grating element with a fine grating pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuo-Chi; Chang, Sheng-Li; Hsu, Ming-Fang

    2008-04-01

    Optical encoders are widely used to detect the position, angle or speed in precise control systems. A rotary optical encoder mainly comprises an optical sensor and an optical grating element with a fine grating pitch. In order to improve the resolution of rotary optical encoders, the grating pitch in the optical grating element should be reduced as small as possible. That is, the pulse per revolution (ppr) in the optical grating element must be increased markedly. However, an optical grating element having over 10,000 ppr is difficult to achieve by traditional methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed and demonstrated to replicate an optical grating element with a high ppr. Furthermore, the tiny signals generated from fine grating pitches in the optical grating element have been also measured by using a conventional optical pickup head.

  19. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  20. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Forconi, Mariko; Chalopin, Domitille; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; De Moro, Gianluca; Galiana, Delphine; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The morphological stasis of coelacanths has long suggested a slow evolutionary rate. General genomic stasis might also imply a decrease of transposable elements activity. To evaluate the potential activity of transposable elements (TEs) in "living fossil" species, transcriptomic data of Latimeria chalumnae and its Indonesian congener Latimeria menadoensis were compared through the RNA-sequencing mapping procedures in three different organs (liver, testis, and muscle). The analysis of coelacanth transcriptomes highlights a significant percentage of transcribed TEs in both species. Major contributors are LINE retrotransposons, especially from the CR1 family. Furthermore, some particular elements such as a LF-SINE and a LINE2 sequences seem to be more expressed than other elements. The amount of TEs expressed in testis suggests possible transposition burst in incoming generations. Moreover, significant amount of TEs in liver and muscle transcriptomes were also observed. Analyses of elements displaying marked organ-specific expression gave us the opportunity to highlight exaptation cases, that is, the recruitment of TEs as new cellular genes, but also to identify a new Latimeria-specific family of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements called CoeG-SINEs. Overall, transcriptome results do not seem to be in line with a slow-evolving genome with poor TE activity.

  1. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Forconi, Mariko; Chalopin, Domitille; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; De Moro, Gianluca; Galiana, Delphine; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The morphological stasis of coelacanths has long suggested a slow evolutionary rate. General genomic stasis might also imply a decrease of transposable elements activity. To evaluate the potential activity of transposable elements (TEs) in "living fossil" species, transcriptomic data of Latimeria chalumnae and its Indonesian congener Latimeria menadoensis were compared through the RNA-sequencing mapping procedures in three different organs (liver, testis, and muscle). The analysis of coelacanth transcriptomes highlights a significant percentage of transcribed TEs in both species. Major contributors are LINE retrotransposons, especially from the CR1 family. Furthermore, some particular elements such as a LF-SINE and a LINE2 sequences seem to be more expressed than other elements. The amount of TEs expressed in testis suggests possible transposition burst in incoming generations. Moreover, significant amount of TEs in liver and muscle transcriptomes were also observed. Analyses of elements displaying marked organ-specific expression gave us the opportunity to highlight exaptation cases, that is, the recruitment of TEs as new cellular genes, but also to identify a new Latimeria-specific family of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements called CoeG-SINEs. Overall, transcriptome results do not seem to be in line with a slow-evolving genome with poor TE activity. PMID:24038780

  2. Nano-antenna elements for controlling optical phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifat, Yuval; Eitan, Michal; Iluz, Zeev; Boag, Amir; Hanein, Yael; Scheuer, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of nano-antenna unit cells composed of coupled dipole and patch elements over a reflective back plane, which are designed to control the phase of a reflected optical beam. The antennas were studied both numerically and experimentally and allow exact control over the output phase in the range of 00-3600. Several diffractive optical applications are shown numerically and experimentally: Blazed gratings which allow deflection of the output beam to high reflection angles show very high diffraction efficiency, and arbitrary wave shapes such as computer generated holograms can be formed with very high efficiency and large angles relative to the incident beam. The optical conversion efficiency was measured to be above 40% for all applications.

  3. Secondary optical element design for intracorporeal LED illumination system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Su, Ying-Chieh; Chen, Yao-Shan

    2014-01-15

    In this Letter, we propose an intracorporeal illumination system for providing uniform and wide-field illumination during minimally invasive surgery. The illumination system is comprised of an Alexis wound retractor, a set of LEDs, and secondary optical elements (SOEs). The SOE was composed of a Fresnel lens and a total internal reflection lens, which was designed to improve the optical performance of the LED. The results of simulation demonstrate that the optical efficiency of each LED with an SOE could be increased from 33.6% to 82.9%. To avoid damage to human tissue by thermal effect, the number of LEDs with SOEs was optimized. The results indicate that our design to be applicable for practical surgery. PMID:24562112

  4. Finite element analysis of lightweight active primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei Xin; Guan, Chun Lin; Rao, Chang Hui

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing requirement on spatial resolution to achieve ideal performance in space-based optical imaging system, there is a need to enlarge primary apertures. However, primary mirrors of such systems cannot maintain its optical tolerances across the mirror surface after sending to space, because of gravity change and varying ambient temperature. It necessitates active optics technology of primary mirror surface correction. Since mass-to-orbit is expensive and limited, lightweight primary mirror is needed. The paper investigates a lightweight, active primary mirror. This primary mirror structure includes lightweight face sheet and substrate with surface-parallel actuators embedded in the recess of web support ribs. Finite element models of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different structural parameters are established and simulated. Using the response function matrixes acquired from finite element analysis, the fitting errors for Zernike polynomials are computed by MATLAB. Correctability comparisons of lightweight, active primary mirror structures with different parameters are carried out. To get best correctability, the mirrors should have small recess depth, high and thin ribs, thick face sheets and long actuators. The structural analysis result will be valuable for the design of lightweight, active primary mirror.

  5. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  6. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  7. Encoding Active Device Elements at Nanowire Tips.

    PubMed

    No, You-Shin; Gao, Ruixuan; Mankin, Max N; Day, Robert W; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-07-13

    Semiconductor nanowires and other one-dimensional materials are attractive for highly sensitive and spatially confined electrical and optical signal detection in biological and physical systems, although it has been difficult to localize active electronic or optoelectronic device function at one end of such one-dimensional structures. Here we report a new nanowire structure in which the material and dopant are modulated specifically at only one end of nanowires to encode an active two-terminal device element. We present a general bottom-up synthetic scheme for these tip-modulated nanowires and illustrate this with the synthesis of nanoscale p-n junctions. Electron microscopy imaging verifies the designed p-Si nanowire core with SiO2 insulating inner shell and n-Si outer shell with clean p-Si/n-Si tip junction. Electrical transport measurements with independent contacts to the p-Si core and n-Si shell exhibited a current rectification behavior through the tip and no detectable current through the SiO2 shell. Electrical measurements also exhibited an n-type response in conductance versus water-gate voltage with pulsed gate experiments yielding a temporal resolution of at least 0.1 ms and ∼90% device sensitivity localized to within 0.5 μm from the nanowire p-n tip. In addition, photocurrent experiments showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V at illumination power of ∼28.1 μW, exhibited linear dependence of photocurrent with respect to incident illumination power with an estimated responsivity up to ∼0.22 A/W, and revealed localized photocurrent generation at the nanowire tip. The tip-modulated concept was further extended to a top-down/bottom-up hybrid approach that enabled large-scale production of vertical tip-modulated nanowires with a final synthetic yield of >75% with >4300 nanowires. Vertical tip-modulated nanowires were fabricated into >50 individually addressable nanowire device arrays showing diode-like current-voltage characteristics. These tip

  8. Harmonizing an opaque core network with transparent optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Over the last decade, deployed core telecom networks have migrated from being based on single-channel SONET regeneration links to multi-span, multi-channel optically amplified systems. More recently, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each traffic demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This trend produced a substantial elimination of regeneration costs, increase in network capacity, and notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, the optical "analog" network requires a large amount of sophisticated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. The primary goal for current equipment suppliers is to provide cost effective system designs that are simple to deploy and operate. This paper will examine the trade-offs inherent in the technology and architecture choices needed to reach this goal through the "analog" transmission/all-optical ideal and concludes that it is difficult to improve on the present approach which uses a mix of transparent and opaque network elements.

  9. Actively controlled thin-shell space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Keith K.; Flint, Eric M.; Main, John A.; Lindler, Jason E.

    2003-08-01

    Increasingly, scientific and military missions require the use of space-based optical systems. For example, new capabilities are required for imaging terrestrial like planets, for surveillance, and for directed energy applications. Given the difficulties in producing and launching large optics, it is doubtful that refinements of conventional technology will meet future needs, particularly in a cost-effective manner. To meet this need, recent research has been investigating the feasibility of a new class of ultra-lightweight think-skin optical elements that combine recent advances in lightweight thermally formed materials, active materials, and novel sensing and control architectures. If successful, the approach may lead to an order of magnitude reduction in space optics areal density, improved large scale manufacturing capability, and dramatic reductions in manufacturing and launch costs. In a recent effort, a one meter thin-film mirror like structure was fabricated. This paper provides an overview of tools used to model and simulate this structure as well as results from structural dynamic testing. In addition, progress in the area of non-contact global shape control using smart materials is presented.

  10. Elemental Analysis of Glass Optical Fibres with High Spatial Resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, Andrew

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The properties of glass optical fibres are very strongly dependent on the elemental concentration profiles of the fibre cores. Core dopants such as germanium define the core refractive index, which in turn defines the manner in which the light is transmitted through the fibre. Erbium in fibre cores can facilitate the operation of fibre lasers and aluminium in turn can control the erbium distribution. The aim of the project described in this thesis was to measure the elemental concentration profiles in a variety of fibre cores using X-ray microanalysis in an electron microscope. Conventional X-ray microanalysis of bulk samples has an analytical resolution in the order of a micron. With monomode optical fibre cores having cores typically three microns in diameter the resolution of the conventional technique is plainly inadequate. An experimental technique has been developed for the preparation of thin cross-sectional samples of glass optical fibres. Application of this technique has facilitated the preparation and analysis of thin film specimens with an average thickness of 400 microns. This approach has allowed analysis to be performed with an effective spatial resolution of 100-300 nm. The technique has been applied to the determination of germanium concentration in Raman fibres, to the investigation of erbium confinement in erbium doped fibres and to the investigation of inter-ionic diffusion in semiconductor doped fibres. It has been shown that the germanium, and hence refractive index, profile of germanium doped fibres is not changed by the process of fibre drawing. Evidence has been gathered supporting the theory of erbium confinement by aluminium and an important degree of elemental diffusion has been shown to take place during the drawing of semiconductor doped fibres. In addition an experimental technique has been developed for the preparation of thin cross-sectional samples of glass optical fibres.

  11. Design and fabrication of space variant micro optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Pradeep

    A wide range of applications currently utilize conventional optical elements to individually transform the phase, polarization, and spectral transmission/reflection of the incident radiation to realize the desired system level function. The material properties and the feasibility of fabrication primarily impact the device and system functionality that can be realized. With the advancement in micro/nano patterning, growth, deposition and etching technology, devices with novel and multiplexed optical functionalities have become feasible. As a result, it has become possible to engineer the device response in the near and far field by controlling the phase, polarization or spectral response at the micro scale. One of the methods that have been explored to realize unique optical functionalities is by varying the structural properties of the device as a function of spatial location at the sub-micron scale across the device aperture. Spatially varying the structural parameters of these devices is analogous to local modifications of the material properties. In this dissertation, the optical response of interference transmission filters, guided mode resonance reflection filters, and diffraction gratings operated in Littrow condition with strategically introduced spatial variation have been investigated. Spatial variations in optical interference filters were used to demonstrate wavelength tunable spatial filters. The effect was realized by integrating diffractive and continuous phase functions on the defect layer of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure. Guided mode resonance filters are free space optical filters that provide narrow spectral reflection by combining grating and waveguide dispersion effects. Frequency dependent spatial reflection profiles were achieved by spatially varying the grating fill fraction in designed contours. Diffraction gratings with space variant fill fractions operating in Littrow condition were used to provide graded feedback profiles

  12. Refractive micro-optical elements for surface plasmons: from classical to gradient index optics.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Eloïse; Laluet, Jean-Yves; Stein, Benedikt; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Dereux, Alain

    2010-09-27

    Controlling the propagation of surface plasmons along a metal-dielectric interface is a key feature for the development of surface plasmon based circuits. We have designed various two-dimensional refractive dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons (SP) and characterized their capacity to route SP, using near- or far-field techniques. We first present basic devices analogous to usual optical components and the associated challenges for SP optics. We then use a metamaterial approach to locally vary the refractive index and fabricate gradient index structures for SP circuitry.

  13. Reflectionless design of optical elements using impedance-tunable transformation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jun; Zhang, Lifa; Yan, Senlin; Sun, Xiaohan

    2014-05-12

    We report a strategy to remove the reflections resulted from the finite embedded transformation-optical design by proposing a theory of impedance-tunable transformation optics, on which the functions of impedance coefficients can be derived in the original space without changing the refractive index. Based on the approach, two-dimensional reflectionless beam compressors/expanders, bends, shifters, and splitters are designed using the modified anisotropic medium. It is found that the reflections can be removed in magnetic response materials for TE polarization or dielectric response materials for TM polarization. The numerical simulations confirm that various reflectionless optical elements can be realized in the pure transformation optics. The proposed method can be generalized to three-dimensional cases and can be applied to other transformation-optical designs.

  14. Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Heaney, James B.; Gallagher, Benjamin; McKay, Andrew; Stevenson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) mirror coating program has been completed. The science goals of the JWST mission require a uniform, low stress, durable optical coating with high reflectivity over the JWST spectral region. The coating has to be environmentally stable, radiation resistant and compatible with the cryogenic operating environment. The large size, 1.52 m point to point, light weight, beryllium primary mirror (PM) segments and flawless coating process during the flight mirror coating program that consisted coating of 21 flight mirrors were among many technical challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST telescope mirror coating program. The paper summarizes the coating development program and performance of the flight mirrors.

  16. Information virtual indicator with combination of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Y. A.; Drozdova, E. A.; Nayden, L. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Odinokov, S. B.; Solomashenko, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    A combination of diffractive optical elements for monochrome information virtual indicators is described. To reduce the spectral "blurring" of image in monochrome indicators with OLED-display or LCD-display with LED backlight the possibility of using the volume reflection hologram as a spectral filter is investigated. The theoretical and experimental results show that the volume reflection hologram can be used as part of a monochrome virtual indicator containing OLED-, LCOS- or LCD-display with LED-backlight and relief-phase gratings for output of radiation from substrate to reduce the spectral "blurring" of image.

  17. Holographic Optical Elements Using Polyvinyl Carbazole Holographic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Kuwayamo, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-06-01

    We developed a new holographic material: polyvinyl carbazore material. The advantage or the material over conventional DCC material is that it has high durability against humidity and transparency. Some optical properties of the material and some applications are presented. We have already installed the holographic display element using polyvinyl carbazole in a commercialized 8mm movie camera. The letters "END" are displayed on an imaging plane of the finder system by using an image plane hologram. We also present the holographic lens of which aberration is well corrected at laser diode wavelength. We made this holographic lens using a new aberration correcting method.

  18. Cryogenic Optical Position Encoders for Mechanisms in the JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Anderjaska, Thomas; Badger, James (Inventor); Capon, Tom; Davis, CLinton; Dicks, Brent (Inventor); Eichhorn, William; Garza, Mario; Guishard, Corina; Haghani, Shadan; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Happs, David (Inventor); Hovmand, Lars; Kadari, Madhu; Kirk, Jeffrey; Nyquist, Richard (Inventor); Robinson, F. David; Sullivan, Joseph (Inventor); Wilson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM) is a configurable, cryogenic, optical stimulus for high fidelity ground characterization and calibration of JWST's flight instruments. OSIM and its associated Beam Image Analyzer (BIA) contain several ultra-precise, cryogenic mechanisms that enable OSIM to project point sources into the instruments according to the same optical prescription as the flight telescope images stars - correct in focal surface position and chief ray angle. OSIM's and BIA's fifteen axes of mechanisms navigate according to redundant, cryogenic, absolute, optical encoders - 32 in all operating at or below 100 K. OSIM's encoder subsystem, the engineering challenges met in its development, and the encoders' sub-micron and sub-arcsecond performance are discussed.

  19. Precision glass molding of high-resolution diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The demand of high resolution diffractive optical elements (DOE) is growing. Smaller critical dimensions allow higher deflection angles and can fulfill more demanding requirements, which can only be met by using electron-beam lithography. Replication techniques are more economical, since the high cost of the master can be distributed among a larger number of replicas. The lack of a suitable mold material for precision glass molding has so far prevented an industrial use. Glassy Carbon (GC) offers a high mechanical strength and high thermal strength. No anti-adhesion coatings are required in molding processes. This is clearly an advantage for high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures, where a coating with a thickness between 10 nm and 200 nm would cause a noticeable rounding of the features. Electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate GC molds with highest precision and feature sizes from 250 nm to 2 μm. The master stamps were used for precision glass molding of a low Tg glass L-BAL42 from OHARA. The profile of the replicated glass is compared to the mold with the help of SEM images. This allows discussion of the max. aspect-ratio and min. feature size. To characterize optical performances, beamsplitting elements are fabricated and their characteristics were investigated, which are in excellent agreement to theory.

  20. Low scatter edge blackening compounds for refractive optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, I.T.; Telkamp, A.R. ); Ledebuhr, A.G. )

    1989-07-25

    Perkin-Elmer's Applied Optics Operation recently delivered several prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV), F/2.8, 250 mm efl, near diffraction limited, concentric refractive lenses to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these lenses, special attention was paid to reducing stray light to allow viewing of very dim objects. Because of the very large FOV, the use of a long baffle to eliminate direct illumination of lens edges was not practical. With the existing relatively short baffle design, one-bounce stray light paths off the element edges are possible. The scattering off the inside edges thus had to be kept to an absolute minimum. While common means for blackening the edges of optical elements are easy to apply and quite cost effective for normal lens assemblies, their blackening effect is limited by the Fresnel reflection due to the index of refraction mismatch at the glass boundary. At high angles of incidence, total internal reflection (TIR) might occur ruining the effect of the blackening process. An index-matched absorbing medium applied to the edges of such elements is the most effective approach for reducing the amount of undesired light reflected or scattered off these edges. The presence of such a medium provides an extended path outside the glass boundary in which an absorptive non-scattering dye can be used to eliminate light that might otherwise have propagated to the focal plane. Perkin-Elmer and LLNL undertook a program to develop epoxy-based dye carrier compounds with refractive indices corresponding to the glass types used in the WFOV lens. This program involved the measuring of the refractive index of a number of epoxy compounds and catalysts, the experimental combination of epoxies to match our glass indices, and the identification of a suitable non-scattering absorptive dye. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. The finite element analysis of zoom optical system with no moving parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, PuRui; Li, Lin; Huang, Yifan; Han, Xing; Ma, Bin

    2015-10-01

    For the method that active optical system achieves zoom by changing the surface of deformable mirror, the design of the brake, the rationality of the layout and the actual change of the surface are very critical issues. This paper presents a practical research idea and method. The finite element model of a deformable mirror was established based on finite element analysis software, and the analysis is achieved after configuring the brake method that needed. The feasibility of the drive scheme is verified through comparing the simulation results and the ideal surface. On this basis, the preliminary design of the core components of piezoelectric ceramic driving circuit brake is achieved.

  2. Virtual Mie particle model of laser damage to optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, devices being developed for application systems have used laser beams that have high average power, high peak power, short pulse width, and short wavelength. Therefore, optical elements using such application systems require a high laser damage threshold. The laser damage threshold is provided by International Organization for Standardization 11254 (ISO11254). One of the measurement methods of the laser damage threshold provided by ISO11254 is an online method to measure the intensity of light scattering due to a laser damage trace. In this paper, we propose a measurement method for the laser damage threshold that realizes high sensitivity and high accuracy by using polarized light and lock-in detection. Since the scattering light with laser damage is modeled on the asperity of the optical element-surface as Mie particles (virtual Mie particles), we consider the intensity change of scattering light as a change in the radius of a virtual Mie particle. To evaluate this model, the laser damage trace on the optical element-surface was observed by an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on the observed AFM image, we analyzed the frequency domain by the Fourier transform, and estimated the dominant virtual Mie particle radius in the AFM measurement area. In addition, we measured the laser damage threshold. The light source was the fifth generation of a Nd:YAG laser (λ =213nm). The specifications of the laser were: repetition frequency 10Hz, pulse width 4ns, linear type polarization, laser pulse energy 4mJ, and laser transverse mode TEM00. The laser specifications were a repetition frequency, pulse width, pulse energy and beam diameter of 10Hz, 4ns, 4mJ and 13mm, respectively. The laser damage thresholds of an aluminum coated mirror and a dielectric multi-layer mirror designed at a wavelength of 213nm as measured by this method were 0.684 J/cm2 and 0.998J/cm2, respectively. These laser damage thresholds were 1/4 the laser damage thresholds measured based

  3. Active reflective components for adaptive optical zoom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Matthew Edward Lewis

    This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental exploration of active reflective components specifically for large-aperture adaptive optical zoom systems. An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Adaptive optical zoom (AOZ) utilizes active components in order to change magnification and achieve optical zoom, as opposed to traditional zooming systems that move elements along the optical axis. AOZ systems are theoretically examined using a novel optical design theory that enables a full-scale tradespace analysis, where optical design begins from a broad perspective and optimizes to a particular system. The theory applies existing strategies for telescope design and aberration simulation to AOZ, culminating in the design of a Cassegrain objective with a 3.3X zoom ratio and a 375mm entrance aperture. AOZ systems are experimentally examined with the development of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  4. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  5. Displacement measurements in structural elements by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Peña, Rolando; Cibrián-Ortiz de Anda, Rosa María.; Pino-Velazquez, Angel J.; Soler-de la Cruz, José; González-Jorge, Yhoama

    2000-08-01

    Speckle metrology and holographic interferometry (HI) have been used in several civil engineering applications. We present the results obtained by applying speckle photography (SP) to the study of two quadratic shearwalls with different boundary conditions, and the potential of the technique in the study of this kind of structures is described. The analysis of Young's fringes obtained with this technique at certain points on each shearwall provides the whole field of displacement measurements. HI has been used to measure the three components of absolute displacement, verifying that the bulging phenomenon does not affect the in-plane components when the applied load remains on the same plane as the shearwall. A qualitative analysis is carried out following an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) technique. The results obtained by optical techniques are compared to the numerical results obtained by the finite element method (FEM), finding good correlation between them in all the cases.

  6. Nondispersive optical activity of meshed helical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sung; Kim, Teun-Teun; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyungjin; Min, Bumki

    2014-11-17

    Extreme optical properties can be realized by the strong resonant response of metamaterials consisting of subwavelength-scale metallic resonators. However, highly dispersive optical properties resulting from strong resonances have impeded the broadband operation required for frequency-independent optical components or devices. Here we demonstrate that strong, flat broadband optical activity with high transparency can be obtained with meshed helical metamaterials in which metallic helical structures are networked and arranged to have fourfold rotational symmetry around the propagation axis. This nondispersive optical activity originates from the Drude-like response as well as the fourfold rotational symmetry of the meshed helical metamaterials. The theoretical concept is validated in a microwave experiment in which flat broadband optical activity with a designed magnitude of 45° per layer of metamaterial is measured. The broadband capabilities of chiral metamaterials may provide opportunities in the design of various broadband optical systems and applications.

  7. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  8. Time-multiplexed chromatic-controlled axial diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Programmable diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with axial response have many interesting applications, including diffractive lenses, axicons, and optical tweezers. In all these cases, it is essential to properly select the modulation configuration of the spatial light modulator (SLM) where the DOE is displayed, in order to avoid the undiffracted zero order component that appears on axis and overlaps the desired axial response. However, in general, the chromatic dispersion in liquid crystal SLMs prevents the cancellation of the zero order for a broadband light source, thus limiting the possibilities for polychromatic programmable axial DOEs. We operate a ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon display with polychromatic illumination and with a specific polarization configuration that provides binary π-phase modulation for all wavelengths. Since this type of modulation cancels the undiffracted zero order, we use this SLM to display DOEs with axial response. Moreover, chromatic control is achieved by time-multiplexing sequences of properly scaled DOEs with the corresponding selection of the input wavelength by means of an electronically controlled color-filter wheel. The presented experimental results include wavelength-controlled diffraction gratings, axicons, and vortex-producing lenses.

  9. Conically scanned lidar telescope using holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOE) using volume phase holograms make possible a new class of lightweight scanning telescopes having advantages for lidar remote sensing instruments. So far, the only application of HOE's to lidar has been a non-scanning receiver for a laser range finder. We introduce a large aperture, narrow field of view (FOV) telescope used in a conical scanning configuration, having a much smaller rotating mass than in conventional designs. Typically, lidars employ a large aperture collector and require a narrow FOV to limit the amount of skylight background. Focal plane techniques are not good approaches to scanning because they require a large FOV within which to scan a smaller FOV mirror or detector array. Thus, scanning lidar systems have either used a large flat scanning mirror at which the receiver telescope is pointed, or the entire telescope is steered. We present a concept for a conically scanned lidar telescope in which the only moving part is the HOE which serves as the primary collecting optic. We also describe methods by which a multiplexed HOE can be used simultaneously as a dichroic beamsplitter.

  10. Scanning Lidar Transceiver Telescopes Using Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    2000-01-01

    Scanning enables remote measurements perpendicular to the ground track of airborne and spaceborne lidar systems, giving us three dimensional images of atmospheric backscatter or other measurable parameters. For ground based systems, scanning allows one to record a time series of data in multiple spatial dimensions. The large size and cost of scanning systems for atmospheric lidars using conventional scanning technologies is prohibitive for space based systems. By replacing the conventional reflective telescope with a holographic optical element (HOE) in the lidar, single axis conical scanning can be achieved with a mechanically simple system. Relatively inexpensive to produce, HOES can be used to satisfy a variety of scanning lidar applications. I will introduce the concept of the HOE and describe its production and use as a scanning lidar transceiver telescope. I will describe the advantages as well as the disadvantages and limitations of HOES in this application. Optical performance test results and two lidar systems currently using HOES will be described. Examples of data taken with these systems will be presented. Current and planned future developments will be described, including scanning without mechanical motion and wide field-of-view lidar imaging.

  11. Low Scatter Edge Blackening Compounds For Refractive Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Isabella T.; Telkamp, Arthur R.; Ledebuhr, Arno G.

    1990-01-01

    Perkin-Elmer's Applied Optics Operation recently delivered several prototype wide-field-of-view (WFOV), F/2.8, 250 mm efl, near diffraction limited, concentric refractive lenses to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In these lenses, special attention was paid to reducing stray light to allow viewing of very dim objects. Because of the very large FOV, the use of a long baffle to eliminate direct illumination of lens edges was not practical. With the existing relatively short baffle design, one-bounce stray light paths off the element edges are possible. The scattering off the inside edges thus had to be kept to an absolute minimum. While common means for blackening the edges of optical elements are easy to apply and quite cost effective for normal lens assemblies, their blackening effect is limited by the Fresnel reflection due to the index of refraction mismatch at the glass boundary. At high angles of incidence, total internal reflection (TIR) might occur ruining the effect of the blackening process. An index-matched absorbing medium applied to the edges of such elements is the most effective approach for reducing the amount of undesired light reflected or scattered off these edges. The presence of such a medium provides an extended path outside the glass boundary in which an absorptive non-scattering dye can be used to eliminate light that might otherwise have propagated to the focal plane. Perkin-Elmer and LLNL undertook a program to develop epoxy-based dye carrier compounds with refractive indices corresponding to the glass types used in the WFOV lens. This program involved the measuring of the refractive index of a number of epoxy compounds and catalysts, the experimental combination of epoxies to match our glass indices, and the identification of a suitable non-scattering absorptive dye. Measurements on these blacks showed Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) between 1.4 and 3.1 orders of magnitude lower than Perkin

  12. Research on the design of an optical information storage sensing system using a diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Hou, Jianbo; Li, Xiangping; Ma, Jianshe; Gu, Min

    2013-11-08

    This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 λ, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 λ(rms). The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0-6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified.

  13. Optical sensing elements for nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) gas detection, a sol-gel method for making the sensing elements and fiber optic sensors incorporating nitrogen dioxide gas optical sensing elements

    DOEpatents

    Mechery, Shelly John; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2007-07-03

    A sensing element, a method of making a sensing element, and a fiber optic sensor incorporating the sensing element are described. The sensor can be used for the quantitative detection of NO.sub.2 in a mixture of gases. The sensing element can be made by incorporating a diazotizing reagent which reacts with nitrous ions to produce a diazo compound and a coupling reagent which couples with the diazo compound to produce an azo dye into a sol and allowing the sol to form an optically transparent gel. The sensing element changes color in the presence of NO.sub.2 gas. The temporal response of the absorption spectrum at various NO.sub.2 concentrations has also been recorded and analyzed. Sensors having different design configurations are described. The sensing element can detect NO.sub.2 gas at levels of parts per billion.

  14. Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements for an Integrated Compact Optical-MEMS Laser Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    WENDT,JOEL R.; KRYGOWSKI,T.W.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; WARREN,MIAL E.; REYES,DAVID NMN

    2000-07-13

    The authors describe the microfabrication of a multi-level diffractive optical element (DOE) onto a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) as a key element in an integrated compact optical-MEMS laser scanner. The DOE is a four-level off-axis microlens fabricated onto a movable polysilicon shuttle. The microlens is patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion beam etching. The DOE was fabricated on two generations of MEMS components. The first generation design uses a shuttle suspended on springs and displaced by a linear rack. The second generation design uses a shuttle guided by roller bearings and driven by a single reciprocating gear. Both the linear rack and the reciprocating gear are driven by a microengine assembly. The compact design is based on mounting the MEMS module and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) onto a fused silica substrate that contains the rest of the optical system. The estimated scan range of the system is {+-}4{degree} with a spot size of 0.5 mm.

  15. Optical magnetism and optical activity in nonchiral planar plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhou; Li, Qiang; Yang, Lizhen; Wu, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    We investigate optical magnetism and optical activity in a simple planar metamolecule composed of double U-shaped metal split ring resonators (SRRs) twisted by 90° with respect to one another. Compared to a single SRR, the resonant energy levels are split and strong magnetic response can be observed due to inductive and conductive coupling. More interestingly, the nonchiral structures exhibit strong optical gyrotropy (1100°/λ) under oblique incidence, benefiting from the strong electromagnetic coupling. A chiral molecule model is proposed to shed light on the physical origin of optical activity. These artificial chiral metamaterials could be utilized to control the polarization of light and promise applications in enantiomer sensing-based medicine, biology, and drug development.

  16. Diffractive Optical Element design for lateral spectrum splitting photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.

    In this work, two distinct types of Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are designed to laterally distribute the solar spectrum across multiple photovoltaic (PV) cells. Each PV cell receives a spectral band near its bandgap energy to maximize overall solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of the system. The first DOE is an off-axis volume holographic lens. Design parameters include lateral grating period and slant angle, index modulation, film thickness, and control of swelling and index modulation attenuation in the film development process. Diffraction efficiency across the holographic lens is simulated using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). A full system model is created, and non-sequential ray tracing is performed. Performance is evaluated under AM 1.5 conditions and annual insolation in Tucson, AZ, and Seattle, WA. A proof-of-concept off-axis holographic lens is fabricated and its performance is measured to confirm the optical properties of this system. The second DOE is an algorithmically-designed freeform surface relief structure. The Gerchberg-Saxton design algorithm is expanded to consider multiple wavelengths, resulting in a Broadband Gerchberg-Saxton (BGS) algorithm. All design variables are evaluated in a parametric study of the algorithm. Several DOE designs are proposed for spectrum splitting, and two of these designs are fabricated and measured. Additional considerations, such as finite sampling of the discrete Fourier transform, fabrication error, and solar divergence are addressed. The dissertation will conclude with a summary of spectrum splitting performance of all proposed DOEs, as well as a comparison to ideal spectrum splitting performance and discussion of areas for improvement and future work.

  17. Tolerancing of single point diamond turned diffractive optical elements and optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, R. F.

    2007-10-01

    Single point diamond turning has an increasing importance with the production of the surfaces for different optical systems such as infrared systems, prototype production of mobile phone cameras or head mounted displays with plastic lenses or master manufacturing for the injection moulding of plastic lenses for mass products. Tolerances which occur during single point diamond turning of aspheric surfaces and diffractive elements or during polar coordinate laser plotting of Computer-generated holograms will be treated. In both cases we expect similar tolerances, because the work piece is rotated in both diamond turning and laser plotting. The purpose is to understand the typical tolerances and to simulate their influence to the aberrations in the optical system.

  18. Investigation of diffractive optical element femtosecond laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrol, Grégoire R.; Ciceron, Adline; Twardowski, Patrice; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Flury, Manuel; Mermet, Frédéric; Lecler, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an explorative study on the machining of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in transparent materials using a femtosecond laser source. A simple form of DOE, a binary phase grating with a period of 20.85 μm (σ = 0.5 μm), a groove depth and width of 0.7 μm (σ = 0.2 μm) and 8.8 μm (σ = 0.5 μm) respectively, was successfully machined in BK7. The topographic characteristics were measured by white light interferometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The processing was carried out on high precision stages with an ultrafast fibre laser (350 fs) emitting a 343 nm pulse focused onto the sample with a stationary microscope objective. A diffracted efficiency of 27%, obtained with a spectro goniometer, was corroborated by the theoretical results obtained by the Fourier modal method (FMM), taking into account the measured topographic values. These encouraging results demonstrate that high-speed femtosecond laser manufacturing of DOE in bulk glasses can be achieved, opening the way to rapid prototyping of multi-layered-DOEs.

  19. Dichromated Gelatine as a Material of Optical Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyuk-Soo; Cho, Dong-Hyun; Choi, Yong-Jin; Son, Jung-Young; Park, Seung-Han

    1999-04-01

    In the fabrication process of optical elements (OEs) by the laser scanning method using a dichromated gelatin (DCG) photoplate, the expansion and drying stress of gelatine caused by inhomogeneous liquid flow inside the gelatine affects the shape of OEs. The reason this inhomogeneous liquid flow exists in the energy oversaturated parts of OEs is the presence of surplus energy. In order to obtain the OEs of desired spherical lens shape, the drying stress should be reduced and therefore the maximum energy of the illuminating laser should be defined not to cause the surplus energy. The maximum energy is investigated according to the relative concentrations of (NH4)2Cr2O7 to DCG. The use of photoplates with a relative concentration of (NH4)2Cr2O7 to gelatin of more than 20% has some advantages when making the lens raster, especially a short-focal-length lens raster. It is also very important to increase the drying time to reduce the total drying stress by maintaining high humidity during the drying process.

  20. Study on automatic optical element addition or deletion in lens optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Wang, Yongtian; Hao, Qun

    2002-09-01

    Two lens form parameters, quantifying the symmetry of the optical system and the optical power distribution among the individual lens elements, are used as the criteria for automatic element addition or deletion in lens optimization. The scheme based on the criteria is described in this paper. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate that the scheme is practicable.

  1. Active optics, adaptive optics, and laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Hubin, N; Noethe, L

    1993-11-26

    Optical astronomy is crucial to our understanding of the universe, but the capabilities of ground-based telescopes are severely limited by the effects of telescope errors and of the atmosphere on the passage of light. Recently, it has become possible to construct inbuilt corrective devices that can compensate for both types of degradations as observations are conducted. For full use of the newly emerged class of 8-meter telescopes, such active corrective capabilities, known as active and adaptive optics, are essential. Some physical limitations in the adaptive optics field can be overcome by artificially created reference stars, called laser guide stars. These new technologies have lately been applied with success to some medium and very large telescopes. PMID:17736819

  2. Simulation of the optical performance of refractive elements to mimic the human eye focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín.; Cruz-Félix, Ángel S.

    2015-09-01

    Refractive optics has evolved and incorporated new elements in optical systems every day, such as conventional lenses, tunable lenses, GRIN lenses, diffractive lenses, intraocular lenses, etc. Some of these elements are reported in the literature together with different proposed models of the human eye. In this work, optical properties of some of these lenses will be studied, and simulations of their behavior will be done in order to analyze which one is better for imaging process. Such lenses will be incorporated in an optical system that mimics the human eye behavior. Analysis and obtained results are reported, as well as the proposed optical system. Finally, we present the conclusions of the work.

  3. Laser-assisted manufacturing of micro-optical volume elements for enhancing the amount of light absorbed by solar cells in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peharz, Gerhard; Kuna, Ladislav; Leiner, Claude

    2015-03-01

    The laser-generation of micro-optical volume elements is a promising approach to decrease the optical shadowing of front side metal contacts of solar cells. Focusing a femtosecond laser beam into the volume of the encapsulation material causes a local modification its optical constants. Suchlike fabricated micro-optical elements can be used to decrease the optical shadowing of the front side metallization of c-Si solar cells. Test samples comprising of a sandwich structure of a glass sheet with metallic grid-lines, an Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant and another glass sheet were manufactured in order to investigate the optical performance of the volume optics. Transmission measurements show that the shadowing of the metalling grid-lines is substantially decreased by the micro-optical volume elements created in the EVA bulk right above the grid-fingers. A detailed investigation of the optical properties of these volume elements was performed: (i) experimentally on the basis of goniometric measurements, as well as (ii) theoretically by applying optical modelling and optimization procedures. This resulted in a better understanding of the effectiveness of the optical volume elements in decreasing the optical shadowing of metal grid lines on the active cell surfaces. Moreover, results of photovoltaic mini-modules with incorporated micro-optical volume elements are presented. Results of optical simulation and Laser Beam Induced Current (LBIC) experiments show that the losses due to the grid fingers can be reduced by about 50%, when using this fs-laser structuring approach for the fabrication of micro-optical volume elements in the EVA material.

  4. Research on high precision centering assembly method of roll edge optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Liu, Xiaomei

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the imaging quality of target imaging optical system, in the special environment of large temperature difference, the centering assembly precision of roll edge optical elements was studied. According to the hole-axis coordinate error theory of mechanics, by analyzing the factors affected the precision of mechanical heating surface, combining with the existing method to eliminate error and centering assembly process, a new kind of high precision centering assembly method was put forward. Using additional grinding device to grinding roll edge of optical element, eliminate the machining error on the surface of the mechanical hot working, thus improve the centering assembly precision between the roll edge optical element and lens tube. The result of experiment shows that the centering precision can reach less than 3μm when assembled optical element after roll edge using new centering assembly method, and improved by 25% compared to the traditional method of roll edge optical elements are assembled directly after hot working. New assembly method with additional grinding device can improve the centering assembly precision of roll edge optical elements, and greatly reduce the difficulty of optical design of such optical imaging system using in large temperature difference environment, when meet the same image quality.

  5. Increasing reconstruction quality of diffractive optical elements displayed with LC SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-03-01

    Phase liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are actively used in various applications. However, majority of scientific applications require stable phase modulation which might be hard to achieve with commercially available SLM due to its consumer origin. The use of digital voltage addressing scheme leads to phase temporal fluctuations, which results in lower diffraction efficiency and reconstruction quality of displayed diffractive optical elements (DOE). Due to high periodicity of fluctuations it should be possible to use knowledge of these fluctuations during DOE synthesis to minimize negative effect. We synthesized DOE using accurately measured phase fluctuations of phase LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" to minimize its negative impact on displayed DOE reconstruction. Synthesis was conducted with versatile direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) method in the following way. Before DOE synthesis begun, two-dimensional dependency of SLM phase shift on addressed signal level and time from frame start was obtained. Then synthesis begins. First, initial phase distribution is created. Second, random trajectory of consecutive processing of all DOE elements is generated. Then iterative process begins. Each DOE element sequentially has its value changed to one that provides better value of objective criterion, e.g. lower deviation of reconstructed image from original one. If current element value provides best objective criterion value then it left unchanged. After all elements are processed, iteration repeats until stagnation is reached. It is demonstrated that application of SLM phase fluctuations knowledge in DOE synthesis with DSRT method leads to noticeable increase of DOE reconstruction quality.

  6. Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements.

    PubMed

    Flammer, P D; Banks, J M; Furtak, T E; Durfee, C G; Hollingsworth, R E; Collins, R T

    2010-09-27

    VLSI compatible optical waveguides on silicon are currently of particular interest in order to integrate optical elements onto silicon chips, and for possible replacements of electrical cross-chip/inter-core interconnects. Here we present simulation and experimental verification of a hybrid plasmon/dielectric, single-mode, single-polarization waveguide for silicon-on-insulator wafers. Its fabrication is compatible with VLSI processing techniques, and it possesses desirable properties such as the absence of birefringence and low sensitivity to surface roughness and metallic losses. The waveguide structure naturally forms an MOS capacitor, possibly useful for active device integration. Simulations predict very long propagation lengths of millimeter scale with micron scale confinement, or sub-micron scale confinement with propagation lengths still in excess of 100 microns. The waveguide may be tuned continuously between these states using standard VLSI processing. Extremely long propagation lengths have been simulated: one configuration presented here has a simulated propagation length of 34 cm. PMID:20940996

  7. Large Aperture Scanning Lidar Based on Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Guerra, David V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lidar remote sensing instruments can make a significant contribution to satisfying many of the required measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters for future spaceborne platforms, including topographic altimeters, atmospheric profiles of, wind, humidity, temperature, trace molecules, aerosols, and clouds. It is highly desirable to have wide measurement swaths for rapid coverage rather than just the narrow ribbon of data that is obtained with a nadir only observation. For most applications global coverage is required, and for wind measurements scanning or pointing is required in order to retrieve the full 3-D wind vector from multiple line-of-sight Doppler measurements. Conventional lidar receivers make up a substantial portion of the instrument's size and weight. Wide angle scanning typically requires a large scanning mirror in front of the receiver telescope, or pointing the entire telescope and aft optics assembly, Either of these methods entails the use of large bearings, motors, gearing and their associated electronics. Spaceborne instruments also need reaction wheels to counter the torque applied to the spacecraft by these motions. NASA has developed simplified conical scanning telescopes using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to reduce the size, mass, angular momentum, and cost of scanning lidar systems. NASA has developed two operating lidar systems based on 40 cm diameter HOEs. The first such system, named Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS) was a joint development between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland College Park. PHASERS is based on a reflection HOE for use at the doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 532 nm and has recently undergone a number of design changes in a collaborative effort between GSFC and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. The next step was to develop IR transmission HOEs for use with the Nd:YAG fundamental in the Holographic Airborne

  8. Large Aperture Scanning Lidar Based on Holographic Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Miller, David O.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Guerra, David V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lidar remote sensing instruments can make a significant contribution to satisfying many of the required measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters for future spaceborne platforms, including topographic altimeters, atmospheric profiles of, wind, humidity, temperature, trace molecules, aerosols, and clouds. It is highly desirable to have wide measurement swaths for rapid coverage rather than just the narrow ribbon of data that is obtained with a nadir only observation. For most applications global coverage is required, and for wind measurements scanning or pointing is required in order to retrieve the full 3-D wind vector from multiple line-of-sight Doppler measurements. Conventional lidar receivers make up a substantial portion of the instrument's size and weight. Wide angle scanning typically requires a large scanning mirror in front of the receiver telescope, or pointing the entire telescope and aft optics assembly, Either of these methods entails the use of large bearings, motors, gearing and their associated electronics. Spaceborne instruments also need reaction wheels to counter the torque applied to the spacecraft by these motions. NASA has developed simplified conical scanning telescopes using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) to reduce the size, mass, angular momentum, and cost of scanning lidar systems. NASA has developed two operating lidar systems based on 40 cm diameter HOEs. The first such system, named Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing (PHASERS) was a joint development between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland College Park. PHASERS is based on a reflection HOE for use at the doubled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 532 nm and has recently undergone a number of design changes in a collaborative effort between GSFC and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. The next step was to develop IR transmission HOEs for use with the Nd:YAG fundamental in the Holographic Airborne

  9. Laser and optics activities at CREOL

    SciTech Connect

    Stickley, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    CREOL is an interdisciplinary institute with a mission to foster and support research and education in the optical and laser sciences and engineering. CREOL`s principal members are its 21-strong faculty. The faculty are encouraged and supported in developing, maintaining, and expanding innovative and sponsored research programs, especially ones that are coupled to industry`s needs. The CREOL Director and Assistant Director, through empowerment by the CREOL faculty, coordinate and oversee the interactive, interdisciplinary projects of the faculty, the 85 graduate students and the 39 research staff. CREOL integrates these research efforts with the general educational mission and goals of the university, develops comprehensive course work in the optical and laser sciences and engineering, provides guidance and instruction to graduate students, administers MS and PhD programs, and provides facilities, funds, and administrative support to assist the faculty in carrying out CREOL`s mission and obtaining financial support for the research projects. CREOL`s specific areas of research activity include the following: IR systems; nonlinear optics; crystal growth; nonlinear integrated optics; new solid-state lasers; tunable far-infrared lasers; thin-film optics; theory; semiconductor lasers; x-ray/optical scattering; laser-induced damage; free-electron lasers; solid-state spectroscopy; x-ray sources and applications; laser propagation; laser processing of materials; optical design; optical limiting/sensor protection; diffractive optics; quantum well optoelectronics; dense plasmas/high-field physics; laser radar and remote sensing; diode-based lasers; and glass science.

  10. Optical and laser characterization of Nd:YAG ceramics elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Librant, Zdzisław; Węglarz, Helena; Wajler, Anna; Tomaszewski, Henryk; Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Zendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek

    2008-12-01

    The Nd:YAG ceramics of nominal 1% and 2% Nd dopant were produced by a solid-state reaction of high-purity (4N) nanometric oxides powders i.e. Al2O3, Y2O3 and Nd2O3. Yttrium oxide nanopowder (XRD crystallite size of 79 nm) was produced by precipitation from water solution of high-purity hydrated nitrate, by means of ammonia hydro-carbonate. The cold isostatic pressing method was applied to densify granulated powder. Further the sintering and annealing processes were deployed to produce the final Nd:YAG ceramic samples. Mean grain sizes of about 20 µm and grain boundaries less than 10 nm of elaborated Nd:YAG ceramic samples were evaluated in SEM and TEM measurements. Thus, in microscale the quality of obtained ceramic was quite satisfactory. However, in macroscale, the samples had unacceptable level of voids and pores observed in visual inspection, which resulted in low 76% transmission, corresponding to extinction coefficient of 0.32 cm-1 at 1064-nm wavelength. The sizes of defects, pores and inclusions were of several dozens of micrometer. The active elements of rod and slab shape were fabricated and characterized in two diode pumping laser set ups. In end pumping configuration as a pump source 20-W fiber coupled laser diode was deployed. For the low duty cycle pumping (1 ms/20 Hz) above 30% slope efficiency was achieved. In the best case, 3.7 W of output power for 18 W of pump power, with M2 <1.4 were demonstrated for uncoated ceramics rod of φ4x3mm size. We have used uncoated elements, thus we can expect increase in laser parameters for optimized pumping conditions and samples with anti-reflective coatings. The parameters of elaborated ceramic material at this stage of work are unsatisfactory for laser application. However, the results of TEM measurements and laser characterizations seems to be quite promising..

  11. Design of an optical element forming an axial line segment for efficient LED lighting systems.

    PubMed

    Aslanov, Emil R; Doskolovich, Leonid L; Moiseev, Mikhail A; Bezus, Evgeni A; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L

    2013-11-18

    An LED optical element is proposed as an alternative to cold-cathode fluorescent lamps. The optical element generates two symmetric uniformly illuminated line segments on the diffuse reflector. The illuminated segments then act as secondary linear light sources. The calculation of the optical element is reduced to the integration of the system of two explicit ordinary differential equations. The results of the simulation of an illumination system module consisting of a set of optical elements generating a set of line segments on the surface of the diffuse reflector are presented. The elements are located directly on the surface of the reflector. The simulation results demonstrate the uniform illumination of a rectangular area at a distance of 30-40 mm from the light source plane. The lighting efficiency of the designed system exceeds 83%. PMID:24514376

  12. Micro-optical elements functioning in non-visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Andy Z. Z.; Bergström, Andreas; Huo, Vicky Z. J.; Almqvist, Susanne; Kaplan, Wlodek; Andersson, Jan Y.

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays novel micro-fabrication and wafer-based manufacturing approach allows realizing micro-optics in a way scientists have dreamt for generations, in particular, utilizing nano-imprint lithography as fabrication tooling enables greatly accelerating the micro-optics technology to its frontier. In this report, we present wafer-scale fabrication of various types of micro-optical elements based on photoresist, benzocyclobutene, photocurable imprint resist, and semiconductor materials by using thermal reflow, reactive ion etching, and imprint techniques. Especially, several concave or convex 3-dimensional micro-optical structures shaped by imprint method are detailed. These micro-optical elements can be monolithically or hybrid integrated onto optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors and emitters as optical beam focuser, collimator, filter, or anti-reflectance elements. As application examples, polymer microlenses were integrated directly on the top of UV dual functional devices and quantum dot long wavelength infrared photodetectors, respectively.

  13. Chiral THz metamaterial with tunable optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John; Chowdhury, Roy; Zhao, Rongkuo; Soukoullis, Costas M

    2010-01-01

    Optical activity in chiral metamaterials is demonstrated in simulation and shows actively tunable giant polarization rotation at THz frequencies. Electric current distributions show that pure chirality is achieved by our bi-Iayer chiral metamaterial design. The chirality can be optically controlled by illumination with near-infrared light. Optical activity, occurring in chiral materials such as DNA, sugar and many other bio-molecules, is a phenomenon of great importance to many areas of science including molecular biology, analytical chemistry, optoelectronics and display applications. This phenomenon is well understood at an effective medium level as a magnetic/electric moment excited by the electric/magnetic field of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave. Usually, natural chiral materials exhibit very weak optical activity e.g. a gyrotropic quartz crystal. The optical activity of chiral metamaterials, however, can be five orders of magnitude stronger. Chiral metamaterials are made of sub-wavelength resonators lacking symmetry planes. The asymmetry allows magnetic moments to be excited by the electric field of the incident EM wave and vice versa. Recently, chiral metamaterials have been demonstrated and lead to prospects in giant optical activity, circular dichroism, negative refraction and reversing the Casmir force. These fascinating optical properties require strong chirality, which may be designed through the microscopic structure of chiral metamaterials. However, these metamaterials have a fixed response function, defined by the geometric structuring, which limits their ability to manipulate EM waves. Active metamaterials realize dynamic control of response functions and have produced many influential applications such as ultra-fast switching devices, frequency and phase modulation and memory devices. Introducing active designs to chiral metamaterials will give additional freedom in controlling the optical activity, and therefore enable dynamic manipulation

  14. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  15. Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Cui, Yan; Chan, Jerry KY; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-01-01

    Stem-cell-based therapies hold promise and potential to address many unmet clinical needs. Cell tracking with modern imaging modalities offers insight into the underlying biological process of the stem-cell-based therapies, with the goal to reveal cell survival, migration, homing, engraftment, differentiation, and functions. Adaptability, sensitivity, resolution, and non-invasiveness have contributed to the longstanding use of optical imaging for stem cell tracking and analysis. To identify transplanted stem cells from the host tissue, optically active probes are usually used to label stem cells before the administration. In comparison to the traditional fluorescent probes like fluorescent proteins and dyes, nanoparticle-based probes are advantageous in terms of the photo-stabilities and minimal changes to the cell phenotype. The main focus here is to overview the recent development of optically active nanoparticles for stem cells tracking. The related optical imaging modalities include fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging. PMID:23638335

  16. Recent optical activity of Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, E.; Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Ibryamov, S.; Peneva, S.; Gupta, A. C.

    2013-04-01

    Our BVRI optical observations of Mrk 421 were performed within the multiwavelength international campaign (December 2012-June 2013), with the participation of GASP-WEBT, Swift, MAGIC, VLBA, NuSTAR, Fermi, VERITAS, F-GAMMA and other collaborations. Following the reports of enhanced X-ray and gamma activity of Mrk 421 (ATel #4978, ATel #4977, ATel #4976, ATel #4974, ATel #4918), we observed this blazar with the optical telescopes of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen and the Astronomical Observatory Belogradchik, Bulgaria.

  17. Research on machining error compensation in high-precision surface grinding machine for optical aspheric elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaolong; Guo, Yinbiao; Zhang, Shihan; Huang, Hao

    2010-10-01

    Using aspheric component in optical system can correct optical aberration, acquire high imaging quality, improve the optical characteristic, simplify system structure, and reduce system volume. Nowadays, high-precision surface grinding machine is an important approach to processing optical aspheric elements. However, because of the characteristics of optical aspheric elements, the processing method makes a higher demand to whole performance of surface grinding machine, and hardly to achieve ideal machining effect. Taking high generality and efficiency into account, this paper presents a compensation method for machining errors of high-precision surface grinding machine, which bases on optical aspheric elements, to achieve high-precision machining for all kinds of optical aspheric elements. After compensation, the machining accuracy of grinding machine could reach 2um/200×200mm. The research bases on NC surface grinding machine which is self developed. First of all, this paper introduces machining principle for optical aspheric elements on the grinding machine. And then error sources which producing errors are analyzed. By contacting and non-contacting measurement sensors, measurement software which is self designed realizes on-position measure for grinded workpiece, then fits surface precision and machining errors. Through compensation software for machining error which is self designed, compensation algorithm is designed and translated compensation data into G-code for the high-precision grinding machine to achieve compensation machining. Finally, by comparison between machining error compensation before and after processing, the experiments for this purpose are done to validate the compensation machining accuracy.

  18. Joint remote preparation of arbitrary two- and three-photon state with linear-optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ren-Feng; Lin, You-Jun; Zhou, Ping

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, two schemes for joint remote preparation via linear optics elements are proposed. Firstly, we propose a scheme for joint remote preparation of an arbitrary two-photon state via linear-optical elements by using a five-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. Then, the JRSP protocol of an arbitrary three-photon state via linear-optical elements, which was rarely considered in previous papers, is investigated. All the senders share the information of prepared state. The senders transform the quantum channel to the target quantum channel according to their information of prepared state, and the receiver can prepare the original state by performing corresponding operations on his entangled particles. Our scheme has advantage of transmitting less particles for joint remote preparing an arbitrary two-qubit state. Moreover, it is more convenience in application since it only requires linear-optical elements for joint remote preparation.

  19. Fabrication of a phase transmission holographic optical element in polycarbonate and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, V; Chandar Shekar, B

    2016-08-10

    The phase transmission holographic optical element in silver halide holographic emulsion, especially for holographic collimator sights, is fabricated and the desired diffraction efficiency is obtained with very high transmission. One of the main drawbacks of these holograms are that they become dark by being exposed under sunlight, and this darkness drastically reduces the visible transmission and diffraction efficiency of a holographic optical element, hence it is not suitable for weapon sight application. To overcome this problem, we transferred a holographic optical element with a reticle image from silver halide into polycarbonate by using copying, electroforming, and recombination techniques. The holographic optical element in polycarbonate has many advantages; the detailed method of fabrication, transfer, and its characterization are presented. The very interesting result of diffraction efficiency variation with angle obtained in polycarbonate is discussed. PMID:27534494

  20. Design of an Airborne Scanning Lidar Using a Holographic Optical Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Hopf, Dan; Neuman, Mark; Kubalak, David; Christhilif, Ellen; Hasselbrack, William; Ranganayakamma, Belthur; Kim, Jin; Hwang, I. H.

    1998-01-01

    An aerosol and cloud backscatter lidar system has been built using a one meter focal length transmission holographic optical element that functions as a scanning telescope. Rotating the disk about the center line normal effects a 45 degree conical scan.

  1. Fabrication of a phase transmission holographic optical element in polycarbonate and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, V; Chandar Shekar, B

    2016-08-10

    The phase transmission holographic optical element in silver halide holographic emulsion, especially for holographic collimator sights, is fabricated and the desired diffraction efficiency is obtained with very high transmission. One of the main drawbacks of these holograms are that they become dark by being exposed under sunlight, and this darkness drastically reduces the visible transmission and diffraction efficiency of a holographic optical element, hence it is not suitable for weapon sight application. To overcome this problem, we transferred a holographic optical element with a reticle image from silver halide into polycarbonate by using copying, electroforming, and recombination techniques. The holographic optical element in polycarbonate has many advantages; the detailed method of fabrication, transfer, and its characterization are presented. The very interesting result of diffraction efficiency variation with angle obtained in polycarbonate is discussed.

  2. Manifestation of optical activity in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Golovina, T. G.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Various manifestations of optical activity (OA) in crystals and organic materials are considered. Examples of optically active enantiomorphic and nonenantiomorphic crystals of 18 symmetry classes are presented. The OA of enantiomorphic organic materials as components of living nature (amino acids, sugars, and proteins) is analyzed. Questions related to the origin of life on earth are considered. Examples of differences in the enantiomers of drugs are shown. The consequences of replacing conventional left-handed amino acids with additionally right-handed amino acids for living organisms are indicated.

  3. New edge-blackening techniques for refractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, Ramona; Gebhardt, A.; Weber, C.; Risse, Stefan; Guyenot, Volker

    1996-08-01

    There is a trend in the optical industry to automate the edge-blackening of optical components. The goal of edge- blackening is to coat the areas outside the functional region of optical components, namely the peripheral areas including the surface edge or 'diaphragm' and apertures, with light absorbing, index-matched material to minimize scattering light. The common method today is the manual application with brush or ink-writer of quick-drying liquid pigmented synthetic resin. The lenses are fitted at a rotary table with a vacuum-pump or with considerable disadvantage inhibiting the automation. Another problem is the use of a high number of lacquers with different or partly unknown properties, due to varying chemical bases.

  4. Multipoint photonic doppler velocimetry using optical lens elements

    DOEpatents

    Frogget, Brent Copely; Romero, Vincent Todd

    2014-04-29

    A probe including a fisheye lens is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into fisheye lens, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to an index-matching lens and eventually to a fisheye lens. The fiber array flat polished and coupled to the index-matching lens using index-matching gel. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays through the fisheye lens which in turn project many measurement points at numerous different locations to establish surface coverage over a hemispherical shape with very little crosstalk.

  5. Optical elements formed by compressed gases: Analysis and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Spherical, cylindrical, and conical shock waves are optically analogous to gas lenses. The geometrical optics of these shock configurations are analyzed as they pertain to flow visualization instruments, particularly the rainbow schlieren apparatus and single-pass interferometers. It is proposed that a lens or mirror formed by gas compressed between plastic sheets has potential as a fluid visualization test object; as the objective mirror in a very large space-based telescope, communication antenna, or energy collector; as the objective mirror in inexpensive commercial telescopes; and as a component in fluid visualization apparatuses.

  6. Dual focus diffractive optical element with extended depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Katsuhiro; Shimizu, Isao

    2014-09-01

    A dual focus property and an extended depth of focus were verified by a new type of diffractive lens displaying on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices. This type of lens is useful to read information on multilayer optical discs and tilted discs. The radial undulation of the phase groove on the diffractive lens gave the dual focus nature. The focal extension was performed by combining the dual focus lens with the axilens that was invented for expanding the depth of focus. The number of undulations did not affect the intensity along the optical axis but the central spot of the diffraction pattern.

  7. An Overhead Projection Demonstration of Optical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the use of two polarizing lenses, a yellow filter, an oatmeal bos, a piece of cardboard, a 1,000 ml beaker, and an overhead projector to demonstrate compound optical activity to large classes. Indicates the presence of an accuracy within 1-2 degrees of usually acceptable data. (CC)

  8. Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Benfeng; Svirko, Yuri; Turunen, Jari; Vallius, Tuomas

    2007-08-15

    A thorough theoretical study of the optical activity in planar chiral metamaterial (PCM) structures, made of both dielectric and metallic media, is conducted by the analysis of gammadion-shaped nanoparticle arrays. The general polarization properties are first analyzed from an effective-medium perspective, by analogy with natural optical activity, and then verified by rigorous numerical simulation, some of which are corroborated by previous experimental results. The numerical analysis suggests that giant polarization rotation (tens of degrees) may be achieved in the PCM structures with a thickness of only hundreds of nanometers. The artificial optical activity arises from circular birefringence induced by the structural chirality and is enhanced by the guided-mode or surface-plasmon resonances taking place in the structures. There are two polarization conversion types in the dielectric PCMs, whereas only one type in the metallic ones. Many intriguing features of the polarization property of PCMs are also revealed and explained: the polarization effect is reciprocal and vanishes in the symmetrically layered structures; the effect occurs only in the transmitted field, but not in the reflected field; and the polarization spectra of two enantiomeric PCM structures are mirror symmetric to each other. These remarkable properties pave the way for the PCMs to be used as polarization elements in new-generation integrated optical systems.

  9. Network- and network-element-level parameters for configuration, fault, and performance management of optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drion, Christophe; Berthelon, Luc; Chambon, Olivier; Eilenberger, Gert; Peden, Francoise R.; Jourdan, Amaury

    1998-10-01

    With the high interest of network operators and manufacturers for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networking technology, the need for management systems adapted to this new technology keeps increasing. We investigated this topic and produced outputs through the specification of the functional architecture, network layered model, and through the development of new, TMN- based, information models for the management of optical networks and network elements. Based on these first outputs, defects in each layer together with parameters for performance management/monitoring have been identified for each type of optical network element, and each atomic function describing the element, including functions for both the transport of payload signals and of overhead information. The list of probable causes has been established for the identified defects. A second aspect consists in the definition of network-level parameters, if such photonic technology-related parameters are to be considered at this level. It is our conviction that some parameters can be taken into account at the network level for performance management, based on physical measurements within the network. Some parameters could possibly be used as criteria for configuration management, in the route calculation processes, including protection. The outputs of these specification activities are taken into account in the development of a manageable WDM network prototype which will be used as a test platform to demonstrate configuration, fault, protection and performance management in a real network, in the scope of the ACTS-MEPHISTO project. This network prototype will also be used in a larger size experiment in the context of the ACTS-PELICAN field trial (Pan-European Lightwave Core and Access Network).

  10. Recent development in light Ultramicroscopy using aspherical optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, Saiedeh; Becker, Klaus; Hahn, Christian; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Here we present a new light sheet generator unit for Ultramicroscopy (UM) employing a combination of optical lenses with aspherical surface structure. UM allows 3D-vizualization of chemically transparent biological specimens with μm-resolution. Improving optical characteristics parameters of light sheet such as the uniformity factor of spatial intensity distribution along the line of focus, the thickness of light sheet, and chromatic aberrations are the most important criteria in this design. Since we do not use any hard edge aperture there is no truncation of the beam and laser energy is used more efficiently. Due to these improvements, a marked enhancement in presenting fine details of biological specimens such as Drosophila melanogaster, entire mouse brain, and hippocampus are achieved.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element/integrated science instrument module (OTIS) status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyon, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element/Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  13. Trace elemental composition of curry by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, A; Armenta, S; De La Guardia, M

    2008-01-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion was developed to determine the content of traces elements in curry samples from the Spanish market. The methodology was validated in terms of accuracy by the analysis of citrus and tomato leaf reference materials achieving comparable results with the certified values. The trace metal content of curry samples was compared with data available from previously published reports concerning Indian samples, especially in terms of heavy metal composition, in order to guarantee the quality of the commercially available spices in the European countries. Values found for the analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium were significantly lower than the maximum limit allowed by European Union statutory limits for heavy metals and lower than those obtained for Indian curry leaves reported by Indian research teams by using neutron activation and γ-ray analysis.

  14. Optical fiber sensor having an active core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical fiber is provided. The fiber is comprised of an active fiber core which produces waves of light upon excitation. A factor ka is identified and increased until a desired improvement in power efficiency is obtained. The variable a is the radius of the active fiber core and k is defined as 2 pi/lambda wherein lambda is the wavelength of the light produced by the active fiber core. In one embodiment, the factor ka is increased until the power efficiency stabilizes. In addition to a bare fiber core embodiment, a two-stage fluorescent fiber is provided wherein an active cladding surrounds a portion of the active fiber core having an improved ka factor. The power efficiency of the embodiment is further improved by increasing a difference between the respective indices of refraction of the active cladding and the active fiber core.

  15. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-09-15

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A.

  16. Large-aperture active optical carbon fiber reinforced polymer mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Matthew E. L.; Wilcox, Christopher C.; Wick, David V.; Baker, Michael S.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Milinazzo, Jared J.; Robichaud, Joseph; Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.; Ballesta, Jerome; Lavergne, Emeric; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2013-05-01

    An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Such elements exist at small apertures, but have yet to be fully realized at larger apertures. This paper presents the design and initial results of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  17. Reflective optical elements for use in the microwave region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, D. W.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A reflective holographic microwave element (HOME) has been developed for electron-cyclotron resonant heating of a plasma in magnetic fusion experiments. The device modifies the phase and polarization of a high-power coherent microwave beam. The phase is modified by variations in the surface profile, and the polarization is modified independently by a polarizing grating structure imbedded in the surface. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been using HOME devices to heat the thermal barrier region of plasmas in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) facility. A description of the verification and validation tests on the LLNL HOME device is given.

  18. Active pixel sensors with substantially planarized color filtering elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor imaging system preferably having an active pixel sensor array compatible with a CMOS fabrication process. Color-filtering elements such as polymer filters and wavelength-converting phosphors can be integrated with the image sensor.

  19. Active Star Architectures For Fiber Optics Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Yoseph L.

    1988-12-01

    Ethernet, and the closely related IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection), is probably the widest used method for high speed Local Area Networks (LANs). The original Ethernet medium was baseband coax but the wide acceptance of the system necessitated the ability to use Ethernet on a variety of media. So far the use of Ethernet on Thin Coax (CheaperNet), Twisted Pair (StarLan) and Broadband Coax has been standardized. Recently, an increased interest in Fiber Optic based LANs resulted in a formation of an IEEE group whose charter is to recommend approaches for Active and Passive Fiber Optic Ethernet systems. The various approaches which are being considered are described in this paper with an emphasis on Active Star based systems.

  20. Refraction and interference in micro- and nanostructure optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Toralf; Jaquet, Sylvain; Ruffieux, Patrick; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2008-04-01

    Iridescent colors created by sophisticated nanostructured materials are known from nature and attract a lot of attention nowadays. A closer look reveals that such colors are often produced by combination of structures at different lengths scales at the micrometer and nanometer level. While simulation and analysis of such structures can be done with rigorous methods fabrication is seldom attacked because if its complexity. We have chosen a particular design concept that uses Bragg reflectors as dispersive components and microoptical elements to steer the light. We focused on fabrication in organic materials, where compatibility of different process steps is an issue. Fabrication is done by spin-coating of thin films and soft replication of microoptical elements. The structures were entirely fabricated in polymer materials on glass substrates or polymer films that serve as substrates. Microoptical structures with dimensions ranging from 30 to 250 microns are embossed on Bragg reflectors having periods of 160 nm. Of main interest for us were the spectral reflection properties. Reflection properties were measured for white light in a goniometric setup and their behavior is discussed. To understand the basic features modeling is carried out by combining ray tracing and rigorous methods.

  1. 50+ Activities for Early Childhood Essential Elements. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 6, Huntsville, TX.

    Written as a companion resource to "Early Childhood Essential Elements," a document developed by the Education Service Center, Region VI, Huntsville, Texas, this first volume of a two-volume activity guide provides activities enhancing children's cognitive, communication, and motor skills. Activities included in the guide are compiled from a…

  2. Diffractive optical elements for generating arbitrary line foci

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mait, Joseph N.; Prather, Dennis W.; Vandergracht, Joseph; Tayag, Tristan J.

    1993-01-01

    The key optical component in the architecture of the linearly variable magnification telescope presented here is a conical lens. This architecture has application to Doppler radar processing and to wavelet processing. Unfortunately, the unique surface profile of a conical lens does not allow traditional grinding techniques to be used for fabrication; therefore, its fabrication is considered custom. In addition to the requirement of custom fabrication, a refractive conical lens introduces phase aberrations that are intrinsic to its conic shape. Further, due to the large prismatic component of the lens, the variable magnification telescope architecture is off-axis. To overcome the fabrication and application difficulties of a refractive lens, we consider the construction of a hybrid diffractive-refractive lens.

  3. Visible-band testbed projector with a replicated diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Chen, C B; Hegg, R G; Johnson, W T; King, W B; Rock, D F; Spande, R

    1999-12-01

    Raytheon has designed, fabricated, and tested a diffractive-optical-element-based (DOE-based) testbed projector for direct and indirect visual optical applications. By use of a low-cost replicated DOE surface from Rochester Photonics Corporation for color correction the projector optics bettered the modular transfer function of an equivalent commercial camera lens. The testbed demonstrates that a practical DOE-based optical system is suitable for both visual applications (e.g., head-mounted displays) and visual projection (e.g., tactical sensors). The need for and the proper application of DOE's in visual optical systems, the nature and the performance of the projector optical design, and test results are described. PMID:18324257

  4. Optical encryption in spatially-incoherent light using two LC SLMs for both information input and encryption element imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondareva, Alyona P.; Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2014-10-01

    At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent monochromatic illumination. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent monochromatic illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. Encryption is accomplished by means of optical convolution of image of scene to be encrypted and encryption diffractive optical element (DOE) point spread function (PSF) which serves as encryption key. Encryption process is described as follows. Scene is illuminated with spatially-incoherent monochromatic light. In the absence of encryption DOE lens forms image of scene in photosensor plane. DOE serves as encryption element, its PSF - encryption key. Light passing through DOE forms convolution of object image and DOE PSF. Registered by photosensor convolution is encrypted image. Decryption was conducted numerically on computer by means of inverse filtration with regularization. Kinoforms were used as encryption DOE because they have single diffraction order. Two liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) were used to implement dynamic digital information input and dynamic encryption key change. As input scene amplitude LC SLM HoloEye LC2002 with 800×600 pixels 32×32 μm2 and 256 gray levels was used. To image synthesized encryption kinoforms phase LC SLM HoloEye PLUTO VIS with 1920×1080 pixels 8×8 μm2 and 256 phase levels was used. Set of test images was successfully optically encrypted and then numerically decrypted. Encrypted images contents are hidden. Decrypted images despite quite high noise levels are positively recognizable

  5. Optical activity of chirally distorted nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepliakov, Nikita V.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.

    2016-05-01

    We develop a general theory of optical activity of semiconductor nanocrystals whose chirality is induced by a small perturbation of their otherwise achiral electronic subsystems. The optical activity is described using the quantum-mechanical expressions for the rotatory strengths and dissymmetry factors introduced by Rosenfeld. We show that the rotatory strengths of optically active transitions are decomposed on electric dipole and magnetic dipole contributions, which correspond to the electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions between the unperturbed quantum states. Remarkably, while the two kinds of rotatory strengths are of the same order of magnitude, the corresponding dissymmetry factors can differ by a factor of 105. By maximizing the dissymmetry of magnetic dipole absorption one can significantly enhance the enantioselectivity in the interaction of semiconductor nanocrystals with circularly polarized light. This feature may advance chiral and analytical methods, which will benefit biophysics, chemistry, and pharmaceutical science. The developed theory is illustrated by an example of intraband transitions inside a semiconductor nanocuboid, whose rotatory strengths and dissymmetry factors are calculated analytically.

  6. Optically Active Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2016-05-25

    This review highlights and summarizes various optically active porphyrin and phthalocyanine molecules prepared using a wide range of structural modification methods to improve the design of novel structures and their applications. The induced chirality of some illustrative achiral bis-porphyrins with a chiral guest molecule is introduced because these systems are ideal for the identification and separation of chiral biologically active substrates. In addition, the relationship between CD signal and the absolute configuration of the molecule is analyzed through an analysis of the results of molecular modeling calculations. Possible future research directions are also discussed. PMID:27186902

  7. A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.

  8. Non-contact high precision measurement of surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Ying

    2010-10-01

    The traditional contact measuring methods could not satisfy the current optical elements measuring requirements. Noncontact high precision measuring theory, principle and instrument of the surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements were studied in the paper. In comparison with other types of interferometers, such as Twyman-Green and Mach-Zehnder, a Fizeau interferometer has the advantages of having fewer optical components, greater accuracy, and is easier to use. Some relations among the 3/A(B/C), POWER/PV and N/ΔN were studied. The PV with POWER removed can be the reference number of ΔN. The chromatic longitudinal aberration of a special optical probe can be used for non-contanct central thickness measurement.

  9. Simply scan--optical methods for elemental carbon measurement in diesel exhaust particulate.

    PubMed

    Forder, James A

    2014-08-01

    This article describes a performance assessment of three optical methods, a Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer, a Hach-Lange Microcolor II difference gloss meter, and a combination of an office scanner with Adobe Photoshop software. The optical methods measure filter staining as a proxy for elemental carbon in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure assessment and the suitability of each as a replacement for the existing Bosch meter optical method. Filters loaded with DEP were produced from air in a non-coal mine and the exhaust gases from a mobile crane. These were measured with each apparatus and then by combustion to obtain a reference elemental carbon value. The results from each apparatus were then plotted against both the Bosch number and reference elemental carbon values. The equations of the best fit lines for these plots were derived, and these gave functions for elemental carbon and Bosch number from the output of each new optical method. For each optical method, the range of DEP loadings which can be measured has been determined, and conversion equations for elemental carbon and Bosch number have been obtained. All three optical methods studied will effectively quantify blackness as a measure of elemental carbon. Of these the Magee Scientific OT21 transmissometer has the best performance. The Microcolor II and scanner/photoshop methods will in addition allow conversion to Bosch number which may be useful if historical Bosch data are available and functions for this are described. The scanner/photoshop method demonstrates a technique to obtain measurements of DEP exposure without the need to purchase specialized instrumentation.

  10. Simply Scan—Optical Methods for Elemental Carbon Measurement in Diesel Exhaust Particulate

    PubMed Central

    Forder, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a performance assessment of three optical methods, a Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer, a Hach-Lange Microcolor II difference gloss meter, and a combination of an office scanner with Adobe Photoshop software. The optical methods measure filter staining as a proxy for elemental carbon in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure assessment and the suitability of each as a replacement for the existing Bosch meter optical method. Filters loaded with DEP were produced from air in a non-coal mine and the exhaust gases from a mobile crane. These were measured with each apparatus and then by combustion to obtain a reference elemental carbon value. The results from each apparatus were then plotted against both the Bosch number and reference elemental carbon values. The equations of the best fit lines for these plots were derived, and these gave functions for elemental carbon and Bosch number from the output of each new optical method. For each optical method, the range of DEP loadings which can be measured has been determined, and conversion equations for elemental carbon and Bosch number have been obtained. All three optical methods studied will effectively quantify blackness as a measure of elemental carbon. Of these the Magee Scientific OT21 transmissometer has the best performance. The Microcolor II and scanner/photoshop methods will in addition allow conversion to Bosch number which may be useful if historical Bosch data are available and functions for this are described. The scanner/photoshop method demonstrates a technique to obtain measurements of DEP exposure without the need to purchase specialized instrumentation. PMID:24939982

  11. Nanofabrication of Optical Elements for SXR and EUV Applications: Ion Beam Lithography as a New Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, J.; Krupp, N.; Irsen, S.; Wilhein, T.

    2011-09-09

    Diffractive optical elements are important components for applications in soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation. At present, the standard fabrication method for such optics is based on electron beam lithography followed by nanostructuring. This requires a series of complex processes including exposure, reactive ion-etching, and electro-plating. We report on experiments showing the single-step fabrication of such elements using ion beam lithography. Both transmission and reflection gratings were fabricated and successfully implemented as spectrometers at laboratory soft x-ray sources. Additionally, first steps toward zone plate fabrication are described.

  12. Grazing-incidence high-resolution stigmatic spectrograph with two optical elements.

    PubMed

    Malvezzi, A M; Garifo, L; Tondello, G

    1981-07-15

    Using two optical toroidal elements, a mirror and a grating, both working at grazing incidence, a spectrometer can be built that is stigmatic in the XUV region at one wavelength. Good compensation of the aberrations is achieved when the intermediate sagittal image is nearly at infinity. By varying the angle of incidence on the grating with simple movements, a given couple of optical elements could cover stigmatically a rather extended spectral range. If coupled with bidimensional array detectors, such a spectrograph could find applications in planned solar XUV telescopes.

  13. Identification of an active new mutator transposable element in maize.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bao-Cai; Chen, Zongliang; Shen, Yun; Zhang, Yafeng; Lai, Jinsheng; Sun, Samuel S M

    2011-09-01

    Robertson's Mutator (Mu) system has been used in large scale mutagenesis in maize, exploiting its high mutation frequency, controllability, preferential insertion in genes, and independence of donor location. Eight Mutator elements have been fully characterized (Mu1, Mu2 /Mu1.7, Mu3, Mu4, Mu5, Mu6/7, Mu8, MuDR), and three are defined by TIR (Mu10, Mu11 and Mu12). The genome sequencing revealed a complex family of Mu-like-elements (MULEs) in the B73 genome. In this article, we report the identification of a new Mu element, named Mu13. Mu13 showed typical Mu characteristics by having a ∼220 bp TIR, creating a 9 bp target site duplication upon insertion, yet the internal sequence is completely different from previously identified Mu elements. Mu13 is not present in the B73 genome or a Zea mays subsp. parviglumis accession, but in W22 and several inbreds that found the Robertson's Mutator line. Analysis of mutants isolated from the UniformMu mutagenic population indicated that the Mu13 element is active in transposition. Two novel insertions were found in expressed genes. To test other unknown Mu elements, we selected six new Mu elements from the B73 genome. Southern analysis indicated that most of these elements were present in the UniformMu lines. From these results, we conclude that Mu13 is a new and active Mu element that significantly contributed to the mutagenesis in the UniformMu population. The Robertson's Mutator line may harbor other unknown active Mu elements.

  14. Active optics control development at the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David S.; Biddick, Christopher; Hill, John M.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is built around two 8.4 m-diameter primary mirrors placed with a centerline separation of 14.4 m in a common altitude/azimuth mount. Each side of the telescope can utilize a deployable prime focus instrument; alternatively, the beam can be directed to a Gregorian instrument by utilizing a deployable secondary mirror. The direct-Gregorian beam can be intercepted and redirected to several bent-Gregorian instruments by utilizing a deployable tertiary mirror. Two of the available bent-Gregorian instruments are interferometers, capable of coherently combining the beams from the two sides of the telescope. Active optics can utilize as many as 26 linearly independent degrees of freedom to position the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors to control optical collimation while the telescope operates in its numerous observing modes. Additionally, by applying differential forces at 160 locations on each primary mirror, active optics controls the primary mirror figure. The authors explore the challenges associated with collimation and primary mirror figure control at the LBT and outline the ongoing related development aimed at optimizing image quality and preparing the telescope for interferometric operations.

  15. Holographic optical coupling and beamsplitting elements for optoelectronic interconnects and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Juerg; Voelkel, Reinhard; Rosner, S.; Stork, Wilhelm; Sheridan, John T.; Durst, Franz; Schwider, Johannes; Streibl, Norbert

    1993-01-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) are compact and flexible in their function: they can integrate focussing deflection and beamsplitting into a single element. Optical systems consisting of several elements can be built by recording planar HOEs side by side onto a common planar substrate -- a light guiding plate. By folding the light path, i.e., using multiple reflections within this plate, the light is guided from one HOE to the other. This concept is investigated for two applications: (1) An optoelectronic board to board interconnection based on holographic coupling elements on a light guiding plate: Diode lasers and pin diodes were used as optoelectronic transmitters at a data rate of 500 MBits/s. The coupling elements were volume gratings, recorded in dichromated gelatine (DCG) and coated onto the surface of the light guiding plate. Inside the plate the light was guided by total internal reflection. An overall loss of this transmission system of -2.6 dB over a distance of 11 cm was observed. (2) A miniaturized sensor head for the optical measurement of velocities of fluids based on laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV): HOEs mounted onto a glass substrate are used for beamsplitting and deflection. Volume holograms in DCG exhibit good optical efficiency (75% transmission of a cascade of two HOEs). In contrast to conventional sensor heads with diffractive devices one can achieve achromatic behavior which makes the sensor insensitive against wavelength drifts or mode hopping of a semiconductor laser.

  16. Plasmonic Biofoam: A Versatile Optically Active Material.

    PubMed

    Tian, Limei; Luan, Jingyi; Liu, Keng-Ku; Jiang, Qisheng; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Gupta, Maneesh K; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2016-01-13

    Owing to their ability to confine and manipulate light at the nanoscale, plasmonic nanostructures are highly attractive for a broad range of applications. While tremendous progress has been made in the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled plasmonic nanostructures, their integration with other materials and application in solid-state is primarily through their assembly on rigid two-dimensional (2D) substrates, which limits the plasmonically active space to a few nanometers above the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to create plasmonically active three-dimensional biofoams by integrating plasmonic nanostructures with highly porous biomaterial aerogels. We demonstrate that plasmonic biofoam is a versatile optically active platform that can be harnessed for numerous applications including (i) ultrasensitive chemical detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering; (ii) highly efficient energy harvesting and steam generation through plasmonic photothermal heating; and (iii) optical control of enzymatic activity by triggered release of biomolecules encapsulated within the aerogel. Our results demonstrate that 3D plasmonic biofoam exhibits significantly higher sensing, photothermal, and loading efficiency compared to conventional 2D counterparts. The design principles and processing methodology of plasmonic aerogels demonstrated here can be broadly applied in the fabrication of other functional foams. PMID:26630376

  17. Implementation of ordinary and extraordinary beams interference by application of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonina, S. N.; Karpeev, S. V.; Morozov, A. A.; Paranin, V. D.

    2016-07-01

    We apply diffractive optical elements in problems of transformation of Bessel beams in a birefringent crystal. Using plane waves expansion we show a significant interference between the ordinary and extraordinary beams due to the energy transfer in the orthogonal transverse components in the nonparaxial mode. A comparative analysis of the merits and lack of diffractive and refractive axicons in problems of formation non-paraxial Bessel beams has shown the preferability of diffractive optics application in crystal optics. The transformation of uniformly polarised Bessel beams in the crystal of Iceland spar in the nonparaxial mode by application of a diffractive axicon is investigated numerically and experimentally.

  18. Optically imprinted reconfigurable photonic elements in a VO{sub 2} nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Jostmeier, Thorben; Betz, Markus; Zimmer, Johannes; Krenner, Hubert J.; Karl, Helmut

    2014-08-18

    We investigate the optical and thermal hysteresis of single-domain vanadium dioxide nanocrystals fabricated by ion beam synthesis in a fused silica matrix. The nanocrystals exhibit a giant hysteresis, which permits to optically generate a long-time stable supercooled metallic phase persistent down to practically room temperature. Spatial patterns of supercooled and insulating nanocrystals feature a large dielectric contrast, in particular, for telecom wavelengths. We utilize this contrast to optically imprint reconfigurable photonic elements comprising diffraction gratings as well as on- and off-axis zone plates. The structures allow for highly repetitive (>10{sup 4}) cycling through the phase transition without structural damage.

  19. Directly laser-written integrated photonics devices including diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Ramme, Mark; Richardson, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Femtosecond laser-written integrated devices involving Fresnel Zone Plates (FZPs) and waveguide arrays are demonstrated as built-in optical couplers. These structures were fabricated in borosilicate glass using a direct laser writing technique. The optical properties of these integrated photonic structures were investigated using CW lasers and high-resolution CCDs. For a single FZP coupled to a single waveguide, the overall coupling efficiency was 9%. A multiplexed optical coupler composed of three FZP layers was demonstrated to couple three waveguides simultaneously in a waveguide array. Structures of this type can be used as platforms for multichannel waveguide coupling elements or as microfluidic sensors that require higher light collecting efficiency.

  20. Rapid design of LED optical elements with two free-form surfaces generating uniformly illuminated rectangular area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, Mikhail A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.; Kravchenko, Sergey V.

    2013-09-01

    Design of LED optical elements producing uniform illumination in rectangular regions is one of the most actual and challenging problems in development of lighting devices. As a rule, LED optical element has at least two surfaces (inner and outer) that leads to computational complexity of design process and requires application of different optimization techniques. We present a new rapid computational method for automatical design of optical elements with two free-form surfaces which generate uniform irradiance distribution in the rectangular region. Such optical elements have high lighting efficiency (about 92 %) and can be produced by injection molding.

  1. Polarization selecting Optical Element using a Porro Prism Incorporating a thin film Polarizer in a single element

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, James lee

    2000-01-28

    A Porro prism and a light polarizer are combined in a single optical element termed a Hendrix Prism. The design provides retro-reflection of incoming light of a predetermined polarization in a direction anti-parallel to the direction of light incidence, while reflecting undesired light, i.e., that having a polarization orthogonal to the predetermined polarization, from the surface of the light polarizer. The undesired light is reflected in a direction that does not interfere with the intended operation of the device in which the Hendrix Prism is installed yet provides feedback to the system in which it is used.

  2. Polarization selecting optical element using a porro prism incorporating a thin film polarizer in a single element

    DOEpatents

    Hendrix, James Lee

    2001-05-08

    A Porro prism and a light polarizer are combined in a single optical element termed a Hendrix Prism. The design provides retro-reflection of incoming light of a predetermined polarization in a direction anti-parallel to the direction of light incidence, while reflecting undesired light, i.e., that having a polarization orthogonal to the predetermined polarization, from the surface of the light polarizer. The undesired light is reflected in a direction that does not interfere with the intended operation of the device in which the Hendrix Prism is installed yet provides feedback to the system in which it is used.

  3. 50+ Activities for Early Childhood Essential Elements. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 6, Huntsville, TX.

    Written as a companion resource to "Early Childhood Essential Elements," a document developed by the Education Service Center, Region VI, Huntsville, Texas, this second volume of a two-volume activity guide provides activities enhancing children's self-help, social/emotional, and creative/expressive skills. The guide also provides a short…

  4. Passive and Active Fiber Optic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digonnet, Michel Jean-Francois

    This thesis is concerned with the development and characterization of both passive and active fiber-optic components for applications in single-mode fiber systems, in particular in the new technology of fiber sensors and signal processors. These components include single-mode fiber directional couplers, vital to many optical fiber systems, all-fiber wavelength multiplexers, with potential applications in communication systems and active fiber devices, and single-crystal fiber lasers and amplifiers as miniature light sources and signal regenerators. The fiber directional couplers involved in this work, fabricated by a polishing process, are described in detail. Experimental characterization of their coupling, loss and unique tuning properties, and their respective dependence on the coupler geometrical parameters, are reported. A theoretical model of fiber-to-fiber coupling is also developed and shown to be a very useful and accurate tool in the design and study of this type of fiber couplers. The dependence of the coupling properties of fiber couplers on the signal wavelength is studied both theoretically and experimentally for applications in wavelength division multiplexing. All-fiber multiplexers exhibiting a good wavelength selectivity and unique tunability are described and shown to operate according to the coupler model. Work on active fiber devices explores the potential of the new technology of single-crystal fibers grown by the laser-heated floating-zone technique. The status of crystal fiber growth is reported, together with the basic physical and optical characteristics of these fibers. A theoretical model of the effects of fiber model structure on the gain and laser operation of active fibers is also developed to predict the performance of lasers and amplifiers in a fiber form. Several conceptual pumping schemes are described which offer solutions to the difficult problem of optically pumping small diameter fiber amplifiers. The experimental

  5. Sparse matrix approximation method for an active optical control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Lyon, Richard G.; Dorband, John E.; Hollis, Jan M.

    2001-12-01

    We develop a sparse matrix approximation method to decompose a wave front into a basis set of actuator influence functions for an active optical system consisting of a deformable mirror and a segmented primary mirror. The wave front used is constructed by Zernike polynomials to simulate the output of a phase-retrieval algorithm. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the optical control loop are compared with the standard, nonsparse approach in terms of accuracy and precision, as well as computational speed and memory. The sparse matrix approximation method can yield more than a 50-fold increase in the speed and a 20-fold-reduction in matrix size and a commensurate decrease in required memory, with less than 10% degradation in solution accuracy. Our method is also shown to be better than when elements are selected for the sparse matrix on a magnitude basis alone. We show that the method developed is a viable alternative to use of the full control matrix in a phase-retrieval-based active optical control system.

  6. Sparse matrix approximation method for an active optical control system.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T P; Lyon, R G; Dorband, J E; Hollis, J M

    2001-12-10

    We develop a sparse matrix approximation method to decompose a wave front into a basis set of actuator influence functions for an active optical system consisting of a deformable mirror and a segmented primary mirror. The wave front used is constructed by Zernike polynomials to simulate the output of a phase-retrieval algorithm. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the optical control loop are compared with the standard, nonsparse approach in terms of accuracy and precision, as well as computational speed and memory. The sparse matrix approximation method can yield more than a 50-fold increase in the speed and a 20-fold reduction in matrix size and a commensurate decrease in required memory, with less than 10% degradation in solution accuracy. Our method is also shown to be better than when elements are selected for the sparse matrix on a magnitude basis alone. We show that the method developed is a viable alternative to use of the full control matrix in a phase-retrieval-based active optical control system. PMID:18364958

  7. Optical testing of off-axis parabolic segments without auxiliary optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional optical test for an off-axis segment of a parabolic mirror utilizes an autocollimation flat and requires considerable test-bay space. Several other test configurations that will minimize space requirements are described. One method involves a null corrector, and three others require no auxiliary test optics. Combinations of the methods described will be useful in providing full independent evaluation of the figure of the segment under test.

  8. Active microstructured x-ray optical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michette, Alan G.; Pfauntsch, Slawka J.; Sahraei, Shahin; Shand, Matthew; Morrison, Graeme R.; Hart, David; Vojnovic, Boris; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Dunare, Camelia; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Button, Tim W.; Zhang, Dou; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, Daniel; Wang, Hongchang; Smith, Andy D.

    2009-05-01

    The UK Smart X-Ray Optics consortium is developing novel reflective adaptive/active x-ray optics for small-scale laboratory applications, including studies of radiation-induced damage to biological material. The optics work on the same principle as polycapillaries, using configured arrays of channels etched into thin silicon, such that each x-ray photon reflects at most once off a channel wall. Using two arrays in succession provides two reflections and thus the Abbe sine condition can be approximately satisfied, reducing aberrations. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing one or both arrays using piezo actuation, which can provide further reduction of aberrations as well as controllable focal lengths. Modelling of such arrays for used on an x-ray microprobe, based on a microfocus source with an emitting region approximately 1μm in diameter, shows that a focused flux approximately two orders of magnitude greater than possible with a zone plate of comparable focal length is possible, assuming that the channel wall roughness is less than about 2nm.

  9. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope: Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; Parrish, Keith A.; McGinnis, Mark A.; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Kong Q.

    2004-01-01

    The James Web Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2011. This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal-optical, often referred to as STOP, analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to a structural finite element model in order to predict thermally induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are then input to optical models, and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or a linear optical analysis tool. In addition to baseline performance predictions, a process for performing sensitivity studies to assess modeling uncertainties is described.

  10. Optical activity and Alfred Werner's coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Berke, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted, that Pasteur's seminal discovery of the opposite optical activity of ammonium sodium tartrate enantiomorphs in solution gave the spark to organic stereochemistry and led to the development of the tetrahedron model by van't Hoff and Le Bel. The proof that chirality is inherently connected to octahedral coordination chemistry fostered greatly Werner's spatial views of metal complexes and his coordination theory. The actual proof of principle was established via separation of diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salts of racemic metal complexes. PMID:20928897

  11. Vibrational Raman optical activity of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L. D.; Gargaro, A. R.; Hecht, Lutz; Wen, Z. Q.; Hug, W.

    1991-05-01

    Advances in Raman optical activity (ROA) instrumentation based on the employment of a backscattering geometry together with a cooled CCD detector have now enhanced the sensitivity to the level necessary to provide vibrational ROA spectra of biological molecules in aqueous solution. Preliminary results on peptides and proteins show features originating in coupled Ca-H and N-H deformations of the peptide backbone which appear to be sensitive to the secondary conformation. Also carbohydrates show many features that appear to be characteristic of the central aspects of carbohydrate architecture with effects from the glycosidic link in di- and oligosaccharides particularly prominent. 1.

  12. Active microring based tunable optical power splitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Eldhose; Thomas, Arun; Dhawan, Anuj; Sarangi, Smruti R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a set of novel tunable optical power splitters based on active microring resonators. They work by operating ring resonators in the transient zone between full resonance and off-resonance states for a specific wavelength. We can achieve different split ratios by either varying the bias voltage, or by selectively enabling a given resonator with a specific split ratio among an array of ring resonators. We take 500 ps to tune the resonator, which is at least 10× better that competing designs. Its split ratio varies from 0.4 to 1.8 for an applied voltage range of 0-5 V.

  13. Optical Activity of Anisotropic Achiral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, T.; Kauranen, M.; Van Rompaey, Y.; Persoons, A. |

    1996-08-01

    Anisotropic achiral surfaces respond differently to left- and right-hand circularly polarized light. This occurs when the orientation of the surface with respect to an otherwise achiral experimental setup makes the total geometry chiral. Such optical activity is demonstrated in second-harmonic generation from an anisotropic thin molecular film. The circular-difference response reverses sign as the handedness of the geometry is reversed and vanishes when the setup possesses a mirror plane. The results are explained within the electric-dipole-allowed second-order surface nonlinearity. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Method for studying the phase function in tunable diffraction optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Paranin, V D; Tukmakov, K N

    2014-04-28

    A method for studying the phase function in tunable diffraction optical elements is proposed, based on measurement of the transmission of interelectrode gaps. The mathematical description of the method, which is approved experimentally, is developed. The instrumental error effects are analysed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Multipoint laser Doppler vibrometry using holographic optical elements and a CMOS digital camera.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Michael J; Szecówka, Przemyslaw M; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent; Whelan, Maurice P

    2008-02-15

    A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is described in which holographic optical elements are used to provide the interferometer reference and object illumination beams. A complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera, incorporating a digital signal processor, is used to carry out real-time signal processing of the interferometer output to allow multipoint LDV to be implemented.

  16. Modified Method of Increasing of Reconstruction Quality of Diffractive Optical Elements Displayed with LC SLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. V.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Erkin, I. Yu.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.

    Modified method of increasing of reconstruction quality of diffractive optical elements (DOE) displayed with liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) is presented. Method is based on optimization of DOE synthesized with conventional method by application of direct search with random trajectory method while taking into account LC SLM phase fluctuations. Reduction of synthesis error up to 88% is achieved.

  17. Multilevel micro-structuring of glassy carbon for precision glass molding of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    A consumer market for diffractive optical elements in glass can only be created if high efficient elements are available at affordable prices. In diffractive optics the efficiency and optical properties increases with the number of levels used, but in the same way the costs are multiplied by the number if fabrication steps. Replication of multilevel diffractive optical elements in glass would allow cost efficient fabrication but a suitable mold material is needed. Glassy carbon shows a high mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties, which makes it an excellent candidate as mold material for precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature materials. We introduce an 8 level micro structuring process for glassy carbon molds with standard photolithography and a Ti layer as hard mask for reactive ion etching. The molds were applied to thermal imprinting onto low and high transition temperature glass. Optical performance was tested for the molded samples with different designs for laser beamsplitters. The results show a good agreement to the design specification. Our result allow us to show limitations of our fabrication technique and we discussed the suitability of precision glass molding for cost efficient mass production with a high quality.

  18. Sol-gel prepared glass for micro-optical elements and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruvy, Yair; Gilath, Irith; Maniewictz, M.; Eisenberg, Naftali P.

    1997-09-01

    Sol-gel processes of metal alkoxides involve hydrolysis of the alkoxy groups and condensation to a 3-D oxide glass network. Volume reduction of the drying gel typically results in cracking, unless sufficient relaxation is allowed to take place. Further, the common shrinkage by a factor of 2.5 and higher imposes great difficulty to obtain dimensional accuracy in thus prepared micro-optical elements. The new fast sol-gel method enables facile preparation of siloxane-based glassy materials in which polymerization is completed within minutes and curing within a few hours. The optical quality of thin films obtained by the fast sol-gel method and the ease of preparation makes this method technologically and economically attractive for micro-lenses and micro-optical arrays by replication. Micro-optical arrays are highly patterned, including sharp curvatures of small radii. This necessitates to study primarily two aspects of the sol-gel replication process: (1) the chemical constitution of the sol-gel and the reaction pathway that ensures prompt adhesion to the template during the process. (2) the surface chemical adaptation of the template that allows timing of adhesion and release of the produced elements. The adaptation of this process to the desired replication is described. Thence, the results of preliminary fabrication of micro-optical elements and arrays by this method are shown and their features discussed.

  19. Optical Input/Electrical Output Memory Elements based on a Liquid Crystalline Azobenzene Polymer.

    PubMed

    Mosciatti, Thomas; Bonacchi, Sara; Gobbi, Marco; Ferlauto, Laura; Liscio, Fabiola; Giorgini, Loris; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Responsive polymer materials can change their properties when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, thin films of thermotropic poly(metha)acrylate/azobenzene polymers are explored as active layer in light-programmable, electrically readable memories. The memory effect is based on the reversible modifications of the film morphology induced by the photoisomerization of azobenzene mesogenic groups. When the film is in the liquid crystalline phase, the trans → cis isomerization induces a major surface reorganization on the mesoscopic scale that is characterized by a reduction in the effective thickness of the film. The film conductivity is measured in vertical two-terminal devices in which the polymer is sandwiched between a Au contact and a liquid compliant E-GaIn drop. We demonstrate that the trans → cis isomerization is accompanied by a reversible 100-fold change in the film conductance. In this way, the device can be set in a high- or low-resistance state by light irradiation at different wavelengths. This result paves the way toward the potential use of poly(metha)acrylate/azobenzene polymer films as active layer for optical input/electrical output memory elements. PMID:26890532

  20. Optical Input/Electrical Output Memory Elements based on a Liquid Crystalline Azobenzene Polymer.

    PubMed

    Mosciatti, Thomas; Bonacchi, Sara; Gobbi, Marco; Ferlauto, Laura; Liscio, Fabiola; Giorgini, Loris; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Responsive polymer materials can change their properties when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, thin films of thermotropic poly(metha)acrylate/azobenzene polymers are explored as active layer in light-programmable, electrically readable memories. The memory effect is based on the reversible modifications of the film morphology induced by the photoisomerization of azobenzene mesogenic groups. When the film is in the liquid crystalline phase, the trans → cis isomerization induces a major surface reorganization on the mesoscopic scale that is characterized by a reduction in the effective thickness of the film. The film conductivity is measured in vertical two-terminal devices in which the polymer is sandwiched between a Au contact and a liquid compliant E-GaIn drop. We demonstrate that the trans → cis isomerization is accompanied by a reversible 100-fold change in the film conductance. In this way, the device can be set in a high- or low-resistance state by light irradiation at different wavelengths. This result paves the way toward the potential use of poly(metha)acrylate/azobenzene polymer films as active layer for optical input/electrical output memory elements.

  1. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geological samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, Todor I.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Typically, 27 major, minor, and trace elements are determined in natural waters, acid mine drainage, extraction fluids, and leachates of geological and environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). At the discretion of the analyst, additional elements may be determined after suitable method modifications and performance data are established. Samples are preserved in 1–2 percent nitric acid (HNO3) at sample collection or as soon as possible after collection. The aqueous samples are aspirated into the ICP-OES discharge, where the elemental emission signals are measured simultaneously for 27 elements. Calibration is performed with a series of matrix-matched, multi-element solution standards.

  2. Apparatus and method using a holographic optical element for converting a spectral distribution to image points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J. (Inventor); Scott, Vibart S. (Inventor); Marzouk, Marzouk (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A holographic optical element transforms a spectral distribution of light to image points. The element comprises areas, each of which acts as a separate lens to image the light incident in its area to an image point. Each area contains the recorded hologram of a point source object. The image points can be made to lie in a line in the same focal plane so as to align with a linear array detector. A version of the element has been developed that has concentric equal areas to match the circular fringe pattern of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The element has high transmission efficiency, and when coupled with high quantum efficiency solid state detectors, provides an efficient photon-collecting detection system. The element may be used as part of the detection system in a direct detection Doppler lidar system or multiple field of view lidar system.

  3. Tunable photonic elements at the surface of an optical fiber with piezoelectric core.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, A V; Sumetsky, M

    2016-05-15

    Tunable photonic elements at the surface of an optical fiber with piezoelectric core are proposed and analyzed theoretically. These elements are based on whispering gallery modes whose propagation along the fiber is fully controlled by nanoscale variation of the effective fiber radius, which can be tuned by means of a piezoelectric actuator embedded into the core. The developed theory allows one to express the introduced effective radius variation through the shape of the actuator and the voltage applied to it. In particular, the designs of a miniature tunable optical delay line and a miniature tunable dispersion compensator are presented. The potential application of the suggested model to the design of a miniature optical buffer is also discussed. PMID:27176953

  4. Fiber optic refractometric sensors using a semi-ellipsoidal sensing element.

    PubMed

    Castro Martinez, Amalia Nallely; Komanec, Matej; Nemecek, Tomas; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Khotiaintsev, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results for a fiber optic refractometric sensor employing a semi-ellipsoidal sensing element made of polymethyl methacrylate. The double internal reflection of light inside the element provides sensitivity to the refractive index of the external analyte. We demonstrate that the developed sensor, operating at a wavelength of 632 nm, is capable of measurement within a wide range of refractive indices from n=1.00 to n=1.47 with sensitivity over 500 dB/RIU. A comparison of the developed sensor with two more complex refractometric sensors, one based on tapered optical fiber and the other based on suspended-core microstructure optical fiber, is presented.

  5. Evolutionary active transposable elements in the genome of the coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Meyer, Axel; Schartl, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The apparent morphological stasis in the lineage of the coelacanth, which has been called a "living fossil" by many, has been suggested to be causally related to a slow evolution of its genome, with strongly reduced activity of transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of the African coelacanth showed that at least 25% of its genome is constituted of transposable elements including retrotransposons, endogenous retroviruses and DNA transposons, with a strong predominance of non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. The coelacanth genome has been shaped by four major general bursts of transposition during evolution, with major contributions of LINE1, LINE2, CR1, and Deu non-LTR retrotransposons. Many transposable elements are expressed in different tissues and might be active. The number of TE families in coelacanth, but also in lungfish, is lower than in teleost fish, but is higher than in chicken and human. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis of a sequential elimination of many TE families in the sarcopterygian lineage during evolution. Taken together, our analysis indicates that the coelacanth contains more TE families than birds and mammals, and that these elements have been active during the evolution of the coelacanth lineage. Hence, at the level of transposable element activity, the coelacanth genome does not appear to evolve particularly slowly.

  6. Evolutionary active transposable elements in the genome of the coelacanth.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Domitille; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Meyer, Axel; Schartl, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The apparent morphological stasis in the lineage of the coelacanth, which has been called a "living fossil" by many, has been suggested to be causally related to a slow evolution of its genome, with strongly reduced activity of transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of the African coelacanth showed that at least 25% of its genome is constituted of transposable elements including retrotransposons, endogenous retroviruses and DNA transposons, with a strong predominance of non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. The coelacanth genome has been shaped by four major general bursts of transposition during evolution, with major contributions of LINE1, LINE2, CR1, and Deu non-LTR retrotransposons. Many transposable elements are expressed in different tissues and might be active. The number of TE families in coelacanth, but also in lungfish, is lower than in teleost fish, but is higher than in chicken and human. This observation is in agreement with the hypothesis of a sequential elimination of many TE families in the sarcopterygian lineage during evolution. Taken together, our analysis indicates that the coelacanth contains more TE families than birds and mammals, and that these elements have been active during the evolution of the coelacanth lineage. Hence, at the level of transposable element activity, the coelacanth genome does not appear to evolve particularly slowly. PMID:23908136

  7. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  8. Neutron activation of NIF Final Optics Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitaraman, S.; Dauffy, L.; Khater, H.; Brereton, S.

    2010-08-01

    Analyses were performed to characterize the radiation field in the vicinity of the Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) due to neutron activation following Deuterium-Deuterium (DD), Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD), and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) shots associated with different phases of the NIF operations. The activation of the structural components of the FOAs produces one of the larger sources of gamma radiation and is a key factor in determining the stay out time between shots to ensure worker protection. This study provides estimates of effective dose rates in the vicinity of a single FOA and concludes that the DD and THD targets produce acceptable dose rates within10 minutes following a shot while about 6-days of stay out time is suggested following DT shots. Studies are ongoing to determine the combined effects of multiple FOAs and other components present in the Target Bay on stay-out time and worker dose.

  9. Nanomechanics of Actively Controlled Deployable Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Lee D.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the interim, annual report for the research grant entitled "Nanomechanics of Actively Controlled Deployed Optics." It is supported by NASA Langley Research Center Cooperative Agreement NCC-1 -281. Dr. Mark S. Lake is the technical monitor of the research program. This document reports activities for the year 1998, beginning 3/11/1998, and for the year 1999. The objective of this report is to summarize the results and the status of this research. This summary appears in Section 2.0. Complete details of the results of this research have been reported in several papers, publications and theses. Section 3.0 lists these publications and, when available, presents their abstracts. Each publication is available in electronic form from a web site identified in Section 3.0.

  10. Detecting eavesdropping activity in fiber optic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Gregory G.

    The secure transmission of data is critical to governments, military organizations, financial institutions, health care providers and other enterprises. The primary method of securing in-transit data is though data encryption. A number of encryption methods exist but the fundamental approach is to assume an eavesdropper has access to the encrypted message but does not have the computing capability to decrypt the message in a timely fashion. Essentially, the strength of security depends on the complexity of the encryption method and the resources available to the eavesdropper. The development of future technologies, most notably quantum computers and quantum computing, is often cited as a direct threat to traditional encryption schemes. It seems reasonable that additional effort should be placed on prohibiting the eavesdropper from coming into possession of the encrypted message in the first place. One strategy for denying possession of the encrypted message is to secure the physical layer of the communications path. Because the majority of transmitted information is over fiber-optic networks, it seems appropriate to consider ways of enhancing the integrity and security of the fiber-based physical layer. The purpose of this research is to investigate the properties of light, as they are manifested in single mode fiber, as a means of insuring the integrity and security of the physical layer of a fiber-optic based communication link. Specifically, the approach focuses on the behavior of polarization in single mode fiber, as it is shown to be especially sensitive to fiber geometry. Fiber geometry is necessarily modified during the placement of optical taps. The problem of detecting activity associated with the placement of an optical tap is herein approached as a supervised machine learning anomaly identification task. The inputs include raw polarization measurements along with additional features derived from various visualizations of the raw data (the inputs are

  11. Stratified Volume Diffractive Optical Elements as Low-Mass Coherent Lidar Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Diana M.; Nordin, Gregory P.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Transmissive scanning elements for coherent laser radar systems are typically optical wedges, or prisms, which deflect the lidar beam at a specified angle and are then rotated about the instrument optical axis to produce a scan pattern. The wedge is placed in the lidar optical system subsequent to a beam-expanding telescope, implying that it has the largest diameter of any element in the system. The combination of the wedge diameter and asymmetric profile result in the element having very large mass and, consequently, relatively large power consumption required for scanning. These two parameters, mass and power consumption, are among the instrument requirements which need to be minimized when designing a lidar for a space-borne platform. Reducing the scanner contributions in these areas will have a significant effect on the overall instrument specifications, Replacing the optical wedge with a diffraction grating on the surface of a thin substrate is a straight forward approach with potential to reduce the mass of the scanning element significantly. For example, the optical wedge that will be used for the SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) is approximately 25 cm in diameter and is made from silicon with a wedge angle designed for 30 degree deflection of a beam operating at approx. 2 micrometer wavelength. The mass of this element could be reduced by a factor of four by instead using a fused silica substrate, 1 cm thick, with a grating fabricated on one of the surfaces. For a grating to deflect a beam with a 2 micrometer wavelength by 30 degrees, a period of approximately 4 micrometers is required. This is small enough that fabrication of appropriate high efficiency blazed or multi-phase level diffractive optical gratings is prohibitively difficult. Moreover, bulk or stratified volume holographic approaches appear impractical due to materials limitations at 2 micrometers and the need to maintain adequate wavefront quality. In order to avoid the

  12. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Julie; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated ScienceInstrument Module (ISIM)are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirrorcenter of curvatureoptical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard SpaceFlight Center beforebeing shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparationfor the cryogenicoptical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two OpticalGround SystemEquipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize opticaltest results todate and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  13. Two-Photon Microscopy with Diffractive Optical Elements and Spatial Light Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Nikolenko, Volodymyr; Araya, Roberto; Peterka, Darcy S.; Woodruff, Alan; Yuste, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Two-photon microscopy is often performed at slow frame rates due to the need to serially scan all points in a field of view with a single laser beam. To overcome this problem, we have developed two optical methods that split and multiplex a laser beam across the sample. In the first method a diffractive optical element (DOE) generates a fixed number of beamlets that are scanned in parallel resulting in a corresponding increase in speed or in signal-to-noise ratio in time-lapse measurements. The second method uses a computer-controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) to generate any arbitrary spatio-temporal light pattern. With an SLM one can image or photostimulate any predefined region of the image such as neurons or dendritic spines. In addition, SLMs can be used to mimic a large number of optical transfer functions including light path corrections as adaptive optics. PMID:20859526

  14. Evaluation of the current biased integrated optical processors based on bistable dode elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. L.; Swanson, P. D.; Parker, M. A.; Libby, S. I.

    1994-07-01

    Three optical switching elements have been designed, fabricated and tested for use in an integrated, optical signal processor. The first, and optical NOR logic gate, uses gain quenching as a means of allowing one (or more) light beam (s) to control the output light. This technique, along with the use of a two-pad bistable output laser, is used in the demonstration of the feasibility of the second device, an all optical RS flip-flop. The third device consists of a broad area orthogonal mode switch laser, whose corollary outputs correspond to the sign of the voltage difference between its two high impedance electrical inputs. This device also has possible memory applications if bistable mode switching within the broad area laser can be achieved.

  15. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  16. Microwave photonic bandgap devices with active plasma elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benjamin; Colon Quinones, Roberto; Biggs, David; Underwood, Thomas; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Cappelli, Mark; Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    A 3-D alumina rod based microwave photonic crystal device with integrated gaseous plasma elements is designed and characterized. Modulation of the plasma density of the active plasma elements is shown to allow for high fidelity modulation of the output signal of the photonic crystal device. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the device are presented, and the functional effects of the plasma electron density, plasma collision frequency, and plasma dimensions are studied. Experimental characterization of the transmission of the device shows active tunability through adjustments of plasma parameters, including discharge current and plasma size. Additional photonic crystal structures with integrated plasma elements are explored. Sponsored by the AFSOR MURI and DOD NDSEG.

  17. CFRP variable curvature mirror used for realizing non-moving-element optical zoom imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Fan, Xuewu; Pang, Zhihai; Ren, Guorui; Wang, Wei; Xie, Yongjie; Ma, Zhen; Du, Yunfei; Su, Yu; Wei, Jingxuan

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, how to eliminate moving elements while realizing optical zoom imaging has been paid much attention. Compared with the conventional optical zooming techniques, removing moving elements would bring in many benefits such as reduction in weight, volume and power cost and so on. The key to implement non-moving-element optical zooming lies in the design of variable curvature mirror (VCM). In order to obtain big enough optical magnification, the VCM should be capable of generating a large variation of saggitus. Hence, the mirror material should not be brittle, in other words the corresponding ultimate strength should be high enough to ensure that mirror surface would not be broken during large curvature variation. Besides that, the material should have a not too big Young's modulus because in this case less force is required to generate a deformation. Among all available materials, for instance SiC, Zerodur and et.al, CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) satisfies all these requirements and many related research have proven this. In this paper, a CFRP VCM is designed, fabricated and tested. With a diameter of 100mm, a thickness of 2mm and an initial curvature radius of 1740mm, this component could change its curvature radius from 1705mm to 1760mm, which correspond to a saggitus variation of nearly 23μm. The work reported further proves the suitability of CFRP in constructing variable curvature mirror which could generate a large variation of saggitus.

  18. Anti-Reflective and Waterproof Hard Coating for High Power Laser Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Yabe, Takashi; Uchida, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Kunio; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-05-01

    A hard coating method of single crystalline porous silica film is widely used for high power laser optical elements in the air. However, there is no protective hard coating method for the elements to survive high power laser irradiance while in the water. We, thus, developed a new method for a waterproof coating with photo-oxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin-coated onto the surface of optical elements, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in the air. In this treatment, a protective coating for plastic lenses, mirrors, and nonlinear optical crystals, which are highly deliquescent, was developed by taking advantage of the phenomenon in which organic silicone oil is transformed to inorganic amorphous glass by a process of photo-oxidation. This technique has enabled an optical thin coating film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths under 200 nm and possess the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, resistance to environment, anti-reflectiveness, resistance to water, and Mohs' scale of 5, which is comparable to apatite. This allows us to cool a slab laser head and use as a mirror for underwater laser welding.

  19. Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-06-01

    A holographic display system for realizing a three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed. A multi-functional holographic optical element (HOE), which simultaneously performs the optical functions of a mirror and a lens, is adopted in the system. In the proposed method, a mirror that is used to guide the light source into a reflection type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a lens that functions as Fourier transforming optics are recorded on a single holographic recording material by utilizing an angular multiplexing technique of volume hologram. The HOE is transparent and performs the optical functions just for Bragg matched condition. Therefore, the real-world scenes that are usually distorted by a Fourier lens or an SLM in the conventional holographic display can be observed without visual disturbance by using the proposed mirror-lens HOE (MLHOE). Furthermore, to achieve an optimized optical recording condition of the MLHOE, the optical characteristics of the holographic material are measured. The proposed holographic AR display system is verified experimentally. PMID:27244395

  20. Optical tomography reconstruction algorithm with the finite element method: An optimal approach with regularization tools

    SciTech Connect

    Balima, O.; Favennec, Y.; Rousse, D.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •New strategies to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction through mesh and finite element parameterization. •Use of gradient filtering through an alternative inner product within the adjoint method. •An integral form of the cost function is used to make the reconstruction compatible with all finite element formulations, continuous and discontinuous. •Gradient-based algorithm with the adjoint method is used for the reconstruction. -- Abstract: Optical tomography is mathematically treated as a non-linear inverse problem where the optical properties of the probed medium are recovered through the minimization of the errors between the experimental measurements and their predictions with a numerical model at the locations of the detectors. According to the ill-posed behavior of the inverse problem, some regularization tools must be performed and the Tikhonov penalization type is the most commonly used in optical tomography applications. This paper introduces an optimized approach for optical tomography reconstruction with the finite element method. An integral form of the cost function is used to take into account the surfaces of the detectors and make the reconstruction compatible with all finite element formulations, continuous and discontinuous. Through a gradient-based algorithm where the adjoint method is used to compute the gradient of the cost function, an alternative inner product is employed for preconditioning the reconstruction algorithm. Moreover, appropriate re-parameterization of the optical properties is performed. These regularization strategies are compared with the classical Tikhonov penalization one. It is shown that both the re-parameterization and the use of the Sobolev cost function gradient are efficient for solving such an ill-posed inverse problem.

  1. A new generation active arrays for optical flexibility in astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroes, G.; Jaskó, A.; Pragt, J. H.; Venema, L.; De Haan, M.

    2012-09-01

    Throughout the history of telescopes and astronomical instrumentation, new ways were found to open up unexplored possibilities in fundamental astronomical research by increasing the telescope size and instrumentation complexity. The ever demanding requirements on instrument performance pushes instrument complexity to the edge. In order to take the next leap forward in instrument development the optical design freedom needs to be increased drastically. The use of more complex and more accurate optics allows for shorter optical trains with smaller sizes, smaller number of components and reduced fabrication and alignment verification time and costs. Current optics fabrication is limited in surface form complexity and/or accuracy. Traditional active and adaptive optics lack the needed intrinsic long term stability and simplicity in design, manufacturing, verification and control. This paper explains how and why active arrays literally provide a flexible but stable basis for the next generation optical instruments. Combing active arrays with optically high quality face sheets more complex and accurate optical surface forms can be provided including extreme a-spherical (freeform) surfaces and thus allow for optical train optimization and even instrument reconfiguration. A zero based design strategy is adopted for the development of the active arrays addressing fundamental issues in opto-mechanical engineering. The various choices are investigated by prototypes and Finite Element Analysis. Finally an engineering concept will be presented following a highly stable adjustment strategy allowing simple verification and control. The Optimization metrology is described in an additional paper for this conference by T. Agócs et al.

  2. Design of optical element combining Fresnel lens with microlens array for uniform light-emitting diode lighting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangzhen; Wang, Lili; Li, Fuli; Kong, Depeng

    2012-09-01

    One kind of optical element combining Fresnel lens with microlens array is designed simply for LED lighting based on geometrical optics and nonimaging optics. This design method imposes no restriction on the source intensity pattern. The designed element has compact construction and can produce multiple shapes of illumination distribution. Taking square lighting as an example, tolerance analysis is carried out to determine tolerance limits for applying the element in the assembly process. This element can produce on-axis lighting and off-axis lighting. PMID:23201944

  3. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy determination of trace element composition of argan oil.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, A; Ghanjaoui, M E; El Rhazi, M; de la Guardia, M

    2010-02-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after microwave assisted acid digestion has been developed to determine the trace element content of Moroccan argan oil. Limit of detection values equal or lower than few mg/kg were obtained for all elements under study. To assure the accuracy of the whole procedure, recovery studies were carried out on argan oil samples spiked at different concentration levels from 10 to 200 µg/L. Quantitative average recovery values were obtained for all elements evaluated, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology for the determination of trace elements in argan oil samples. Aluminum, calcium, chromium, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, sodium, vanadium and zinc were quantitatively determined in Moroccan argan oils being found that their concentration is different of that found in other edible oils thus offering a way for authentication and for the evaluation of possible adulterations.

  4. Active optics with a minimum number of actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2014-06-01

    Optics for astronomy implies powerful developments of active and adaptive optics methods applied to instrumentation from X-rays to the near infrared for the design of telescopes, spectrographs, and coronagraph planet finders. This presentation particularly emphasizes the development of active optics methods. Highly accurate and remarkably smooth surfaces from active optics methods allow new optical systems that use highly aspheric and non-axisymmetric - freeform - surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance required for a deformable optical surface, elasticity theory analysis is carried out either with small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, or the weakly conical shell theory. A mirror thickness distribution is then determined as a function of associated bending actuators and boundary conditions. For a given optical shape to generate, one searches for optical solutions with a minimum number of actuators.

  5. Optical laboratory solution and error model simulation of a linear time-varying finite element equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B. K.; Casasent, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The use of simplified error models to accurately simulate and evaluate the performance of an optical linear-algebra processor is described. The optical architecture used to perform banded matrix-vector products is reviewed, along with a linear dynamic finite-element case study. The laboratory hardware and ac-modulation technique used are presented. The individual processor error-source models and their simulator implementation are detailed. Several significant simplifications are introduced to ease the computational requirements and complexity of the simulations. The error models are verified with a laboratory implementation of the processor, and are used to evaluate its potential performance.

  6. Extended algorithm for the design of diffractive optical elements around the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yong-Ping

    2007-08-01

    We present a multiplane algorithm for three-dimensional uniform illumination. The large-diameter diffractive optical element simulated by this algorithm homogeneously concentrates more than 86.5% of the incident energy into a 200 μm length of columnar space around the focal plane. The intensity profile in the whole space is nearly flattop, and the beam's quality measured by the root mean square is less than 20.6%. The algorithm is very useful if a great deal of tolerance is required for the installation error of the optical system or if it is used for some particular application, such as uniform illumination on an incline plane.

  7. Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, W. P.

    2011-10-15

    A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.

  8. Vibrational Raman optical activity of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L. D.; Hecht, Lutz; Wen, Z. Q.; Ford, Steven J.; Bell, A. F.

    1993-06-01

    Advances in Raman optical activity (ROA) instrumentation based on the employment of a backscattering geometry together with a cooled backthinned CCD detector, a holographic notch filter, and a high-efficiency single-grating spectrograph have now enhanced the sensitivity to the level necessary to provide vibrational ROA spectra of most biological molecules in aqueous solution. Results on peptides and proteins show features originating in coupled C(alpha )-H and N-H deformations of the peptide backbone which appear to be sensitive to the secondary conformation including loop and turn structures. Also carbohydrates show many features characteristic of the central aspects of carbohydrate architecture, with effects from the glycosidic link in oligosaccharides particularly prominent. Preliminary ROA spectra of pyrimidine nucleosides appear to reflect the mutual orientation of the sugar and base rings and the dominant furanose conformations.

  9. Vibrational Raman optical activity of ketose monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alasdair F.; Hecht, Lutz; Barron, Laurence D.

    1995-07-01

    The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of the four ketose sugars D-fructose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose and D-psicose in aqueous solution, which have been measured in backscattering in the range ≈250-1500 cm -1, are reported. These results are combined with those from a previous ROA study of aldose and pentose sugars in an attempt to establish new vibrational assignments and to verify old ones. The high information content of these spectra provides a new perspective on all the central features of monosaccharide stereochemistry including dominant anomeric configuration, ring conformation, exocyclic CH 2OH group conformation and relative disposition of the hydroxyl groups around the ring.

  10. Disulfide chromophore and its optical activity.

    PubMed

    Maloň, Petr; Bednárová, Lucie; Straka, Michal; Krejčí, Lucie; Kumprecht, Lukáš; Kraus, Tomáš; Kubáňová, Markéta; Baumruk, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    The compounds I-IV derived from α-D-cyclodextrin moiety by bridging and/or interconnecting with various patterns of disulfide bonds were chosen as models for the spectroscopic study of conformation of the disulfide bridge. The energy gap between the disulfide and cyclodextrin's electronic transitions allows us to investigate absorption and electronic circular dichroism spectra without disturbing spectral overlaps with amides or aromatic amino acids in peptides or proteins. Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra were measured and the bands due to S-S and C-S stretching motion identified. Comparison with the quantum mechanical calculations of simple models indicates that sense of disulfide twist follows sign of the measured S-S ROA band.

  11. Integrated Modeling Activities for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): Structural-Thermal-Optical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, John D.; Parrish, Keith; Howard, Joseph M.; Mosier, Gary E.; McGinnis, Mark; Bluth, Marcel; Kim, Kevin; Ha, Hong Q.

    2004-01-01

    This is a continuation of a series of papers on modeling activities for JWST. The structural-thermal- optical, often referred to as "STOP", analysis process is used to predict the effect of thermal distortion on optical performance. The benchmark STOP analysis for JWST assesses the effect of an observatory slew on wavefront error. The paper begins an overview of multi-disciplinary engineering analysis, or integrated modeling, which is a critical element of the JWST mission. The STOP analysis process is then described. This process consists of the following steps: thermal analysis, structural analysis, and optical analysis. Temperatures predicted using geometric and thermal math models are mapped to the structural finite element model in order to predict thermally-induced deformations. Motions and deformations at optical surfaces are input to optical models and optical performance is predicted using either an optical ray trace or WFE estimation techniques based on prior ray traces or first order optics. Following the discussion of the analysis process, results based on models representing the design at the time of the System Requirements Review. In addition to baseline performance predictions, sensitivity studies are performed to assess modeling uncertainties. Of particular interest is the sensitivity of optical performance to uncertainties in temperature predictions and variations in metal properties. The paper concludes with a discussion of modeling uncertainty as it pertains to STOP analysis.

  12. Approach to improve beam quality of inter-satellite optical communication system based on diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liying; Yu, Jianjie; Ma, Jing; Yang, Yuqiang; Li, Mi; Jiang, Yijun; Liu, Jianfeng; Han, Qiqi

    2009-04-13

    For inter-satellite optical communication transmitter with reflective telescope of two-mirrors on axis, a large mount of the transmitted energy will be blocked by central obscuration of the secondary mirror. In this paper, a novel scheme based on diffractive optical element (DOE) is introduced to avoid it. This scheme includes one diffractive beam shaper and another diffractive phase corrector, which can diffract the obscured part of transmitted beam into the domain unobscured by the secondary mirror. The proposed approach is firstly researched with a fixed obscuration ratio of 1/4. Numerical simulation shows that the emission efficiency of new figuration is 99.99%; the beam divergence from the novel inter-satellite optical communication transmitter is unchanged; and the peak intensity of receiver plane is increased about 31% compared with the typical configuration. Then the intensy patterns of receiver plane are analyzed with various obscuration ratio, the corresponding numerical modelling reveals that the intensity patterns with various obscuration ratio are nearly identical, but the amplify of relative peak intensity is getting down with the growth of obscuration ratio. This work can improve the beam quality of inter-satellite optical communication system without affecting any other functionality.

  13. Progress on the development of active micro-structured optical arrays for x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Zhang, Dou; Button, Tim; Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Wang, Hongchang; Brooks, David; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Michette, Alan; Pfauntsch, Slawka; Sahraei, Shahin; Shand, Matthew; James, Ady; Dunare, Camelia; Stevenson, Tom; Parkes, William; Smith, Andy

    2009-08-01

    The Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) project comprises a U.K.-based consortium developing active/adaptive micro-structured optical arrays (MOAs). These devices are designed to focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels etched in silicon. The silicon channels have been produced both by dry and wet etching, the latter providing smoother channel walls. Adaptability is achieved using piezoelectric actuators, which bend the device and therefore change its focal distance. We aim to achieve a 5 cm radius of curvature which can provide a suitable focal length using a tandem pair MOA configuration. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling has been carried out for the optimization of the MOA device design, consider different types of actuators (unimorph, bimorph and active fibre composites), and different Si/piezoelectric absolute and relative thicknesses. Prototype devices have been manufactured using a Viscous Plastic Processing Process for the piezoelectric actuators and dry etched silicon channels, bonded together using a low shrinkage adhesive. Characterisation techniques have been developed in order to evaluate the device performance in terms of the bending of the MOA channels produced by the actuators. This paper evaluates the progress to date on the actuation of the MOAs, comparing FEA modelling with the results obtained for different prototype structures.

  14. Design and fabrication for the diffractive optical element of an infrared system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changcheng; Li, Shenghui; Li, Yong; Wang, Bin

    2009-05-01

    A diffractive/refractive system with a relative aperture of f/4.0, the EFL of 150mm at 3.7-4.8μm is designed. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is fabricated by means of diamond turning on a conic substrate of the Germanium lens in this system. The characteristics of the diffractive optical element are analyzed in the software of Diffsys. And the zone radius of DOE and step height are detected by profilometry and result is produced. Test results of DOE are coincided with the design figures and the DOE has tiny surface error and high diffractive efficiency. Result of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for the system is tested by Ealing and the tested value is closely approximate to diffractive limit. The DOE has better behaviour of chromatic aberration and athermalization.

  15. Generalized ray-transfer matrix for an optical element having an arbitrary wavefront aberration.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Moon; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin

    2005-11-15

    A generalized ray-transfer matrix for describing the action of an optical element having an arbitrary wavefront aberration is obtained. In this generalized ray-transfer matrix, the action of the aberrated optical element is represented by the product of radial ray-transfer matrices and tangential ray-transfer matrices. The refraction angle of an incident ray is calculated from the gradient of the wavefront aberration at the point of incidence, and the radial and tangential ray-transfer matrices directly use the gradient as a matrix component. To show the validity of the generalized ray-transfer matrix, intercept heights from a spot diagram are calculated with the generalized ray-transfer matrix and compared with those calculated with commercial ray-tracing software.

  16. Extrinsic chirality: Tunable optically active reflectors and perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plum, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) chiral media can exhibit optical activity for transmitted waves, but optical activity for reflected waves is negligible. This work shows that mirror asymmetry of the experimental arrangement—extrinsic 3D chirality—leads to giant optical activity for reflected waves with fundamentally different characteristics. It is demonstrated experimentally that extrinsically 3D-chiral illumination of a lossy metasurface backed by a mirror enables tunable circular dichroism and circular birefringence as well as perfect absorption of circularly polarized waves. In contrast, such polarization phenomena vanish for conventional optically active media backed by a mirror.

  17. Optical Testing and Verification Methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Gracey, Renee; Hartig, George F.; Howard, Joseph M.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kirk, Jeffrey R.; Kubalak, David A.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Lindler, Don J.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Sabatke, Derek S.; Smith, Corbett T.; Smith, J. Scott; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Telfer, Randal C.; Plate, Maurice Te; Vila, M. Begona; Warner, Gerry D.; Wright, Raymond H.; Wright, David; Zhou, Julia; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  18. Annular force based variable curvature mirror aiming to realize non-moving element optical zooming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Xie, Xiaopeng; Wei, Jingxuan; Ren, Guorui; Pang, Zhihai; Xu, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a new kind of optical zooming technique in which no moving elements are involved has been paid much attention. The elimination of moving elements makes optical zooming suitable for applications which has exacting requirements in space, power cost and system stability. The mobile phone and the space-borne camera are two typical examples. The key to realize non-moving elements optical zooming lies in the introduction of variable curvature mirror (VCM) whose radius of curvature could be changed dynamically. When VCM is about to be used to implement optical zoom imaging, two characteristics should be ensured. First, VCM has to provide large enough saggitus variation in order to obtain a big magnification ratio. Second, after the radius of curvature has been changed, the corresponding surface figure accuracy should still be maintained superior to a threshold level to make the high quality imaging possible. In this manuscript, based on the elasticity theory, the physical model of the annular force based variable curvature mirror is established and numerically analyzed. The results demonstrate that when the annular force is applied at the half-the-aperture position, the actuation force is reduced and a smaller actuation force is required to generate the saggitus variation and thus the maintenance of surface figure accuracy becomes easier during the variation of radius of curvature. Besides that, a prototype VCM, whose diameter and thickness are 100mm and 3mm respectively, have been fabricated and the maximum saggitus variation that could be obtained approaches more than 30 wavelengths. At the same time, the degradation of surface figure accuracy is weakly correlated to the curvature radius variation. Keywords: optical zooming; variable curvature mirror; surface figure accuracy; saggitus;

  19. Optical detection enhancement in porous volumetric microfluidic capture elements using refractive index matching fluids

    PubMed Central

    Wiederoder, M. S.; Peterken, L.; Lu, A. X.; Rahmanian, O. D.; Raghavan, S. R.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Porous volumetric capture elements in microfluidic sensors are advantageous compared to planar capture surfaces due to higher reaction site density and decreased diffusion lengths that can reduce detection limits and total assay time. However a mismatch in refractive indices between the capture matrix and fluid within the porous interstices results in scattering of incident, reflected, or emitted light, significantly reducing the signal for optical detection. Here we demonstrate that perfusion of an index-matching fluid within a porous matrix minimizes scattering, thus enhancing optical signal by enabling the entire capture element volume to be probed. Signal enhancement is demonstrated for both fluorescence and absorbance detection, using porous polymer monoliths in a silica capillary and packed beds of glass beads within thermoplastic microchannels, respectively. Fluorescence signal was improved by a factor of 3.5× when measuring emission from a fluorescent compound attached directly to the polymer monolith, and up to 2.6× for a rapid 10 min direct immunoassay. When combining index matching with a silver enhancement step, a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL human IgG and a 5 log dynamic range was achieved. The demonstrated technique provides a simple method for enhancing optical sensitivity for a wide range of assays, enabling the full benefits of porous detection elements in miniaturized analytical systems to be realized. PMID:26160546

  20. Optical detection enhancement in porous volumetric microfluidic capture elements using refractive index matching fluids.

    PubMed

    Wiederoder, M S; Peterken, L; Lu, A X; Rahmanian, O D; Raghavan, S R; DeVoe, D L

    2015-08-21

    Porous volumetric capture elements in microfluidic sensors are advantageous compared to planar capture surfaces due to higher reaction site density and decreased diffusion lengths that can reduce detection limits and total assay time. However a mismatch in refractive indices between the capture matrix and fluid within the porous interstices results in scattering of incident, reflected, or emitted light, significantly reducing the signal for optical detection. Here we demonstrate that perfusion of an index-matching fluid within a porous matrix minimizes scattering, thus enhancing optical signal by enabling the entire capture element volume to be probed. Signal enhancement is demonstrated for both fluorescence and absorbance detection, using porous polymer monoliths in a silica capillary and packed beds of glass beads within thermoplastic microchannels, respectively. Fluorescence signal was improved by a factor of 3.5× when measuring emission from a fluorescent compound attached directly to the polymer monolith, and up to 2.6× for a rapid 10 min direct immunoassay. When combining index matching with a silver enhancement step, a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1) human IgG and a 5 log dynamic range was achieved. The demonstrated technique provides a simple method for enhancing optical sensitivity for a wide range of assays, enabling the full benefits of porous detection elements in miniaturized analytical systems to be realized. PMID:26160546

  1. Two-dimensionally-periodic diffractive optical elements: limitations of scalar analysis.

    PubMed

    Glytsis, Elias N

    2002-04-01

    The range of validity of the scalar diffraction analysis is quantified for the case of two-dimensionally-periodic diffractive optical elements (crossed gratings). Three canonical classes of two-dimensionally-periodic grating structures are analyzed by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis as well as the scalar diffraction analysis. In all cases the scalar-analysis diffraction efficiencies are compared with the exact diffraction efficiencies. The error in using the scalar analysis is then determined as a function of the grating-period(s)-to-wavelength ratio(s), the minimum feature size, the grating depth, the refractive index of the grating, the incident polarization, and the number of phase levels. The three classes of two-dimensional (2-D) unit cells are as follows: (1) a rectangular pillar, (2) an elliptical pillar, and (3) an arbitrarily pixellated multilevel 2-D unit cell that is representative of more complicated diffractive optical elements such as computer-generated holograms. In all cases a normally incident electromagnetic plane wave is considered. It is shown that the error of the scalar diffraction analysis in the case of two-dimensionally-periodic diffractive optical elements is greater than that for the corresponding one-dimensionally-periodic counterparts. In addition, the accuracy of the scalar diffraction analysis degrades with increasing refractive index, grating thickness, and asymmetry of the 2-D unit cell and with decreasing grating-period-to-wavelength ratio and feature size.

  2. Fabrication of gray-scale masks and diffractive optical elements with LDW glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Victor P.; Malyshev, Anatoly I.; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Cherkashin, Vadim V.; Tiziani, Hans J.; Pruss, Christof; Schoder, Thomas; Westhauser, Johann; Wu, Chuck

    2001-11-01

    In the last years the application of gray-scale masks (GSM) for diffractive optics manufacturing attracts attention because of cost-effective possibility to produce a lot of diffractive elements on hard and heat-resistant thermally stable substrates. Direct laser writing of GSMs and fabrication of diffractive optical elements are effectively realized with application of LDW-glass (material for Laser Direct Write from CANYON MATERIALS, Inc). An important advantage of this material is the real-time change of transmittance in a single-step process without liquid development. It is shown that optimal transmittance range in which track width is not more than 1 micrometers is from 5-10% (transmittance of unexposed area) to 60-65% for LDW-glass type I having thinner colored layer. Power modulation and surroundings dependent peculiarities of direct laser writing on LDW-glass are discussed. Results of fabrication of diffractive optical elements using LDW-glass masks are presented. Among several types of LDW glasses studied the advantages of new GS-11 glass are elaborated. Application of GS-11 glass for GSMs allowed to fabricate blazed diffractive structures with backward slope width of 0.8 micrometers .

  3. Concentrating partially entangled W-class states on nonlocal atoms using low- Q optical cavity and linear optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cong; Chen, Xi; Duan, YuWen; Fan, Ling; Zhang, Ru; Wang, TieJun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Entanglement plays an important role in quantum information science, especially in quantum communications. Here we present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for nonlocal atom systems in the partially entangled W-class states, using the single-photon input-output process regarding low- Q cavity and linear optical elements. Compared with previously published ECPs for the concentration of non-maximally entangled atomic states, our protocol is much simpler and more efficient as it employs the Faraday rotation in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and the parameter-splitting method. The Faraday rotation requires the cavity with low- Q factor and weak coupling to the atom, which makes the requirement for entanglement concentration much less stringent than the previous methods, and achievable with current cavity QED techniques. The parameter-splitting method resorts to linear-optical elements only. This ECP has high efficiency and fidelity in realistic experiments, and some imperfections during the experiment can be avoided efficiently with currently available techniques.

  4. Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

    1996-03-01

    Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation has been measured using a continuously tunable multilayer linear polarizer in the beam reflected form samples in applied magnetic fields. Like magnetic circular dichroism, Kerr rotation in the soft x-ray can be element - specific and much larger than in the visible spectral range when the photon energy is tuned near atomic core resonances. Thus sensitive element-specific hysteresis measurements are possible with this technique. Examples showing large Kerr rotation from an Fe film and element-specific hysteresis loops of the Fe and Cr in an Fe/Cr multilayer demonstrate these new capabilities. Some consequences of the strong anomalous dispersion near the FeL{sub 2,3} edges to the Kerr rotation are discussed.

  5. Polarization ray tracing in anisotropic optically active media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for performing polarization ray tracing through birefringent media are presented in a form compatible with the standard methods of geometric ray tracing. The birefringent materials treated include the following: anisotropic optically active materials such as quartz, non-optically active uniaxial materials such as calcite, and isotropic optically active materials such as mercury sulfide or organic liquids. Refraction and reflection algorithms are presented which compute both ray directions and wave directions. Methods for computing polarization modes, refractive indices, optical path lengths, and Fresnel transmission and reflection coefficients are also specified.

  6. Quantification of morphology of bacterial colonies using laser scatter measurements and solid element optical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, Silas; Bayraktar, Bülent; Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Hirleman, E. Dan; Bhunia, Arun K.; Robinson, J. Paul; Hassler, Richard; Smith, Linda; Rajwa, Bartek

    2007-02-01

    Traditional biological and chemical methods for pathogen identification require complicated sample preparation for reliable results. Optical scattering technology has been used for identification of bacterial cells in suspension, but with only limited success. Our published reports have demonstrated that scattered light based identification of Listeria colonies growing on solid surfaces is feasible with proper pattern recognition tools. Recently we have extended this technique to classification of other bacterial genera including, Salmonella, Bacillus, and Vibrio. Our approach may be highly applicable to early detection and classification of pathogens in food-processing industry and in healthcare. The unique scattering patterns formed by colonies of different species are created through differences in colony microstructure (on the order of wavelength used), bulk optical properties, and the macroscopic morphology. While it is difficult to model the effect on scatter-signal patterns owing to the microstructural changes, the influence of bulk optical properties and overall shape of colonies can be modeled using geometrical optics. Our latest research shows that it is possible to model the scatter pattern of bacterial colonies using solid-element optical modeling software (TracePro), and theoretically assess changes in macro structure and bulk refractive indices. This study allows predicting the theoretical limits of resolution and sensitivity of our detection and classification methods. Moreover, quantification of changes in macro morphology and bulk refractive index provides an opportunity to study the response of colonies to various reagents and antibiotics.

  7. Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Zhao, Rongkuo; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; O'Hara, John F.

    2012-07-27

    We demonstrated giant optical activity using a chiral metamaterial composed of an array of conjugated bilayer metal structures. The chiral metamaterials were further integrated with photoactive inclusions to accomplish a wide tuning range of the optical activity through illumination with near-infrared light. The strong chirality observed in our metamaterials results in a negative refractive index, which can also be well controlled by the near-infrared optical excitation.

  8. Sensitive element and quasi-distributed fiber optic sensor for bending deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchin, Yuri N.; Vitrik, Oleg B.; Perfilyev, V. G.

    1999-12-01

    Systems of multiplexed Bragg grating fiber-optic sensors are currently used for the mechanical strain measurements in abutments and bays of bridges, in hulls of buildings, vessels and aircraft. In many cases, however, the control of constructions elements elongation is inadequate for prevention of their mechanical damages, as far as other sorts of deformations (a bending, for example) can be important breaking factor. Hence special fibers sensitive element owning advantages of easy fabrication, absence of moved details, high sensitivity and ability to be combined in one quasi distributed sensor is developed in present work. The suggested sensitive element (SA) presents a place of optical fiber diameter local decreasing which is fabricated by elongation of heated section of fiber. When guided light propagates through this drag mark zone both insitivity of transmitted and backward Rayleigh scattered beams are strongly depends on the fiber curvature in zone of drag mark's neck. The drag mark optimal size and shape providing maximal efficiency and linearity of transformation of bending into intensity of optical signals modulation are defined. In mentioned optimum condition the bending angle sensitivity of SA reaches 2 dB/degree, which exceeds the bending sensitivity of original fiber having no irregularities onto 60 dB. It is demonstrated that by sequential arrangement of drag marks along fiber one can fabricate quasi distributed sensor. Hereby one can use the time domain reflectometry for dividing of signals of seven sensitive elements. Extreme simplicity and high sensitivity of suggested quasi-distributed sensor opens a perspective of its application in systems of monitoring of deformational processes in various objects.

  9. Deep Optical Spectroscopy of Planetary Nebulae: The Search for Neutron-Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Nicholas C.; Garofali, K.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Hwang, S.; Redfield, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present deep, high-resolution (R=36,700) optical spectra of five planetary nebulae (PNe), taken with the 2D-coude echelle spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. These observations are part of a larger optical survey of PNe, designed to unambiguously detect emission lines from neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z>30). The abundances of these elements are of particular interest in PNe, since they can be produced by slow n-capture nucleosynthesis (the ``s-process'') during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage of evolution of PN progenitor stars. The first large-scale investigation of n-capture element abundances in PNe (Sterling & Dinerstein 2008, ApJS, 174, 157) surveyed [Kr III] and [Se IV] transitions in the K band spectra of more than 80 PNe. However, the abundances derived from these data relied on ionization corrections that were often large and uncertain due to the detection of only one ion per element. Transitions of other Se and Kr ions, as well as many other trans-iron species, reside at optical wavelengths. High-resolution spectra are essential to unequivocally identify these lines and resolve potential blends with other species. The spectra we present are rich in emission features, with between 125 and 600 distinct lines detected in each PN. Emission from at least one Kr ion is detected in all five objects, and two (Hb 12 and J 900) exhibit emission from multiple Kr ions. We detected multiple Xe ions in J 900, as well as Se, Br, and Rb lines. Hb 12 also exhibits Xe emission, and the first detection of [Se II] in a PN to our knowledge. The spectra display a wealth of other emission lines, including permitted features of second-row elements and forbidden transitions of several iron-peak elements (e.g., Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu). Our survey makes it possible to derive more accurate Se and Kr abundances in PNe, and reveals the enrichment of other trans-iron elements. This enables more accurate s

  10. Towards Depth-Resolved Optical Imaging of Cardiac Electrical Activity.

    PubMed

    Walton, Richard D; Bernus, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of arrhythmias are likely to be complex three-dimensional phenomena. Yet, the lack of high-resolution three-dimensional imaging techniques, both in the clinic and the experimental lab, limits our ability to better understand the mechanisms of such arrhythmias. Optical mapping using voltage-sensitive dyes is a widely used tool in experimental electrophysiology. It has been known for decades that even in its most basic application, epi-fluorescence, the optical signal contains information from within a certain intramural volume. Understanding of this fundamental property of optical signals has paved the way towards novel three-dimensional optical imaging techniques. Here, we review our current understanding of the three-dimensional nature of optical signals; how penetration depths of cardiac optical imaging can be improved by using novel imaging modalities and finally, we highlight new techniques inspired from optical tomography and aiming at full depth-resolved optical mapping of cardiac electrical activity. PMID:26238062

  11. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  12. Fiber optic chemical microsensors employing optically active silica microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Edward J. A.

    1995-05-01

    Dye-doped porous silica microspheres can be prepared from liquid solution at temperatures near ambient. Microsphere diameter can be controlled between approximately 5.0 microns to in excess of a millimeter. The resulting microspheres can be attached to the distal end of an optical fiber in which the proximal end is attached to a spectrophotometer. Depending upon the organic species doped into the microsphere, a wide variety of sensing functions are possible. In this paper, the use of microsensors for measuring pH, temperature, and solvent content of aqueous solutions is demonstrated. Potential utility of this type of sensor to heavy metals detection and biomedical diagnostics is also discussed.

  13. Influence of the set-up on the recording of diffractive optical elements into photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, S.; Fernández, R.; Márquez, A.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2014-05-01

    Photopolymers are often used as a base of holographic memories displays. Recently the capacity of photopolymers to record diffractive optical elements (DOE's) has been demonstrated. To fabricate diffractive optical elements we use a hybrid setup that is composed by three different parts: LCD, optical system and the recording material. The DOE pattern is introduced by a liquid crystal display (LCD) working in the amplitude only mode to work as a master to project optically the DOE onto the recording material. The main advantage of this display is that permit us modify the DOE automatically, we use the electronics of the video projector to send the voltage to the pixels of the LCD. The LCD is used in the amplitude-mostly modulation regime by proper orientation of the external polarizers (P); then the pattern is imaged onto the material with an increased spatial frequency (a demagnifying factor of 2) by the optical system. The use of the LCD allows us to change DOE recorded in the photopolymer without moving any mechanical part of the set-up. A diaphragm is placed in the focal plane of the relay lens so as to eliminate the diffraction orders produced by the pixelation of the LCD. It can be expected that the final pattern imaged onto the recording material will be low filtered due to the finite aperture of the imaging system and especially due to the filtering process produced by the diaphragm. In this work we analyze the effect of the visibility achieved with the LCD and the high frequency cut-off due to the diaphragm in the final DOE recorded into the photopolymer. To simulate the recording we have used the fitted values parameters obtained for PVA/AA based photopolymers and the 3 dimensional models presented in previous works.

  14. Giant nonlinear optical activity in a plasmonic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Mengxin; Plum, Eric; Xu, Jingjun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2012-05-01

    In 1950, a quarter of a century after his first-ever nonlinear optical experiment when intensity-dependent absorption was observed in uranium-doped glass, Sergey Vavilov predicted that birefringence, dichroism and polarization rotatory power should be dependent on light intensity. It required the invention of the laser to observe the barely detectable effect of light intensity on the polarization rotatory power of the optically active lithium iodate crystal, the phenomenon now known as the nonlinear optical activity, a high-intensity counterpart of the fundamental optical effect of polarization rotation in chiral media. Here we report that a plasmonic metamaterial exhibits nonlinear optical activity 30 million times stronger than lithium iodate crystals, thus transforming this fundamental phenomenon of polarization nonlinear optics from an esoteric phenomenon into a major effect of nonlinear plasmonics with potential for practical applications.

  15. Laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties of large aperture elements of YCOB crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanqing; Wu, Anhua; Gao, Pan; Tu, Xiaoniu; Liang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jing; Yang, Liming; Wang, Tao; Qian, Liejia; Shi, Erwei

    2012-01-01

    Large size of YCa4O(BO3)3(YCOB) crystals were grown both by Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Large size elements as large as 60 mm clear aperture were cut and polished with surface flatness of 1/5 wavelength. Optical homogeneity of YCOB crystal was found in the order of 10-6. Laser damage thresholds of several YCOB crystal elements were tested using different laser facilities with different pulse widths or wavelengths, with thresholds varied from 0.8 GW/cm2 to more than 1 TW/cm2. One SHG and two optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) experiments were executed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of YCOB crystals and the quality of the crystals. The results shown that YCOB had good performance in OPCPA application, especially with low content of parameter florescence. Combined with good NLO performance and possibility to grow large size crystals, YCOB crystal was a good choice for high power OPCPA applications.

  16. Laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties of large aperture elements of YCOB crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanqing; Wu, Anhua; Gao, Pan; Tu, Xiaoniu; Liang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jing; Yang, Liming; Wang, Tao; Qian, Liejia; Shi, Erwei

    2011-11-01

    Large size of YCa4O(BO3)3(YCOB) crystals were grown both by Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Large size elements as large as 60 mm clear aperture were cut and polished with surface flatness of 1/5 wavelength. Optical homogeneity of YCOB crystal was found in the order of 10-6. Laser damage thresholds of several YCOB crystal elements were tested using different laser facilities with different pulse widths or wavelengths, with thresholds varied from 0.8 GW/cm2 to more than 1 TW/cm2. One SHG and two optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) experiments were executed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of YCOB crystals and the quality of the crystals. The results shown that YCOB had good performance in OPCPA application, especially with low content of parameter florescence. Combined with good NLO performance and possibility to grow large size crystals, YCOB crystal was a good choice for high power OPCPA applications.

  17. Parametric studies of magnetic-optic imaging using finite-element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, C.; Udpa, L.; Xuan, L.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Thorne, D.; Shih, W.

    2000-05-01

    Magneto-optic imaging is a relatively new sensor application of bubble memory technology to NDI. The Magneto-Optic Imager (MOI) uses a magneto-optic (MO) sensor to produce analog images of magnetic flux leakage from surface and subsurface defects. The flux leakage is produced by eddy current induction techniques in nonferrous metals and magnetic yokes are used in ferromagnetic materials. The technique has gained acceptance in the aircraft maintenance industry for use to detect surface-breaking cracks and corrosion. Until recently, much of the MOI development has been empirical in nature since the electromagnetic processes that produce images are rather complex. The availability of finite element techniques to numerically solve Maxwell's equations, in conjunction with MOI observations, allows greater understanding of the capabilities of the instrument. In this paper, we present a systematic set of finite element calculations along with MOI measurements on specific defects to quantify the current capability of the MOI as well as its desired performance. Parametric studies including effects of liftoff and proximity of edges are also studied.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order #IA013 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  18. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  19. Transition Metals Catalyzed Element-Cyano Bonds Activations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Falck, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyano group as a versatile functionalized intermediate has been explored for several decades, as it readily transfers to many useful functionalization groups such as amine, amide, acid, etc., which make it possess high popularization and use value in organic synthesis. Reactions involved with element-cyano bond cleavage can provide not only a new cyano group but also a freshly functionalized skeleton in one-pot, consequently making it of high importance. The highlights reviewed herein include H-CN, Si-CN, C-CN, B-CN, Sn-CN, Ge-CN, S-CN, Halo-CN, N-CN, and O-CN bonds cleavages and will summarize progress in such an important research area. This review article will focus on transition metal catalyzed reactions involving element-cyano bond activation. PMID:25558119

  20. A genomic screen for activators of the antioxidant response element

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanxia; Kern, Jonathan T.; Walker, John R.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a cis-acting regulatory enhancer element found in the 5′ flanking region of many phase II detoxification enzymes. Up-regulation of ARE-dependent target genes is known to have neuroprotective effects; yet, the mechanism of activation is largely unknown. By screening an arrayed collection of ≈15,000 full-length expression cDNAs in the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 with an ARE-luciferase reporter, we have identified several cDNAs not previously associated with ARE activation. A subset of cDNAs, encoding sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) and dipeptidylpeptidase 3 (DPP3), activated the ARE in primary mouse-derived cortical neurons. Overexpression of SQSTM1 and DPP3 in IMR-32 cells stimulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) nuclear translocation and led to increased levels of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, a protein which is transcriptionally regulated by the ARE. When transfected into IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells that were depleted of transcription factor NRF2 by RNA interference, SQSTM1 and DPP3 were unable to activate the ARE or induce NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression, indicating that the ARE activation upon ectopic expression of these cDNAs is mediated by NRF2. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C signaling are essential for activity. Overexpression of these cDNAs conferred partial resistance to hydrogen peroxide or rotenone-induced toxicity, consistent with the induction of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes, which can protect from oxidative stress. This work and other such studies may provide mechanisms for activating the ARE in the absence of general oxidative stress and a yet-unexploited therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases and aging. PMID:17360324

  1. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  2. Optical Characteristic Research on Fiber Bragg Gratings Utilizing Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuejing; Chen, Xuanyang

    2014-01-01

    Compared with coupled-mode theory (CMT), which is widely used for studies involving optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), the proposed investigation scheme is visualized, diagrammatic, and simple. This method combines the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The function of the FEM is to calculate all guided modes that match the boundary conditions of optical fiber waveguides. Moreover, the FEM is used for implementing power propagation for HE11 in optical fiber devices. How the periodic characteristic of FBG causes this novel scheme to be substantially superior to CMT is explained in detail. Regarding current numerical calculation techniques, the scheme proposed in this paper is the only method capable of the 3D design and analysis of large periodic components. Additionally, unlike CMT, in which deviations exist between the designed wavelength λD and the maximal reflection wavelength λmax, the proposed method performs rapid scans of the periods of optical FBG. Therefore, once the operating wavelength is set for the component design, the maximal reflection wavelength of the final products can be accurately limited to that of the original design, such as λ = 1550 nm. Furthermore, a comparison between the period scan plot and the optical spectra plot for FBG indicated an inverse relationship between the periods and wavelengths. Consequently, this property can be used to predict the final FBG spectra before implementing time-consuming calculations. By employing this novel investigation scheme involving a rigorous design procedure, the graphical and simple calculation method reduces the studying time and professional expertise required for researching and applying optical FBG. PMID:24949643

  3. Development in the ISSP of Integrated-Optical Elements and Devices in LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneva, Mariana; Tonchev, Svetlen

    2010-01-01

    The article presented is a review of the main results on integrated-optical elements and devices developed in the Institute of Solid State Physics. Optical waveguiding structures were obtained by titanium in-diffusion and proton exchange using standard photolithography methods for device patterning. Electro-optical prism, electro-optical Bragg-modulator, electrically induced strip waveguides, integrated-optical Y-switches, total-internal-reflection modulator, Mach-Zehnder modulators of classic and new constructions etc. are discussed concerning their parameters and describing their fabrication as well. The emphasis is put on the novelties, advantages and disadvantages of each of them and on the specific problems of their fabrication.

  4. Pancharatnam-Berry optical element sorter of full angular momentum eigenstate.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gary F

    2016-03-21

    We propose and numerically demonstrate a Pancharatnam-Berry optical element (PBOE) device that simultaneously sorts spin (SAM) and orbital (OAM) angular momentum. This device exploits the circular polarization selective properties of PBOEs to modulate independently the orthogonal SAM eigenstates within a geometric optical transformation that sorts OAM, enabling single measurement characterization of the full angular momentum eigenstate. This expands the available state space for OAM communication and enables characterization of the eigenmode composition of structured polarization beams. We define the two-dimensional orientation patterns of the transversely varying half-waveplate PBOEs that implement the angular momentum sorter. We show that the device discriminates the OAM and SAM eigenstates of optical beams including laser cavity modes such as Laguerre-Gaussian OAM eigenmodes, Hermite-Gaussian modes, and hybrid modes with complex structured polarization. We also demonstrate that it can determine the m parameter of higher order LGml Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The ability of this device to decode information from spatially structured optical phase has potential for applications in communication, encryption, modal characterization, and scientific measurements.

  5. Demodulation technique based on diffraction optical elements for fiber Bragg grating sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhongwei; Zhang, Li

    2010-11-01

    A new demodulation technique based on diffraction grating is proposed for high speed application. Compared with tunable filter method, the diffraction grating method has the advantages of potential high interrogation speed, high energy efficiency, no sweeping movements, which makes it a competitive interrogation method in certain field such as dynamic strain monitoring. The optical layout is crucial to guarantee the required performance of the interrogator. A structure which consists of two diffraction gratings, a fiber collimator, a reflection mirror, and a detector is adopted in the consideration of spectrum resolution, optical aberration, and geometrical size. The initial parameters for the structure are figured out by the optical path calculation involving the coefficient of the employed optical elements. The optimized procedure is following sequentially in order to minimize the aberration and obtain the pre-defined specifications theoretically. As the central wavelength for the interrogator is 1550nm, the InGaAs linear array sensor is introduced as the photoelectrical detector. Experiment of demodulation for FBG sensing system is carried out to verify the feasibility of this technique. The wavelength resolution for the interrogator is 1pm, and the demodulation speed is about 2kHz.

  6. Geometric Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Active Fibre Composite Bimorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernaghan, Robert

    Active fibre composite-actuated bimorphic actuators were studied in order to measure deflection performance. The deflection of the actuators was a function of the actuating electric potential applied to the active material as well as the magnitude of the axial preload applied to the bimorphic structure. This problem required the use of geometric nonlinear modeling techniques. Geometric nonlinear finite element analysis was undertaken to determine the deflection performance of Macro Fibre Composite (MFC)- and Hollow Active Fibre (HAFC)-actuated bimorphic structures. A physical prototype MFC-actuated bimorphic structure was manufactured in order to verify the results obtained by the finite element analysis. Theses analyses determined that the bimorphic actuators were capable of significant deflection. The analyses determined that the axial preload of the bimorphic actuators significantly amplified the deflection performance of the bimorphic actuators. The deflection performance of the bimorphic actuators suggest that they could be candidates to act as actuators for the morphing wing of a micro unmanned air vehicle.

  7. Effectiveness of holographic optical element module sensor in measuring blood prothrombin time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Yen, Shih-Chieh; Cheng, Stone; Huang, Tony

    2014-07-01

    A small-form-factor holographic optical element (HOE) module, which was mounted on a dual-stage seesaw actuator, was utilized to evaluate blood coagulation in real time. The method involved assessing the decrease in transmitted light of the blood sample surface when the clotting is formed. The prothrombin time (PT) was measured by illumining and focusing a 635 nm laser beam onto the sample. As the fibrinogen turned into non-solute fibrin, the transmitted efficiency and total intensity of the reflected light from the reflector changed. A low-pass filter suppressed the noise in the coagulation-related transient response to yield accurate signals. Finally, the PT measurements were compared to those made classically using other optical sensors.

  8. Study of optical materials to be used on Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardello, Marco; Zuccon, Sara; Corso, Alain Jodi; Zuppella, Paola; Gerlin, Francesca; Tessarolo, Enrico; Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency mission Solar Orbiter (SOLO) is dedicated to the study of the solar atmosphere and heliosphere. As a part of the payload, the instrument METIS (Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy) will provide images of the corona, both in the visible range and at the hydrogen Lyman-α emission line (121.6 nm). The realization of optical coatings, based on Al and MgF2, able to reflect/transmit such spectral components is, therefore, necessary. Since optical characteristics of materials in the vacuum ultraviolet range are not well studied and vary greatly with the realization process, we implemented a study of their properties in different deposition conditions. This is aimed to the realization of a custom designed filter able to transmit the 121.6 nm wavelength while reflecting visible light, and thus separating visible from ultraviolet light paths in the METIS instrument.

  9. Prediction of metallic nano-optical trapping forces by finite element-boundary integral method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Xu, Kai-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2015-03-01

    The hybrid of finite element and boundary integral (FE-BI) method is employed to predict nano-optical trapping forces of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanostructures. A preconditioning strategy is proposed to improve the convergence of the iterative solution. Skeletonization is employed to speed up the design and optimization where iteration has to be repeated for each beam configuration. The radiation pressure force (RPF) is computed by vector flux of the Maxwell's stress tensor. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the developed method in analyzing the plasmonic effects as well as the optical trapping forces. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of predicting the trapping forces of complex metallic nanostructures accurately and efficiently.

  10. Design and verification of diffractive optical elements for speckle generation of 3-D range sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Pei-Qin; Shih, Hsi-Fu; Chen, Jenq-Shyong; Wang, Yi-Shiang

    2016-09-01

    The optical projection using speckles is one of the structured light methods that have been applied to three-dimensional (3-D) range sensors. This paper investigates the design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for generating the light field with uniformly distributed speckles. Based on the principles of computer generated holograms, the iterative Fourier transform algorithm was adopted for the DOE design. It was used to calculate the phase map for diffracting the incident laser beam into a goal pattern with distributed speckles. Four patterns were designed in the study. Their phase maps were first examined by a spatial light modulator and then fabricated on glass substrates by microfabrication processes. Finally, the diffraction characteristics of the fabricated devices were verified. The experimental results show that the proposed methods are applicable to the DOE design of 3-D range sensors. Furthermore, any expected diffraction area and speckle density could be possibly achieved according to the relations presented in the paper.

  11. Spatial and temporal thermal analysis of acousto-optic deflectors using finite element analysis model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2012-07-01

    Thermal effects greatly influence the optical properties of the acousto-optic deflectors (AODs). Thermal analysis plays an important role in modern AOD design. However, the lack of an effective method of analysis limits the prediction in the thermal performance. In this paper, we propose a finite element analysis model to analyze the thermal effects of a TeO(2)-based AOD. Both transducer heating and acoustic absorption are considered as thermal sources. The anisotropy of sound propagation is taken into account for determining the acoustic absorption. Based on this model, a transient thermal analysis is employed using ANSYS software. The spatial temperature distributions in the crystal and the temperature changes over time are acquired. The simulation results are validated by experimental results. The effect of heat source and heat convection on temperature distribution is discussed. This numerical model and analytical method of thermal analysis would be helpful in the thermal design and practical applications of AODs.

  12. Active control of multi-element rotor blade airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torok, Michael S. (Inventor); Moffitt, Robert C. (Inventor); Bagai, Ashish (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A multi-element rotor blade includes an individually controllable main element and fixed aerodynamic surface in an aerodynamically efficient location relative to the main element. The main element is controlled to locate the fixed aerodynamic surface in a position to increase lift and/or reduce drag upon the main element at various azimuthal positions during rotation.

  13. Active learning in optics and photonics: Fraunhofer diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalila, H.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Lahmar, S.; Dhouaidi, Z.; Majdi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    "Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP), funded by UNESCO within its Physics Program framework with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers), aimed to helps and promotes a friendly and interactive method in teaching optics using simple and inexpensive equipment. Many workshops were organized since 2005 the year when Z. BenLakhdar, whom is part of the creators of ALOP, proposed this project to STO (Société Tunisienne d'Optique). These workshops address several issues in optics, covering geometrical optics, wave optics, optical communication and they are dedicated to both teachers and students. We focus this lecture on Fraunhofer diffraction emphasizing the facility to achieve this mechanism in classroom, using small laser and operating a slit in a sheet of paper. We accompany this demonstration using mobile phone and numerical modeling to assist in the analysis of the diffraction pattern figure.

  14. Two-photon phase gate with linear optical elements and atom-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Xia, Yan; Lu, Pei-Min

    2016-09-01

    We propose a protocol for implementing π phase gate of two photons with linear optical elements and an atom-cavity system. The evolution of the atom-cavity system is based on the quantum Zeno dynamics. The devices in the present protocol are simple and feasible with current experimental technology. Moreover, the method we proposed here is deterministic with a high fidelity. Numerical simulation shows that the evolution in cavity is efficient and robust. Therefore, the protocol may be helpful for quantum computation field.

  15. Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

  16. Holographic characterization of DYE-PVA films studied at 442 nm for optical elements fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couture, Jean J.

    1991-12-01

    The present work is an experimental study of the speed of hologram recording in dichromated polyvinyl alcohol films (DC-PVA) and DYE-DC-PVA films. Real-time recordings give high diffraction efficiency and low signal-to-noise ratio holograms without any chemical development. The dyes studied here are MALACHITE GREEN, EOSIN Y, and ROSE BENGAL introduced in DC-PVA films having a thickness of 60 - 62 micrometers . The best of these DYE-DC-PVA systems is a good candidate for holographic optical elements fabrication.

  17. Material selection and corresponding optimal surface relief height for multilayer diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Xiong; Jin, Weiqi; Wang, Xia

    2015-11-01

    We present a model based on refractive index difference analysis for optimization of material selection for multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs). From the proposed model, two important relationships are derived: the relationship between material selection and the maximum polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency of MLDOEs, and between material selection and the surface relief heights of MLDOEs. The new relationships are more comprehensive and reliable than those discussed in previous papers. A theoretical expression of the optimal surface relief heights of MLDOEs is also presented, and its correctness is demonstrated through a comparison with the results of enumeration optimization.

  18. Diffractive optical elements on non-flat substrates using electron beam lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a technique for creating diffraction gratings on curved surfaces with electron beam lithography. The curved surface can act as an optical element to produce flat and aberration-free images in imaging spectrometers. In addition, the fabrication technique can modify the power structure of the grating orders so that there is more energy in the first order than for a typical grating. The inventors noticed that by using electron-beam lithography techniques, a variety of convex gratings that are well-suited to the requirements of imaging spectrometers can be manufactured.

  19. Development of full color holographic optical element recorded on aspherical substrate with photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Mei-Lan; Wu, Hui-Ying; Kim, Nam

    2014-11-01

    Holographic optical element (HOE) have classically been designed using grating theory, logically so, since an HOE is a grating produced on film by two interfering beams of coherent light. This paper describes the development of full color HOE recorded on aspherical substrate using a photopolymer. The reflection HOE was evaluated by measuring the diffraction efficiencies of holographic volume gratings recorded individually at 633 nm, 532 nm, and 473nm wavelengths. The spectral characterization of the HOE, recorded using a combined single beam, and recorded using sequential beam, was carried out. Practical methods for fabrication of high efficiency aspheric HOE by single layer photopolymer were developed.

  20. Comparison of two interactive finite-element programs for analysis of optical and microwave waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Srba R.; Fernandez, F. Anibal; Zhao, An Ping; Ettinger, Robert D.; Sewell, Granville; Davies, J. Brian

    This paper presents a comparison of two finite-element programs developed for accurate cross-sectional analysis of arbitrary optical and microwave waveguiding structures. Both techniques were developed in response to the growing demand from scientists and engineers for application-specific expert systems, and employ advanced interactive pre- and post-processing facilities. They show good agreement, strongly complement one another, and could form the core of a whole library of similar `intelligent' software for computer-assisted analysis and design, with a wide range of possible applications within both supercomputer and workstation environments.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  2. Structural Anomaly Detection Using Fiber Optic Sensors and Inverse Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alex; Moore, Jason P.; Cooper, Eric G.; Spangler, Jan. L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating a variety of techniques for mitigating aircraft accidents due to structural component failure. One technique under consideration combines distributed fiber optic strain sensing with an inverse finite element method for detecting and characterizing structural anomalies anomalies that may provide early indication of airframe structure degradation. The technique identifies structural anomalies that result in observable changes in localized strain but do not impact the overall surface shape. Surface shape information is provided by an Inverse Finite Element Method that computes full-field displacements and internal loads using strain data from in-situ fiberoptic sensors. This paper describes a prototype of such a system and reports results from a series of laboratory tests conducted on a test coupon subjected to increasing levels of damage.

  3. Diffraction efficiency sensitivity to oblique incident angle for multilayer diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongfang; Xue, Changxi; Li, Chuang; Wang, Ju; Zhang, Ran

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between diffraction efficiency of multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs) and arbitrary incident angle was numerically analyzed with the effective area method. The method is based on the shield effect between two elements of MLDOEs; a generalized diffraction efficiency formulation was obtained in a wide range of tilt angles, which overcame the limitations of scalar diffraction theory when the period width of MLDOEs is taken into account. A detailed comparison of the proposed effective area method with the scalar diffraction theory is numerically presented for MLDOEs. The validity of the proposed method is verified by comparison with the rigorous electromagnetic analysis method, especially the finite-difference time-domain method. The analysis results show that the shield effect augments with the increase of the incident angles; the effect of incident angles on MLDOEs with finite period widths is more noticeable than that with large period widths. PMID:27607291

  4. GPU-Accelerated Finite Element Method for Modelling Light Transport in Diffuse Optical Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a GPU-accelerated finite element forward solver for the computation of light transport in scattering media. The forward model is the computationally most expensive component of iterative methods for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography, and performance optimisation of the forward solver is therefore crucial for improving the efficiency of the solution of the inverse problem. The GPU forward solver uses a CUDA implementation that evaluates on the graphics hardware the sparse linear system arising in the finite element formulation of the diffusion equation. We present solutions for both time-domain and frequency-domain problems. A comparison with a CPU-based implementation shows significant performance gains of the graphics accelerated solution, with improvements of approximately a factor of 10 for double-precision computations, and factors beyond 20 for single-precision computations. The gains are also shown to be dependent on the mesh complexity, where the largest gains are achieved for high mesh resolutions. PMID:22013431

  5. Generation of mask patterns for diffractive optical elements using Mathematica{sup T}{sup M}

    SciTech Connect

    OShea, D.C.

    1996-07-01

    The generation of binary and grayscale masks used in the fabrication of diffractive optical elements is usually performed using a proprietary piece of software or a computer-aided drafting package. Once the pattern is computed or designed, it must be output to a plotting or imaging system that will produce a reticle plate. This article describes a number of short Mathematica modules that can be used to generate binary and grayscale patterns in a PostScript-compatible format. Approaches to ensure that the patterns are directly related to the function of the element and the design wavelength are discussed. A procedure to preserve the scale of the graphic output when it is transferred to another application is given. Examples of surfaces for a 100 mm effective focal length lens and an Alvarez surface are given. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. GPU-Accelerated Finite Element Method for Modelling Light Transport in Diffuse Optical Tomography.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a GPU-accelerated finite element forward solver for the computation of light transport in scattering media. The forward model is the computationally most expensive component of iterative methods for image reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography, and performance optimisation of the forward solver is therefore crucial for improving the efficiency of the solution of the inverse problem. The GPU forward solver uses a CUDA implementation that evaluates on the graphics hardware the sparse linear system arising in the finite element formulation of the diffusion equation. We present solutions for both time-domain and frequency-domain problems. A comparison with a CPU-based implementation shows significant performance gains of the graphics accelerated solution, with improvements of approximately a factor of 10 for double-precision computations, and factors beyond 20 for single-precision computations. The gains are also shown to be dependent on the mesh complexity, where the largest gains are achieved for high mesh resolutions.

  7. Structural Health Monitoring Using High-Density Fiber Optic Strain Sensor and Inverse Finite Element Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past year the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) has been undergoing a significant upgrade beyond its initial configuration. The NTREES facility is designed to perform realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) fuel elements and fuel materials. Although the NTREES facility cannot mimic the neutron and gamma environment of an operating NTR, it can simulate the thermal hydraulic environment within an NTR fuel element to provide critical information on material performance and compatibility. The first phase of the upgrade activities which was completed in 2012 in part consisted of an extensive modification to the hydrogen system to permit computer controlled operations outside the building through the use of pneumatically operated variable position valves. This setup also allows the hydrogen flow rate to be increased to over 200 g/sec and reduced the operation complexity of the system. The second stage of modifications to NTREES which has just been completed expands the capabilities of the facility significantly. In particular, the previous 50 kW induction power supply has been replaced with a 1.2 MW unit which should allow more prototypical fuel element temperatures to be reached. The water cooling system was also upgraded to so as to be capable of removing 100% of the heat generated during. This new setup required that the NTREES vessel be raised onto a platform along with most of its associated gas and vent lines. In this arrangement, the induction heater and water systems are now located underneath the platform. In this new configuration, the 1.2 MW NTREES induction heater will be capable of testing fuel elements and fuel materials in flowing hydrogen at pressures up to 1000 psi at temperatures up to and beyond 3000 K and at near-prototypic reactor channel power densities. NTREES is also capable of testing potential fuel elements with a variety of propellants, including hydrogen with additives to inhibit

  9. Peptide-modified optical filters for detecting protease activity.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Kristopher A; Böcking, Till; Gaus, Katharina; Gal, Michael; Gooding, J Justin

    2007-11-01

    The organic derivatization of silicon-based nanoporous photonic crystals is presented as a method to immobilize peptides for the detection of protease enzymes in solution. A narrow-line-width rugate filter, a one-dimensional photonic crystal, is fabricated that exhibits a high-reflectivity optical resonance that is sensitive to small changes in the refractive index at the pore walls. To immobilize peptide in the pore of the photonic crystal, the hydrogen-terminated silicon surface was first modified with the alkene 10-succinimidyl undecenoate via hydrosilylation. The monolayer with the succinimide ester moiety at the distal end served the dual function of protecting the underlying silicon from oxidation as well as providing a surface suitable for subsequent derivatization with amines. The surface was further modified with 1-aminohexa(ethylene glycol) (EG(6)) to resist nonspecific adsorption of proteins common in complex biological samples. The distal hydroxyl of the EG(6) is activated using the solid-phase coupling reagent disuccinimidyl carbonate for selective immobilization of peptides as protease recognition elements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals high activation and coupling efficiency at each stage of the functionalization. Exposure of the peptide-modified crystals to the protease subtilisin in solution causes a change in the refractive index, resulting in a shift of the resonance to shorter wavelengths, indicating cleavage of organic material within the pores. The lowest detected concentration of enzyme was 37 nM (7.4 pmol in 200 microL).

  10. THE NATURE OF OPTICALLY DULL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared M.; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Brusa, Marcella; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Kelly, Brandon C.; Huchra, John P.; Jahnke, Knud; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Scoville, Nick Z.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Maineri, Vincenzo

    2009-11-20

    We present infrared, optical, and X-ray data of 48 X-ray bright, optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. These objects exhibit the X-ray luminosity of an AGN but lack broad and narrow emission lines in their optical spectrum. We show that despite the lack of optical emission lines, most of these optically dull AGNs are not well described by a typical passive red galaxy spectrum: instead they exhibit weak but significant blue emission like an unobscured AGN. Photometric observations over several years additionally show significant variability in the blue emission of four optically dull AGNs. The nature of the blue and infrared emission suggest that the optically inactive appearance of these AGNs cannot be caused by obscuration intrinsic to the AGNs. Instead, up to approx70% of optically dull AGNs are diluted by their hosts, with bright or simply edge-on hosts lying preferentially within the spectroscopic aperture. The remaining approx30% of optically dull AGNs have anomalously high f{sub X} /f{sub O} ratios and are intrinsically weak, not obscured, in the optical. These optically dull AGNs are best described as a weakly accreting AGN with a truncated accretion disk from a radiatively inefficient accretion flow.

  11. Asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with strong optical activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jin, Wei; Dong, Xian-Zi; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the optical properties of mono- and double-layer asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with orientated elliptical holes, which exhibit exotic spectral and polarization rotating characteristics in the visible spectral range. Our results show that nontrivial orientations of the holes with respect to the reciprocal lattice vectors of the periodic lattice in both systems produce strong polarization rotation as well as additional enhanced optical transmission peaks. Analysis of the electromagnetic field distribution shows the unusual effect is produced by the spinning localized surface plasmon resonances due to the asymmetric geometry. High sensitivity of the hybridized mode on the dielectric spacing, the aspect ratio of the holes and the embedding media in double-layer structure is also observed. The dependence of spectral and polarization response on the orientation of the holes and the embedding media is useful for design of chiral metamaterials at optical frequencies and tailoring the polarization behavior of the metallic nano-structures.

  12. Long-term laser induced contamination tests of optical elements under vacuum at 351nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinhos, Uwe; Mann, Klaus; Bayer, Armin; Dette, Jens-Oliver; Schöneck, Matthias; Endemann, Martin; Wernham, Denny; Petazzi, Federico; Tighe, Adrian; Alves, Jorge; Thibault, Dominique

    2010-11-01

    Photon-induced contamination of optical surfaces is a major obstacle for space-bound laser applications. At Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen, a setup was developed that allows monitoring transmission, reflection and fluorescence of laser-irradiated optical components under well-controlled vacuum conditions, in order to assess their possible optical degradation due to radiation-induced contaminant deposition in orbit. In cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA optical elements for the ADM-Aelolus mission were investigated. In order to perform global wind-profile observation based on Doppler-LIDAR, the satellite ADM-Aelolus will be launched in 2011 and injected into an orbit 400 km above Earth's surface. ADM-Aeolus will be the first satellite ever that is equipped with a UV-laser (emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm) and a reflector telescope. For both high-reflecting mirrors and an anti-reflective coated windows long-term irradiation tests (up to 500 million laser pulses per test run) were performed at a base pressure < 10-9 mbar, using a XeF excimer laser (λ=351 nm, repetition rate 1kHz). At this, samples of polymers used inside the satellite (insulators for cabling, adhesives, etc.) were installed into the chamber, and the interaction of their degassing with the sample surfaces under laser irradiation was investigated. Optical degradation associated with contaminant adsorption was detected on the irradiated sample sites as a function of various parameters, including pulse repetition rate, view factor and coating material

  13. Computational optical palpation: micro-scale force mapping using finite-element methods (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate quantification of forces, applied to, or generated by, tissue, is key to understanding many biomechanical processes, fabricating engineered tissues, and diagnosing diseases. Many techniques have been employed to measure forces; in particular, tactile imaging - developed to spatially map palpation-mimicking forces - has shown potential in improving the diagnosis of cancer on the macro-scale. However, tactile imaging often involves the use of discrete force sensors, such as capacitive or piezoelectric sensors, whose spatial resolution is often limited to 1-2 mm. Our group has previously presented a type of tactile imaging, termed optical palpation, in which the change in thickness of a compliant layer in contact with tissue is measured using optical coherence tomography, and surface forces are extracted, with a micro-scale spatial resolution, using a one-dimensional spring model. We have also recently combined optical palpation with compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify stiffness. A main limitation of this work, however, is that a one-dimensional spring model is insufficient in describing the deformation of mechanically heterogeneous tissue with uneven boundaries, generating significant inaccuracies in measured forces. Here, we present a computational, finite-element method, which we term computational optical palpation. In this technique, by knowing the non-linear mechanical properties of the layer, and from only the axial component of displacement measured by phase-sensitive OCE, we can estimate, not only the axial forces, but the three-dimensional traction forces at the layer-tissue interface. We use a non-linear, three-dimensional model of deformation, which greatly increases the ability to accurately measure force and stiffness in complex tissues.

  14. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1991-01-01

    An angular position encoder that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads with beam steering optics that actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface is discussed. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology to the application of angular position sensing.

  15. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    An angular position encoder that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads with beam steering optics that actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface is discussed. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology to the application of angular position sensing.

  16. Iterative Fourier transform algorithm: different approaches to diffractive optical element design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeren, Marek; Richter, Ivan; Fiala, Pavel

    2002-10-01

    This contribution focuses on the study and comparison of different design approaches for designing phase-only diffractive optical elements (PDOEs) for different possible applications in laser beam shaping. Especially, new results and approaches, concerning the iterative Fourier transform algorithm, are analyzed, implemented, and compared. Namely, various approaches within the iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) are analyzed for the case of phase-only diffractive optical elements with quantizied phase levels (either binary or multilevel structures). First, the general scheme of the IFTA iterative approach with partial quantization is briefly presented and discussed. Then, the special assortment of the general IFTA scheme is given with respect to quantization constraint strategies. Based on such a special classification, the three practically interesting approaches are chosen, further-analyzed, and compared to eachother. The performance of these algorithms is compared in detail in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic developments with respect to the numberof iterations, for various input diffusive-type objects chose. Also, the performance is documented on the complex spectra developments for typical computer reconstruction results. The advantages and drawbacks of all approaches are discussed, and a brief guide on the choice of a particular approach for typical design tasks is given. Finally, the two ways of amplitude elimination within the design procedure are considered, namely the direct elimination and partial elimination of the amplitude of the complex hologram function.

  17. Hybrid plasmonic lattices with tunable magneto-optical activity.

    PubMed

    Kataja, Mikko; Pourjamal, Sara; Maccaferri, Nicolò; Vavassori, Paolo; Hakala, Tommi K; Huttunen, Mikko J; Törmä, Päivi; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-02-22

    We report on the optical and magneto-optical response of hybrid plasmonic lattices that consist of pure nickel and gold nanoparticles in a checkerboard arrangement. Diffractive far-field coupling between the individual emitters of the lattices results in the excitation of two orthogonal surface lattice resonance modes. Local analyses of the radiation fields indicate that both the nickel and gold nanoparticles contribute to these collective resonances and, thereby, to the magneto-optical activity of the hybrid arrays. The strong effect of noble metal nanoparticles on the magneto-optical response of hybrid lattices opens up new avenues for the realization of sensitive and tunable magneto-plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26907022

  18. Photonic muscle active optics for space telescopes (active optics with 1023 actuators)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Presented is a novel optical system using Cis-Trans photoisomerization where nearly every molecule of a mirror substrate is itself an optically powered actuator. Primary mirrors require sub-wavelength figure (shape) error in order to achieve acceptable Strehl ratios. Traditional telescopy methods require rigid and therefore heavy mirrors and reaction structures as well as proportionally heavy and expensive spacecraft busses and launch vehicles. Areal density can be reduced by increasing actuation density. Making every molecule of a substrate an actuator approaches the limit of the areal density vs actuation design trade space. Cis-Trans photoisomerization, a reversible reorganization of molecular structure induced by light, causes a change in the shape and volume of azobenzene based molecules. Induced strain in these "photonic muscles" can be over 40%. Forces are pico-newtons/molecule. Although this molecular limit is not typically multiplied in aggregate materials we have made, considering the large number of molecules in a mole, future optimized systems may approach this limit In some π-π* mixed valence azo-polymer membranes we have made photoisomerization causes a highly controllable change in macroscopic dimension with application of light. Using different wavelengths and polarizations provides the capability to actively reversibly and remotely control membrane mirror shape and dynamics using low power lasers, instead of bulky actuators and wires, thus allowing the substitution of optically induced control for rigidity and mass. Areal densities of our photonic muscle mirrors are approximately 100 g/m2. This includes the substrate and actuators (which are of course the same). These materials are thin and flexible (similar to saran wrap) so high packing ratios are possible, suggesting the possibility of deployable JWST size mirrors weighing 6 kilograms, and the possibility of ultralightweight space telescopes the size of a football field. Photons weigh nothing

  19. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Neil H; Lee, Gloria; Sherer, Nicholas A; Martini, K Michael; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Kuhlman, Thomas E

    2016-06-28

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE's orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  20. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gloria; Martini, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE’s orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  1. Extended volume and surface scatterometer for optical characterization of 3D-printed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Florian; Uebeler, Denise; Weiß, Jürgen; Pescoller, Lukas; Weyer, Cornelia; Hahlweg, Cornelius

    2015-09-01

    The use of 3d printing technology seems to be a promising way for low cost prototyping, not only of mechanical, but also of optical components or systems. It is especially useful in applications where customized equipment repeatedly is subject to immediate destruction, as in experimental detonics and the like. Due to the nature of the 3D-printing process, there is a certain inner texture and therefore inhomogeneous optical behaviour to be taken into account, which also indicates mechanical anisotropy. Recent investigations are dedicated to quantification of optical properties of such printed bodies and derivation of corresponding optimization strategies for the printing process. Beside mounting, alignment and illumination means, also refractive and reflective elements are subject to investigation. The proposed measurement methods are based on an imaging nearfield scatterometer for combined volume and surface scatter measurements as proposed in previous papers. In continuation of last year's paper on the use of near field imaging, which basically is a reflective shadowgraph method, for characterization of glossy surfaces like printed matter or laminated material, further developments are discussed. The device has been extended for observation of photoelasticity effects and therefore homogeneity of polarization behaviour. A refined experimental set-up is introduced. Variation of plane of focus and incident angle are used for separation of various the images of the layers of the surface under test, cross and parallel polarization techniques are applied. Practical examples from current research studies are included.

  2. Uniformity of reshaped beam by diffractive optical elements with light-emitted diode illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mengzhu; Gu, Huarong; Wang, Qixia; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Due to its low energy consumption, high efficiency and fast switching speed, light-emitted diode (LED) has been used as a new light source in optical wireless communication. To ensure uniform lighting and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) during the data transmission, diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can be employed as optical antennas. Different from laser, LED has a low temporal and spatial coherence. And its impacts upon the far-field diffraction patterns of DOEs remain unclear. Thus the mathematical models of far-field diffraction intensity for LED with a spectral bandwidth and source size are first derived in this paper. Then the relation between source size and uniformity of top-hat beam profile for LEDs either considering the spectral bandwidth or not are simulated. The results indicate that when the size of LED is much smaller than that of reshaped beam, the uniformity of reshaped beam obtained by light source with a spectral bandwidth is significantly better than that by a monochromatic light. However, once the size is larger than a certain threshold value, the uniformity of reshaped beam of two LED models are almost the same, and the influence introduced by spectral bandwidth can be ignored. Finally the reshaped beam profiles are measured by CCD camera when the areas of LED are 0.5×0.5mm2 and 1×1mm2. And the experimental results agree with the simulations.

  3. Double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element in BESSRC-CAT beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Beno, M.A.; Ramanathan, M.

    1996-09-01

    The first optical element in the BESSRC-CAT beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will be a monochromator, so that a standard design for this critical component is advantageous. The monochromator we have designed is a double-crystal, fixed-exit scheme with a constant offset designed for UHV operation, thereby allowing windowless operation of the beamlines. The crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. A mechanical linkage is used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The main drive for the rotary motion is provided by a vacuum-compatible Huber goniometer isolated from the main vacuum chamber. Rotary motion of the primary monochromator stage is accomplished by using two adjacent vacuum chambers connected only by the small annular opening around a hollow stainless steel shaft, which connects the Huber goniometer to the turntable on which the crystals are mounted. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate both water and liquid nitrogen cooling for the crystal optics. The basic design for the monochromator linkage mechanism will be presented along with details of the monochromator chamber. The results of initial optical tests of the monochromator system using tilt sensors and a precision autocollimator will also be given. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. ALINET: neural net automatic alignment of high-energy laser resonator optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, George A.; Bailey, Adam W.; Palumbo, Louis J.; Kuperstein, Michael

    1993-10-01

    A novel neural net approach has successfully solved the time consuming practical problem of aligning the many optical elements used in the resonator of high power chemical lasers. Moreover, because the neural net can achieve optimal performance in only 2 - 4 steps, as compared with 50 for other techniques, the important ability to effect real time control is gained. This represents a significant experimental breakthrough because of the difficulty previously associated with this alignment process. Use of either near or far field image information produces excellent performance. The method is very robust in the presence of noise. For cases where the initial misalignment falls outside the regime encompassed by the training set, a hybrid approach utilizing an advanced conventional method can bring the optical system within the capture range of the neural net. This reported use of a neural net to rapidly convert imagery information into high precision control information is of broad applicability to optical, acoustic, or electromagnetic alignment, positioning, and control problems.

  5. Optical activity of chitosan films with induced anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegel, Natalia O.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.

    2016-04-01

    The optical anisotropy and optical activity of salt and basic chitosan films, both initial and modified in formic acid vapor were studied. The modification of such films was found to be accompanied by induced time-stable optical anisotropy, by varying the values of specific optical rotation [α] and an inversion of the sign of [α]. The angular dependences (indicatrices) of the specific optical rotation of films on the orientation angle of the sample relative to the direction of the polarization vector of the incident light beam in a plane perpendicular to the beam were obtained. The indicatrices of the initial chitosan films have an almost symmetrical character while those of the films modified in formic acid vapor are irregular. It is concluded of the formation of a vitrified cholesteric mesophase in the chitosan films with induced optical anisotropy.

  6. Trifluoromethyl nitrones: from fluoral to optically active hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Milcent, Thierry; Hinks, Nathan; Bonnet-Delpon, Danièle; Crousse, Benoit

    2010-06-28

    Trifluoromethyl nitrones were obtained in high yields by condensation of various hydroxylamines with trifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate. The nucleophilic diastereoselective additions of organometallic reagents to these nitrones afforded the corresponding optically active trifluoroethyl hydroxylamines in good yields. PMID:20458418

  7. Reduction of selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohan; Matassa, Silvio; Singh, Satyendra; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Total selenium removal by the activated sludge process, where selenite is reduced to colloidal elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) that remain entrapped in the activated sludge flocs, was studied. Total selenium removal efficiencies with glucose as electron donor (2.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) at neutral pH and 30 °C gave 2.9 and 6.8 times higher removal efficiencies as compared to the electron donors lactate and acetate, respectively. Total selenium removal efficiencies of 79 (±3) and 86 (±1) % were achieved in shake flasks and fed batch reactors, respectively, at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations above 4.0 mg L(-1) and 30 °C when fed with 172 mg L(-1) (1 mM) Na2SeO3 and 2.0 g L(-1) COD of glucose. Continuously operated reactors operating at neutral pH, 30 °C and a DO >3 mg L(-1) removed 33.98 and 36.65 mg of total selenium per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) at TSS concentrations of 1.3 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. However, selenite toxicity to the activated sludge led to failure of a continuously operating activated sludge reactor at the applied loading rates. This suggests that a higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) or different reactor configurations need to be applied for selenium-removing activated sludge processes. Graphical Abstract Scheme representing the possible mechanisms of selenite reduction at high and low DO levels in the activated sludge process. PMID:26351196

  8. Reduction of selenite to elemental selenium nanoparticles by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohan; Matassa, Silvio; Singh, Satyendra; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Total selenium removal by the activated sludge process, where selenite is reduced to colloidal elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) that remain entrapped in the activated sludge flocs, was studied. Total selenium removal efficiencies with glucose as electron donor (2.0 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) at neutral pH and 30 °C gave 2.9 and 6.8 times higher removal efficiencies as compared to the electron donors lactate and acetate, respectively. Total selenium removal efficiencies of 79 (±3) and 86 (±1) % were achieved in shake flasks and fed batch reactors, respectively, at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations above 4.0 mg L(-1) and 30 °C when fed with 172 mg L(-1) (1 mM) Na2SeO3 and 2.0 g L(-1) COD of glucose. Continuously operated reactors operating at neutral pH, 30 °C and a DO >3 mg L(-1) removed 33.98 and 36.65 mg of total selenium per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) at TSS concentrations of 1.3 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. However, selenite toxicity to the activated sludge led to failure of a continuously operating activated sludge reactor at the applied loading rates. This suggests that a higher hydraulic retention time (HRT) or different reactor configurations need to be applied for selenium-removing activated sludge processes. Graphical Abstract Scheme representing the possible mechanisms of selenite reduction at high and low DO levels in the activated sludge process.

  9. Effects of spatial variation of skull and cerebrospinal fluid layers on optical mapping of brain activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuping; Shibahara, Nanae; Kuramashi, Daishi; Okawa, Shinpei; Kakuta, Naoto; Okada, Eiji; Maki, Atsushi; Yamada, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of anatomical variation in human heads on the optical mapping of brain activity, we perform simulations of optical mapping by solving the photon diffusion equation for layered-models simulating human heads using the finite element method (FEM). Particularly, the effects of the spatial variations in the thicknesses of the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layers on mapping images are investigated. Mapping images of single active regions in the gray matter layer are affected by the spatial variations in the skull and CSF layer thicknesses, although the effects are smaller than those of the positions of the active region relative to the data points. The increase in the skull thickness decreases the sensitivity of the images to active regions, while the increase in the CSF layer thickness increases the sensitivity in general. The images of multiple active regions are also influenced by their positions relative to the data points and by their depths from the skin surface.

  10. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  11. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

  12. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-09-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms.

  13. Capillary Optics Based X-Ray Micro-Imaging Elemental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Cappuccio, G.; Longoni, A.; Frizzi, T.; Cibin, G.

    2010-04-01

    A rapidly developed during the last few years micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) is a promising multi-elemental technique for non-destructive analysis. Typically it is rather hard to perform laboratory μXRF analysis because of the difficulty of producing an original small-size X-ray beam as well as its focusing. Recently developed for X-ray beam focusing polycapillary optics offers laboratory X-ray micro probes. The combination of polycapillary lens and fine-focused micro X-ray tube can provide high intensity radiation flux on a sample that is necessary in order to perform the elemental analysis. In comparison to a pinhole, an optimized "X-ray source-op tics" system can result in radiation density gain of more than 3 orders by the value. The most advanced way to get that result is to use the confocal configuration based on two X-ray lenses, one for the fluorescence excitation and the other for the detection of secondary emission from a sample studied. In case of X-ray capillary microfocusing a μXRF instrument designed in the confocal scheme allows us to obtain a 3D elemental mapping. In this work we will show preliminary results obtained with our prototype, a portable X-ray microscope for X-ray both imaging and fluorescence analysis; it enables μXRF elemental mapping simultaneously with X-ray imaging. A prototype of compact XRF spectrometer with a spatial resolution less than 100 μm has been designed.

  14. Heavy Element Abundances in Planetary Nebulae from Deep Optical Echelle Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, Amanda; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Garofali, Kristen; Jensema, Rachael; Turbyfill, Amanda; Wieser, Hannah-Marie N.; Reed, Evan C.; Redfield, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We present the abundances of neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z > 30) and iron determined from deep optical echelle spectroscopy of 14 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). The spectra were obtained with the 2D-coudé spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. The abundances of n-capture elements can be enhanced in PNe due to slow n-capture nucleosynthesis in the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The high spectral resolution of these data (R = 36,700) allow most n-capture element emission lines to be resolved from other nebular and telluric features. We detect Kr in all of the observed PNe (with multiple ions detected in several objects), while Br, Rb, and Xe were each detected in 4--5 objects. Using the new Kr ionization correction factors (ICFs) of Sterling et al. (2015, ApJS, 218, 25), we find [Kr/O] abundances ranging from 0.05 to 1.1 dex. We utilize approximate ICFs for the other n-capture elements, and find slightly lower enrichments for Br and Rb (-0.1 to 0.7 dex), while Xe is enhanced relative to solar by factors of two to 30. The [Xe/Kr] ratios range from -0.3 to 1.4 dex, indicating a significant range in neutron exposures in PN progenitor stars. Interestingly, the largest [Xe/Kr] ratio is found in the thick-disk PN NGC 6644, which has a lower metallicity than the other observed PNe. We detect iron emission lines in all but one target. Fe can be depleted into dust grains in ionized nebulae, and its abundance thus provides key information regarding dust-to-gas ratios and grain destruction processes. We find that [Fe/O] ranges from -1.3 to -0.7 dex in the observed PNe, a smaller spread of depletion factors than found in recent studies (Delgado-Inglada & Rodriguez 2014, ApJ, 784, 173) though this may be due in part to our smaller sample. These data are part of a larger study of heavy elements in PNe, which will provide more accurate determinations of n-capture element abundances than previous estimates in

  15. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range. PMID:27136889

  16. Halo Reduction By Means of Non Linear Optical Elements in the NLC Final Focus System

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei

    2001-07-23

    In the Beam Delivery Systems (BDS) for linear colliders that have been designed or built, collimators (or scrapers) are used to suppress backgrounds due to the beam halo. Off-energy and off-axis particles are stopped on the collimator jaws, physically limiting the acceptance of the system. This concept does not scale well to higher beam energy, higher intensity or lower emittance. The increased beam density requires longer and more demanding collimator regions. In contrast, this paper studies the possibility of inserting non-linear optical elements into the Final Focus in order to effectively increase the acceptance of the system. This technique could make the traditional collimation scheme obsolete so that only protection collimators would be needed.

  17. Precision enhancement in boundary element methods with application to electron optics.

    PubMed

    Loyd, Jody S; Gregory, Don A

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid approach is presented for obtaining electric potentials for use in electron optics modeling. An initial solution from the boundary element method (BEM) is used to derive the bounding potential of a cylindrical subdomain subsequently used in a Fourier series solution. The approach combines the inherent precision of this analytic solution with the flexibility of BEM to describe practical, non-idealized systems of electrodes. The resulting lens field in the Fourier series subdomain is of higher precision, thereby allowing smaller errors in subsequent calculations of electron ray paths. The effects of aberrations are thus easier to observe in tracing non-paraxial rays. Example ray-traces through a simple, known einzel lens are given as validation of this approach.

  18. Precision enhancement in boundary element methods with application to electron optics.

    PubMed

    Loyd, Jody S; Gregory, Don A

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid approach is presented for obtaining electric potentials for use in electron optics modeling. An initial solution from the boundary element method (BEM) is used to derive the bounding potential of a cylindrical subdomain subsequently used in a Fourier series solution. The approach combines the inherent precision of this analytic solution with the flexibility of BEM to describe practical, non-idealized systems of electrodes. The resulting lens field in the Fourier series subdomain is of higher precision, thereby allowing smaller errors in subsequent calculations of electron ray paths. The effects of aberrations are thus easier to observe in tracing non-paraxial rays. Example ray-traces through a simple, known einzel lens are given as validation of this approach. PMID:27068123

  19. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range.

  20. Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yongjun; Lu, Zhenwu; Li, Fengyou

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the technique of fabricating large diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in thick film on a concave lens surface (mirrors) with precise alignment by using the strategy of double exposure. We adopt the method of double exposure to overcome the difficulty of processing thick photoresist on a large curved substrate. A uniform thick film with arbitrary thickness on a concave lens can be obtained with this technique. We fabricate a large concentric circular grating with a 10-im period on a concave lens surface in film with a thickness of 2.0 im after development. It is believed that this technique can also be used to fabricate larger DOEs in thicker film on the concave or convex lens surface with precise alignment. There are other potential applications of this technique, such as fabrication of micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and fabrication of microlens arrays on a large concave lens surface or convex lens surface with precise alignment.

  1. Transient magnetized plasma as an optical element for high power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanii, Nobuhiko; Hosokai, Tomonao; Iwasa, Kenta; Masuda, Shinichi; Zhidkov, Alexei; Pathak, Naveen; Nakahara, Hiroki; Mizuta, Yoshio; Takeguchi, Naoki; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Underdense plasma produced in gas jets by low intensity laser prepulses in the presence of a static magnetic field, B ˜0.3 T , is shown experimentally to become an optical element allowing steering of tightly focused high power femtosecond laser pulses within several degrees along with essential enhancement of pulse's focusability. Strong laser prepulses form a density ramp perpendicularly to magnetic field direction and, owing to the light refraction, main laser pulses propagate along the magnetic field even if it is tilted from the laser axis. Electrons generated in the laser pulse wake are well collimated and follow in the direction of the magnetic field; their characteristics are measured to be not sensitive to the tilt of magnetic field up to angles ±5 ° .

  2. The real-time monitoring surface figure of optical elements in continuous polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xueke; Wei, Chaoyang; Gu, Jianxun; Dun, Aihuan; Shao, Jianda

    2014-08-01

    Continuous ring polishing is the key process in large aperture optical elements. The surface figure of polishing pad is inferred by the offline testing surface figure of workpiece. The defects, low processing efficiency and uncertainty processing time in traditional continuous polishing, the real-time monitoring method of polishing is proposed. The realtime monitoring system is set up based on the computer, the dynamic interferometer, a beam expanding system and a beam reflecting system. There are a workpiece and a glass monitoring plate placing in same ring. The surface figure of workpiece, monitored by the monitoring plate, synchronize with the surface of glass monitoring plate in Peak-Valley (PV) and POWER. The new method with simple structure is fast measuring and judgmental directly to the changes of surface figures. The results of real-time monitoring and surface figure converging on the workpiece are valid for continuous polishing through experimental validation.

  3. A Sensing Element Based on a Bent and Elongated Grooved Polymer Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Li-Wen; Xie, Wen-Fu; Chen, Yung-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation is performed into the power loss induced in grooved polymer optical fibers (POFs) subjected to combined bending and elongation deformations. The power loss is examined as a function of both the groove depth and the bend radius. An elastic-plastic three-dimensional finite element model is constructed to simulate the deformation in the grooved region of the deformed specimens. The results indicate that the power loss increases significantly with an increasing bending displacement or groove depth. Specifically, the power loss increases to as much as 12% given a groove depth of 1.1 mm and a bending displacement of 10 mm. Based on the experimental results, an empirical expression is formulated to relate the power loss with the bending displacement for a given groove depth. It is shown that the difference between the estimated power loss and the actual power loss is less than 2%. PMID:22969356

  4. A tactile sensing element based on a hetero-core optical fiber for force measurement and texture detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Koyama, Yuya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    Tactile sensing technology can measure a given property of an object through physical contact between a sensing element and the object. Various tactile sensing techniques have been developed for several applications such as intelligent robots, tactile interface, medical support and nursing care support. A desirable tactile sensing element for supporting human daily life can be embedded in the soft material with high sensitivity and accuracy in order to prevent from damaging to human or object physically. This report describes a new tactile sensing element. Hetero-core optical fibers have high sensitivity of macro-bending at local sensor portion and temperature independency, including advantages of optical fiber itself; thin size, light weight, flexible transmission line, and immunity to electro-magnetic interference. The proposed tactile sensing element could detect textures of touched objects through the optical loss caused by the force applied to the sensing element. The characteristics of the sensing element have been evaluated, in which the sensing element has the monotonic and non-linear sensitivity against the normal force ranged from 0 to 5 N with lower accuracy than 0.25 dB. Additionally, texture detection have been successfully demonstrated in which small surface figures of 0.1 mm in height were detected with spatial resolution of 0.4 mm.

  5. Active compensation of flexure on the High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Diego, Francisco; Walker, David D.

    1997-03-01

    Gravity-induced flexure has been a long-standing challenge in Cassegrain spectrographs at 4-meter class telescopes; it is the more so at the scale of 8-meter telescopes. This is of particular concern for the Gemini high resolution optical spectrograph, which will be Cassegrain-mounted for its routine mode of operation. In this paper we address the general flexure problem, and how to solve it with the use of active optics. We also present the results of an experimental active flexure compensation system for the ISIS (intermediate- dispersion spectroscopic and imaging system) spectrograph on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT). This instrument, called ISAAC (ISIS spectrograph automatic active collimator), is based on the concept of active correction, where spectrum drifts, due to the spectrograph flexing under the effect of gravity, are compensated by the movement of an active optical element (in this case a fine steering tip-tilt collimator mirror). The experiment showed that active compensation can reduce flexure down to less than 3 micrometer over four hours of telescope motions, dramatically improving the spectrograph performance. The results of the experiment are used to discuss a flexure compensation system for the high resolution optical spectrograph (HROS) for the 8 m Gemini telescope.

  6. Monochromatizing and focussing femtosecond high-order harmonic radiation with one optical element.

    PubMed

    Ibek, Mateusz; Leitner, Torsten; Erko, Alexei; Firsov, Alexander; Wernet, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    A novel approach for monochromatizing and focussing the Vacuum-Ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation from high-order harmonic generation of a femtosecond optical laser with only one optical element is presented. We demonstrate that off-axis reflection zone plates applied as focussing monochromators allow for efficiently optimizing the trade-off between energy resolution and temporal dispersion of the femtosecond pulses. In the current experimental realization, we show how the temporal dispersion can be varied between 2 fs and 16 fs with a correlating variation of the energy resolution E/ΔE between 20 and 90 for an off-axis reflection zone plate optimized for harmonic 13 at 20.41 eV. We also show how the focal spot size varies correspondingly between 80 × 90 μm(2) and 290 × 140 μm(2) as determined with a computational fitting approach based on a 3D Gaussian model. The diffraction efficiency for the tested zone plates amounts to up to 10%. We furthermore evaluate the influence of pointing stability on the performance of the zone plates. Based on our results we propose an optimized realization of a dedicated beam line for femtosecond pulses from high-order harmonic generation with an off-axis reflection zone plate. PMID:24182096

  7. Research of the new optical diffractive super-resolution element of the two-photon microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng; Zhu, Yu; Duan, Guanghong

    2006-11-01

    The new optical diffractive superresolution element (DSE) is being applied to improve the microfabrication radial superresolution in the two-photon three-dimension (3D) microfabrication system, which appeared only a few years ago and can provide the ability to confine photochemical and physical reactions to the order of laser wavelength in three dimensions. The design method of the DSE is that minimizing M if the lowest limit S l of the S and the highest limit G u of the G is set, where Liu [1] explained the definition of the S, M and G. Simulation test result proved that the microfabrication radial superresolution can be improved by the new optical DSE. The phenomenon can only be interpreted as the intensity of high-order and side of the zero-order diffraction peaks have been clapped under the twophoton absorption (TPA) polymerization threshold. In a word the polymerized volume can be chosen because the S l and the G u is correspondingly adjustable, even if the laser wavelength, objective lens and the photosensitive resin is fixed for a given two-photon microfabrication system. That means the radial superresolution of the two-photon microfabrication can be chosen.

  8. Fabrication of continuous diffractive optical elements using a fast tool servo diamond turning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jingbo; Li, Lei; Naples, Neil; Sun, Tao; Yi, Allen Y.

    2013-07-01

    Continuous diffractive optical elements (CDOEs) can be used for laser-beam reshaping, pattern generation and can help reduce large angle scattering. Lithography, the method for the production of binary diffractive surfaces, is not suitable for fabrication of CDOEs. Diamond turning using fast tool servo, on the other hand, is a non-cleanroom method for generating continuous microstructures with high precision and efficiency. In this paper, an algorithm for designing CDOEs is introduced. The moving least-squares (MLS) method is then used to obtain the local fitting equation of the diffractive surface. Based on the MLS fitting equation, the selection of diamond cutting tool geometries (including the tool nose radius, rake angle and clearance angle) is discussed and a tool nose radius compensation algorithm is included. This algorithm is a general method for the diamond turning of complex surfaces that can be represented by a point cloud. Surface measurements and diffractive patterns generated on test samples have shown that continuous diffractive surfaces were successfully machined. In the future, CDOEs can be machined on an optical mold surface for high-volume industrial production using methods such as injection molding.

  9. Biogenic Aerosols Over the Amazon Basin: Optical Properties and Relationship With Elemental and Ionic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.; Godoy, J. M.; Godoy, M. L.; Rizzo, L. V.; Paixao, M.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the optical properties of natural biogenic aerosol particles over the central Amazon Basin near Manaus during the wet season in February and March 2008. The measurements were conducted as part of the AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment) sampling campaign. Light absorption was determined with the use of an Aethalometer and an MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). Light scattering was measured with a 3 wavelength TSI nephelometer and an Ecotech nephelometer. The elemental composition was measured trough PIXE and IC. Single scattering albedo shows relatively low values varying from 0.86 to 0.95. Very low fine mode aerosol mass was measured, and coarse mode particles are responsible for a significant fraction of scattering and absorption. Sulfur was observed in very low concentrations, and most of the aerosol mass was organic. Long range transport of soil dust from Sahara were observed and reflected in the light scattering coefficient. Wavelength dependence of absorption indicates the strong influence of coarse mode aerosol. Aerosol optical thickness shows low values, but with significant single scattering albedo values, showing strong absorption properties of these biogenic aerosols. Size distribution measurements shows consistence with the scattering coefficients measured, if the coarse mode particles are taken into account.

  10. [Determination of trace Hg element in gas by CVAAS with single optical path].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Peng; Wang, Xi-He; Gao, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2009-08-01

    Since the anthropogenic emissions of mercury into environment were mostly entering the atmosphere through flue gas, continuous monitoring of mercury in the flue gas was significant for mercury emission control. A bench scale test rig was set up for the measurement of mercury through both wet chemical method and CVAAS (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry) with single optical path. The concentration of Hg in absorbent solution was determined by Hydra AA mercury analyzer. The concentration of Hg in gas was calculated in terms of wet chemical testing results, which showed a stable rate of permeation device. Hg atom absorption signal intensity was detected and analyzed in comparison with the test results of wet chemical methods according to Beer-Lambert law. Experimental data well agreed with the theory analysis, which indicated that the single optical path was suitable for the determination of trace Hg element in pure gas. Further research work should aim at the improvement of system adaptability and anti-jamming ability. To reduce the intensity fluctuation of mercury lamp, another spectral line could be detected simultaneously. Interference from surroundings, e.g. dust in gas or spot on the quartz surface, could be eliminated by optoelectronic coupling. PMID:19839353

  11. Elemental composition and optical properties reveal changes in dissolved organic matter along a permafrost thaw chronosequence in a subarctic peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, Suzanne B.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Podgorski, David C.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Saleska, Scott R.; Crill, Patrick M.; Rich, Virginia I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Cooper, William T.

    2016-08-01

    The fate of carbon stored in permafrost-zone peatlands represents a significant uncertainty in global climate modeling. Given that the breakdown of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often a major pathway for decomposition in peatlands, knowledge of DOM reactivity under different permafrost regimes is critical for determining future climate feedbacks. To explore the effects of permafrost thaw and resultant plant succession on DOM reactivity, we used a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), UV/Vis absorbance, and excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) to examine the DOM elemental composition and optical properties of 27 pore water samples gathered from various sites along a permafrost thaw sequence in Stordalen Mire, a thawing subarctic peatland in northern Sweden. The presence of dense Sphagnum moss, a feature that is dominant in the intermediate thaw stages, appeared to be the main driver of variation in DOM elemental composition and optical properties at Stordalen. Specifically, DOM from sites with Sphagnum had greater aromaticity, higher average molecular weights, and greater O/C, consistent with a higher abundance of phenolic compounds that likely inhibit decomposition. These compounds are released by Sphagnum and may accumulate due to inhibition of phenol oxidase activity by the acidic pH at these sites. In contrast, sites without Sphagnum, specifically fully-thawed rich fens, had more saturated, more reduced compounds, which were high in N and S. Optical properties at rich fens indicated the presence of microbially-derived DOM, consistent with the higher decomposition rates previously measured at these sites. These results indicate that Sphagnum acts as an inhibitor of rapid decomposition and CH4 release in thawing subarctic peatlands, consistent with lower rates of CO2 and CH4 production previously observed at these sites. However, this inhibitory effect may disappear if Sphagnum-dominated bogs

  12. Study of passive and active optical waveguides: Synthesis, processing and characterization of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Makoto

    Photonics uses photons for information and image processing, and has been touted as the technology of the 21 st century. An optical waveguide is a key component of an optical integrated circuit which is the optical analog of an electrical integrated circuit (IC). Electrical transistor IC technology resulted in an enormous impact on society, and it changed our life styles from the age of the vacuum tube. The advent of the optical integrated circuit is expected to have the same impact on society as the electronic IC. Various optical circuit elements are interrelated to materials, therefore, the study and the better understanding of materials and processing have been receiving a great deal of attention. My research focuses on the study of optical waveguide materials and their processings in terms of passive and active optical waveguides. The first target was to establish a method for measuring the refractive index and optical propagation loss of optical waveguides. The second target was to develop passive waveguide materials which can route, split and combine optical signals on a substrate. There are several requirements for waveguiding, such as high optical transparency, proper refractive index, and proper thickness. The sol-gel technique was used to meet the requirements, and several types of organic: inorganic composite materials were developed. The third target involved the development of processing methods to fabricate channel waveguides using the above-mentioned passive and active waveguide materials. Selective laser densification was developed for sol-gel composite materials. Use of trenched substrates and photobleaching were also studied. The last target was to develop an active material which could process optical signals using the electrooptic effect. A crosslinked urethane polymer with a newly synthesized chromophore was used due to its high thermal stability and optical transparency. In order to obtain second order nonlinearity, macroscopic molecular

  13. Label-free optical activation of astrocyte in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Yoon, Jonghee; Ku, Taeyun; Choi, Kyungsun; Choi, Chulhee

    2011-07-01

    As the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, astrocyte has been one of main research topics in neuroscience. Although various tools have been developed, at present, there is no tool that allows noninvasive activation of astrocyte in vivo without genetic or pharmacological perturbation. Here we report a noninvasive label-free optical method for physiological astrocyte activation in vivo using a femtosecond pulsed laser. We showed the laser stimulation robustly induced astrocytic calcium activation in vivo and further verified physiological relevance of the calcium increase by demonstrating astrocyte mediated vasodilation in the brain. This novel optical method will facilitate noninvasive physiological study on astrocyte function.

  14. Novel cost-effective process for the replication of hybrid diffractive/refractive optical elements in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, L.C.; Nogues, J.L.; Moreshead, B.

    1998-08-01

    This CRADA between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Contractor) and GELTECH, Inc. (Participant) has demonstrated the feasibility of producing hybrid diffractive/refractive optics by a replication process which lends itself to high-volume, low-cost production. The program has built unpon unique capabilities of the Contractor and the Participant to achieve this demonstration. The Contractor has extensive experience and unique capabilities in the technology of single point diamong turning for optical components. The Participant has achieved unique success in the development of manufacturing processes for high-quality silica optical components using sol-gel technology. The merging of these two leading technologies has provided a synergism resulting in the demonstration of a manufacturing technology for cost-effective, high-volume production of silica glass precision hybrid optical components. Hybrid optical components are systems that integrate diffractive optical surfaces into lenses, resulting in designs that minimize the aberrations that degrade image quality without the need for additional glass elements. This reduces the cost, weight, and complexity of the system, while improving the overall optical efficiency. Previous applications of hybrid optical components have been primarily for infra-red applications, where diamond-turned germanium or silicon optics have been used. Hybrid optics for use in the visible have been limited to laboratory curiosities that were directly turned into plastic substrates. Through this CRADA the authors have achieved a manufacturing process for producing high quality silica glass hybrid lenses in an way that lends itself to mass production.

  15. Determination of parameters and research autoreflection scheme to measurement errors relative position of the optical elements of the Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molev, Fedor; Konyakhin, Igor; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2014-05-01

    The main advantages and disadvantages of using autoreflection and autocollimation schemes for constructing the measuring channel, which is designed to control the relative position of the elements of the optical system Space Telescope are described in this paper. Results of modeling in the Zemax software complex are given. Methods of determining the autocollimation images coordinates for calculate the error relative position of the optical system are described.

  16. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  17. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  18. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  19. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  20. Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Light and Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, David R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among…

  1. Vector Finite Element Modeling of the Full-Wave Maxwell Equations to Evaluate Power Loss in Bent Optical Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, J; Rieben, R; Rodrigue, G

    2004-12-09

    We measure the loss of power incurred by the bending of a single mode step-indexed optical fiber using vector finite element modeling of the full-wave Maxwell equations in the optical regime. We demonstrate fewer grid elements can be used to model light transmission in longer fiber lengths by using high-order basis functions in conjunction with a high order energy conserving time integration method. The power in the core is measured at several points to determine the percentage loss. We also demonstrate the effect of bending on the light polarization.

  2. A Wafer-Bonded, Floating Element Shear-Stress Sensor Using a Geometric Moire Optical Transduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Stephen; Chen, Tai-An; Chandrasekaran, Venkataraman; Tedjojuwono, Ken; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a geometric Moir optical-based floating-element shear stress sensor for wind tunnel turbulence measurements. The sensor was fabricated using an aligned wafer-bond/thin-back process producing optical gratings on the backside of a floating element and on the top surface of the support wafer. Measured results indicate a static sensitivity of 0.26 microns/Pa, a resonant frequency of 1.7 kHz, and a noise floor of 6.2 mPa/(square root)Hz.

  3. Research on producing high quality diffractive optical elements in volume at a low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschner, Walter

    1997-11-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) can be utilized in a variety of possible applications in modern optical, as well as optoelectronic systems. The current roadblock for application of DOEs in consumer products is not the feasibility of the approach, as numerous applications have been successfully demonstrated. In order for the breakthrough to occur in industry, it is important to determine a convenient and cost-effective method for manufacturing DOEs. The industry will improve the design of their legacy systems and start including DOEs only when the performance improvement (which the utilization of DOEs achieves), can be purchased with a minimal amount of additional capital investment and cost-per-part. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation was to find a cost-effective method of fabricating large quantities of DOEs with currently available fabrication tools. Direct-write approaches were investigated to fabricate high-quality masters for a subsequent replication procedure based upon molding or casting. Electron-Beam Direct-Write was carried-out in a positive Novolac-based photo-resist which provides dry etch resistivity. Another focus of this development was to find a way to minimize Electron-Beam writing time for a given element. Proximity effect characterization and compensation has been carried-out in order to increase the fidelity of the pattern reproduction. A dry-etching procedure has been developed in order to transfer resist profiles into the substrate material. During this transfer step, the etch rates of resist and substrate material can be controlled; this in turn allows a choice of final feature depth in the substrate material (depending on refractive index and wavelength in use). Two Gray-Scale masking approaches were developed to allow the cost-effective mass fabrication of DOEs in a single optical exposure step. Thin film evaporation of Inconel achieves high-quality masks at a high price. High Energy Beam Sensitive Glass, the second mask material

  4. Active stabilization of the optical part in fiber optic quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balygin, K. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    The method of active stabilization of the polarization and other parameters of the optical part of a two-pass fiber optic quantum cryptography has been proposed and implemented. The method allows the completely automated maintenance of the visibility of interference close to an ideal value ( V ≥ 0.99) and the reduction of the instrumental contribution to the error in primary keys (QBER) to 0.5%.

  5. Thermo-optic microring resonator switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsilipakos, Odysseas; Kriezis, Emmanouil E.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-04-01

    Thermo-optic switching elements made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic (DLSPP) waveguides are theoretically investigated by utilizing the three-dimensional vector finite element method. The configurations considered employ microring resonators, whose resonant frequency is varied by means of thermal tuning. First, a classic add-drop filter with parallel access waveguides is examined. Such a component features very poor drop port extinction ratio (ER). We therefore extend the analysis to add-drop filters with perpendicular access waveguides, which are found to exhibit superior drop port ERs, due to interference effects associated with the drop port transmission. In the process, the performance of a DLSPP waveguide crossing is also assessed, since it is a building block of those filters whose bus waveguides intersect. An elliptic tapering scheme is proposed for minimizing cross talk and its effect on the filter performance is explored. The dual-resonator add-drop filter with perpendicular bus waveguides and an untreated waveguide crossing of Sec. V can act as an efficient 2×2 switching element (the single-resonator variant can only act as a 1×2 switch due to structure asymmetry), possessing two equivalent input ports and featuring high ERs for both output ports over a broad wavelength range. Specifically, an extinction ratio of at least 8 dB can be attained for both output ports over a wavelength range of 3.2 nm, accommodating four 100-GHz-spaced channels. Switching times are in the order of a few microseconds, rendering the aforementioned structure capable of handling real-world routing scenarios.

  6. LRE2, an active human L1 element, has low level transcriptional activity and extremely low reverse transcriptase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.E.; Dombroski, B.A.; Sassaman, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we found a 2 kb insertion containing a rearranged L1 element plus a unique sequence component (USC) within exon 48 of the dystrophin gene of a patient with muscular dystrophy. We used the USC to clone the precursor of this insertion, the second known {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} human L1 element. The locus LRE2 (L1 Retrotransposable Element 2) has an allele derived from the patient which matches the insertion sequence exactly. LRE2 has a perfect 13-15 bp target site duplication, 2 open reading frames (ORFs), and an unusual 21 bp truncation of the 5{prime} end in a region known to be important for L1 transcription. The truncated LRE2 promoter has about 20% of the transcriptional activity of a previously studied L1 promoter after transfection into NTera2D1 cells of a construct in which the L1 promoter drives the expression of a lacZ gene. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by LRE2 is active in an in vivo pseudogene assay in yeast and an in vitro assay. However, in both assays the RT of LRE2 is 1-5% as active as that of LRE1. These data demonstrate that multiple {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} L1 elements exist in the human genome, and that active elements can have highly variable rates of transcription and reverse transcriptase activity. That the RT of LRE2 has extremely low activity suggests the possibility that retrotransposition of an L1 element may in some cases involve an RT encoded by another L1 element.

  7. Active optics: variable curvature mirrors for ELT laser guide star refocusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Vivès, Sébastien; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2011-10-01

    The future generation of Extremely Large Telescopes will require a complex combination of technologies for adaptive optics (AO) systems assisted by laser guide stars (LGS). In this context, the distance from the LGS spot to the telescope pupil ranges from about 80 to 200 km, depending on the Sodium layer altitude and the elevation of the telescope. This variation leads to a defocusing effect on the LGS wave-front sensor which needs to be compensated. We propose an active mirror able to compensate for this variation, based on an original optical design including this active optics component. This LGS Variable Curvature Mirror (LGS-VCM) is a 120 mm spherical active mirror able to achieve 820 μm deflection sag with an optical quality better than 150 nm RMS, allowing the radius of curvature variation from F/12 to F/2. Based on elasticity theory, the deformation of the metallic mirror is provided by an air pressure applied on a thin meniscus with a variable thickness distribution. In this article, we detail the analytical development leading to the specific geometry of the active component, the results of finite element analysis and the expected performances in terms of surface error versus the range of refocalisation. Three prototypes have been manufactured to compare the real behavior of the mirror and the simulations data. Results obtained on the prototypes are detailed, showing that the deformation of the VCM is very close to the simulation, and leads to a realistic active concept.

  8. Emergy of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Biologically Active Elements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimates of the emergy of elemental flows are needed to accurately evaluate the far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformity and specific emergy of the elements and of their different chemical species is also needed to quantify the inputs to many producti...

  9. Influence of optical activity on rogue waves propagating in chiral optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temgoua, D. D. Estelle; Kofane, T. C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in chiral optical fiber with right- and left-hand nonlinear polarization. We use the similarity transformation to reduce the generalized chiral NLS equation to the higher-order integrable Hirota equation. We present the first- and second-order rational solutions of the chiral NLS equation with variable and constant coefficients, based on the modified Darboux transformation method. For some specific set of parameters, the features of chiral optical rogue waves are analyzed from analytical results, showing the influence of optical activity on waves. We also generate the exact solutions of the two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which describe optical activity effects on the propagation of rogue waves, and their properties in linear and nonlinear coupling cases are investigated. The condition of modulation instability of the background reveals the existence of vector rogue waves and the number of stable and unstable branches. Controllability of chiral optical rogue waves is examined by numerical simulations and may bring potential applications in optical fibers and in many other physical systems.

  10. Influence of optical activity on rogue waves propagating in chiral optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Temgoua, D D Estelle; Kofane, T C

    2016-06-01

    We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in chiral optical fiber with right- and left-hand nonlinear polarization. We use the similarity transformation to reduce the generalized chiral NLS equation to the higher-order integrable Hirota equation. We present the first- and second-order rational solutions of the chiral NLS equation with variable and constant coefficients, based on the modified Darboux transformation method. For some specific set of parameters, the features of chiral optical rogue waves are analyzed from analytical results, showing the influence of optical activity on waves. We also generate the exact solutions of the two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which describe optical activity effects on the propagation of rogue waves, and their properties in linear and nonlinear coupling cases are investigated. The condition of modulation instability of the background reveals the existence of vector rogue waves and the number of stable and unstable branches. Controllability of chiral optical rogue waves is examined by numerical simulations and may bring potential applications in optical fibers and in many other physical systems. PMID:27415269

  11. Extremely aspheric mirrors: prototype development of an innovative manufacturing process based on active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Le Merrer, Joël.; Le Mignant, David; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of focal-plane astronomical instruments requires technological breakthroughs to reduce their system complexity while increasing their scientific performances. Applied to the optical systems, recent studies show that the use of freeform reflective optics allows competitive compact systems with less optical components. In this context, our challenge is to supply an active freeform mirror system, using a combination of different active optics techniques. The optical shape will be provided during the fabrication using the mechanical property of metals to plasticize and will be coupled with a specific actuator system to compensate for the residual form errors, during the instrument operation phase. We present in this article the development of an innovative manufacturing process based on cold hydro-forming method, with the aim to adapt it for VIS/NIR requirements in terms of optical surface quality. It can operate on thin and flat polished initial substrates. The realization of a first prototype for a 100 mm optical diameter mirror is in progress, to compare the mechanical behaviours obtained by tests and by Finite Element Analysis (FEA), for different materials. Then, the formed samples will be characterized optically. The opto-mechanical results will allow a fine tuning of FEA parameters to optimize the residual form errors obtained through this process. It concerns the microstructure considerations, the springback effects and the work hardening evolutions of the samples, depending on the initial substrate properties and the boundary conditions applied. Modeling and tests have started with axi-symmetric spherical and aspherical shapes and will continue with highly aspherics and freeforms.

  12. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    PubMed

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules leading to a perturbing influence of the asymmetric chiral environment. PMID:23932406

  13. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom.

  14. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  15. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  16. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Joseph A; Ehrmann, Paul E; Bayramian, Andrew J; Bullington, Amber; Di Nicola, Jean-Michel G; Haefner, Constantin; Jarboe, Jeffrey; Marshall, Christopher; Schaffers, Kathleen I; Smith, Cal

    2016-07-01

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry, is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique's capabilities. This high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. PMID:27409216

  17. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: Manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications

    DOE PAGES

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Ehrmann, Paul E.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Bullington, Amber; Di Nicola, Jean -Michel G.; Haefner, Constantin; Jarboe, Jeffrey; Marshall, Christopher; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Smith, Cal

    2016-03-15

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry,more » is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique’s capabilities. As a result, this high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  18. Design of an Optically Controlled MR-Compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Koh, Je-Sung; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses a low-transition-temperature shape memory alloy (LT SMA) wire actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Actuation is achieved with internal optical heating using laser light transported via optical fibers and side coupled to the LT SMA. A prototype, with a size equivalent to a standard 16-gauge biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending, with a tip deflection of more than 14° in air and 5° in hard tissue. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold-coated tip is developed to measure the curvature independently of temperature. The experimental results in tissue phantoms show that human tissue causes fast heat dissipation from the wire actuator; however, the active needle can compensate for typical targeting errors during prostate biopsy. PMID:26512231

  19. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1992-04-01

    An angular position encoder is provided that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads which incorporate beam steering optics with the ability to actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology toward the application of angular position sensing. A reflective disk and the principles of interferometry are employed. The servo-controlled steering optics move so as to acquire a track on the disk lying at a predetermined radius and distance below the head, and then adjust position and orientation in order to maintain the view of the disk track as required. Thus, the device is actively self-aligning.

  20. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1990-03-01

    An angular position encoder is provided that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads which incorporate beam steering optics with the ability to actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology toward the application of angular position sensing. A reflective disk and the principles of interferometry are employed. The servo-controlled steering optics move so as to acquire a track on the disk lying at a predetermined radius and distance below the head, and then adjust position and orientation in order to maintain the view of the disk track as required. Thus, the device is actively self-aligning.

  1. Transposable DNA elements and life history traits: II. Transposition of P DNA elements in somatic cells reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N; Barker, J S; Huai, H

    1999-01-01

    Some transposable DNA elements in higher organisms are active in somatic cells, as well as in germinal cells. What effect does the movement of DNA elements in somatic cells have on life history traits? It has previously been reported that somatically active P and mariner elements in Drosophila induce genetic damage and significantly reduce lifespan. In this study, we report that the movement of P elements in somatic cells also significantly reduces fitness, mating activity, and locomotion of Drosophila melanogaster. If other elements cause similar changes in life history traits, it is doubtful if transposable DNA elements remain active for long in somatic cells in natural populations.

  2. Fabrication of diffractive-optical elements by using halftone gray-scale masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinsong; Waddie, Andrew J.; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R.

    2002-07-01

    The fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs), especially the DOEs with variable spatial frequency features, by using halftone gray-scale masks is investigated. Three aspects of the DOEs profile infidelity have been studied. The first two infidelities are, with the reduced periods, the decrease in maximum depth in photoresist and the increase in relative transition width between adjacent ramps. Imaging error is found to be responsible for the infidelities. The infidelities can be reduced by using a certain aperture or a larger photoreduction, while proximity-printing nearly eliminates the infidelites. The third infidelity is the uncertainty of the nonlinearity between the gray values in mask data and the final depth in photoresist. Both the nonlinearity and the uncertainty of the nonlinearity can be reduced to some extent by using a reduced gamut of gray values of 0.3-0.8 and an appropriate exposure dose from the primary mask to the secondary mask before the compensation function is finally measured and imposed on the gray-scale values.

  3. Optical breast shape capture and finite-element mesh generation for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, J; Borsic, A; Halter, R J; Hartov, A; Paulsen, K D

    2011-07-01

    X-ray mammography is the standard for breast cancer screening. The development of alternative imaging modalities is desirable because mammograms expose patients to ionizing radiation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) may be used to determine tissue conductivity, a property which is an indicator of cancer presence. EIT is also a low-cost imaging solution and does not involve ionizing radiation. In breast EIT, impedance measurements are made using electrodes placed on the surface of the patient's breast. The complex conductivity of the volume of the breast is estimated by a reconstruction algorithm. EIT reconstruction is a severely ill-posed inverse problem. As a result, noisy instrumentation and incorrect modelling of the electrodes and domain shape produce significant image artefacts. In this paper, we propose a method that has the potential to reduce these errors by accurately modelling the patient breast shape. A 3D hand-held optical scanner is used to acquire the breast geometry and electrode positions. We develop methods for processing the data from the scanner and producing volume meshes accurately matching the breast surface and electrode locations, which can be used for image reconstruction. We demonstrate this method for a plaster breast phantom and a human subject. Using this approach will allow patient-specific finite-element meshes to be generated which has the potential to improve the clinical value of EIT for breast cancer diagnosis.

  4. Finite element analysis of low-cost membrane deformable mirrors for high-order adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, Robert S.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Makidon, Russell B.

    1999-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of glass membrane deformable mirror (DM) support structures intended for very high order low-stroke adaptive optics systems. We investigated commercially available piezoelectric ceramics. Piezoelectric tubes were determined to offer the largest amount of stroke for a given amount of space on the mirror surface that each actuator controls. We estimated the minimum spacing and the maximum expected stroke of such actuators. We developed a quantitative understanding of the response of a membrane mirror surface by performing a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) study. The results of the FEA analysis were used to develop a design and fabrication process for membrane deformable mirrors of 200 - 500 micron thicknesses. Several different values for glass thickness and actuator spacing were analyzed to determine the best combination of actuator stoke and surface deformation quality. We considered two deformable mirror configurations. The first configuration uses a vacuum membrane attachment system where the actuator tubes' central holes connect to an evacuated plenum, and atmospheric pressure holds the membrane against the actuators. This configuration allows the membrane to be removed from the actuators, facilitating easy replacement of the glass. The other configuration uses precision bearing balls epoxied to the ends of the actuator tubes, with the glass membrane epoxied to the ends of the ball bearings. While this kind of DM is not serviceable, it allows actuator spacings of 4 mm, in addition to large stroke. Fabrication of a prototype of the latter kind of DM was started.

  5. 360-degree three-dimensional flat panel display using holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabu, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Yusuke; Yoshimoto, Kayo; Takahashi, Hideya; Yamada, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    We proposed the 360-degree 3D display system which is composed of a flat panel display, a light control film, and holographic optical element (HOE). The HOE is a diffraction grating which is made by holography technique. HOE lens can be produced on the thin polygonal glass plate. The light control film and HOE lenses are used to control the direction of light from the flat panel display in our system. The size of proposed system depends on the size of the flat panel display is because other parts of proposed system are thin and placed on the screen of the flat panel display. HOE lenses and a light control film are used to control lights from multiple pixels of a flat panel display to multiple viewpoints. To display large 3D images and to increase viewpoints, we divided parallax images into striped images and distributed them on the display for multiple viewpoints. Therefore, observers can see the large 3D image around the system. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we made the experimental system. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we constructed the part of the proposed system. The experimental system is composed of the liquid crystal display (LCD), prototype HOE lenses, and light control films. We confirmed that experimental system can display two images to different viewpoints. This paper describes the configuration of the proposed system, and also describes the experimental result.

  6. Using binary optical elements (BOEs) to generate rectangular spots for illumination in micro flow cytometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces three rectangular quasi-flat-top spots, which are provided by binary optical elements (BOEs) and utilized for the illumination in a microflow cytometer. The three spots contain, respectively, one, two, and three rectangles (R1, R2, and R3). To test the performance of this mechanism, a microflow cytometer is established by integrating the BOEs and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing chip. Through the experiments of detecting fluorescence microbeads, the three spots present good fluorescence coefficients of variation in comparison with those derived from commercial instruments. Benefiting from a high spatial resolution, when using R1 spot, the micro flow cytometer can perform a throughput as high as 20 000 events per second (eps). Illuminated by R2 or R3 spot, one bead emits fluorescence twice or thrice, thus the velocity can be measured in real time. Besides, the R3 spot provides a long-time exposure, which is conducive to improving fluorescence intensity and the measurement stability. In brief, using the spots shaped and homogenized by BOEs for illumination can increase the performance and the functionality of a micro flow cytometer. PMID:27733892

  7. Dry photopolymer embossing: novel photoreplication technology for surface relief holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Felix P.

    1991-09-01

    Novel photoreplication technology for deep groove surface relief holographic optical elements (HOE) was developed recently at Du Pont. Dry photopolymer embossing (DPE) technology utilizes Du Pont proprietary materials and processes to replicate precisely almost any kind of surface relief or embossed holograms. Very sophisticated surface relief holograms with the high width/depth aspect ratio of 1:20 can be faithfully replicated by this technology. Dimensions of the replicated grooves or other surface relief structures vary from 0.1 micrometers to 3.5 micrometers . Such HOEs can be produced in different geometrical configurations and sizes, which are actually dictated by the master hologram. Embossed HOEs can be fabricated on a plastic film or sheet substrate of different types, thicknesses, and shapes. Glass and other inorganic materials can be also used as substrates in some applications. To replicate such deep groove surface relief HOEs, the master hologram should be recorded in metal, glass, or other hard surface material. DPE technology may provide substantial technological and economical advantages over existing conventional replication processes, such as thermo-embossing, injection molding, wet photopolymerization (2P-process), and injection-reaction molding, in replication of different types of surface relief HOEs.

  8. Finite element analysis of a variable optical attenuator based on s-shape polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jing; Wu, Lingxun; Xue, Fenglan; Hu, Jian; Fu, Yanjun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Fangren

    2016-01-01

    A variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on S-shape polymer waveguide is demonstrated at the wavelength λ = 1.55 micron. The VOA consists of straight input and output waveguides, an S-shape waveguide and a pair of deposited electrodes. The cladding material of S waveguide is Poly (methyl methacrylate/disperse red 1) (PMMA/DR1) and the core material of S waveguide is SiON. The refractive index of the polymer cladding at S waveguide is modified by the applied electric voltage. Light scatters at the S waveguide and the VOA has large energy loss in the original state at voltage-off. In the voltage-on state, the refractive index of the polymer of the S waveguide reduces, and energy loss changes as the voltage increases. The attenuation of the VOA can be controled and adjusted by the applied voltage. The beam propagation method(BPM) and finite element analysis are employed to simulate and analyse the VOA. The results show that the VOA has large variable attenuation range of 45.2dB and low insertion loss of 0.8dB.

  9. Multilevel diffractive optical element manufacture by excimer laser ablation and halftone masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentel, Francois; Fieret, Jim; Holmes, Andrew S.; Paineau, Sylvain

    2001-06-01

    A novel method is presented to manufacture multilevel diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in polymer by single- step KrF excimer laser ablation using a halftone mask. The DOEs have a typical pixel dimension of 5 micrometers and are up to 512 by 512 pixels in size. The DOEs presented are Fresnel lenses and Fourier computer generated holograms, calculated by means of a conventional iterative Fourier transform algorithm. The halftone mask is built up as an array of 5 micrometers -square pixels, each containing a rectangular or L- shaped window on an opaque background. The mask is imaged onto the polymer with a 5x, 0.13 NA reduction lens. The pixels are not resolved by the lens, so they behave simply as attenuators, allowing spatial variation of the ablation rate via the window size. The advantages of halftone mask technology over other methods, such as pixel-by-pixel ablation and multi-mask overlay, are that it is very fast regardless of DOE size, and that no high-precision motion stages and alignment are required. The challenges are that the halftone mask is specific to the etch curve of the polymer used, that precise calibration of each grey-level is required, and that the halftone mask must be calculated specifically for the imaging lens used. This paper describes the design procedures for multilevel DOEs and halftone masks, the calibration of the various levels, and some preliminary DOE test results.

  10. Compact electrostatic beam optics for multi-element focused ion beams: simulation and experiments.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jose V; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic beam optics for a multi-element focused ion beam (MEFIB) system comprising of a microwave multicusp plasma (ion) source is designed with the help of two widely known and commercially available beam simulation codes: AXCEL-INP and SIMION. The input parameters to the simulations are obtained from experiments carried out in the system. A single and a double Einzel lens system (ELS) with and without beam limiting apertures (S) have been investigated. For a 1 mm beam at the plasma electrode aperture, the rms emittance of the focused ion beam is found to reduce from ∼0.9 mm mrad for single ELS to ∼0.5 mm mrad for a double ELS, when S of 0.5 mm aperture size is employed. The emittance can be further improved to ∼0.1 mm mrad by maintaining S at ground potential, leading to reduction in beam spot size (∼10 μm). The double ELS design is optimized for different electrode geometrical parameters with tolerances of ±1 mm in electrode thickness, electrode aperture, inter electrode distance, and ±1° in electrode angle, providing a robust design. Experimental results obtained with the double ELS for the focused beam current and spot size, agree reasonably well with the simulations.

  11. Compact electrostatic beam optics for multi-element focused ion beams: Simulation and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2011-01-15

    Electrostatic beam optics for a multi-element focused ion beam (MEFIB) system comprising of a microwave multicusp plasma (ion) source is designed with the help of two widely known and commercially available beam simulation codes: AXCEL-INP and SIMION. The input parameters to the simulations are obtained from experiments carried out in the system. A single and a double Einzel lens system (ELS) with and without beam limiting apertures (S) have been investigated. For a 1 mm beam at the plasma electrode aperture, the rms emittance of the focused ion beam is found to reduce from {approx}0.9 mm mrad for single ELS to {approx}0.5 mm mrad for a double ELS, when S of 0.5 mm aperture size is employed. The emittance can be further improved to {approx}0.1 mm mrad by maintaining S at ground potential, leading to reduction in beam spot size ({approx}10 {mu}m). The double ELS design is optimized for different electrode geometrical parameters with tolerances of {+-}1 mm in electrode thickness, electrode aperture, inter electrode distance, and {+-}1{sup o} in electrode angle, providing a robust design. Experimental results obtained with the double ELS for the focused beam current and spot size, agree reasonably well with the simulations.

  12. 200-kV active optical fiber voltage transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Luo, Sunan; Ye, Miaoyuan

    1999-02-01

    The report describes a 220kV Active Optical Fiber Voltage Transformer (AOVT). The transformer is different from the passive optical fiber voltage transformer, for no optical crystal is used in the 220kV AOVT. Its principle is that a low voltage is divided for the 220kV high voltage by a capacitive divider and then is converted into a digital signal. The optical fiber is used to transfer the measured digital signal and control signal. The 220kV AOVT consists of an outdoors-high voltage measurement unit and an indoors low voltage metering and controlling unit. The optical fiber connects these units. The low voltage is effectively isolated from the high voltage by means of the optical fiber and a special power supply method which is specially designed for the outdoor high voltage unit. As a result, the safe protection is reliable for the indoor low voltage equipment and the operation staff. Compared to the conventional voltage transformer, the advantages of the 220kV AOVT are high accuracy, low cost, excellent dynamic characteristics and immunity from electromagnetic interference. The 220kV AOVT has been tested, and its accuracy could achieve +/- 0.2 percent.

  13. Performance of an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam implemented with a specific photodetection integrated circuit and a diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Quintián, Fernando Perez; Calarco, Nicolás; Lutenberg, Ariel; Lipovetzky, José

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the incremental signal produced by an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam (NDB). The NDB is generated by means of a diffractive optical element (DOE). The detection system is composed by an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) sensor. The sensor consists of an array of eight concentric annular photodiodes, each one provided with a programmable gain amplifier. In this way, the system is able to synthesize a nonuniform detectivity. The contrast, amplitude, and harmonic content of the sinusoidal output signal are analyzed. The influence of the cross talk among the annular photodiodes is placed in evidence through the dependence of the signal contrast on the wavelength.

  14. Multicolour Optical Photometry of Active Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, A.; Wade, G.; Bedard, D.

    Although broadband photometry has been used to infer information about artificial satellites since soon after the launch of Sputnik 1, the development of photometric techniques for non-resolved space object identification or characterisation has been hampered by the large number of variables involved. Many individual studies, and some long ongoing experiments, have used costly metre-class telescopes to obtain data despite other experiments demonstrating that much more flexible and affordable small aperture telescopes may be suitable for the task. In addition, due to the highly time consuming and weather dependent nature of obtaining photometric observations, many studies have suffered from data sets of limited size, or relied upon simulations to support their claims. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted with the aim of determining the utility of small aperture telescopes for conducting broadband photometry of satellites for the purpose of non-resolved space object identification and characterisation. A 14 inch Celestron CG-14 telescope was used to gain multiple night-long, high temporal resolution data sets of six active geostationary satellites. The results of the experiment cast doubt on the efficacy of some of the previous approaches to obtaining and analysing photometric data. It was discovered that geostationary satellite lightcurves can vary to a greater degree than has generally been recognised, and colour ratios vary considerably with changes in the illumination/observation geometry, making it difficult to use colour for satellite discrimination. Evidence was also detected of variations in the spectral energy distribution of sunlight reflected off satellite surface materials, which could have implications for surface material characterisation and techniques that aim to separate satellite body and solar panel contributions to the total observed spectra.

  15. Optical imaging of neural and hemodynamic brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schei, Jennifer Lynn

    Optical imaging technologies can be used to record neural and hemodynamic activity. Neural activity elicits physiological changes that alter the optical tissue properties. Specifically, changes in polarized light are concomitant with neural depolarization. We measured polarization changes from an isolated lobster nerve during action potential propagation using both reflected and transmitted light. In transmission mode, polarization changes were largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. To overcome irregular cell orientation found in the brain, we measured polarization changes from a nerve tied in a knot. Our results show that neural activation produces polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations. Neural activation expends energy resources and elicits metabolic delivery through blood vessel dilation, increasing blood flow and volume. We used spectroscopic imaging techniques combined with electrophysiological measurements to record evoked neural and hemodynamic responses from the auditory cortex of the rat. By using implantable optics, we measured responses across natural wake and sleep states, as well as responses following different amounts of sleep deprivation. During quiet sleep, evoked metabolic responses were larger compared to wake, perhaps because blood vessels were more compliant. When animals were sleep deprived, evoked hemodynamic responses were smaller following longer periods of deprivation. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic

  16. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  17. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.; Moran, Robert P.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2012-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). This device can simulate the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components will be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner so as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes which would normally occur as a result of nuclear fission and would be exposed to flowing hydrogen. Initial testing of a somewhat prototypical fuel element has been successfully performed in NTREES and the facility has now been shutdown to allow for an extensive reconfiguration of the facility which will result in a significant upgrade in its capabilities

  18. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx < 0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density functions (PSDs) over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  19. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  20. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  1. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  2. Quality assurance and quality control for thermal/optical analysis of aerosol samples for organic and elemental carbon.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Robles, Jerome; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chen, L-W Antony; Trimble, Dana L; Kohl, Steven D; Tropp, Richard J; Fung, Kochy K

    2011-12-01

    Accurate, precise, and valid organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, respectively) measurements require more effort than the routine analysis of ambient aerosol and source samples. This paper documents the quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures that should be implemented to ensure consistency of OC and EC measurements. Prior to field sampling, the appropriate filter substrate must be selected and tested for sampling effectiveness. Unexposed filters are pre-fired to remove contaminants and acceptance tested. After sampling, filters must be stored in the laboratory in clean, labeled containers under refrigeration (<4 °C) to minimize loss of semi-volatile OC. QA activities include participation in laboratory accreditation programs, external system audits, and interlaboratory comparisons. For thermal/optical carbon analyses, periodic QC tests include calibration of the flame ionization detector with different types of carbon standards, thermogram inspection, replicate analyses, quantification of trace oxygen concentrations (<100 ppmv) in the helium atmosphere, and calibration of the sample temperature sensor. These established QA/QC procedures are applicable to aerosol sampling and analysis for carbon and other chemical components. PMID:21626190

  3. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  4. Finite Element Learning Modules as Active Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ashland O.; Jensen, Daniel; Rencis, Joseph; Wood, Kristin; Wood, John; White, Christina; Raaberg, Kristen Kaufman; Coffman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of active learning is to solicit participation by students beyond the passive mode of traditional classroom lectures. Reading, writing, participating in discussions, hands-on activities, engaging in active problem solving, and collaborative learning can all be involved. The skills acquired during active learning tend to go above and…

  5. Optical ordnance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merson, J. A.; Salas, F. J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt(III) perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro- 1,3,5,7 - tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  6. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetranitro -- 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  7. Fabrication of a multichannel wavelength-division multiplexing-passive optical net demultiplexer with arrayed-waveguide gratings and diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, E; Ferstl, M; Hellmich, H; Kuhlow, B; Warmuth, C; Salgueiro, J R

    1999-05-10

    A novel, to our knowledge, integrated wavelength-division multiplexing-passive optical net demultiplexer that uses an arrayed-waveguide grating and diffractive optical elements is presented. The demultiplexer is used to distribute 1.3-microm wavelength signals and to multiplex an eight-channel wavelength-division multiplexer spectrum at a 1.55-microm wavelength. The device shows high functionality and good optical performance. The measured cross talk was less than -21 dB, and the 3-dB bandwidth was determined to be 97 GHz, which is close to the theoretical value of 93 GHz. Average losses of 4.5 and 8 dB were measured for the 1.3- and the 1.55-microm signals, respectively. PMID:18319889

  8. Fabrication of a multichannel wavelength-division multiplexing-passive optical net demultiplexer with arrayed-waveguide gratings and diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, E; Ferstl, M; Hellmich, H; Kuhlow, B; Warmuth, C; Salgueiro, J R

    1999-05-10

    A novel, to our knowledge, integrated wavelength-division multiplexing-passive optical net demultiplexer that uses an arrayed-waveguide grating and diffractive optical elements is presented. The demultiplexer is used to distribute 1.3-microm wavelength signals and to multiplex an eight-channel wavelength-division multiplexer spectrum at a 1.55-microm wavelength. The device shows high functionality and good optical performance. The measured cross talk was less than -21 dB, and the 3-dB bandwidth was determined to be 97 GHz, which is close to the theoretical value of 93 GHz. Average losses of 4.5 and 8 dB were measured for the 1.3- and the 1.55-microm signals, respectively.

  9. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results.

  10. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2005-11-01

    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  11. Continued education and experimental activities for optics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, George K.; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    2001-08-01

    Of the evidence that the optics knowledge is practically unknown for the pupils who complete Basic Education, we initiate, in 1998, a project involving teachers of the Public Network and University teachers with the objective to change this situation. The main cause of this abandonment of optics is the bad understanding by the teachers of the optic phenomena, result of their bad initial formation. Based on this situation, we developed a series of simple experimental activities that demonstrate the main concepts of optics in the program. After that, we elaborate courses of university extension, destined to the teachers of Basic Education, giving emphasis to the experimentation, using kits and demonstrations, complemented by texts, videos and group works. From 98 until now, more than 200 teachers had participated of our course, and they made a sufficiently positive evaluation of these works pointing not only the including of the optics, but also a significant change in its strategies of education, going of meeting to the new parameters of our basic education.

  12. Trace element analysis of K, U and Th in high purity materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pillalamarri, Ila

    2005-09-08

    The concept and usage of 'high purity' are explained. Trace element analysis of K, U and Th by neutron activation analysis is described, the radio-isotopes and their corresponding gamma-rays used to identify the elements are listed. The interfering elements are described. The advantages and disadvantages of using neutron activation analysis are discussed. Some examples of trace impurity determinations in high purity materials are provided.

  13. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) Upgrade Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2013-01-01

    A key technology element in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion is the development of fuel materials and components which can withstand extremely high temperatures while being exposed to flowing hydrogen. NTREES provides a cost effective method for rapidly screening of candidate fuel components with regard to their viability for use in NTR systems. The NTREES is designed to mimic the conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel elements and other components would be subjected to during reactor operation. The NTREES consists of a water cooled ASME code stamped pressure vessel and its associated control hardware and instrumentation coupled with inductive heaters to simulate the heat provided by the fission process. The NTREES has been designed to safely allow hydrogen gas to be injected into internal flow passages of an inductively heated test article mounted in the chamber.

  14. Optical sensor based system to monitor caries activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A.; Tahir, R.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the ability of a visible light based spectroscopic sensor system to monitor caries activity in saliva. In this study an optical sensor is utilized to monitor the bacterial-mediated acidogenic profile of stimulated saliva using a photosensitive pH indicator. Microbiological assessment of the saliva samples were carried out using the conventional culture methods. In addition, the shifts in the pH of saliva-sucrose samples were recorded using a pH meter. The absorption spectra obtained from the optical sensor showed peak maxima at 595nm, which decreased as a function of time. The microbiological assessment showed increase in the bacterial count as a function of time. A strong positive correlation was also observed between the rates of decrease in the absorption intensity measured using the optical sensor and the decrease in pH measured using the pH meter. This study highlights the potential advantages of using the optical sensor as a sensitive and rapid chairside system for monitoring caries activity by quantification of the acidogenic profile of saliva.

  15. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  16. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1991-01-01

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

  17. The research and realization of digital management platform for ultra-precision optical elements within life-cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Jian; Li, Lijuan; Zhou, Kun

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the information fusion, process integration, collaborative design and manufacturing for ultra-precision optical elements within life-cycle management, this paper presents a digital management platform which is based on product data and business processes by adopting the modern manufacturing technique, information technique and modern management technique. The architecture and system integration of the digital management platform are discussed in this paper. The digital management platform can realize information sharing and interaction for information-flow, control-flow and value-stream from user's needs to offline in life-cycle, and it can also enhance process control, collaborative research and service ability of ultra-precision optical elements.

  18. Modeling focusing characteristics of low Fnumber diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingguang; Tan, Jiubin

    2007-12-10

    A theoretical model is established using Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory to describe the diffraction focusing characteristics of low F-number diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by laser direct writing, and continuous-relief diffractive optical elements with a design wavelength of 441.6nm and a F-number of F/4 are fabricated and measured to verify the validity of the diffraction focusing model. The measurements made indicate that the spot size is 1.75mum and the diffraction efficiency is 70.7% at the design wavelength, which coincide well with the theoretical results: a spot size of 1.66mum and a diffraction efficiency of 71.2%.

  19. Active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; Noethe, Lothar; Magrin, Demetrio; Kuijken, Konrad; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Capaccioli, Massimo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Farinato, Jacopo; Fierro, Davide; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Savarese, Salvatore; Rakich, Andrew; Umbriaco, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the active optics system of the VLT Survey Telescope, the 2.6-m survey telescope designed for visible wavelengths of the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal, in the Atacama desert. The telescope is characterized by a wide field of view (1.42 deg diameter), leading to tighter active optics than in conventional telescopes, in particular for the alignment requirements. We discuss the effects of typical error sources on the image quality and present the specific solutions adopted for wavefront sensing and correction of the aberrations, which are based on the shaping of a monolithic primary mirror and the positioning of the secondary in five degrees of freedom. PMID:26974616

  20. Dispersion of optical activity of magnesium sulfite hexahydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, T.; Bunzarov, Zh; Iliev, I.; Petkova, P.; Tzoukrovski, Y.

    2010-11-01

    The magnesium sulfite hexahydrate (MgSO3.6H2O) crystals are unique because they are the only representative (with sodium periodate) of the crystallographic class C3 (without a center of symmetry). The crystal symmetry suggests presence of nonlinearity, piezo- and pyro-electric properties and gyrotropy as well. Single crystals of MgSO3.6H2O (pure and doped with Ni, Co and Zn) for the time being are grown only by the original method developed in the Laboratory for Crystal growth at the Faculty of Physics in Sofia University. The first results of optical activity of pure MgSO3.6H2O and Zn doped MgSO3.6H2O crystals are described and analyzed in a wide spectral range. The optical activity manifests itself in the direction (0001) as a rotation of the polarization plane.

  1. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fugui; Li, Ming; Gao, Lidan; Sheng, Weifan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-06-15

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as the subnanometer scale and that the variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a one-dimensional surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach toward effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  2. Hemodynamic responses to functional activation accessed by optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Songlin; Li, Pengcheng; Yang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xiaohua; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    A multi-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) based optical imaging system was developed to visualize the changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation following functional activation simultaneously in rodent cortex. The 2-D blood flow image was accessed by laser speckle contrast imaging, and the spectroscopic imaging of intrinsic signal was used for the calculation of oxyhemoglobin (HbO), deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration. The combination of spectroscopic imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging provides the capability to simultaneously investigate the spatial and temporal blood flow and hemoglobin concentration changes with high resolution, which may lead to a better understanding of the coupling between neuronal activation and vascular responses. The optical imaging system been built is compact and convenient to investigators. And it is reliable to acquire raw data. In present study, the hemodynamic responses to cortical spreading depression (CSD) in parietal cortex of ~-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats were demonstrated.

  3. Optical activity of transparent polymer layers characterized by spectral means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosutchi, Andreea Irina; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Zelinschi, Carmen Beatrice; Breaban, Iuliana; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2015-06-01

    The method based on the channeled spectrum, validated for inorganic optical active layers, is used now to determine the optical activity of some transparent polymer solutions in different solvents. The circular birefringence, the dispersion parameter and the specific rotation were estimated in the visible range by using the measurements of wavelengths in the channeled spectra of Hydroxypropyl cellulose in water, methanol and acetic acid. The experiments showed the specific rotation dependence on the polymer concentration and also on the solvent nature. The decrease of the specific rotation in the visible range with the increase in wavelength was evidenced. The method has some advantages as the rapidity of the experiments and the large spectral range in which it can be applied. One disadvantage is the fact that the channeled spectrum does not allow to establish the rotation sense of the electric field intensity.

  4. Subtractive 3D printing of optically active diamond structures.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aiden A; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-05-21

    Controlled fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures is an essential step in engineering of high performance photonic and optoelectronic devices. Diamond in particular has recently attracted considerable attention as a promising platform for quantum technologies, photonics and high resolution sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of optically active, functional diamond structures using gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE). The technique achieves dry chemical etching at room temperature through the dissociation of surface-adsorbed H2O molecules by energetic electrons in a water vapor environment. Parallel processing is possible by electron flood exposure and the use of an etch mask, while high resolution, mask-free, iterative editing is demonstrated by direct write etching of inclined facets of diamond microparticles. The realized structures demonstrate the potential of EBIE for the fabrication of optically active structures in diamond.

  5. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fugui; Li, Ming; Gao, Lidan; Sheng, Weifan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-06-15

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as the subnanometer scale and that the variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a one-dimensional surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach toward effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques. PMID:27304296

  6. Characterization of photoresist and simulation of a developed resist profile for the fabrication of gray-scale diffractive optic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Rak; Sierchio, Justin; Zaverton, Melissa; Kim, Youngsik; Milster, Tom D.

    2012-02-01

    We have characterized a photoresist used for the fabrication of gray-scale diffractive optic elements in terms of Dill's and Mack's model parameters. The resist model parameters were employed for the simulations of developed resist profiles for sawtooth patterns executed by solving the Eikonal equation with the fast-marching method. The simulated results were shown to be in good agreement with empirical data.

  7. Generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes of high-power femtosecond laser radiation using binary-phase diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, A. S.; Pushkarev, D. V.; Degtyarev, S. A.; Khonina, S. N.; Savel'ev, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of experiments on generation of Hermite–Gaussian modes up to the third order inclusive using binary-phase diffractive optical elements (DOEs) illuminated by subterawatt femtosecond laser pulses. We perform a compariosn of the mode formation using DOEs designed by the kinoform method and the fractional coding technique, when the DOEs are illuminated by both femtosecond radiation and cw laser radiation at close wavelengths.

  8. Element-specific soft x-ray magneto-optic rotation studies of magnetic films and multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

    1996-05-01

    Tunable multilayer linear polarizers extend magneto-optic rotation techniques that directly sense polarization changes into the 50--1,000 eV range. The resonant response at atomic core levels yields element-specific magnetic signals that can be much larger than the analogous signal in the visible. A tunable multilayer polarimeter is described, and examples of its use in early Kerr rotation hysteresis studies of Fe films and Fe/Cr multilayers are given.

  9. Active hexagonally segmented mirror to investigate new optical phasing technologies for segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Luong, Bruno; Frank, Christoph; Brast, Roland; Sedghi, Baback

    2009-11-10

    The primary mirror of the future European Extremely Large Telescope will be equipped with 984 hexagonal segments. The alignment of the segments in piston, tip, and tilt within a few nanometers requires an optical phasing sensor. A test bench has been designed to study four different optical phasing sensor technologies. The core element of the test bench is an active segmented mirror composed of 61 flat hexagonal segments with a size of 17 mm side to side. Each of them can be controlled in piston, tip, and tilt by three piezoactuators with a precision better than 1 nm. The context of this development, the requirements, the design, and the integration of this system are explained. The first results on the final precision obtained in closed-loop control are also presented.

  10. Active hexagonally segmented mirror to investigate new optical phasing technologies for segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gonté, Frédéric; Dupuy, Christophe; Luong, Bruno; Frank, Christoph; Brast, Roland; Sedghi, Baback

    2009-11-10

    The primary mirror of the future European Extremely Large Telescope will be equipped with 984 hexagonal segments. The alignment of the segments in piston, tip, and tilt within a few nanometers requires an optical phasing sensor. A test bench has been designed to study four different optical phasing sensor technologies. The core element of the test bench is an active segmented mirror composed of 61 flat hexagonal segments with a size of 17 mm side to side. Each of them can be controlled in piston, tip, and tilt by three piezoactuators with a precision better than 1 nm. The context of this development, the requirements, the design, and the integration of this system are explained. The first results on the final precision obtained in closed-loop control are also presented. PMID:19904341

  11. Synthesis of Optically Active Polystyrene Catalyzed by Monophosphine Pd Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Matthieu; Armspach, Dominique; Matt, Dominique; Osakada, Kohtaro; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2016-07-11

    Cationic Pd(II) monophosphine complexes derived from α- and β-cyclodextrins (CDs) promote the homopolymerization of styrene under carbon monoxide pressure. Although reversible CO coordination takes place under catalytic conditions according to (13) C NMR studies with (13) C-enriched CO, both complexes catalyze the formation of CO-free styrene polymers. These macromolecules display optical activity as a result of the presence of stereoregular sequences within the overall atactic polymer.

  12. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  13. Demonstrating Optical Activity Using an iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Pauline M.; Lepore, Dante M.; Morneau, Brandy N.; Barratt, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Optical activity using an iPad as a source of polarized light is demonstrated. A sample crystal or solution can be placed on the iPad running a white screen app. The sample is viewed through a polarized filter that can be rotated. This setup can be used in the laboratory or with a document camera to easily project in a large lecture hall.…

  14. Synthesis of Optically Active Polystyrene Catalyzed by Monophosphine Pd Complexes.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Matthieu; Armspach, Dominique; Matt, Dominique; Osakada, Kohtaro; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2016-07-11

    Cationic Pd(II) monophosphine complexes derived from α- and β-cyclodextrins (CDs) promote the homopolymerization of styrene under carbon monoxide pressure. Although reversible CO coordination takes place under catalytic conditions according to (13) C NMR studies with (13) C-enriched CO, both complexes catalyze the formation of CO-free styrene polymers. These macromolecules display optical activity as a result of the presence of stereoregular sequences within the overall atactic polymer. PMID:27218801

  15. Active optics control of VST telescope secondary mirror.

    PubMed

    Schipani, Pietro; D'Orsi, Sergio; Fierro, Davide; Marty, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In telescopes based on active optics, defocus and coma are usually compensated for by secondary mirror movements. They are performed at the Very Large Telescope Survey Telescope (VST) with a hexapod--a parallel robot with six degrees of freedom positioning capability. We describe the application of the two-mirror telescope theory to the VST case and the solutions adopted for the hexapod control. We present the results of performance and reliability tests performed both in the laboratory and at the telescope.

  16. Activities report of the Division of Optical Technology (FOA 33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letalick, Dietmar

    1988-11-01

    Research on hydro-optics; laser remote sensing; coherent CO2 laser radar; optical signatures; atmospheric transmission; ionizing radiation effects on electronics; fiber optics; optical processing; and terrain models is summarized.

  17. Sensing of human plasma fibrinogen on polished, chemically etched and carbon treated titanium surfaces by diffractive optical element based sensor.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Raimo; Vetterl, Vladimir; Hason, Stanislav; Tuononen, Heikki; Silvennoinen, Martti; Myller, Kari; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Vanek, Jiri; Prachar, Patrik

    2008-07-01

    Adsorption of human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) on 6 differently treated titanium samples (polished, polished and etched, and 4 titanium carbide coatings samples produced by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) method) is investigated by using diffractive optical element (DOE) sensor. Permittivity (susceptibility) change and fluctuation in optical roughness (R(opt)) of treated titanium surface in the presence of background electrolyte without and with HPF molecules are sensed by using DOE sensor and optical ellipsometry. Correlation between transmitted light and thickness of molecule layer was found. The findings allow to sense temporal organization and severity of adsorption of nano-scale HPF molecules on polished, on polished and etched, and on titanium carbide surface.

  18. Space bandwidth product enhancement of holographic display using high-order diffraction guided by holographic optical element.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Dukho; Yeom, Jiwoon; Jang, Changwon; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-12-28

    A space bandwidth product (SBP) enhancement method for holographic display using high-order diffraction of a spatial light modulator (SLM) is proposed. Among numerous high order diffraction terms, the plus-minus first and the zeroth are adopted and guided by holographic optical elements (HOEs) to an identical direction with the same intensity. By using a set of electro-shutters synchronized with corresponding order component, the system acts as if three SLMs are tiled in the horizontal direction. To confirm the feasibility of using HOE as the guiding optics for the system, several optical characteristics of the recording material are measured before using them. Furthermore, a computer generated hologram algorithm is proposed for compensating the wavefront distortion caused by use of the HOE. The demonstrated system achieves a three-fold increase in SBP of a single SLM. The results are verified experimentally. PMID:26831985

  19. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  20. Prosthetic systems for therapeutic optical activation and silencing of genetically-targeted neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jacob G.; Han, Xue; Henninger, Michael A.; Ko, Emily Y.; Qian, Xiaofeng; Franzesi, Giovanni Talei; McConnell, Jackie P.; Stern, Patrick; Desimone, Robert; Boyden, Edward S.

    2008-01-01

    Many neural disorders are associated with aberrant activity in specific cell types or neural projection pathways embedded within the densely-wired, heterogeneous matter of the brain. An ideal therapy would permit correction of activity just in specific target neurons, while leaving other neurons unaltered. Recently our lab revealed that the naturally-occurring light-activated proteins channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and halorhodopsin (Halo/NpHR) can, when genetically expressed in neurons, enable them to be safely, precisely, and reversibly activated and silenced by pulses of blue and yellow light, respectively. We here describe the ability to make specific neurons in the brain light-sensitive, using a viral approach. We also reveal the design and construction of a scalable, fully-implantable optical prosthetic capable of delivering light of appropriate intensity and wavelength to targeted neurons at arbitrary 3-D locations within the brain, enabling activation and silencing of specific neuron types at multiple locations. Finally, we demonstrate control of neural activity in the cortex of the non-human primate, a key step in the translation of such technology for human clinical use. Systems for optical targeting of specific neural circuit elements may enable a new generation of high-precision therapies for brain disorders. PMID:18458792

  1. Active phase compensation system for fiber optic holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Beheim, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optic delivery systems promise to extend the application of holography to severe environments by simplifying test configurations and permitting the laser to be remotely placed in a more benign location. However, the introduction of optical fiber leads to phase stability problems. Environmental effects cause the pathlengths of the fibers to change randomly, preventing the formation of stationary interference patterns which are required for holography. An active phase control system has been designed and used with an all-fiber optical system to stabilize the phase difference between light emitted from two fibers, and to step the phase difference by 90 deg without applying any constraints on the placement of the fibers. The accuracy of the phase steps is shown to be better than 0.02 deg., and a stable phase difference can be maintained for 30 min. This system can be applied to both conventional and electro-optic holography, as well as to any system where the maintenance of an accurate phase difference between two coherent beams is required.

  2. Neutron focusing using capillary optics and its applications to elemental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Mayer, H. H.; Mildner, D. F. R.; Lamaze, G. P.; Paul, R. L.; Lindstrom, R. M.

    1999-06-10

    Capillary optics (Kumakhov lenses) have been characterized and tested at two cold neutron beam facilities at the NIST reactor: the Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) spectrometers. Lenses of both multifiber and monolithic types focus cold neutron beams from guides of cm transverse dimensions onto a sub-mm spot size with higher current densities at the expense of the angular resolution, which is acceptable for applications employing neutron absorption. These lenses can improve the sensitivity and detection limits for NDP and PGAA measurements on small samples, and enable sample scanning to study spatial non-uniformity or to perform compositional mapping. A summary of the neutron focusing effort is given, with examples of a multifiber lens with on-axis focusing, a bender-focuser with off-axis focusing, and a monolithic lens with a more compact size. Preliminary results and existing problems in applying these lenses to NDP and PGAA are presented, and current and future directions are discussed.

  3. Building blocks for actively-aligned micro-optical systems in rapid prototyping and small series production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, Gunnar; Queisser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in utilizing fully automated machines for the assembly of microoptical systems. Such systems integrate laser sources, optical elements and detectors into tight packages, and efficiently couple light to free space beams, waveguides in optical backplanes, or optical fibers for longer reach transmission. The required electrical-optical and optical components are placed and aligned actively in more than one respect. For one, all active components are actually operated in the alignment process, and, more importantly, the placing of all components is controlled actively by camera systems and power detectors with live feedback for an optimal coupling efficiency. The total number of optical components typically is in the range of 5 to 50, whereas the number of actors with gripping tools for the actual handling and aligning is limited, with little flexibility in the gripping width. The assembly process therefore is strictly sequential and, given that an automated tool changing has not been established in this class of machines yet, there are either limitations in the geometries of components that may be used, or time-consuming interaction by human operators is needed. As a solution we propose and present lasered glass building blocks with standardized gripping geometries that enclose optical elements of various shapes and functionalities. These are cut as free form geometries with green short pulse and CO2 lasers. What seems to add cost at first rather increases freedom of design and adds an economical flexibility to create very hybrid assemblies of various micro-optical assemblies also in small numbers.

  4. Liquid gallium metal cooling for optical elements with high heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smither, Robert K.; Forster, George A.; Kot, Christian A.; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1988-04-01

    The intense photon beams from the insertion devices of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (APS) will have very high total powers, which in some cases will exceed 10 kW, spread over a few cm 2. These high heat loads will require special cooling methods for the optical elements to preserve the quality of the photon beam. A set of finite element analysis calculations were made in three dimensions to determine the temperature distributions and thermal stresses in a single crystal of silicon with heat loads of 2-20 kW. Different geometric arrangements and different cooling fluids (water, gallium, oil, Na, etc.) were considered. These data were then used in a second set of calculations to determine the distortion of the surface of the crystal and the change in the crystal plane spacing for different parts of the surface. The best heat transfer, smallest surface distortions and smallest temperature gradients on the surface of the crystals were obtained when the cooling fluid was allowed to flow through channels in the crystal. The two best fluids for room temperature operation were found to be water and liquid gallium metal. In all cases tried, the variation in temperature across the face of the crystal and the distortion of the surface was at least a factor of two less for the gallium cooling case than for the water cooling case. The water cooling was effective only for very high flow rates. These high flow rates can cause vibrations in the diffraction crystal and in its mount that can seriously degrade the quality of the diffracted photon beam. When the flow rates were decreased the gallium cooling became 3-10 times more effective. This very efficient cooling and the very low vapor pressure for liquid gallium (less than 10 -12 Torr at 100°C) make liquid gallium a very attractive cooling fluid for high vacuum synchrotron applications. A small electromagnetic induction pump for liquid Ga was built to test this cooling method. A pumping volume of 100 cm 3/s was achieved

  5. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure tested and developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed, one which is developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a~uniform distribution of low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the low EC calibration to low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produces predictions for low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), no

  6. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FT-IR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed: one developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a uniform distribution of Low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the Low EC calibration to Low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produce predictions for Low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), no bias (0.00 μg m-3, a

  7. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.

    1999-11-14

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  8. Chiral magnetic effect and natural optical activity in (Weyl) metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesin, Dmytro; Ma, Jing

    We consider the phenomenon of natural optical activity, and related chiral magnetic effect in metals with low carrier concentration. To reveal the correspondence between the two phenomena, we compute the optical conductivity of a noncentrosymmetric metal to linear order in the wave vector of the light wave, specializing to the low-frequency regime. We show that it is the orbital magnetic moment of quasiparticles that is responsible for the natural optical activity, and thus the chiral magnetic effect. While for purely static magnetic fields the chiral magnetic effect is known to have a topological origin and to be related to the presence of Berry curvature monopoles (Weyl points) in the band structure, we show that the existence of Berry monopoles is not required for the dynamic chiral magnetic effect to appear; the latter is thus not unique to Weyl metals. The magnitude of the dynamic chiral magnetic effect in a material is related to the trace of its gyrotropic tensor. We discuss the conditions under which this trace is non-zero; in noncentrosymmetric Weyl metals it is found to be proportional to the energy-space dipole moment of Berry curvature monopoles. The calculations are done within both the semiclassical kinetic equation, and Kubo linear response formalisms. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1409089.

  9. Measuring the cryogenic optical alignment between the telescope element and the instruments module of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Tony; Olczak, Eugene

    2011-09-01

    The alignment between the Aft Optical Subsystem (AOS) and the Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) is non-adjustable in orbit, so the alignment must be carefully verified in a cryogenic vacuum environment prior to launch. Optical point source locations calibrated by optical metrology instruments are imaged through the AOS onto the Science Instruments to determine focal, lateral, and clock angle alignment. The pupil image of the AOS is overlaid onto the pupil image of the NIRCam to determine the tip and tilt alignment. In addition, an image from fiducial lights at the Primary Mirror checks the pupil alignment between the telescope entrance pupil, the telescope pupil mask, and the NIRCam aperture stop. The image positions are combined to determine the relative alignment between the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the ISIM in all six degrees of freedom with corresponding alignment uncertainties. Uncertainties in the position of focused images of the test sources and images from the pupils are derived from sensitivities of an optical model of the system and the Science Instrument sensing capability. Additional uncertainty in the pupil alignment measurement is due to uncertainty in the analytical removal of gravity effects that simulate the on-orbit alignment environment.

  10. Active Optics for a Segmented Primary Mirror on a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates the active optical control of segments in the primary mirror to correct for wavefront errors in the Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA). Although an exact assessment of improvement in signal blur radius cannot be made until a more detailed preliminary structural design is completed, analytical tools are identified for a time when such designs become available. A brief survey of appropriate sensing approaches is given. Since the choice of control algorithm and architecture depends on the particular sensing system used, typical control systems, estimated complexities, and the type of equipment required are discussed. Once specific sensor and actuator systems are chosen, the overall control system can be optimized using methods identified in the literature.

  11. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  12. Optical impedance spectroscopy with single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Mendes, Sergio B

    2014-02-01

    An optical impedance spectroscopy (OIS) technique based on a single-mode electro-active-integrated optical waveguide (EA-IOW) was developed to investigate electron-transfer processes of redox adsorbates. A highly sensitive single-mode EA-IOW device was used to optically follow the time-dependent faradaic current originated from a submonolayer of cytochrome c undergoing redox exchanges driven by a harmonic modulation of the electric potential at several dc bias potentials and at several frequencies. To properly retrieve the faradaic current density from the ac-modulated optical signal, we introduce here a mathematical formalism that (i) accounts for intrinsic changes that invariably occur in the optical baseline of the EA-IOW device during potential modulation and (ii) provides accurate results for the electro-chemical parameters. We are able to optically reconstruct the faradaic current density profile against the dc bias potential in the working electrode, identify the formal potential, and determine the energy-width of the electron-transfer process. In addition, by combining the optically reconstructed faradaic signal with simple electrical measurements of impedance across the whole electrochemical cell and the capacitance of the electric double-layer, we are able to determine the time-constant connected to the redox reaction of the adsorbed protein assembly. For cytochrome c directly immobilized onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, we measured a reaction rate constant of 26.5 s(-1). Finally, we calculate the charge-transfer resistance and pseudocapacitance associated with the electron-transfer process and show that the frequency dependence of the redox reaction of the protein submonolayer follows as expected the electrical equivalent of an RC-series admittance diagram. Above all, we show here that OIS with single-mode EA-IOW's provide strong analytical signals that can be readily monitored even for small surface-densities of species involved in the redox

  13. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-28

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  14. Polymer optical fiber grating as water activity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Webb, David J.

    2014-05-01

    Controlling the water content within a product has long been required in the chemical processing, agriculture, food storage, paper manufacturing, semiconductor, pharmaceutical and fuel industries. The limitations of water content measurement as an indicator of safety and quality are attributed to differences in the strength with which water associates with other components in the product. Water activity indicates how tightly water is "bound," structurally or chemically, in products. Water absorption introduces changes in the volume and refractive index of poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA. Therefore for a grating made in PMMA based optical fiber, its wavelength is an indicator of water absorption and PMMA thus can be used as a water activity sensor. In this work we have investigated the performance of a PMMA based optical fiber grating as a water activity sensor in sugar solution, saline solution and Jet A-1 aviation fuel. Samples of sugar solution with sugar concentration from 0 to 8%, saline solution with concentration from 0 to 22%, and dried (10ppm), ambient (39ppm) and wet (68ppm) aviation fuels were used in experiments. The corresponding water activities are measured as 1.0 to 0.99 for sugar solution, 1.0 to 0.86 for saline solution, and 0.15, 0.57 and 1.0 for the aviation fuel samples. The water content in the measured samples ranges from 100% (pure water) to 10 ppm (dried aviation fuel). The PMMA based optical fiber grating exhibits good sensitivity and consistent response, and Bragg wavelength shifts as large as 3.4 nm when the sensor is transferred from dry fuel to wet fuel.

  15. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  16. Eukaryote-specific insertion elements control human ARGONAUTE slicer activity.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kotaro; Ascano, Manuel; Gogakos, Tasos; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Serganov, Artem A; Briskin, Daniel; Morozov, Pavel; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2013-06-27

    We have solved the crystal structure of human ARGONAUTE1 (hAGO1) bound to endogenous 5'-phosphorylated guide RNAs. To identify changes that evolutionarily rendered hAGO1 inactive, we compared our structure with guide-RNA-containing and cleavage-active hAGO2. Aside from mutation of a catalytic tetrad residue, proline residues at positions 670 and 675 in hAGO1 introduce a kink in the cS7 loop, forming a convex surface within the hAGO1 nucleic-acid-binding channel near the inactive catalytic site. We predicted that even upon restoration of the catalytic tetrad, hAGO1-cS7 sterically hinders the placement of a fully paired guide-target RNA duplex into the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this hypothesis, reconstitution of the catalytic tetrad with R805H led to low-level hAGO1 cleavage activity, whereas combining R805H with cS7 substitutions P670S and P675Q substantially augmented hAGO1 activity. Evolutionary amino acid changes to hAGO1 were readily reversible, suggesting that loading of guide RNA and pairing of seed-based miRNA and target RNA constrain its sequence drift.

  17. a New Concept for AN Active Element for the Large Cosmic Ray Calorimeter ANI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbuegl, F.; Gebauer, J.; Lorenz, E.; Mirzoyan, R.; Chilingarian, A.; Ferenc, D.; Jokele, B.

    2002-11-01

    For the half completed ANI sampling calorimeter (1600 m2 detection area, 6 concrete absorber layers of 1 m thickness each) at Mount Aragats, Armenia, a cheap and efficient active detector element is needed. A new concept for such a detector element and first results from a reduced size prototype are presented.

  18. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  19. Fabrication of optical element from unidirectional grown imidazole-imidazolium picrate monohydrate (IIP) organic crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of Imidazole-imidazolium picrate monohydrate (IIP) has been grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method using acetonitrile as solvent. First time we report the bulk growth of IIP crystal by SR method. The transparent IIP single crystal of maximum diameter 21 mm and length 46 mm was obtained by employing SR method. The grown crystal was subjected to high resolution X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR transmittance, refractive index, hardness, dielectric and laser damage threshold studies. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was analyzed using HRXRD. Cut off wavelength and optical transmission window of the crystal was assessed by UV-vis-NIR and the refractive index of the crystal was found. The mechanical property of the crystal was estimated by Vicker's hardness test. The dielectric property of the crystal was measured as a function of frequency. The laser damage threshold value was determined. The particle size dependent second harmonic generation efficiency for IIP was evaluated with standard reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by Kurtz-Perry powder method using Nd:YAG laser, which established the existence of phase matching. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of IIP crystal was investigated by the SHG Maker fringes technique. The mechanism of growth is revealed by carrying out chemical etching using acetonitrile as etchant.

  20. Enzymatic aerobic ring rearrangement of optically active furylcarbinols.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Daniel; Doknić, Diana; Deska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic furans are currently discussed as highly attractive alternative feedstock in a post-fossil society; thus, also the creation of sustainable furan valorization pathways appears of great importance. Here an artificial Achmatowicz monooxygenase activity for the aerobic ring expansion of furans is achieved by the combination of commercial glucose oxidase as oxygen-activating biocatalyst and wild-type chloroperoxidase as oxygen-transfer mediator, providing a biological ready-to-use solution for this truly synthetic furan rearrangement. In concert with enzymatic transformations for the enantioselective preparation of optically active furylcarbinols, purely biocatalytic reaction cascades for the stereocontrolled construction of complex pyranones are obtained, exhibiting high functional group tolerance even to oxidation-sensitive moieties. PMID:25335580

  1. Active Star Configured Fiber Optic CSMA/CD LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman, Alan K.; Smith, Robert W.; Schmidt, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of the IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet) Local Area Network (LAN) has created demand for a fiber optic physical layer implementation to address security issues, hostile electromagnetic environments, modern structured wiring requirements and distance limitations of coaxial based implementations. Active Star CSMA/CD LANs will be described in this paper which consist of a central wiring Concentrator which supports point to point fiber links to Media Access Units (Transceivers) located at the Host computers. The fiber optic Active Star configured CSMA/CD LAN implementation provides a robust network which meets all the requirements imposed on an Ethernet Physical Layer. Collision detection is reliably performed in the electrical domain of the Concentrator. Network requirements included guaranteed collision detection, network reliability and easy addition and rearrangement of host connections. In addition, the Active Star implementation can provide an increased network diameter to 4.2 km and can support the four basic multimode fiber types, simultaneously, with substantial system margins.

  2. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  3. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    PubMed Central

    Geschwindner, Stefan; Carlsson, Johan F.; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide grating (OWG), in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA) format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA). Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms. PMID:22666031

  4. Using DFT Methods to Study Activators in Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-08-17

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various activators (ranging from transition metal ions, rare-earth ions, ns2 ions, to self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons) in phosphors and scintillators are reviewed. As a single-particle ground-state theory, DFT calculations cannot reproduce the experimentally observed optical spectra, which involve transitions between multi-electronic states. However, DFT calculations can generally provide sufficiently accurate structural relaxation and distinguish different hybridization strengths between an activator and its ligands in different host compounds. This is important because the activator-ligand interaction often governs the trends in luminescence properties in phosphors and scintillators, and can be used to search for new materials. DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the host compound and the positions of the activator levels relative to the host band edges in scintillators are also important for finding optimal host-activator combinations for high light yields and fast scintillation response. Mn4+ activated red phosphors, scintillators activated by Ce3+, Eu2+, Tl+, and excitons are shown as examples of using DFT calculations in phosphor and scintillator research.

  5. Using DFT Methods to Study Activators in Optical Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-08-17

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various activators (ranging from transition metal ions, rare-earth ions, ns2 ions, to self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons) in phosphors and scintillators are reviewed. As a single-particle ground-state theory, DFT calculations cannot reproduce the experimentally observed optical spectra, which involve transitions between multi-electronic states. However, DFT calculations can generally provide sufficiently accurate structural relaxation and distinguish different hybridization strengths between an activator and its ligands in different host compounds. This is important because the activator-ligand interaction often governs the trends in luminescence properties in phosphors and scintillators, and can be used to search for new materials.more » DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the host compound and the positions of the activator levels relative to the host band edges in scintillators are also important for finding optimal host-activator combinations for high light yields and fast scintillation response. Mn4+ activated red phosphors, scintillators activated by Ce3+, Eu2+, Tl+, and excitons are shown as examples of using DFT calculations in phosphor and scintillator research.« less

  6. Entrapped elemental selenium nanoparticles affect physicochemical properties of selenium fed activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohan; Seder-Colomina, Marina; Jordan, Norbert; Dessi, Paolo; Cosmidis, Julie; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Weiss, Stephan; Farges, François; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-09-15

    Selenite containing wastewaters can be treated in activated sludge systems, where the total selenium is removed from the wastewater by the formation of elemental selenium nanoparticles, which are trapped in the biomass. No studies have been carried out so far on the characterization of selenium fed activated sludge flocs, which is important for the development of this novel selenium removal process. This study showed that more than 94% of the trapped selenium in activated sludge flocs is in the form of elemental selenium, both as amorphous/monoclinic selenium nanospheres and trigonal selenium nanorods. The entrapment of the elemental selenium nanoparticles in the selenium fed activated sludge flocs leads to faster settling rates, higher hydrophilicity and poorer dewaterability compared to the control activated sludge (i.e., not fed with selenite). The selenium fed activated sludge showed a less negative surface charge density as compared to the control activated sludge. The presence of trapped elemental selenium nanoparticles further affected the spatial distribution of Al and Mg in the activated sludge flocs. This study demonstrated that the formation and subsequent trapping of elemental selenium nanoparticles in the activated sludge flocs affects their physicochemical properties.

  7. Rapid detection of delamination areas in laminated structural elements by means of optically monitored strain solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Dreiden, G. V.; Petrov, N. V.; Samsonov, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    Modern structural elements are often made of laminated polymer materials or composites on the base of polymer matrices. The proper functioning of these elements may be of vital importance especially in automotive and aerospace industries, in gas and oil transportation. The major problem in their performance is a possibility of a sudden and irreversible delamination caused by various factors. We propose and study a NDT approach aimed to detect delamination areas in adhesively bonded layered structural elements made of different materials. The proposed approach is evaluated by use of holographic detection and monitoring of the evolution of bulk strain solitons generated in such structures.

  8. Optimal placement of active elements in control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, A. E.; Jin, I. M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for structural/control synthesis is presented in which the optimal location of active members is treated in terms of (0,1) variables. Structural member sizes, control gains and (0,1) placement variables are treated simultaneously as design variables. Optimization is carried out by generating and solving a sequence of explicit approximate problems using a branch and bound strategy. Intermediate design variable and intermediate response quantity concepts are used to enhance the quality of the approximate design problems. Numerical results for example problems are presented to illustrate the efficacy of the design procedure set forth.

  9. Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, Isabel; Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers.

  10. Calculation of optical second-harmonic susceptibilities and optical activity for crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Z.H.

    1994-12-31

    A new generation of nearly first-principles calculations predicts both the linear and second-harmonic susceptibilities for a variety of insulating crystals, including GaAs, GaP, AlAs, AlP, Se, {alpha}-quartz, and c-urea. The results are typically in agreement with experimental measurements. The calculations have been extended to optical activity, with somewhat less success to date. The theory, based on a simple self-energy correction to the local density approximation, and results are reviewed herein.

  11. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. II. thermochromatographic separation of elements in the analysis of geological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.V.; Khamatov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of difficulty soluble samples with a strongly activating substrate is discussed. The effect of sample coarseness and ore type on the rate of extraction of gold and accompanying elements was studied. The limits of detection of 22 elements were compared using neutron activation analysis with GTC and INAA. The analytical parameters of the procedure were estimated.

  12. Prediction of the applicability of active damping elements in high-precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holterman, Jan; de Vries, Theo J. A.

    2004-07-01

    The Smart Disc project at the Drebbel Institute of the University of Twente is aimed at the development of active structural elements for high-precision machines. The active elements consist of a piezoelectric position actuator and a collocated piezoelectric force sensor. As the actuators and sensors are collocated, the elements are especially suited for implementing robust active damping. The decision whether or not to incorporate active damping elements in a high-precision machine should ideally be made in an early design stage, i.e., at a time at which only limited knowledge of the vibration problem is available. Despite the uncertainties that may exist at that stage, one would like to be able to roughly predict the amount of damping that could possibly be obtained. For that reason, the present paper is concerned with the development of an analysis tool that may help in predicting the applicability of active damping elements in a mechanical structure of which only a rough model is available. Based on extensive simulations, several practical rules of thumb are given for the requirements for the mechanical structure and the active elements, in order to enable the realisation of relative damping values as high as 10%.

  13. Active mode-locked lasers and other photonic devices using electro-optic whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Techniques and devices using whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators, where the optical materials of the WGM resonators exhibit an electro-optical effect to perform optical modulation. Examples of actively mode-locked lasers and other devices are described.

  14. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results. PMID:27607946

  15. Binding among select episodic elements is altered via active short-term retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Donna J; Voss, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated memory of associated objects, which was associated with unique patterns of viewing behavior during study and enhanced ERP correlates of retrieval during test, relative to other reminder cues that were not actively retrieved. Active short-term retrieval therefore enhanced binding of retrieved elements with others, thus creating powerful memory cues for entire episodes. PMID:26179229

  16. [Relationship between soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Peng, Shaolin; Li, Zhihui; Ren, Hai; Li, Zhi'an

    2003-03-01

    Canonical correlation analysis on soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil showed that among the test elements, only Zn and Mn affected enzyme activity. Both Zn and Mn increased soil proteinase activity. Zn decreased the activities of soil urease and peroxidase, while Mn promoted them. "Integral soil enzyme factor" could be used as an index of soil fertility. Together with other growth factors, this index should be considered when evaluating soil fertility of Eucalyptus forest sites. It also had a definite significance on the division of Eucalyptus soil families. PMID:12836538

  17. Research of the use of autoreflection scheme to measure the error of the optical elements in space telescope's relative position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhova, Kseniia; Molev, Fedor; Konyakhin, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Autoreflection scheme is based on the scheme of measuring angles by autoreflection method, according to which the radiant stamp that was registered in the plane of the analysis is at a finite distance from the front of the lens. The main advantages and disadvantages of using autoreflection and autocollimation schemes for constructing the measuring channel, which is designed to control the relative position of the elements of the optical system Space Telescope are described in this paper. Results of modeling in the Zemax software complex are given.

  18. A nanohole in a thin metal film as an efficient nonlinear optical element

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinova, T. V.; Melent'ev, P. N.; Afanas'ev, A. E.; Kuzin, A. A.; Starikov, P. A.; Baturin, A. S.; Tausenev, A. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Balykin, V. I.

    2013-07-15

    The nonlinear optical properties of single nanoholes and nanoslits fabricated in gold and aluminum nanofilms are studied by third harmonic generation (THG). It is shown that the extremely high third-order optical susceptibility of aluminum and the presence of strong plasmon resonance of a single nanohole in an aluminum film make possible an efficient nanolocalized radiation source at the third harmonic frequency. The THG efficiency for a single nanohole in a thin metal film can be close to unity for an exciting laser radiation intensity on the order of 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Use of living technical budgets to manage risk on the James Webb Space Telescope optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porpora, Daniel A.; Barto, Allison A.; Lightsey, Paul A.; Knight, J. Scott

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror (PM) and Secondary Mirror (SM) are deployable relative to the rest of the optics. The PM consists of 18 assemblies which are aligned on-orbit using hexapod actuators. The complexity introduces risk that misalignments of individual components could result in a system with an unexpected optical train. In order to monitor risk throughout the life of the project, a series of interrelated technical budgets and independent cross-checks have been created and are continually updated with as-built data to provide confidence in the state of the system as well as the path to completion.

  20. Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Light and Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, David R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among the characteristics of these curricula are: (1) use of a learning cycle in which students are challenged to compare predictions—discussed with their peers in small groups—to observations of the physical world, (2) use of guided hands-on work to construct basic concepts from observations, and (3) use of computer-based tools. It has been possible to change the lecture and laboratory learning environments at a large number of universities, colleges, and high schools without changing the structure of the introductory course. For example, in the United States, nearly 200 physics departments have adopted RTP, and many others use pre-publication, open-source versions or have adopted the RTP approach to develop their own labs. Examples from RTP and ILDs (including optics magic tricks) are described in this paper.

  1. Activation of enhancer elements by the homeobox gene Cdx2 is cell line specific.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J K; Levy, T; Suh, E R; Traber, P G

    1997-01-01

    Cdx2 is a caudal-related homeodomain transcription factor that is expressed in complex patterns during mouse development and at high levels in the intestinal epithelium of adult mice. Cdx2 activates transcription of intestinal gene promoters containing specific binding sites. Moreover, Cdx2 has been shown to induce intestinal differentiation in cell lines. In this study, we show that Cdx2 is able to bind to two well defined enhancer elements in the HoxC8 gene. We then demonstrate that Cdx2 is able to activate transcription of heterologous promoters when its DNA binding element is placed in an enhancer context. Furthermore, the ability to activate enhancer elements is cell-line dependent. When the Cdx2 activation domain was linked to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, the chimeric protein was able to activate Gal4 enhancer constructs in an intestinal cell line, but was unable to activate transcription in NIH3T3 cells. These data suggest that there are cell-specific factors that allow the Cdx2 activation domain to function in the activation of enhancer elements. We hypothesize that either a co-activator protein or differential phosphorylation of the activation domain may be the mechanism for intestinal cell line-specific function of Cdx2 and possibly in other tissues in early development. PMID:9171078

  2. The microwave induced plasma with optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) in 23 elements determination in geological samples.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, P; Kozak, L; Wachelka, M; Jakubowski, K; Wybieralska, J

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the optimisation, validation and application of the microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) dedicated for a routine determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, Zn, in the geological samples. The three procedures of sample preparation has been proposed: sample digestion with the use of hydrofluoric acid for determination of total concentration of elements, extraction by aqua regia for determination of the quasi-total element concentration and extraction by hydrochloric acid solution to determine contents of the elements in acid leachable fraction. The detection limits were on the level 0.001-0.121 mg L(-1) (from 0.010-0.10 to 1.2-12 mg kg(-1) depend on the samples preparation procedure); the precision: 0.20-1.37%; accuracy 85-115% (for recovery for certified standards materials analysis and parallel analysis by independent analytical techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS)). The conformity of the results obtained by MIP-OES analytical procedures with the results obtained by XRF and FAAS analysis allows to propose the procedures for studies of elemental composition of the fraction of the geological samples. Additionally, the MIP-OES technique is much less expensive than ICP techniques and much less time-consuming than AAS techniques.

  3. The effect of an elemental diet with and without gluten on disease activity in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    PubMed

    Kadunce, D P; McMurry, M P; Avots-Avotins, A; Chandler, J P; Meyer, L J; Zone, J J

    1991-08-01

    Elemental diets are reported to decrease activity of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. We tested the hypothesis that gluten, given in addition to an elemental diet, is responsible for the intestinal abnormalities, cutaneous immunoreactant deposition, and skin disease activity in dermatitis herpetiformis. At entry eight patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, who were consuming unrestricted diets, were stabilized on their suppressive medications at dosage levels that allowed individual lesions to erupt. Six patients were then given an elemental diet plus 30 of gluten for 2 weeks, followed by the elemental diet alone for 2 weeks. Conversely, two patients received an elemental diet alone for 2 weeks followed by an elemental diet plus gluten during the final 2 weeks. Small bowel biopsies, skin biopsies, and clinical assessments were done at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Suppressive medication dose requirement decreased over the 4 weeks by a mean of 66%. Six of eight subjects significantly improved clinically during the gluten-challenge phase of the elemental diet and all were improved at the end of the study. The amount of IgA in perilesional skin did not change significantly, but the amount of C3 increased in five of seven evaluable subjects after gluten challenge. Circulating anti-gluten and anti-endomysial antibodies were not significantly affected by the diets. All subjects completing evaluable small bowel biopsies (seven of seven) demonstrated worsening of their villus architecture (by scanning electron microscopy and intraepithelial lymphocyte counts) during gluten challenge and improvement (six of six subjects) after 2 weeks of elemental dietary intake. We conclude that 1) there is a significant improvement in clinical disease activity on an elemental diet, independent of gluten administration, 2) small bowel morphology improves rapidly on an elemental diet, and 3) complement deposition but neither IgA deposition nor circulating antibody levels correlate with gluten

  4. Surface micro-structuring of glassy carbon for precision glass molding of diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Glassy carbon is used nowadays for a variety of applications because of its mechanical strength, thermal stability and non-sticking adhesion properties. This makes it also a suitable candidate as mold material for precision compression molding of low and high glass-transition temperature materials. To fabricate molds for diffractive optics a highresolution structuring technique is needed. We introduce a process that allows the micro-structuring of glassy carbon by reactive ion etching. Key parameters such as uniformity, surface roughness, edge definition and lateral resolution are discussed. They are the most relevant parameters for a stamp in optical applications. The use of titanium as a hard mask makes it possible to achieve a reasonable selectivity of 4:1, which has so far been one of the main problems in microstructuring of glassy carbon. We investigate the titanium surface structure with its 5-10 nm thick layer of TiO2 grains and its influence on the shape of the hard mask. In our fabrication procedure we were able to realize optically flat diffractive structures with slope angles of more than 80° at typical feature sizes of 5 μm and at 700 nm depth. The fabricated glassy carbon molds were applied to thermal imprinting onto different glasses. Glassy carbon molds with 1 mm thickness were tested with binary optical structures. Our experiments show the suitability of glassy carbon as molds for cost efficient mass production with a high quality.

  5. Standards: a key element of optical design, engineering productivity, and time to market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.; Aikens, David M.

    2014-12-01

    Standards provide a conduit for understanding and communication in the global optics industry. Proper use and knowledge of standards is beneficial to global commerce and increases productivity. In this paper the design utility and efficiency afforded by standards is shown with examples that are congruent with current ANSI and ISO published documents.

  6. Heavy metals and rare earth elements source-sink in some Egyptian cigarettes as determined by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nada, A; Abdel-Wahab, M; Sroor, A; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel-Sabour, M F

    1999-07-01

    Heavy metals and rare earth elements in two types of cigarettes were studied. The contents of trace elements were determined by using delayed neutron activation analysis. In the present study 11 elements have been detected in popular and fine brand cigarettes marketed in Egypt. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for smokers is briefly discussed. The material balance (source and sink) for each element was determined. Also the ratio of element recovery to the total amount was assessed.

  7. Heavy metals and rare earth elements source-sink in some Egyptian cigarettes as determined by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nada, A; Abdel-Wahab, M; Sroor, A; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel-Sabour, M F

    1999-07-01

    Heavy metals and rare earth elements in two types of cigarettes were studied. The contents of trace elements were determined by using delayed neutron activation analysis. In the present study 11 elements have been detected in popular and fine brand cigarettes marketed in Egypt. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for smokers is briefly discussed. The material balance (source and sink) for each element was determined. Also the ratio of element recovery to the total amount was assessed. PMID:10376325

  8. The use of optical fibers in the Trans Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER)

    SciTech Connect

    Sposato, S. H.; Binns, W. R.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Epstein, J. W.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Barbier, L. M.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Nolfo, G. A. de; Mewaldt, R. A.; Shindler, S. M.; Waddington, C. J.

    1998-11-09

    TIGER, the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder, is a cosmic-ray balloon borne experiment that utilizes a scintillating Fiber Hodoscope/Time of Flight (TOF) counter. It was flown aboard a high altitude balloon on September 24, 1997. The objective of this experiment is to measure the elemental abundances of all nuclei within the charge range: 26{<=}Z{<=}40. This initial balloon flight will test the detector concept, which will be used in future balloon and space experiments. The instrument and the fiber detector are described.

  9. Modified sensing element of a fibre-optic current sensor based on a low-eigenellipticity spun fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V; Morshnev, S K; Starostin, N I; Gubin, V P

    2014-10-31

    We have proposed and investigated a modified sensing element of a spun fibre current sensor for the case when the beat length of the built-in linear birefringence of the fibre is equal to or less than the spin pitch of its helical structure. The proposed configuration makes it possible to restore the interferometer contrast reduced because of the decrease in the ellipticity of the wavelength-averaged polarisation state of radiation propagating in such spun fibre. The modified sensing element contains two polarisation state converters: one, located at the spun fibre input, produces polarisation with ellipticity equal to the eigenellipticity of the fibre, and the other ensures conversion of the elliptical polarisation to an orthogonal one through mirror reflection at the fibre output. We have also demonstrated that the magneto-optical sensitivity decreases slightly for the analysed spectrum-averaged parameters of the polarisation state of radiation in the spun fibre. Experimental data lend support to the theoretical predictions. (fibre-optic sensors)

  10. Differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography microscopy based on a single-optical-element.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Both digital in-line holography (DIH) and zone plate-based microscopy have received considerable interest as powerful imaging tools. However, the former suffers from a twin-image noise problem. The latter suffers from low efficiency and difficulty in fabrication. Here, we present an effective and efficient phase-contrast imaging approach, named differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography (DIC-DIH), by using a single optical element to split the incident light into a plane wave and a converging spherical wave and generate a two-dimensional (2D) DIC effect simultaneously. Specifically, to improve image contrast, we present a new single optical element, termed 2D DIC compound photon sieves, by combining two overlaid binary gratings and a compound photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem and improve image contrast with high efficiency. Additionally, we present an example of the phase-contrast imaging nonuniform thick photoresist development process.

  11. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  12. Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity and Key Parameters in High-Latitude Ionosphere-Basic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, W.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic activity and related events in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere is an important task of the Space Weather program. Prediction reliability is dependent on the prediction method and elements included in the prediction scheme. Two main elements are a suitable geomagnetic activity index and coupling function -- the combination of solar wind parameters providing the best correlation between upstream solar wind data and geomagnetic activity. The appropriate choice of these two elements is imperative for any reliable prediction model. The purpose of this work was to elaborate on these two elements -- the appropriate geomagnetic activity index and the coupling function -- and investigate the opportunity to improve the reliability of the prediction of geomagnetic activity and other events in the Earth's magnetosphere. The new polar magnetic index of geomagnetic activity and the new version of the coupling function lead to a significant increase in the reliability of predicting the geomagnetic activity and some key parameters, such as cross-polar cap voltage and total Joule heating in high-latitude ionosphere, which play a very important role in the development of geomagnetic and other activity in the Earth s magnetosphere, and are widely used as key input parameters in modeling magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  13. EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON ADSORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses experiments using activated carbon to capture elemental mercury (Hgo), and a bench-scale dixed-bed reactor and a flow reactor to determine the role of surface moisture in Hgo adsorption. Three activated-carbon samples, with different pore structure and ash co...

  14. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  15. IN-FLIGHT CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY A CHLORINE-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the in-flight capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) by a chlorine (C1)-impregnated activated carbon. Efforts to develop sorbents for the control of Hg emissions have demonstrated that C1-impregnation of virgin activated carbons using dilute solutions of hydrogen ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A CL-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ENTRAINED-FLOW CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to discern the role of an activated carbon's surface functional groups on the adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] and mercuric chloride demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) impregnation of a virgin activated carbon using dilute solutions of hydrogen chloride leads to incre...

  17. Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayi; Laiwalla, Farah; Kim, Jennifer A; Urabe, Hayato; Van Wagenen, Rick; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Connors, Barry W; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2010-01-01

    Neural stimulation with high spatial and temporal precision is desirable both for studying the real-time dynamics of neural networks and for prospective clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Optical stimulation of genetically targeted neurons expressing the light sensitive channel protein Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) has recently been reported as a means for millisecond temporal control of neuronal spiking activities with cell-type selectivity. This offers the prospect of enabling local delivery of optical stimulation and the simultaneous monitoring of the neural activity by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (‘optrode’) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array. PMID:19721185

  18. Optical fiber humidity sensor with PVDF thin film as sensitive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaobing; Yang, Minghong; Dai, Jixiang; Liu, Hongliang; Yin, Dan; Dong, Lijie

    2010-11-01

    A novel optical fiber humidity sensor using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as sensitive material was proposed in this paper. Three-layer coating was deposited on the end-face of optical fiber, which constructs an extrinsic Fabry-Perot (F-P) interference structure. Ag layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering was used as mirror layer in the F-P interference structure. PVDF layer was realized with Czochralski method as F-P cavity. Simulation was performed using data fitting to analysis the relevant parameters on sensor performance. Experimental result shows the interference fringe shifts to longer wavelength when relative humidity increases. The fringe shifted 2.4nm with a good linearity response when relative humidity increases from 11% to 97%. The linearity of interference fringe shift to relative humidity was 0.98415, the response time was less than 1min.

  19. Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary two-mode coherent state using only linear optics elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phien, Ho Ngoc; An, Nguyen Ba

    2008-04-01

    We propose a linear optics scheme to teleport an arbitrary two-mode coherent state. The devices used are beam-splitters, phase-shifters and ideal photo-detectors capable of distinguishing between even and odd photon numbers. The scheme achieves faithful teleportation with a probability of 1/4. However, with additional use of an appropriate displacement operator, the teleported state can always be made near-faithful.

  20. Optical Properties of Anisotropic Polycrystalline Ce+3 activated LSO

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudesna; Lingertat, Helmut; Brecher, Charles; Sarin, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline cerium activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO:Ce) is highly desirable technique to make cost effective and highly reproducible radiation detectors for medical imaging. In this article methods to improve transparency in polycrystalline LSO:Ce were explored. Two commercially available powders of different particulate sizes (average particle size 30 and 1500 nm) were evaluated for producing dense LSO:Ce by pressure assisted densification routes, such as hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing. Consolidation of the powders at optimum conditions produced three polycrystalline ceramics with average grain sizes of 500 nm, 700 and 2000 nm. Microstructural evolution studies showed that for grain sizes larger than 1 µm, anisotropy in thermal expansion coefficient and elastic constants of LSO, resulted in residual stress at grain boundaries and triple points that led to intragranular microcracking. However, reducing the grain size below 1 µm effectively avoids microcracking, leading to more favorable optical properties. The optical scattering profiles generated by a Stover scatterometer, measured by a He-Ne laser of wavelength 633 nm, showed that by reducing the grain size from 2 µm to 500 nm, the in-line transmission increased by a factor of 103. Although these values were encouraging and showed that small changes in grain size could increase transmission by almost 3 orders of magnitude, even smaller grain sizes need to be achieved in order to get truly transparent material with high in-line transmission. PMID:23505329

  1. Optical Properties of Active Regions in Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyksik, M.; Motyka, M.; Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Pucicki, D.; Kosiel, K.; Sankowska, I.; Kubacka-Traczyk, J.; Bugajski, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice, with layers' sequence and compositions imitating the active and injector regions of a quantum cascade laser designed for emission in the terahertz spectral range, was investigated. Three independent absorption-like optical spectroscopy techniques were employed in order to study the band structure of the minibands formed within the conduction band. Photoreflectance measurements provided information about interband transitions in the investigated system. Common transmission spectra revealed, in the target range of intraband transitions, mainly a number of lines associated with the phonon-related processes, including two-phonon absorption. In contrast, differential transmittance realized by means of Fourier-transform spectroscopy was utilized to probe the confined states of the conduction band. The obtained energy separation between the second and third confined electron levels, expected to be predominantly contributing to the lasing, was found to be ~9 meV. The optical spectroscopy measurements were supported by numerical calculations performed in the effective mass approximation and XRD measurements for layers' width verification. The calculated energy spacings are in a good agreement with the experimental values.

  2. Isomorphisms between psychological processes and neural mechanisms: from stimulus elements to genetic markers of activity.

    PubMed

    Fanselow, Michael S; Zelikowsky, Moriel; Perusini, Jennifer; Barrera, Vanessa Rodriguez; Hersman, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Traditional learning theory has developed models that can accurately predict and describe the course of learned behavior. These "psychological process" models rely on hypothetical constructs that are usually thought to be not directly measurable or manipulable. Recently, and mostly in parallel, the neural mechanisms underlying learning have been fairly well elucidated. The argument in this essay is that we can successfully uncover isomorphisms between process and mechanism and that this effort will help advance our theories about both processes and mechanisms. We start with a brief review of error-correction circuits as a successful example. Then we turn to the concept of stimulus elements, where the conditional stimulus is hypothesized to be constructed of a multitude of elements only some of which are sampled during any given experience. We discuss such elements with respect to how they explain acquisition of associative strength as an incremental process. Then we propose that for fear conditioning, stimulus elements and basolateral amygdala projection neurons are isomorphic and that the activational state of these "elements" can be monitored by the expression of the mRNA for activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (ARC). Finally we apply these ideas to analyze recent data examining ARC expression during contextual fear conditioning and find that there are indeed many similarities between stimulus elements and amygdala neurons. The data also suggest some revisions in the conceptualization of how the population of stimulus elements is sampled from.

  3. Intercomparison of thermal and optical measurement methods for elemental carbon and black carbon at an urban location.

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, R; Petzold, A; Bauer, H; Ctyroky, P; Pouresmaeil, P; Laskus, L; Puxbaum, H

    2006-10-15

    Despite intensive efforts during the past 20 years, no generally accepted standard method exists to measure black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC). Data on BC and EC concentrations are method specific and can differ widely (e.g. Schmid et al., 2001, ten Brink et al., 2004). In this study, a comprehensive set of methods (both optical and thermal) is compared. Measurements were performed under urban background conditions in Vienna, Austria, a city heavily impacted by diesel emissions. Filter and impactor samples were taken during 3 weeks in summer 2002 and analyzed for EC with thermal methods: a modified Cachier method (Cachier et al., 1989), a thermal-optical method (Schmid et al., 2001), and the VDI method (VDI, 1996); for BC with optical methods: a filter transmission method and the integrating sphere method (Hitzenberger et al., 1996); and for total carbon (TC) with a combustion method (Puxbaum and Rendl, 1983). The online methods aethalometer (Hansen et al., 1984) and the multiangle absorption photometer MAAP (Petzold et al., 2002) to measure BC were also used. The average values of BC and EC obtained with the methods agreed within their standard deviations. A conversion table was set up to allow comparisons between data measured elsewhere under urban background conditions (with similar source characteristics) with different instruments. An approach to estimate the absorption coefficient from attenuation data is derived so that existing records of aethalometer data in urban environments may be used to obtain also the absorption coefficients.

  4. Diffractive optical elements with an increased angular and wavelength range of operation for application in solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, H.; Naydenova, I.; Martin, S.

    2015-05-01

    A holographic device characterised by a large angular and wavelength range of operation is under development. It aims to improve the efficiency of solar energy concentration in solar cells. The aim of this study is to increase the angular and wavelength range of the gratings by stacking three layers of high efficiency gratings on top of each other so that light from a moving source, such as the sun, is collected from a broad range of angles. In order to increase the angle and the wavelength range of operation of the holographic device, low spatial frequency of holographic recording is preferable. Recording at low spatial frequency requires a photopolymer material with unique properties, such as fast monomer/monomers diffusion rate/rates. An acrylamide-based photopolymer developed at the Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics has been used in this study. This material has fast diffusion rates and has previously demonstrated very good performance at low spatial frequency, where gratings of 90% diffraction efficiency at 300 lines/ mm spatial frequency were recorded in layers of 75 μm thickness. This paper will study the angular selectivity of a device consisting of stacked layer of Difftactive Optical Elements ( DOEs) recorded at range of angles at spatial frequency of 300 lines/mm with recording intensity of 1 mW/cm2. The optical recording process and the properties of the multilayer structure are described and discussed.

  5. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    PubMed

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  6. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k(o) neutron activation analysis

    PubMed

    Acharya; Mondal; Burte; Nair; Reddy; Reddy; Reddy; Manohar

    2000-12-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k0 method (k0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method. PMID:11077961

  7. Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurrence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  8. Identification of three kinds of mutually related composite elements conferring S phase-specific transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Taoka, K; Kaya, H; Nakayama, T; Araki, T; Meshi, T; Iwabuchi, M

    1999-06-01

    Conservation of the Oct motif (CGCGGATC) is a remarkable feature of plant histone gene promoters. Many of the Oct motifs are paired with a distinct motif, Hex, TCA or CCAAT-box, constituting the type I element (CCACGTCANCGATCCGCG), type II element (TCACGCGGATC) and type III element (GATCCGCG-N14-ACCAATCA). To clarify the roles of these Oct-containing composite elements (OCEs) in cell cycle-dependent and tissue-specific expression, we performed gain-of-function experiments with transgenic tobacco cell lines and plants harboring a derivative of the 35S core promoter/beta-glucuronidase fusion gene in which three or four copies of an OCE had been placed upstream. Although their activities were slightly different, results showed that each of the three types of OCEs could confer the ability to direct S phase-specific expression on a heterologous promoter. In transgenic plants, the type I and III elements exhibited a similar activity, directing expression in meristematic tissues, whereas the activity of the type II element appeared to be restricted to young cotyledons and maturating guard cells. Mutational analyses demonstrated that the co-operation of Oct with another module (Hex, TCA or CCAAT-box) was absolutely required for both temporal and spatial regulation. Thus, OCEs play a pivotal role in regulation of the expression of plant histone genes.

  9. Determination of Interesting Toxicological Elements in PM2.5 by Neutron and Photon Activation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Capannesi, Geraldo; Lopez, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Human activities introduce compounds increasing levels of many dangerous species for environment and population. In this way, trace elements in airborne particulate have a preeminent position due to toxic element presence affecting the biological systems. The main problem is the analytical determination of such species at ultratrace levels: a very specific methodology is necessary with regard to the accuracy and precision and contamination problems. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis assure these requirements. A retrospective element analysis in airborne particulate collected in the last 4 decades has been carried out for studying their trend. The samples were collected in urban location in order to determine only effects due to global aerosol circulation; semiannual samples have been used to characterize the summer/winter behavior of natural and artificial origin. The levels of natural origin element are higher than those in other countries owing to geological and meteorological factors peculiar to Central Italy. The levels of artificial elements are sometimes less than those in other countries, suggesting a less polluted general situation for Central Italy. However, for a few elements (e.g., Pb) the levels measured are only slight lower than those proposed as air ambient standard. PMID:23878525

  10. CMOS Imaging Device for Optical Imaging of Biological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishido, Sanshiro; Oguro, Yasuhiro; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    In this paper, we propose a CMOS image sensor device placed on the brain surface or cerebral sulcus (Fig. 1). The device has a photo detector array where a single optical detector is usually used. The proposed imaging device enables the analysis which reflects a surface blood pattern in the observed area. It is also possible to improve effective sensitivity by image processing and to simplify the measurement system by the CMOS sensor device with on-chip light source. We describe the design details and characterization of proposed device. We also demonstrate detection of hemoglobin oxygenation level with external light source, imaging capability of biological activities, and image processing for sensitivity improvement is also realized.

  11. Optically Active Hybrid Materials Constructed from Helically Substituted Polyacetylenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanyu; Zhao, Biao; Deng, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Functional materials derived from synthetic helical polymers are attracting increasing interest. Helically substituted polyacetylenes (HSPAs) are especially interesting as typical artificial helical polymers. In recent years, we designed and prepared a series of functional materials based on HSPAs and inorganic materials. The target is to establish some novel hybrid materials that combine the superior properties of both. The examined inorganic materials include silica, graphene, and magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Such new functional materials hold great promise and are expected to find practical applications, for instance, as chiral absorbents, chiral sensors, chiral selectors for inducing enantioselective crystallization, chiral catalysts towards asymmetric catalysis, and chiral carriers for enantioselective release. The Personal Account summarizes our major achievements in preparing optically active hybrid materials. We hope it will speed up progress in chiral-related research areas.

  12. Sensor data fusion of optical and active radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Johan; Gustafsson, Ulf; Crona, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    In this paper two different methods for fusing data from optical and active radar sensors are studied. The first method fuses data prior to feature extraction and the second method fuses data, in a more traditional way, after feature extraction. The advantage of fusing before feature extraction is that no information is lost prior to the fusion. The sensor data share one common dimension, namely azimuth, but the radar suffers from lower resolution. The algorithms are tested on real measurements from Ku- and millimeter wave radar combined with infrared or TV-camera. The study is in its initial phase and the two methods studied are simple in nature. The study aims to reveal differences between a raw data method and a feature-based method and should later result in a more complex and robust method.

  13. Design example for the use of hybrid optical elements in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Riedl, M J

    1996-12-01

    The Petzval objective is an effective design form for IR camera systems. It has excellent performance characteristics for high-aperture applications. Its field coverage is limited to a few degrees by the uncorrected Petzval sum.

    Using a hybrid aspheric/diffractive front element, it is possible to achieve broadband color correction over the 3-5 µm or 8-12 µm region using only one lens material. For the long wavelength region, Germanium is typically used (except when the application environment is expected to exceed 60° C where Ge becomes opaque). This hybrid combination allows for the correction of the spherical and chromatic aberrations.

    The advantage of the high precision obtainable with diamond turning makes it possible to generate simultaneously the diffractive phase profile superimposed on the aspheric surface. To protect the diffractive profile from the environment, it is placed on the rear surface of the first element.

  14. Effect of microbial activity on trace element release from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shabnam; Richards, Brian K; Hay, Anthony G; Tsai, Christine C; McBride, Murray B; Baveye, Philippe; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2003-08-01

    The microbial role in mobilization of trace elements from land-applied wastewater sludge is not well-defined. Our study examined the leachability of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, S, and Zn) from dewatered sludge as affected by treatments designed to alter microbial activity. Different levels of microbial activity were achieved by incubating sludge columns at 4, 16, 28, and 37 degrees C and by the addition of AgNO3 biocide at each temperature. Columns (with inert glass bead support beds) were subjected to six consecutive incubation-leaching cycles, each consisting of 7.3-d incubation followed by 16-h leaching with synthetic acid rain. Glucose mineralization tests were used to assess overall microbial activity. Significant acidification and trace element leaching occurred when conditions favored microbial activity (16 and 28 degrees C). Extent of mobilization was element-specific with Zn, Ni, and Cu showing the greatest mobilization (99, 67, and 57%, respectively). Mobilization was reduced but still substantial at 4 degrees C. Conditions that best inhibited microbial activity (37 degrees C or biocide at any temperature) resulted in the least mobilization. Characterization of enrichments performed using thiosulfate as the sole energy source revealed the presence of both known and putative S-oxidizing bacteria in the sludge. The results suggest that microbial acidification via S oxidation can mobilize trace elements from sludge. Elemental mobility in field situations would also be governed by other factors, including the capacity of soil to buffer acidification and to adsorb mobilized elements.

  15. Optically powered active sensing system for Internet Of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chen; Wang, Jin; Yin, Long; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Jian; Wan, Hongdan

    2014-10-01

    Internet Of Things (IOT) drives a significant increase in the extent and type of sensing technology and equipment. Sensors, instrumentation, control electronics, data logging and transmission units comprising such sensing systems will all require to be powered. Conventionally, electrical powering is supplied by batteries or/and electric power cables. The power supply by batteries usually has a limited lifetime, while the electric power cables are susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In fact, the electromagnetic interference is the key issue limiting the power supply in the strong electromagnetic radiation area and other extreme environments. The novel alternative method of power supply is power over fiber (PoF) technique. As fibers are used as power supply lines instead, the delivery of the power is inherently immune to electromagnetic radiation, and avoids cumbersome shielding of power lines. Such a safer power supply mode would be a promising candidate for applications in IOT. In this work, we built up optically powered active sensing system, supplying uninterrupted power for the remote active sensors and communication modules. Also, we proposed a novel maximum power point tracking technique for photovoltaic power convertors. In our system, the actual output efficiency greater than 40% within 1W laser power. After 1km fiber transmission and opto-electric power conversion, a stable electric power of 210mW was obtained, which is sufficient for operating an active sensing system.

  16. Spectroscopic sensing of reflection optical activity in achiral AgGaS₂.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2015-09-15

    Optical activity is a fundamental effect of electrodynamics that was discovered more than 200 years ago. While optical activity is typically recognized by the rotation of the polarization of light as it propagates through a bulk medium, in certain configurations, the specular reflection of light on the surface of a material is also sensitive to its optical activity. Here, we show that the ellipsometric analysis of the light reflected at the surface of a gyrotropic but achiral crystal of AgGaS(2) allows the spectroscopic determination of its optical activity above the bandgap, where transmission methods are not applicable. This is the first clear spectroscopic determination of reflection optical activity in a crystal, and the values obtained are, to the best of our knowledge, the largest ever reported for a natural material. We also demonstrate that normal incidence transmission and reflection measurements probe different aspects of optical activity.

  17. Spectroscopic sensing of reflection optical activity in achiral AgGaS₂.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2015-09-15

    Optical activity is a fundamental effect of electrodynamics that was discovered more than 200 years ago. While optical activity is typically recognized by the rotation of the polarization of light as it propagates through a bulk medium, in certain configurations, the specular reflection of light on the surface of a material is also sensitive to its optical activity. Here, we show that the ellipsometric analysis of the light reflected at the surface of a gyrotropic but achiral crystal of AgGaS(2) allows the spectroscopic determination of its optical activity above the bandgap, where transmission methods are not applicable. This is the first clear spectroscopic determination of reflection optical activity in a crystal, and the values obtained are, to the best of our knowledge, the largest ever reported for a natural material. We also demonstrate that normal incidence transmission and reflection measurements probe different aspects of optical activity. PMID:26371915

  18. Miniature lightweight X-ray optics (MiXO) for surface elemental composition mapping of asteroids and comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jaesub; Romaine, Suzanne

    2016-02-01

    The compositions of diverse planetary bodies are of fundamental interest to planetary science, providing clues to the formation and evolutionary history of the target bodies and the solar system as a whole. Utilizing the X-ray fluorescence unique to each atomic element, X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of diverse planetary bodies. Until now the mass and volume of focusing X-ray optics have been too large for resource-limited in situ missions, so near-target X-ray observations of planetary bodies have been limited to simple collimator-type X-ray instruments. We introduce a new Miniature lightweight Wolter-I focusing X-ray Optics (MiXO) using metal-ceramic hybrid X-ray mirrors based on electroformed nickel replication and plasma thermal spray processes. MiXO can enable compact, powerful imaging X-ray telescopes suitable for future planetary missions. We illustrate the need for focusing X-ray optics in observing relatively small planetary bodies such as asteroids and comet nuclei. We present a few example configurations of MiXO telescopes and demonstrate their superior performance in comparison to an alternative approach, micro-pore optics, which is being employed for the first planetary focusing X-ray telescope, the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer-T onboard Bepicolumbo. X-ray imaging spectroscopy using MiXO will open a large new discovery space in planetary science and will greatly enhance our understanding of the nature and origin of diverse planetary bodies.

  19. Thermal/Optical Methods for Elemental Carbon Quantification in Soils and Urban Dusts: Equivalence of Different Analysis Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongming; Chen, Antony; Cao, Junji; Fung, Kochy; Ho, Fai; Yan, Beizhan; Zhan, Changlin; Liu, Suixin; Wei, Chong; An, Zhisheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying elemental carbon (EC) content in geological samples is challenging due to interferences of crustal, salt, and organic material. Thermal/optical analysis, combined with acid pretreatment, represents a feasible approach. However, the consistency of various thermal/optical analysis protocols for this type of samples has never been examined. In this study, urban street dust and soil samples from Baoji, China were pretreated with acids and analyzed with four thermal/optical protocols to investigate how analytical conditions and optical correction affect EC measurement. The EC values measured with reflectance correction (ECR) were found always higher and less sensitive to temperature program than the EC values measured with transmittance correction (ECT). A high-temperature method with extended heating times (STN120) showed the highest ECT/ECR ratio (0.86) while a low-temperature protocol (IMPROVE-550), with heating time adjusted for sample loading, showed the lowest (0.53). STN ECT was higher than IMPROVE ECT, in contrast to results from aerosol samples. A higher peak inert-mode temperature and extended heating times can elevate ECT/ECR ratios for pretreated geological samples by promoting pyrolyzed organic carbon (PyOC) removal over EC under trace levels of oxygen. Considering that PyOC within filter increases ECR while decreases ECT from the actual EC levels, simultaneous ECR and ECT measurements would constrain the range of EC loading and provide information on method performance. Further testing with standard reference materials of common environmental matrices supports the findings. Char and soot fractions of EC can be further separated using the IMPROVE protocol. The char/soot ratio was lower in street dusts (2.2 on average) than in soils (5.2 on average), most likely reflecting motor vehicle emissions. The soot concentrations agreed with EC from CTO-375, a pure thermal method. PMID:24358286

  20. Rapid optical determination of β-lactamase and antibiotic activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect β-lactamase and thereby assess activity of β-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (β-LEAF – β-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of β-lactam antibiotics. Results The β-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of β-lactamase production and activity of β-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for β-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of β-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate. Conclusions The study establishes the rapid β-LEAF assay for β-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is β-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs. PMID:24708478