Science.gov

Sample records for active packaging materials

  1. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  2. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  3. Packaging Your Training Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Pamela

    1977-01-01

    The types of packaging and packaging materials to use for training materials should be determined during the planning of the training programs, according to the packaging market. Five steps to follow in shopping for packaging are presented, along with a list of packaging manufacturers. (MF)

  4. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  5. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  6. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  7. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, Philip A.

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  8. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  9. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials.

  10. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  11. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  12. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  13. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  14. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    FINAL REPORT Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials SERDP Project WP-1478 MAY 2010 Dr.Chris Schwier Metabolix... Bioplastic Packaging Materials 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER SI 1478 Dr. Chris Schwier 5e. TASK...polymers were produced using blends of branched, long chain-length PHA polymers with linear PHA polymers.      15. SUBJECT TERMS Bioplastic

  16. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Knoop, Rutger J I; Kappen, Frans H J; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2015-02-13

    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory and non-depleting protection agents for application in films, coatings and packaging. In food packaging, antimicrobial effects add up to the barrier properties of the materials, to increase the shelf life and product quality. Chitosan is a natural bioactive polysaccharide with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and, due to its exceptional physicochemical properties imparted by the polysaccharide backbone, has been recognized as a natural alternative to chemically synthesized antimicrobial polymers. This, associated with the increasing preference for biofunctional materials from renewable resources, resulted in a significant interest on the potential for application of chitosan in packaging materials. In this review we describe the latest developments of chitosan films and blends as packaging material.

  17. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  18. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  19. Migration from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenaer, B. De

    Various chemical compounds can be present in foodstuffs which may induce health problems in humans. The origin of these compounds can be very diverse. Mathematical modeling can sometimes be used to predict the concentration of these chemicals in the food. Particularly for compounds which are produced in the food during, e.g., processing and for compounds which migrate from a food contact material this technique can be very fruitful. For the former type of compounds, classical chemical kinetics can be applied. In this contribution, the modeling of the migration from polymeric food contact materials is considered. This migration phenomenon can be modeled mathematically since the physical processes which govern this process are very well studied and understood. Therefore, initially some of these fundamentals will be discussed in more detail.

  20. Development of tea extracts and chitosan composite films for active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2013-08-01

    The effects of 0.5%, 1% and 2% green tea extracts (GTE) and black tea extracts (BTE) on the physical, structural and antioxidant properties of chitosan films were investigated. Results showed that the addition of tea extracts significantly decreased water vapour permeability and increased the antioxidant ability of films. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of GTE films was stronger than that of BTE films in all food simulants (0%, 20%, 75% and 95% ethanol). The equilibration time in different food simulants decreased with the increased ethanol concentration. DSC and FTIR spectra analysis indicated that there was strong interaction in film matrix, which could be reflected by the physical and mechanical properties of composite films. This study revealed that an active chitosan film could be obtained by incorporation of tea extracts, which may provide new formulation options for developing an antioxidant active packaging.

  1. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  2. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  3. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  4. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or in... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of...

  5. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  7. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  8. Evaluation of gallic acid loaded zein sub-micron electrospun fibre mats as novel active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yun Ping; Swift, Simon; Ray, Sudip; Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija; Jin, Jianyong; Perera, Conrad O

    2013-12-01

    The applicability of gallic acid loaded zein (Ze-GA) electrospun fibre mats towards potential active food packaging material was evaluated. The surface chemistry of the electrospun fibre mats was determined using X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The electrospun fibre mats showed low water activity and whitish colour. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the stability of the fibre mats over time. The Ze-GA fibre mats displayed similar rapid release profiles, with Ze-GA 20% exhibiting the fastest release rate in water as compared to the others. Gallic acid diffuses from the electrospun fibres in a Fickian diffusion manner and the data obtained exhibited a better fit to Higuchi model. L929 fibroblast cells were cultured on the electrospun fibres to demonstrate the absence of cytotoxicity. Overall, the Ze-GA fibre mats demonstrated antibacterial activity and properties consistent with those considered desirable for active packaging material in the food industry.

  9. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... materials packages may be considered a bulk packaging. The September 1, 2006 NPRM definition for ``bulk... erroneously stated Large Packagings would contain hazardous materials without an intermediate packaging,...

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  12. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  13. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  14. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  15. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  16. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging materials... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the...

  17. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  18. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  19. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the official establishment. The... packaging materials must be traceable to the applicable guaranty. (c) The guaranty by the packaging supplier.... Official establishments and packaging suppliers providing written guaranties to those...

  20. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., from the packaging supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the... packaging supplier will be accepted by Program inspectors to establish that the use of material complies.... Official establishments and packaging suppliers providing written guaranties to those...

  1. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  2. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  3. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  4. Materials in electronic packaging at APL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Harry K., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The use of modern electronic packaging materials is examined with reference to general classes of materials, such as epoxies, silicones, metals, alloys, and ceramics. Specific examples are presented to illustrate how the proper choice of materials has enhanced circuit performance and long-term reliability. Applications discussed include single-chip and multichip packaging, board and substrate structures, die (substrate) attachment and electrical interconnection, circuit and board passivation, and encapsulation or package sealing.

  5. Handling difficult materials: Aseptic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, K.

    1994-03-01

    Since aseptic packages, or drink boxes, were introduced in the US in the early 1980s, they have been praised for their convenience and berated for their lack of recyclability. As a result, aseptic packaging collection has been linked with that of milk cartons to increase the volume. The intervening years since the introduction of aseptic packaging have seen the drink box industry aggressively trying to create a recycling market for the boxes. Communities and schools have initiated programs, and recycling firms have allocated resources to see whether recycling aseptic packaging can work. Drink boxes are now recycled in 2.3 million homes in 15 states, and in 1,655 schools in 17 states. They are typically collected in school and curbside programs with other polyethylene coated (laminated) paperboard products such a milk cartons, and then baled and shipped to five major paper companies for recycling at eight facilities.

  6. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  7. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  8. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  9. Preparation and characterization of chitosan film incorporated with thinned young apple polyphenols as an active packaging material.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Sun, Jiaojiao; Chen, Lei; Niu, Pengfei; Yang, Xingbin; Guo, Yurong

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the physical, mechanical and bioactive properties of chitosan film incorporated with thinned young apple polyphenols (YAP). The results indicated that the addition of YAP resulted in a significant increase in the thickness, density, swelling degree, solubility and opacity of chitosan film, but the water content, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties of the film were decreased. Besides, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan film were significantly enhanced by YAP. Both the NMR and FTIR spectra indicated the interactions between YAP and chitosan were likely to be non-covalent. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the film was decreased by YAP addition, suggested by DSC. Interestingly, the changing tendency of crystalline degree indicated by X-ray kept pace with that of thermal stability for YAP-chitosan films. Overall, YAP-chitosan film was shown a potential as a bioactive packaging material to extend food shelf-life.

  10. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  11. Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, K

    2005-10-01

    Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use of such packaging materials is not meant to be a substitute for good sanitation practices, but it should enhance the safety of food as an additional hurdle for the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microorganisms. Studies have focused on establishing methods for coating low-density polyethylene film or barrier films with methyl cellulose as a carrier for nisin. These films have significantly reduced the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in solutions and in vacuum packaged hot dogs. Other research has focused on the use of chitosan to inhibit L. monocytogenes and chlorine dioxide sachets for the reduction of Salmonella on modified atmosphere-packaged fresh chicken breasts. Overall, antimicrobial packaging shows promise as an effective method for the inhibition of certain bacteria in foods, but barriers to their commercial implementation continue to exist.

  12. Influence of polymer matrix and adsorption onto silica materials on the migration of alpha-tocopherol into 95% ethanol from active packaging.

    PubMed

    Heirlings, L; Siró, I; Devlieghere, F; Van Bavel, E; Cool, P; De Meulenaer, B; Vansant, E F; Debevere, J

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the effect of polymer materials with different polarity, namely low density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), on the migration behaviour of alpha-tocopherol from active packaging was investigated. The antioxidant was also adsorbed onto silica materials, namely SBA-15 (Santa Barbara-15) and Syloblock, in order to protect the antioxidant during extrusion and to ensure a controlled and sufficient release during the shelf-life of the food product. Migration experiments were performed at 7.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 95% ethanol was used as fatty food simulant. All films contained a high concentration of alpha-tocopherol, approximately 2000 mg kg(-1), to obtain an active packaging. Polymer matrix had a small influence on the migration profile. The migration of 80% of total migrated amount of antioxidant was retarded for 2.4 days by using LDPE instead of EVA. When alpha-tocopherol was adsorbed onto both silica materials, the migration of 80% of total migrated amount of antioxidant was retarded for 3.4 days in comparison to pure alpha-tocopherol. No difference was seen between the migration profiles of alpha-tocopherol adsorbed onto both silica materials. In the case of pure alpha-tocopherol, 82% of the initial amount of alpha-tocopherol in the film migrated into the food simulant at a rather fast migration rate. In the case of adsorption on silica materials, a total migration was observed. These antioxidative films can have positive food applications.

  13. Polylactide nanocomposites for packaging materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, Indah

    2016-02-01

    This review aims at highlighting on an attempt for improving the properties of polylactide (PLA) as packaging material by application of nanocomposite technology. PLA is attracting considerable interest because of more eco-friendliness from its origin as contrast to the petrochemical-based polymers and its biodegradability. Despite possessing good mechanical and optical properties, deterioration of the material properties in PLA materials during their service time could occur after prolonged exposure to humidity and high temperature condition. Limited gas barrier is another drawback of PLA material that should be overcome to satisfy the requirement for packaging application. To further extend the range of mechanical and thermal properties achievable, several attempts have been made in modifying the material such as blending with other polymers, use of plasticizing material and development of PLA nanocomposites. Nanocomposite is a fairly new type of composite that has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nanometer scale dimensions (at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm). In this review, the critical properties of PLA as packaging materials and its degradation mechanism are presented. This paper discusses the current effort and key research challenges in the development of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymer matrices and nano-fillers. The PLA layered silicate nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modification, frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of mechanical strength, gas barrier and thermal stability.

  14. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  15. Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Progress is reported for Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1996. Development and production activities in Plutonium Recovery and Processing, Plutonium Packaging, and Uranium Recovery and Processing are covered. Packaging quality assurance activities are reported.

  16. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  17. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter the... to wood packaging material from all other countries. This action is necessary in order to prevent...

  18. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  19. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  1. Ammonia gas permeability of meat packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Hijaz, Faraj; Kastner, Curtis L; Smith, J Scott

    2011-03-01

    Meat products are packaged in polymer films designed to protect the product from exterior contaminants such as light, humidity, and harmful chemicals. Unfortunately, there is almost no data on ammonia permeability of packaging films. We investigated ammonia permeability of common meat packaging films: low-density polyethylene (LDPE; 2.2 mil), multilayer polyolefin (MLP; 3 mil), and vacuum (V-PA/PE; 3 mil, 0.6 mil polyamide/2.4 mil polyethylene). The films were fabricated into 10 × 5 cm pouches and filled with 50 mL deionized water. Pouches were placed in a plexiglass enclosure in a freezer and exposed to 50, 100, 250, or 500 ppm ammonia gas for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h at -17 ± 3 °C and 21 ± 3 °C. At freezing temperatures, no ammonia residues were detected and no differences in pH were found in the water. At room temperature, ammonia levels and pH of the water increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing exposure times and ammonia concentrations. Average ammonia levels in the water were 7.77 ppm for MLP, 5.94 ppm for LDPE, and 0.89 ppm for V-PA/PE at 500 ppm exposure for 48 h at 21 ± 3 °C. Average pH values were 8.64 for MLP, 8.38 for LDPE, and 7.23 for V-PA/PE (unexposed ranged from 5.49 to 6.44) at 500 ppm exposure for 48 h. The results showed that temperature influenced ammonia permeability. Meat packaging materials have low ammonia permeability and protect meat products exposed to ammonia leaks during frozen storage.

  2. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  3. A multidimensional environmental evaluation of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2004-05-25

    To reduce environmental damage, the properties of environmental issues must be understood. Most previous research has performed relevant assessment either qualitatively or quantitatively. This paper provides a new comprehensive evaluative framework to integrate these two types of approaches. Three methods are combined: (1) life cycle assessment (LCA), a quantitative method, to assess environmental loading, (2) analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a qualitative method, to obtain opinions from experts, and (3) cluster analysis to integrate the results of the former two methods. This new framework could provide integrated information and avoid a bias towards either qualitative or quantitative approach. To present the process of this new evaluative framework, packaging materials are selected as the case study in this paper.

  4. Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

    A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

  5. 49 CFR 173.459 - Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages. 173.459 Section 173.459 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  6. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  7. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    integrity. The development of mechanical models complimented the experimental studies. A model of the overcoat materials used the film properties and elastic deformations to study the stress-strain behavior of the suspended dielectric films under external forces. The experimental molding tests and mechanical models were used to establish processing conditions and physical designs for the cavities as a function of cavity size. A novel, metal-free chip package was investigated combining the in-situ thermal decomposition of the sacrificial material during post-mold curing of the lead frame molding compound. Sacrificial materials were characterized for their degree of decomposition during the molding cure to provide a chip package with improved mechanical support and no size restrictions. Improvements to the air cavities for MEMS packaging led to investigations and refinements of other microfabrication processes. The sacrificial polycarbonate materials were shown to be useful as temporary bonding materials for wafer-level bonding. The release temperature and conditions of the processed wafer can be changed based on the polycarbonates formulation. The electroless deposition of metal was investigated as an alternative process for metalizing the air cavities. The deposition of silver and copper using a Sn/Ag catalyst as a replacement for costly palladium activation was demonstrated. The electroless deposition was tested on polymer and silicon dioxide surfaces for organic boards and through-silicon vias.

  8. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  9. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and thickness of the outer packaging must be such that friction during transportation is not likely to... weakened in the event of leakage. (5) Metallic devices. Nails, staples and other metallic devices must not... materials may not contain other hazardous materials, except dry ice. (i) When a Large Packaging is used...

  10. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and thickness of the outer packaging must be such that friction during transportation is not likely to... weakened in the event of leakage. (5) Metallic devices. Nails, staples and other metallic devices must not... materials may not contain other hazardous materials, except dry ice. (i) When a Large Packaging is used...

  11. Mesoporous silica as carrier of antioxidant for food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Gargiulo, Nicola; Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Lavorgna, Marino; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been long recognized as very promising materials for the preparation of drug delivery systems. In this work SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with amino-silane to be used as carrier of antioxidant compound in the preparation of active food packaging materials exhibiting tailored release properties. Active films have been prepared by loading the antioxidant tocopherol, the purely siliceous SBA-15 and the aminofunctionalized SBA-15 loaded with tocopherol into LDPE matrix trough a two-step process (mixing+extrusion). The aim of the present work is the study of the effect of the pore size and of the chemical functionality of the internal walls of the mesophase on the migration of tocopherol from active LDPE polymer films. Moreover, it has been proved that the addition of the active compound do not worsen the properties of the film such as optical characteristic and water vapor permeability, thus leading to the development of a material which could be favorably used mainly, but not exclusively, in the sector of food packaging.

  12. Producing Learning Activities Packages. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn

    This teachers' manual outlines the design, development, and evaluation processes for Learning Activities Packages (LAPS), including mediated learning activities. A lesson plan for the first day's instruction is provided, as well as a 20-item pre-post test. Each LAP has five components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and…

  13. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  14. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  15. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  16. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  17. Optimizing biomass blends for manufacturing molded packaging materials using mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  18. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

  19. Effect of Water Activity and Packaging Material on the Quality of Dehydrated Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) Slices during Accelerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of dehydrated taro slices in accelerated storage (45°C and 75% RH) was determined as a function of initial water activity (aw) and package type. Color, rehydration capacity, thiamin content, and α-tocopherol content were monitored during 34 weeks of storage in polyethylene and foil laminate packaging at initial storage aw of 0.35 to 0.71. Initial aw at or below 0.54 resulted in less browning and higher rehydration capacity, but not in significantly higher α-tocopherol retention. Foil laminate pouches resulted in a higher rehydration capacity and increased thiamin retention compared to polyethylene bags. Type of packaging had no effect on the color of the samples. Product stability was highest when stored in foil laminate pouches at 0.4aw. Sensory panels were held to determine the acceptability of rehydrated taro slices using samples representative of the taro used in the analytical tests. A hedonic test on rehydrated taro's acceptability was conducted in Fiji, with panelists rating the product an average of 7.2 ± 1.5 on a discrete 9-point scale. Using a modified Weibull analysis (with 50% probability of product failure), it was determined that the shelf life of dehydrated taro stored at 45°C was 38.3 weeks. PMID:27891508

  20. Effect of Water Activity and Packaging Material on the Quality of Dehydrated Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) Slices during Accelerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Sloan, A R; Dunn, M L; Jefferies, L K; Pike, O A; Nielsen Barrows, Sarah E; Steele, F M

    2016-01-01

    The quality of dehydrated taro slices in accelerated storage (45°C and 75% RH) was determined as a function of initial water activity (aw) and package type. Color, rehydration capacity, thiamin content, and α-tocopherol content were monitored during 34 weeks of storage in polyethylene and foil laminate packaging at initial storage aw of 0.35 to 0.71. Initial aw at or below 0.54 resulted in less browning and higher rehydration capacity, but not in significantly higher α-tocopherol retention. Foil laminate pouches resulted in a higher rehydration capacity and increased thiamin retention compared to polyethylene bags. Type of packaging had no effect on the color of the samples. Product stability was highest when stored in foil laminate pouches at 0.4aw. Sensory panels were held to determine the acceptability of rehydrated taro slices using samples representative of the taro used in the analytical tests. A hedonic test on rehydrated taro's acceptability was conducted in Fiji, with panelists rating the product an average of 7.2 ± 1.5 on a discrete 9-point scale. Using a modified Weibull analysis (with 50% probability of product failure), it was determined that the shelf life of dehydrated taro stored at 45°C was 38.3 weeks.

  1. Predicting diffusion coefficients of chemicals in and through packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Vitrac, Olivier

    2017-01-22

    Most of the physicochemical properties in polymers such as activity and partition coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and their activation with temperature are accessible to direct calculations from first principles. Such predictions are particularly relevant for food packaging as they can be used (1) to demonstrate the compliance or safety of numerous polymer materials and of their constitutive substances (e.g. additives, residues…), when they are used: as containers, coatings, sealants, gaskets, printing inks, etc. (2) or to predict the indirect contamination of food by pollutants (e.g. from recycled polymers, storage ambiance…) (3) or to assess the plasticization of materials in contact by food constituents (e.g. fat matter, aroma…). This review article summarizes the classical and last mechanistic descriptions of diffusion in polymers and discusses the reliability of semi-empirical approaches used for compliance testing both in EU and US. It is concluded that simulation of diffusion in or through polymers is not limited to worst-case assumptions but could also be applied to real cases for risk assessment, designing packaging with low leaching risk or to synthesize plastic additives with low diffusion rates.

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  3. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  4. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  5. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  6. Materials of Criticality Safety Concern in Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.L.; Day, B.A.

    2006-07-01

    10 CFR 71.55 requires in part that the fissile material package remain subcritical when considering 'the most reactive credible configuration consistent with the chemical and physical form of the material'. As waste drums and packages may contain unlimited types of materials, determination of the appropriately bounding moderator and reflector materials to ensure compliance with 71.55 requires a comprehensive analysis. Such an analysis was performed to determine the materials or elements that produce the most reactive configuration with regards to both moderation and reflection of a Pu-239 system. The study was originally performed for the TRUPACT-II shipping package and thus the historical fissile mass limit for the package, 325 g Pu-239, was used [1]. Reactivity calculations were performed with the SCALE package to numerically assess the moderation or reflection merits of the materials [2]. Additional details and results are given in SAIC-1322-001 [3]. The development of payload controls utilizing process knowledge to determine the classification of special moderator and/or reflector materials and the associated fissile mass limit is also addressed. (authors)

  7. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  8. New material options for light-emitting diode packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl H.

    2004-06-01

    As light-emitting diode (LED) power levels and chip sizes increase, thermal management and thermal stresses, which affect performance, power conversion efficiency nad lifetime, are becoming increasingly serious problems. Traditional materials have serious deficiencies in meeting requirements for thermal management and minimization of thermal stresses in high-brightness (HB) LED packaging. Copper, the standard material for applications requiring high thermal conductivity, has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is much larger than those of ceramics and semiconductor materials, giving rise to thermal stresses when packages are subjected to thermal excursions. Aluminum has a larger CTE than copper. Traditional materials with low CTEs have thermal conductivites that are little or no better than that of aluminum. There are an increasing number of new packaging materials with low, tailorable CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times those of copper that overcome thise limitations. The ability to tailor material CTE has been used to solve critical warping problems in manufacturing, increasing yield from 5% to over 99%. Advanced materials fall into six categories: monolithic carbonaceous materials, metal matrix compsites, carbon/carbon composites, ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, and advanced metallic alloys. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of advanced packaging materials, including their key properties, state of maturity, cost and applications.

  9. Surface attachment of active antimicrobial coatings onto conventional plastic-based laminates and performance assessment of these materials on the storage life of vacuum packaged beef sub-primals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Tyuftin, Andrey A; Cruz-Romero, Malco C; Bolton, Declan; Fanning, Seamus; Pankaj, Shashi K; Bueno-Ferrer, Carmen; Cullen, Patrick J; Kerry, Joe P

    2017-04-01

    Two antimicrobial coatings, namely Sodium octanoate and Auranta FV (a commercial antimicrobial composed of bioflavonoids, citric, malic, lactic, and caprylic acids) were used. These two antimicrobials were surface coated onto the inner polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated polyamide films using beef gelatin as a carrier and coating polymer. This packaging material was then used to vacuum pack beef sub-primal cuts and stored at 4 °C. A control was prepared using the non-coated commercial laminate and the same vacuum packaged sub-primal beef cuts. During storage, microbial and quality assessments were carried out. Sodium octanoate treated packages significantly (p < 0.05) reduced microbial counts for all bacteria tested with an increase of 7 and 14 days, respectively compared to control samples. No significant effect on pH was observed with any treatment. The results suggested that these food grade antimicrobials have the potential to be used in antimicrobial active packaging applications for beef products.

  10. Peer Review of the Waste Package Material Performance Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Beavers; T. M. Devine, Jr.; G. S. Frankel; R. H. Jones; R. G. Kelly; R. M. Latanision; J. H. Payer

    2001-09-04

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, formed the Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel (the Panel) to review the technical basis for evaluating the long-term performance of waste package materials in a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is the interim report of the Panel; a final report will be issued in February 2002. In its work to date, the Panel has identified important issues regarding waste package materials performance. In the remainder of its work, the Panel will address approaches and plans to resolve these issues. In its review to date, the Panel has not found a technical basis to conclude that the waste package materials are unsuitable for long-term containment at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Nevertheless, significant technical issues remain unsettled and, primarily because of the extremely long life required for the waste packages, there will always be some uncertainty in the assessment. A significant base of scientific and engineering knowledge for assessing materials performance does exist and, therefore, the likelihood is great that uncertainty about the long-term performance can be substantially reduced through further experiments and analysis.

  11. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  12. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  13. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  14. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  15. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088. 2 Model 30A inner cylinder... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the International Atomic Energy...

  16. New material options for high-power diode laser packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl H.

    2004-06-01

    Traditional materials have serious deficiencies in meeting requirements for thermal management and minimization of thermal stresses in high-power laser diode packaging. Copper, the standard material for applications requiring high thermal conductivity, has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is much larger than those of ceramics and laser diodes, giving rise to thermal stresses when packages are subjected to thermal excursions. Traditional materials with low CTEs have thermal conductivities that are little or no better than that of aluminum. There are an increasing number of new packaging materials with low, tailorable CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times those of copper that overcome these limitations. The ability to tailor material CTE has been used to solve critical warping problems in manufacturing, increasing yield from 5% to over 99%. Advanced materials fall into six categories: monolithic carbonaceous materials, metal matrix composites, carbon/carbon composites, ceramic matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, and advanced metallic alloys. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of advanced packaging materials, including their key properties, state of maturity, using composites to fix manufacturing problems, cost and applications.

  17. Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

    2009-06-01

    The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These “Represented” documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master “Represented” table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

  18. Advances in LED packaging and thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses and cost are key light-emitting diode (LED) packaging issues. Heat dissipation limits power levels. Thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. An OIDA LED workshop cited a need for better thermal materials. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required LEDs. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  19. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  20. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  1. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... materials. 173.247 Section 173.247 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials...

  2. Interaction of DOE SNF and Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Anderson

    1998-09-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify and evaluate potential destructive interactions between the materials in US Department of Energy (USDOE) spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) and their storage/disposal canisters. The technical assessment was based on the thermodynamic properties as well as the chemical and physical characteristics of the materials expected inside the canisters. No chemical reactions were disclosed that could feasibly corrode stainless steel canisters to the point of failure. However, the possibility of embrittlement (loss of ductility) of the stainless steel through contact with liquid metal fission products or hydrogen inside the canisters cannot be dismissed. Higher-than-currently-permitted internal gas pressures must also be considered. These results, based on the assessment of two representative 90-year-cooled fuels that are stored at 200°C in stainless steel canisters with internal blankets of helium, may be applied to most of the fuels in the USDOE's SNF inventory.

  3. Materials in Manufacturing and Packaging Systems as Sources of Elemental Impurities in Packaged Drug Products: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis R; Stults, Cheryl L M; Paskiet, Diane M; Ball, Douglas J; Nagao, Lee M

    Elemental impurities in drug products can arise from a number of different sources and via a number of different means, including the active pharmaceutical ingredient, excipients, the vehicle, and leaching of elemental entities that are present in the drug product's manufacturing or packaging systems. Thus, knowledge about the presence, level, and likelihood of leaching of elemental entities in manufacturing and packaging systems is relevant to understanding how these systems contribute to a drug product's total elemental impurity burden. To that end, a joint team from the Extractables and Leachables Safety Information Exchange (ELSIE) Consortium and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS) has conducted a review of the available literature on elemental entities in pharmaceutically relevant polymers and the presence of these elemental entities in material extracts and/or drug products. This review article contains the information compiled from the available body of literature and considers two questions: (1) What elemental entities are present in the relevant polymers and materials and at what levels are they present? (2) To what extent are these elemental entities leached from these materials under conditions relevant to the manufacturing and storage/distribution of solution drug products? Conclusions drawn from the compiled data are as follows: (1) Elemental entities are present in the materials used to construct packaging and manufacturing systems as these materials either contain these elemental entities as additives or are exposed to elemental entities during their production. (2) Unless the elemental entities are parts of the materials themselves (for example, SiO2 in glass) or intentionally added to the materials (for example, metal stearates in polymers), their incidental amounts in the materials are generally low. (3) When elemental entities are present in materials and systems, generally only a very small

  4. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  5. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  6. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  7. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  8. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  9. 10 CFR 71.59 - Standards for arrays of fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for arrays of fissile material packages. 71.59 Section 71.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.59 Standards for arrays of fissile material packages. (a)...

  10. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  11. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  12. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922 Section 10.922 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  13. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022 Section 10.1022 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  14. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022 Section 10.1022 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  15. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022 Section 10.1022 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  16. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... generate a dangerous evolution of heat, unless packaged in a manner which precludes such an occurrence. (d... container, or overpack with another material, the mixing of which is likely to cause a dangerous evolution...) of 50 °C (122 °F) or less, or polymerize at a temperature of 54 °C (130 °F) or less with an...

  17. Recent developments in fissile material exemptions for shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M. K., Liu, Y.Y., Wangler, M.E., Keeton, S.C., Fischer, L.E

    1996-10-15

    This paper discusses the regulatory exemptions for shipping packages that contain limited amounts of fissile material and concerns that have arisen over the adequacy of these regulations. The results of an ongoing review of these exemptions by the various regulatory agencies will be presented in the session.

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  19. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  20. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  1. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  2. Design Brief--Packaging: More than Just a Box! Communications: Getting the Message across with Advertising. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Each technology learning activity in this article includes content description, objectives, required materials, challenge, and evaluation questions. Subjects are designing product packages and communication through advertising. (SK)

  3. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  4. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  5. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  6. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  7. Demonstration of packaging materials alternatives to expanded polystyrene. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, D.M.

    1998-04-01

    The report presents information on the environmental, economical, and performance characteristics of alternative packaging materials. Three alternative cushioning materials were identified for evaluation within this research; starch-based foam planks, layered corrugated pads, and recycled polyethylene foam. Through some have been used as cushioning materials for some time, these materials are termed alternative because each offers unique features beyond their cushioning capabilities. These unique features include their manufacture from recycled materials, biodegradability, water solubility, recyclability, and reusability. The properties and cushioning characteristics of expanded polystyrene (EPS) represent the baseline for this research; evaluation results for each material are compared against those of EPS. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluations were completed to assess various characteristics and parameters concerning the cushioning materials.

  8. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  9. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  10. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  11. Humid air corrosion of YMP waste package candidate material

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating candidate materials for high level nuclear waste containers (Waste Packages) for a potential deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The potential repository is located above the water table in the unsaturated zone. The rock contains nominally 10% by volume water and gas pressure in the emplacement drifts of the repository is expected to remain near the ambient atmospheric pressure. The heat generated by the radioactive decay of the waste will raise the temperature of the waste packages and the surrounding rock. Waste Package temperatures above the ambient boiling point of water are anticipated for the waste emplacement scenarios. Because the repository emplacement drifts are expected to remain at the ambient atmospheric pressure, the maximum relative humidity obtainable decreases above the boiling point of water. Temperatures of the Waste Packages and the surrounding rock are expected to reach maximum temperature within 100`s of years and then gradually decrease with time. Episodic liquid water contact with the WPs is also expected; this will result in the deposition of salts and mineral scale.

  12. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  13. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  14. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  15. Module Packaging Research and Reliability: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; delCueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K.

    2005-11-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples are described.

  16. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  1. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.312 Liquid hazardous materials in non... packagings containing liquid hazardous materials, single packaging fitted with vents, or open...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  3. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. 835... Individuals and Areas § 835.405 Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. (a) If packages containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4)...

  4. 78 FR 29016 - Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in Transport of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. The NRC is issuing for public...), that would amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material in Part... requirements for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. III. Draft Regulatory Guide The...

  5. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  6. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive... package limits specified in Table 4 in § 173.425, and its packaging, are excepted from requirements in this subchapter for specification packaging, labeling, marking (except for the UN identification...

  7. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  8. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications.

  9. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  10. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 7.4, ``Leakage Tests on Packages for Radioactive... Standard N14.5-1997, ``Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment'' approved...

  11. THE USE OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGING PERFORMANCE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Boyd Howard, B

    2007-03-22

    New designs of radioactive material shipping packages are required to be evaluated in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, ''Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''. This paper will discuss the use of digital radiography to evaluate the effects of the tests required by 10 CFR 71.71, Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), and 10 CFR 71.73, Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). One acceptable means of evaluating packaging performance is to subject packagings to the series of NCT and HAC tests. The evaluation includes a determination of the effect on the packaging by the conditions and tests. That determination has required that packagings be cut and sectioned to learn the actual effects on internal components. Digital radiography permits the examination of internal packaging components without sectioning a package. This allows a single package to be subjected to a series of tests. After each test, the package is digitally radiographed and the effects of particular tests evaluated. Radiography reduces the number of packages required for testing and also reduces labor and materials required to section and evaluate numerous packages. This paper will include a description of the digital radiography equipment used in the testing and evaluation of the 9977 and 9978 packages at SRNL. The equipment is capable of making a single radiograph of a full-sized package in one exposure. Radiographs will be compared to sectioned packages that show actual conditions compared to radiographic images.

  12. Radioactive materials packaging standards and regulations: Making sense of it all

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous regulations and standards, both national and international, apply to the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. These are legal and technical prerequisites to practically every action that a designer or user of a radioactive material transportation package will perform. The identity and applicability of these requirements and the bodies that formulate them are also not readily understood. This paper addresses the roles that various international bodies play in developing and implementing the various regulations and standards. It uses the US regulatory and standards-making bodies to illustrate how international requirements feed the domestic control of packaging and transport. It explains the scope and interactions between domestic and international regulatory and standards agencies and summarizes the status and major standards activities at the international level. The overview provided by this paper will be valuable to designers and users of radioactive material packages for better understanding and use of both standards and regulations, and for complying with regulatory requirements in the radioactive materials transportation field. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Packaging Materials and Design for Improved PV Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Glick, S.; del Cueto, J.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2005-01-01

    A number of candidate alternative encapsulant and soft backsheet materials have been evaluated in terms of their suitability for photovoltaic (PV) module packaging applications. Relevant properties, including peel strength as a function of damp heat exposure and permeability, have been measured. Based on these tests, promising new encapsulants with adhesion-promoting primers have been identified that result in improved properties. Test results for backsheets provided by industry and prepared at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have suggested strategies to achieve significantly improved products. The ability of glass/glass and glass/breathable backsheet constructions laminated with various encapsulant and/or edge seal materials to protect thin-film aluminum coatings deposited onto glass substrates was assessed. Glass/glass laminate constructions can trap harmful compounds that catalyze moisture-driven corrosion of the aluminum. Constructions with breathable backsheets allow higher rates of moisture ingress, but also allow egress of deleterious substances that can result in decreased corrosion.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  15. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  16. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. A Class...

  17. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  18. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  19. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  20. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  1. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  2. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  3. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  4. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  5. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements.

  6. 49 CFR 173.431 - Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages. 173.431 Section 173.431 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  7. Chemical and physical properties of waste package packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Relyea, J.F.; Lane, D.L.; Carlson, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Data has been gathered to develop a preliminary understanding of the behavior of crushed basalt and sodium bentonite alone as well as mixtures of 75% crushed basalt-25% sodium bentonite, the current reference candidate material. The material properties investigated included: (1) chemical stability under dry thermal and hydrothermal conditions; (2) radionuclide sorption capacity and solubility limits; and (3) hydraulic conductivities as a function of material density and temperature. The primary results of these studies indicate that: (1) the phase structure and swelling potential of bentonite remain intact up to dehydration temperatures of 370{degree}C; (2) the primary hydrothermal reaction in a basalt-bentonite mixture is the alteration of basalt glass to smectites, zeolites, and quartz; (3) minor reaction of bentonite to form albite and quartz occurs with a slight enrichment of potassium in the bentonite phase; (4) the mobility of cationic radionuclides is low in the presence of basalt and bentonite under the expected reducing waste package geochemical conditions because of low solubility and high sorption; and (5) moderate density basalt-bentonite mixture ({ge}1.7 g/cm{sup 3}) are characterized by low hydraulic conductivities ({le}1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/sec).

  8. Recent innovations in edible and/or biodegradable packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, S; Cuq, B; Gontard, N

    1997-01-01

    Certain newly discovered characteristics of natural biopolymers should make them a choice material to be used for different types of wrappings and films. Edible and/or biodegradable packagings produced from agricultural origin macromolecules provide a supplementary and sometimes essential means to control physiological, microbiological, and physicochemical changes in food products. This is accomplished (i) by controlling mass transfers between food product and ambient atmosphere or between components in heterogeneous food product, and (iii) by modifying and controlling food surface conditions (pH, level of specific functional agents, slow release of flavour compounds), it should be stressed that the material characteristics (polysaccharide, protein, or lipid, plasticized or not, chemically modified or not, used alone or in combination) and the fabrication procedures (casting of a film-forming solution, thermoforming) must be adapted to each specific food product and usage condition (relative humidity, temperature). Some potential uses of these materials (e.g. wrapping of various fabricated foods; protection of fruits and vegetables by control of maturation; protection of meat and fish; control of internal moisture transfer in pizzas), which are hinged on film properties (e.g. organoleptic, mechanical, gas and solute barrier) are described with examples.

  9. Active and Intelligent Packaging: The Indication of Quality and Safety.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2016-09-19

    The food industry has been under growing pressure to feed an exponentially increasing world population and challenged to meet rigorous food safety law and regulation. The plethora of media consumption has provoked consumer demand for safe, sustainable, organic, and wholesome products with "clean" labels. The application of active and intelligent packaging has been commercially adopted by food and pharmaceutical industries as a solution for the future for extending shelf life and simplifying production processes; facilitating complex distribution logistics; reducing, if not eliminating the need for preservatives in food formulations; enabling restricted food packaging applications; providing convenience, improving quality, variety and marketing features; as well as providing essential information to ensure consumer safety. This chapter reviews innovations of active and intelligent packaging which advance packaging technology through both scavenging and releasing systems for shelf life extension, and through diagnostic and identification systems for communicating quality, tracking and brand protection.

  10. Morpheus: a conformation-activity relationships and receptor modeling package.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P R; Quint, G; Winkler, D A; Richardson, D; Sadek, M; Spurling, T H

    1989-09-01

    Our molecular modeling software package, MORPHEUS, allows the study of the interactions between biologically active molecules and their receptors. The package is capable of exploring the multidimensional conformational space accessible to each molecule of the data set under study. By specifying distance constraints or hypothetical receptor binding points, the package is able to filter the biologically accessible conformations of each active compound and deduce a three-dimensional model of the binding sites consistent with the properties of the agonists (or antagonists) under scrutiny. The electrostatic potentials in the environment of a putative binding site can also be investigated using the MORPHEUS package. The molecular modeling module CRYS-X, which is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC machines, is capable of building, displaying and manipulating molecules.

  11. YPHON: A package for calculating phonons of polar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2014-11-01

    In our recent works, we have developed a mixed-space approach within the framework of direct method for the first-principle calculation of phonon properties. It makes full use of the accuracy of the force constants calculated in the real space and the dipole-dipole interactions in the reciprocal space, making the accurate phonon calculation possible with the direct method for polar materials. In this paper, an efficient C++ implementation of the mixed-space approach, YPHON, is provided as open source, including demos and Linux scripts for extracting input data to YPHON from the output of VASP.5. The functions of the current package include the calculations of: (1) the phonon dispersions; (2) the phonon density of states; (3) the neutron scattering section weighted phonon density of state; (4) the phonons of the high symmetry structure using the force constants from low symmetry structure; (5) the phonon dispersions of random alloys; and (6) the analysis of the vibrational modes using the point group theory. Catalogue identifier: AETS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 567815 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9763594 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Linux scripts. Computer: Linux systems with a g++ or C++ compiler. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to a few Gbytes, dynamically depending on the system size. Classification: 7.8. External routines: GSL-the GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a numerical library for C and C++ programmers. VASP.5 or later for the calculations of force constants and dielectric constants and Born effective charge for polar materials. Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing

  12. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  13. PATRAM '83: 7th International Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials, summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers were presented at the following sessions: international regulations; materials, fracture toughness of ferritic steels; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF6 packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; radiation risk experience; emergency response; structural modeling and testing; transportation system planning; institutional issues and public response; packaging systems; thermal analysis and testing; systems analysis; structural analyses; quality assurance; packaging and transportation systems; physical protection; criticality and shielding; transportation operations and experience; standards; shock absorber technology; and information and training for regulatory compliance. Individual summaries are title listed.

  14. The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  15. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  16. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  17. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  18. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  19. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  20. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from §...

  1. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from §...

  2. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from §...

  3. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require...

  4. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require...

  5. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require...

  6. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from §...

  7. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. 173.240 Section 173.240 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When §...

  8. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7...

  9. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  10. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  11. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  12. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  13. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  14. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  15. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I. LAP Numbers 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    As a set of seven Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in chemistry, the units cover the unit system, matter, energy, atomic structures, chemical formulas, physical states of matter, solutions and suspensions, ionization, acids, bases, and salts. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral…

  16. Learning Activity Package, American Civics 92, LAPs 1 Through 3 and 5 Through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, B. C.

    This self paced program in American Civics is for the ninth grade student who needs help on basic skills and who plans to enroll in vocational or business courses. Instructional materials, written at 9th grade level, consist of eight Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) on the following topics: Citizenship and Our Democracy; The Constitution of the…

  17. Learning Activity Package, American Civics 94, LAPs 1 Through 4 and 6 Through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, B. C.; And Others

    This self-paced program in American Civics is for ninth grade students who definitely plan further education after high school, who have better than average grades, and who will do more than the minimum required work. Instructional materials written at 9th grade level or above consist of Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) on the following topics:…

  18. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 12, 13, 15, 17, and 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of individuals and populations, communities and ecosystems, diversity, plant functions, and animal functions. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives…

  19. Packaging biological cargoes in mesoporous materials: opportunities for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, Justin; Karande, Pankaj; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Confinement of biomolecules in structured nanoporous materials offers several desirable features ranging from chemical and thermal stability, to resistance to degradation from the external environment. A new generation of mesoporous materials presents exciting new possibilities for the formulation and controlled release of biological agents. Such materials address niche applications in enteral and parenteral delivery of biologics, such as peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and proteins for use as therapeutics, imaging agents, biosensors, and adjuvants. Areas covered: Mesoporous silica Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), with its unique, tunable pore diameter, and easily functionalized surface, provides a representative example of this new generation of materials. Here, we review recent advances in the design and synthesis of nanostructured mesoporous materials, focusing on SBA-15, and highlight opportunities for the delivery of biological agents to various organ and tissue compartments. Expert opinion: The SBA-15 platform provides a delivery carrier that is inherently separated from the active biologic due to distinct intra and extra-particle environments. This permits the SBA-15 platform to not require direct modification of the active biological therapeutic. Additionally, this makes the platform universal and allows for its application independent of the desired methods of discovery and development. The SBA-15 platform also directly addresses issues of targeted delivery and controlled release, although future challenges in the implementation of this platform reside in particle design, biocompatibility, and the tunability of the internal and external material properties. Examples illustrating the flexibility in the application of the SBA-15 platform are also discussed. PMID:25016923

  20. Aluminum-Scandium: A Material for Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Ute; Thomas, Sven; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-10-01

    A well-known aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloy, already used in lightweight sports equipment, is about to be established for use in electronic packaging. One application for Al-Sc alloy is manufacture of bonding wires. The special feature of the alloy is its ability to harden by precipitation. The new bonding wires with electrical conductivity similar to pure Al wires can be processed on common wire bonders for aluminum wedge/wedge (w/w) bonding. The wires exhibit very fine-grained microstructure. Small Al3Sc particles are the main reason for its high strength and prevent recrystallization and grain growth at higher temperatures (>150°C). After the wire-bonding process, the interface is well closed. Reliability investigations by active power cycling demonstrated considerably improved lifetime compared with pure Al heavy wires. Furthermore, the Al-Sc alloy was sputter-deposited onto silicon wafer to test it as chip metallization in copper (Cu) ball/wedge bonding technology. After deposition, the layers exhibited fine-grained columnar structure and small coherent Al3Sc particles with dimensions of a few nanometers. These particles inhibit softening processes such as Al splashing in fine wire bonding processes and increase the thickness of remnant Al under the copper balls to 85% of the initial thickness.

  1. Elucidating the role of interfacial materials properties in microfluidic packages.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Thayne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to discover a method to investigate the properties of interfaces as described by a numerical physical model. The model used was adopted from literature and applied to a commercially available multiphysics software package. By doing this the internal properties of simple structures could be elucidated and then readily applied to more complex structures such as valves and pumps in laminate microfluidic structures. A numerical finite element multi-scale model of a cohesive interface comprised of heterogeneous material properties was used to elucidate irreversible damage from applied strain energy. An unknown internal state variable was applied to characterize the damage process. Using a constrained blister test, this unknown internal state variable could be determined for an adherend/adhesive/adherend body. This is particularly interesting for laminate systems with microfluidic and microstructures contained within the body. A laminate structure was designed and fabricated that could accommodate a variety of binary systems joined using nearly any technique such as adhesive, welding (solvent, laser, ultrasonic, RF, etc.), or thermal. The adhesive method was the most successful and easy to implement but also one of the more difficult to understand, especially over long periods of time. Welding methods are meant to achieve a bond that is similar to bulk properties and so are easier to predict. However, methods of welding often produce defects in the bonds.. Examples of the test structures used to elucidate the internal properties of the model were shown and demonstrated. The real life examples used this research to improve upon current designs and aided in creating complex structures for sensor and other applications.

  2. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  3. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 124, LAPs 29 Through 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Mary Ann

    A set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on western civilization at the twelfth grade level includes the following units: Establishment of Western Civilization; Middle Period of Western Civilization; Islam and the Saracenic Civilization; the Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern Western…

  4. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 103, LAPs 10 Through 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane; And Others

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; Revolution; The World at War; Totalitarianism;…

  5. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 102, LAPs 10 Through 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tommy

    A set of seven teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; The Age of Revolution; The World at War; and…

  6. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  7. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  8. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  9. Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

  10. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: II. Application in bio-based plastics for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2013-07-25

    The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of using eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as antioxidants for active bio-based packaging material. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated into thermoplastic flour (TPF) - a model bio-based plastic - through an extrusion process at temperatures above 150°C. The influences of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on crystallinity, morphology, thermal properties, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, tensile properties and barrier properties of TPF were investigated. Although the incorporation of 3% (w/w) of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles significantly reduced the extensibility and the oxygen barrier property of TPF, it provided antioxidant activity and improved the water vapor barrier property. In addition, TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited superior radical scavenging activity and stronger reducing power compared with TPF containing naked eugenol. The results suggest the applicability of TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as an antioxidant active packaging material.

  11. Material flow analysis for an industry - A case study in packaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Sandgren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The basic materials used in packaging are glass, metals (primarily aluminum and steel), an ever-growing range of plastics, paper and paperboard, wood, textiles for bags, and miscellaneous other materials (such as glues, inks, and other supplies). They are fabricated into rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible containers. The most common forms of these containers include cans, drums, bottles, cartons, boxes, bags, pouches, and wraps. Packaging products are, for the most part, low cost, bulky products that are manufactured close to their customers. There is virtually no import or export of packaging products. A material flow analysis can be developed that looks at all inputs to an industrial sector, inventories the losses in processing, and tracks the fate of the material after its useful life. An example is presented that identifies the material inputs to the packaging industry, and addresses the ultimate fate of the materials used. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  12. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Effect of Wheat Flour Packaging Materials on Infestation by Lasioderma serricorne (F.).

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, <1.3). With wheat flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.

  14. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  15. Pilot scale field test for compostable packaging materials in the City of Kassel, Germany.

    PubMed

    Klauss, Matthias; Bidlingmaier, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradable (compostable) packaging materials made from biopolymers (BP) are introduced into the market to reduce the amounts of conventional packaging materials and at the same time be recovered by the municipal organic waste collection system. The processing of this organic waste mixed with biopolymers has been tested in a commercial treatment facility. The safe use of the compost produced from these materials was demonstrated in a full-scale agricultural application test.

  16. COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIALS IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.; Murphy, J.

    2010-05-27

    Compaction of lower layers in the 9975 fiberboard overpack has been observed in packages that contain excess moisture. Dynamic loading of the package during transportation may also contribute to compaction of the fiberboard. This condition is being tested and analyzed to better understand these compaction mechanisms and provide a basis from which to evaluate their impact to the safety basis for transportation (Safety Analysis Report for Packaging) and storage (facility Design Safety Analysis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A test program has been developed and is being implemented to identify the extent of the compaction as a function of fiberboard moisture and typical transport dynamic loadings. Test conditions will be compared to regulatory requirements for dynamic loading. Characterization of the recovery of short-term compaction following the application of dynamic loading is also being evaluated. Interim results from this test program will be summarized.

  17. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  18. Gardening and Groundskeeping: A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume I: Learning Activity Packages 1-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    These forty-two learning activity packages, intended for student use, are based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening-groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). They are organized by four areas of instruction: Organizing and Planning…

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any

  20. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When § 172... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof...

  1. Evaluation of select blends of cotton byproducts in the manufacture of biodegradable packaging material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics in the manufacture of packaging materials. Extruded polystyrene foam is commonly sold under the trademark name of StyrofoamTM. Polystyrene packaging is a multibillion dollar a year industry. Since polystyrene is non-biodegradable, a biodegradable m...

  2. Optimization of biomass blends in the manufacture of molded packaging materials produced using fungal mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  3. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  4. Mass Transfer Study of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Through Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous system for measuring the mass transfer of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a strong oxidizing agent and used in food and pharmaceutical packaging, through 10 different types of polymeric packaging material was developed utilizing electrochemical sensor as a detector. Permeability, diff...

  5. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-05

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications.

  6. 75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...: 1. Applicability of the proposed definitions to cylinders. Three commenters (the NACD, The Chlorine... interpreted to cover the DOT 3AX, 3AAX, and 3T bulk cylinders. In its comments, NACD states ] that these... to the transportation of bulk packages to transporters of larger chlorine cylinders,...

  7. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei

    density was beneficial in increasing the collective thermal conductivity of the VACNT film; however, the increased tube-tube interaction in dense VACNT films decreased the thermal conductivity of the individual CNTs. The tip-to-tip contact resistance was shown to be ˜1x10-7 m2 K W -1. The study will shed light on the potential application of VACNTs as thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging. 5. A combined process of in situ functionalization and microwave curing has been developed to effective enhance the interface between carbon nanotubes and the epoxy matrix. Effective medium theory has been used to analyze the interfacial thermal resistance between carbon nanotubes and polymer matrix, and that between graphite nanoplatlets and polymer matrix.

  8. Packaging strategies for printed circuit board components. Volume I, materials & thermal stresses.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Austin, Kevin N.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott W.; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Chambers, Robert S.

    2011-09-01

    Decisions on material selections for electronics packaging can be quite complicated by the need to balance the criteria to withstand severe impacts yet survive deep thermal cycles intact. Many times, material choices are based on historical precedence perhaps ignorant of whether those initial choices were carefully investigated or whether the requirements on the new component match those of previous units. The goal of this program focuses on developing both increased intuition for generic packaging guidelines and computational methodologies for optimizing packaging in specific components. Initial efforts centered on characterization of classes of materials common to packaging strategies and computational analyses of stresses generated during thermal cycling to identify strengths and weaknesses of various material choices. Future studies will analyze the same example problems incorporating the effects of curing stresses as needed and analyzing dynamic loadings to compare trends with the quasi-static conclusions.

  9. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material.

  10. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  11. The LARSYS educational package: Instructor's notes. [instructional materials for training people to analyze remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Davis, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Materials are presented for assisting instructors in teaching the LARSYS Educational Package, which is a set of instructional materials to train people to analyze remotely sensed multispectral data. The seven units of the package are described. These units are: quantitative remote sensing, overview of the LARSYS software system, the 2780 remote terminal, demonstration of LARSYS on the 2780 remote terminal, exercises, guide to multispectral data analysis, and a case study using LARSYS for analysis of LANDSAT data.

  12. Materials for High-Density Electronic Packaging and Interconnection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-10

    34 wire "-based systems. An additional study of optical interconnection is strongly recommended’. The literature on electronic packaging has recently...along with the physical design of the electronic systems, and today’s structures represent engineering optimization of many factors. It is of little...34 options exist, including the use of face-down, " beam -lead" or TAB lead frame arrangements, and also face-up wire - bonded configurations. Following

  13. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Engine, Learning Activity Packages 78-89; Lubricating the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 90-94; Painting the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 95-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on three areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the engine, (2) lubricating the tractor, and (3) painting the tractor. Each of the nineteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  14. Certification of the Mound 1 kW package for shipping of plutonium dioxide source material

    SciTech Connect

    Annese, C.E.; Mount, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. Specifically, DOE Orders 5480.3 and 1540.2 provide references for other DOE Orders which must be followed when an applicant submits a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). From the orders, Department EH of DOE, has internal oversight responsibility for transportation and Packaging safety; package certification falls under EH responsibility; transportation and packaging safety division in EH certifies packages for DOE; and use of DOE certified packages is authorized by DOT. An independent review of the SARP must confirm that the packaging designs and operations meet safety criteria at least equivalent to these standards. This paper will discuss the independent review process of the shielding section of the Mound 1 kW SARP; describe the geometry of the packaging and the load configurations; discuss the analysis of the various neutron and photon source terms that were used for the load configuration under analysis; and provide illustrations of the use of the monte-carlo code, COG{sup 3}, which was utilized to perform the shielding analysis.

  15. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes.

  16. Nano selenium as antioxidant agent in a multilayer food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Vera, Paula; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina; Palomo, María; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were incorporated in a flexible multilayer plastic material using a water-base adhesive as vehicle for SeNPs. The antioxidant performance of the original solutions containing spherical SeNPs of 50-60 nm diameter, the adhesive containing these SeNPs, and the final multilayer plastic material to be used as food packaging were quantitatively measured. The radical scavenging capacity due to SeNPs was quantified by a free radical assay developed in the laboratory and by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. DPPH was not efficient to measure the scavenging capacity in the multilayer when the free radical scavenger is not in the surface in contact with it. Several multilayer laminated structures composed by [PET (20 m)-adhesive-LDPE (with variable thickness from 35 to 90 μm)] were prepared and measured, demonstrating for the first time that free radicals derived from oxygen (OH·, O2·, and O2H) cross the PE layer and arrive at the adhesive. SeNPs remain as such after manufacture and the final laminate is stable after 3 months of storage. The antioxidant multilayer is a non-migrating efficient free radical scavenger, able to protect the packaged product versus oxidation and extending the shelf life without being in direct contact with the product. Migration tests of both Se and SeNPs to simulants and hazelnuts demonstrated the non-migrating performance of this new active packaging. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings. 172.312 Section 172.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. 172.316 Section 172.316 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  19. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. 172.316 Section 172.316 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  20. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. 172.316 Section 172.316 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  1. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings. 172.312 Section 172.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  2. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings. 172.312 Section 172.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  3. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings. 172.312 Section 172.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  4. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. 172.316 Section 172.316 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  5. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  6. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  7. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  8. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  9. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  10. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  11. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  12. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  13. 49 CFR 173.457 - Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of fissile material packages-specific requirements. 173.457 Section 173.457 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL...

  14. 49 CFR 173.204 - Non-bulk, non-specification packagings for certain hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-bulk, non-specification packagings for certain hazardous materials. 173.204 Section 173.204 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  15. 49 CFR 175.88 - Inspection, orientation and securing packages of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, orientation and securing packages of hazardous materials. 175.88 Section 175.88 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT...

  16. Polypropylene Nanocomposites from Porous Clay Materials: Application in Ethylene Scavenger Packaging Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakobna, Kasinee; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Manuspiya, Hathaikarn

    2007-03-01

    The PCH is interesting material to use as entrapping system owing to its structure provides high surface area with uniform and specific pore size. In this work, the PCH is synthesized within the galleries of Na-bentonite clay by the polymerization of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of surfactant micelles (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecylamine). In addition, a mesoporous clay with hybrid organic-inorganic PCH (HPCH) is modified via co-condensation reaction of TEOS and methyltriethoxysilane (MTS). Before the preparation of PCHs and HPCHs, the Na-bentonite clay was adjusted pH into 9, 7, 5 and 3. Furthermore, both PCH and HPCH are utilized as ethylene scavenger and blended with polypropylene (PP) for producing ethylene scavenging films in food packaging application. The eight samples of nanocomposites films including PCH-9, 7, 5, 3 and HPCH-9, 7, 5, 3 (numerals denote the pH-adjusted condition of Na-bentonite clay) will be measured oxygen and ethylene permeabilities; however, the present results obtained from PCH-9 and HPCH-9 nanocomposites films revealed that both oxygen and ethylene permeabilities of these films were less than that of PP virgin film. So these materials could be found new application in active packaging.

  17. Active food packaging evolution: transformation from micro- to nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie; Martyn, Agnieszka; Tehrany, Elmira Arab; Jacquot, Muriel; Linder, Michel; Desobry, Stéphane

    2010-10-01

    Predicting which attributes consumers are willing to pay extra for has become straightforward in recent years. The demands for the prime necessity of food of natural quality, elevated safety, minimally processed, ready-to-eat, and longer shelf-life have turned out to be matters of paramount importance. The increased awareness of environmental conservation and the escalating rate of foodborne illnesses have driven the food industry to implement a more innovative solution, i.e. bioactive packaging. Owing to nanotechnology application in eco-favorable coatings and encapsulation systems, the probabilities of enhancing food quality, safety, stability, and efficiency have been augmented. In this review article, the collective results highlight the food nanotechnology potentials with special focus on its application in active packaging, novel nano- and microencapsulation techniques, regulatory issues, and socio-ethical scepticism between nano-technophiles and nano-technophobes. No one has yet indicated the comparison of data concerning food nano- versus micro-technology; therefore noteworthy results of recent investigations are interpreted in the context of bioactive packaging. The next technological revolution in the domain of food science and nutrition would be the 3-BIOS concept enabling a controlled release of active agents through bioactive, biodegradable, and bionanocomposite combined strategy.

  18. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.815 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  19. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and packing... good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  20. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  1. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  2. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  3. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  4. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.467 Tests for demonstrating the ability of... packaging or packaging for fissile material must meet the test requirements prescribed in 10 CFR part 71 for... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B...

  5. 77 FR 36017 - Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Packaging Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material'' which was issued in March 2012 and... Compliance with Packaging Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material.'' Revision 1 of RG 7... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  7. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  8. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2009-02-18

    Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  9. Computer calculations of wire-rope tiedown designs for radioactive materials packages

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Ratledge, J.E.; Moore, R.S.; Dorsey, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    This Regulatory Compliance Guide (RCG) provides guidance on the use and selection of appropriate wire rope type package tiedowns. It provides an effective way to encourage and to ensure uniform implementation of regulatory requirements applicable to tiedowns. It provides general guidelines for securing packages weighing 5,000 pounds or greater that contain radioactive materials onto legal weight trucks (exclusive of packagings having their own trailer with trunnion type tiedown). This RCG includes a computerized Tiedown Stress Calculation Program (TSCP) which calculates the stresses in the wire-rope tiedowns and specifies appropriate sizes of wire rope and associated hardware parameters (such as turnback length, number of cable clips, etc.).

  10. Use of thermal desorption GC-MS to characterize packaging materials for potential extractables.

    PubMed

    Zweiben, Cindy; Shaw, Arthur J

    2009-01-01

    This article presents case studies involving the use of thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to compositionally characterize pharmaceutical packaging materials for potential extractables. Knowledge of potential extractables and leachables early in the product development program allows the project team to make informed decisions, potentially minimizing redevelopment efforts and reducing cost. Case studies include selection of a label for use on a polyethylene bottle, selection of a drug contact surface of a blister packaging system, and selection of a stopper.

  11. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frysinger, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal cycling and performance tests, performed to verify the package integrity, life, and stability of the chub packaged materials system for storage coolness with application to residential air conditioning, are described. The moisture vapor retention characteristics of the laminate film for long term chub performance was determined. The stability, mechanical integrity, and thermal performance of chubs following mechanical shock, vibration, and temperature extremes is reported.

  12. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  13. Impact of Chlorine dioxide Gas on the Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One important criterion of polymeric material selection and packaging design for fresh produce is choosing the material with suitable ratio of carbon dioxide and oxygen permabilities (PCO2/P O2), to the respiratory proportion of the targeted produce. The ratio of [O2] and [CO2] in the head space var...

  14. Development of a Water Soluble Foam Packaging Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Material, Expanded Polystyrene , Looae-Fill Bulk and standard properties were established. Additional investigations conducted on the loose-fill samples...mechanical properties when tested as described in Federal Specification PPP-O-1683; Cushioning Material, Expanded Polystyrene , Loose-Fill Bulk. The following

  15. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (IBR, see... Liters Cubic feet Maximum Uranium 235-enrichment (weight)percent Maximum “Heel” weight per cylinder UF6... International Atomic Energy Agency “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1,”...

  16. Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, X Z; Kumar, P; Alavi, S; Sandeep, K P

    2012-01-01

    Plastic packaging for food and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also uses up valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current focus on exploring alternatives to petroleum and emphasis on reduced environmental impact, research is increasingly being directed at development of biodegradable food packaging from biopolymer-based materials. The proposed paper will present a review of recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials including natural biopolymers (such as starches and proteins), synthetic biopolymers (such as poly lactic acid), biopolymer blends, and nanocomposites based on natural and synthetic biopolymers. The paper will discuss the various techniques that have been used for developing cost-effective biodegradable packaging materials with optimum mechanical strength and oxygen and moisture barrier properties. This is a timely review as there has been a recent renewed interest in research studies, both in the industry and academia, towards development of a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in other areas.

  17. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  18. An Investigation Into The Viability Of Nanocrystalline Cellulose As A Packaging Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, John

    The focus of this proposal is to identify unexplored areas of research in the field of packaging science, specifically related to the incorporation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) as a functional material in fiber based packaging, as well as to highlight some of potential risks and unknowns in the product lifecycle. This research hypothesizes that incorporating NCC into wood fiber-based c-flute corrugated packaging medium will show a sufficient performance improvement to justify additional research. Nanomaterials, as a whole, are still being understood, including those using naturally occurring bases such as NCC. Further incremental testing with NCC will help provide a performance and safety baseline for the necessary future research prior to mass production. NCC holds great promise for the future: a commonly available, naturally occurring material that's easily recyclable and biodegradable, yet has the strength of steel. Due diligence is required for this material to come to market in a safe and sustainable manner.

  19. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  20. Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2002-04-17

    This report summarizes a research and development program that produced a stand-alone active desiccant module (ADM) that can be easily integrated with new or existing packaged cooling equipment. The program also produced a fully integrated hybrid system, combining the active desiccant section with a conventional direct expansion air-conditioning unit, that resulted in a compact, low-cost, energy-efficient end product. Based upon the results of this investigation, both systems were determined to be highly viable products for commercialization. Major challenges--including wheel development, compact packaging, regeneration burner development, control optimization, and low-cost design--were all successfully addressed by the final prototypes produced and tested as part of this program. Extensive laboratory testing was completed in the SEMCO laboratory for each of the two ADM system approaches. This testing confirmed the performance of the ADM systems to be attractive compared with that of alternate approaches currently used to precondition outdoor air, where a return air path is not readily available for passive desiccant recovery or where first cost is the primary design criterion. Photographs, schematics, and performance maps are provided for the ADM systems that were developed; and many of the control advantages are discussed. Based upon the positive results of this research and development program, field tests are under way for fully instrumented pilot installations of ADM systems in both a hotel/motel and a restaurant.

  1. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  2. Active paraffin-based paper packaging for extending the shelf life of cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Nerin, Cristina; Batlle, Ramon

    2010-06-09

    A new active paraffin coating for paper and board was evaluated for antimicrobial protection and decay retardation for cherry tomatoes. Different active agents were evaluated against Alternaria alternata fungus both in vitro and in vivo using artificially inoculated cherry tomatoes. Bark cinnamon and oregano essential oil showed the best performance (versus clove and leaf cinnamon essential oils) when incorporated to active paper or board used for packaging at nominal concentrations of 3 and 6% (w/w), respectively. Almost total inhibition of the fungus was obtained when 6% of bark cinnamon essential oil was applied to the packaging material. A number of physicochemical parameters such as pH, weight loss, water activity, and color were monitored, and no significant differences between active, blank, and control samples were found for weight loss and color difference. The maximum transfer of trans-cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol to the food was detected after 1 or 2 days of storage. Sensorial analysis was performed, and panelists were not able to detect changes in cinnamon-based packaged tomatoes but they could in the oregano-based tomatoes.

  3. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  4. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  5. Cosmogenic activation of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Beltrán, B.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Cremonesi, O.; García, E.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Luzón, G.; Martínez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pavan, M.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    The problem of cosmogenic activation produced at sea level in materials typically used in underground experiments looking for rare events is being studied. Several nuclear data libraries have been screened looking for relevant isotope production cross-sections and different codes which can be applied to activation studies have been reviewed. The excitation functions for some problems of interest like production of 60Co and 68Ge in germanium and production of 60Co in tellurium have been obtained taking into account both measurements and calculations and a preliminary estimate of the corresponding rates of production at sea level has been performed.

  6. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing a material which is likely to decompose with a self-accelerated decomposition temperature (SADT) of 50 °C (122 °F) or less, or polymerize at a temperature of 54 °C (130 °F) or less with an evolution... under controlled temperature conditions. The control temperature and emergency temperature for a...

  7. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing a material which is likely to decompose with a self-accelerated decomposition temperature (SADT) of 50 °C (122 °F) or less, or polymerize at a temperature of 54 °C (130 °F) or less with an evolution... under controlled temperature conditions. The control temperature and emergency temperature for a...

  8. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing a material which is likely to decompose with a self-accelerated decomposition temperature (SADT) of 50 °C (122 °F) or less, or polymerize at a temperature of 54 °C (130 °F) or less with an evolution... under controlled temperature conditions. The control temperature and emergency temperature for a...

  9. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing a material which is likely to decompose with a self-accelerated decomposition temperature (SADT) of 50 °C (122 °F) or less, or polymerize at a temperature of 54 °C (130 °F) or less with an evolution... under controlled temperature conditions. The control temperature and emergency temperature for a...

  10. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  11. Physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends; effects of packaging material, storage temperature and time

    PubMed Central

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of packaging materials, seasonality, storage temperature and time on physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends. Roselle extract (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) was mixed with mango juice and stored in glass and plastic bottles at 4°C and 28°C. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, color, vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidant activity (FRAP) were evaluated in freshly prepared juice, and after, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage. The results showed that total soluble solids, reducing sugars, and pH increased with storage times under different storage time, irrespective of packaging materials. The acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, vitamin C, total phenols, and antioxidant activity decreased during storage irrespective of storage temperature and packaging material. Loss of anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C content were higher in blends stored at 28°C than 4°C. PMID:25838888

  12. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  13. Biocomposite cellulose-alginate films: promising packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Kolehmainen, Aleksi; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Niinimäki, Jouko; Hormi, Osmo E O

    2014-05-15

    Biocomposite films based on cellulose and alginate were produced using unmodified birch pulp, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and birch pulp derivate, nanofibrillated anionic dicarboxylic acid cellulose (DCC), having widths of fibres ranging from 19.0 μm to 25 nm as cellulose fibre materials. Ionically cross-linked biocomposites were produced using Ca(2+) cross-linking. Addition of micro- and nanocelluloses as a reinforcement increased the mechanical properties of the alginate films remarkably, e.g. addition of 15% of NFC increased a tensile strength of the film from 70.02 to 97.97 MPa. After ionic cross-linking, the tensile strength of the film containing 10% of DCC was increased from 69.63 to 125.31 MPa. The biocomposite films showed excellent grease barrier properties and reduced water vapour permeability (WVP) after the addition of cellulose fibres, except when unmodified birch pulp was used.

  14. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... table. (a) Rail cars: Class DOT 103, 104, 105, 109, 111, 112, 114, 115, or 120 tank car tanks; Class 106... solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  16. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O(2) active packaging in comparison with low O(2) packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Li, X H; Fan, X; Tang, Y; Yun, J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (initial O(2)/CO(2): 5/5; 30/5; and 80/0) and passive packaging [initial O(2)/CO(2): 20.8/0 (air)] on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pear stored at 4 °C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O(2) (30% and 80%) packages had higher phenolics and anthocyanin contents compared with those in passive and low O(2) packages. After 12 days of storage, phenolics and anthocyanin contents of 80% O(2) samples were 2.5 and 12 times, respectively, higher than those in the passive package and 3 and 2 times higher than those in low O(2) package. High O(2) modified atmosphere packaging was effective in keeping free radical scavenging capacity as measured by the DPPH assay. The sensory evaluation indicated that surface color of cut fruits were stable for at least 12 days in the high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging. The results suggested that high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging could be used to inhibit browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pears in spite of more than 50% loss in vitamin C content.

  17. Study of the Use of Oxygen-Absorbing Packaging Material to Prolong Shelf-Life of Rations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-28

    unlimited. The effectiveness of a new oxygen absorbing packaging technology in modifying the inner atmosphere to very low residual oxygen retarding...attached 3 Summary The effectiveness of a new oxygen absorbing packaging technology in modifying the inner atmosphere to very low residual...packaged products according to product specifications (Phase I); (2) identifying the relationship between food moisture content and activation of

  18. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry II. LAP Numbers 39A, 39B, 39C, 40, 41, 41A and 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    As a set of seven Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in chemistry, the units cover problems in stoichiometry, energy levels, chemical bonding, matter and its forms, electrochemical processes, chemical kinetics and equilibrium, metals, and non-metals. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of…

  19. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term.

  20. A COMPARISON OF TWO THERMAL INSULATION AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR USE IN TYPE B PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-16

    This paper presents the summary of design features and test results of two Type B Shipping Package prototype configurations comprising different insulating materials developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy. The materials evaluated, a closed-cell polyurethane foam and a vacuformed ceramic fiber material, were selected to provide adequate structural protection to the package containment vessel during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and to provide thermal protection during the HAC fire. Polyurethane foam has been used in shipping package designs for many years because of the stiffness it provides to the structure and because of the thermal protection it provides during fire scenarios. This comparison describes how ceramic fiber material offers an alternative to the polyurethane foam in a specific overpack design. Because of the high operating temperature ({approx}2,300 F) of the ceramic material, it allows for contents with higher heat loads to be shipped than is possible with polyurethane foam. Methods of manufacturing and design considerations using the two materials will be addressed.

  1. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2007-05-15

    Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  2. Physical test report to drop test of a 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.S.

    1997-11-11

    This report presents the drop test results for the 9975 radioactive material shipping package being dropped 30 feet onto a unyielding surface followed by a 40-inch puncture pin drop. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum. The 30-foot drop was designed to weaken the lid closure lug while still maintaining maximum extension of the lugs from the drum surface. This was accomplished by angling the drum approximately 30 degrees from horizontal in an inverted position. In this position, the drum was rotated slightly so as not to embed the closure lugs into the drum as a result of the 30-foot drop. It was determined that this orientation would maximize deformation to the closure ring around the closure lug while still maintaining the extension of the lugs from the package surface. The second drop was from 40 inches above a 40-inch tall 6-inch diameter puncture pin. The package was angled 10 degrees from vertical and aligned over the puncture pin to solidly hit the drum lug(s) in an attempt to disengage the lid when dropped.Tests were performed in response to DOE EM-76 review Q5 inquires that questioned the capability of the 9975 drum lid to remain in place under this test sequence. Two packages were dropped utilizing this sequence, a 9974 and 9975. Test results for the 9974 package are reported in WSRC-RP-97-00945. A series of 40-inch puncture pin tests were also performed on undamaged 9975 and 9974 packages.

  3. Low temperature activation of Au/Ti getter film for application to wafer-level vacuum packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Moulin, Johan; Lani, Sébastien; Hallais, Géraldine; Renard, Charles; Bosseboeuf, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin films based on alloys of transition metals have been studied by various authors for vacuum control in wafer-level packages of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). These materials have typically a relatively high activation temperature (300-450 °C) which is incompatible with some temperature sensitive MEMS devices. In this work we investigate the potential of Au/Ti system with a thin or ultrathin non oxidizable Au layer as a low activation temperature getter material. In this bilayer system, gettering activation is produced by thermal outdiffusion of titanium atoms through the gold film. The outdiffusion kinetics of titanium was modelled and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) at various temperatures. Results confirm that Au/Ti bilayer is a promising getter material for wafer-level packaging with an activation temperature below 300 °C for 1 h annealing time.

  4. Wafer-level vacuum packaging for an optical readout bi-material cantilever infrared FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyu; Zhou, Xiaoxiong; Yu, Xiaomei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of an uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) on quartz substrate and the wafer-level vacuum packaging for the IR FPA in view of an optical readout method. This FPA is composed of bi-material cantilever array which fabricated by the Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, and the wafer-level packaging of the IR FPA is realized based on AuSn solder bonding technique. The interface of soldering is observed by scan electron microscope (SEM), which indicates that bonding interface is smooth and with no bubbles. The air leakage rate of packaged FPA is measured to be 1.3×10-9 atm·cc/s.

  5. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

    1994-09-30

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

  6. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging... packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food....

  7. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging... packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food....

  8. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  9. Plasticizers in Brazilian food-packaging materials acquired on the retail market.

    PubMed

    Freire, M T De A; Santana, I A; Reyes, F G R

    2006-01-01

    Packaging materials intended for direct food contact were acquired on the Brazilian retail market and analysed for their plasticizer content. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) plasticizers were identified in films and closure seals in concentrations ranging from 12 to 19% (w/w), 15 to 44% (w/w) and 10 to 11% (w/w), respectively. Brazilian regulations state that for use with foods with a fat content above 5%, the levels of DEHP and DIDP in the plastic material should be no greater than 3%. The results obtained demonstrate a lack of conformity. It would be advisable to include information on the labels of packaging materials about their restrictions of use in order to advise manufacturers and consumers about their proper usage.

  10. Investigation of migrant-polymer interaction in pharmaceutical packaging material using the linear interaction energy algorithm.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Peter; Brunsteiner, Michael; Khinast, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between drug products and polymeric packaging materials is an important topic in the pharmaceutical industry and often associated with high costs because of the required elaborative interaction studies. Therefore, a theoretical prediction of such interactions would be beneficial. Often, material parameters such as the octanol water partition coefficient are used to predict the partitioning of migrant molecules between a solvent and a polymeric packaging material. Here, we present the investigation of the partitioning of various migrant molecules between polymers and solvents using molecular dynamics simulations for the calculation of interaction energies. Our results show that the use of a model for the interaction between the migrant and the polymer at atomistic detail can yield significantly better results when predicting the polymer solvent partitioning than a model based on the octanol water partition coefficient.

  11. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review.

    PubMed

    Kerry, J P; O'Grady, M N; Hogan, S A

    2006-09-01

    Interest in the use of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending meat product quality and shelf-life. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents and anti-microbial packaging technologies. Intelligent packaging systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage. The potential of sensor technologies, indicators (including integrity, freshness and time-temperature (TTI) indicators) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are evaluated for potential use in meat and meat products. Recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.

  12. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  13. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  14. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    PubMed

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles.

  15. Contribution of Two Different Packaging Material to Microbial Contamination of Peaches: Implications in Their Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Patrignani, Francesca; Siroli, Lorenzo; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aim of this work was understanding the microbial transfer dynamics from packaging to packed peaches in relation to the packaging used. Method and Results: A challenge test was performed, inoculating Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on cardboards and RPC (Reusable Plastic Containers), and monitoring their cell loads on fruits according to a probabilistic model and a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in relation to several independent variables (number of fruit lesions, fruit temperature storage and commercialization time). The data recorded on packed peaches for Pseudomonas and S. cerevisiae were modeled to fit the second order model to study the main, interactive and quadratic effects of the independent variables on the cell loads of target microorganisms as well as on the shelf-life of the fruits in relation to packaging material used. The data collected for E. coli were codified as presence (1) or absence (0) and modeled with a logistic regression analysis to assess the probability of E. coli transferring from packaging to fruits in relation to the adopted variables. The data showed a higher contamination frequency of the fruits packed in plastic than in cardboard. Increasing the storage temperature and the number of lesions, the probability of transferring of E. coli from packaging materials to fruits increased, independently on commercialization time or packaging used. For Pseudomonas, the contamination levels detected on fruits packaged in plastic were significantly higher compared to those found on fruits packed in cardboard, independently on the considered variables. The polynomial equations showed the S. cerevisiae cell loads of fruits stored in plastic was positively affected by the quadratic term of temperature. Conclusions: the use of cardboard, compared to plastic, can significantly reduce the potential of microbial transferring from packaging to fruits. The probabilistic and kinetic models used showed a higher

  16. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  17. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in various foodstuff packaging materials used in the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Bakeas, Evangelos; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in food packaging materials as coatings/additives for oil and moisture resistance. In the current study, foodstuff-packaging materials collected from the Greek market, made of paper, paperboard or aluminum foil were analyzed for the determination of PFCs. For the analysis of the samples, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and isotope dilution method were applied to develop a specific and sensitive method of analysis for the quantification of 12 PFCs: perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the qualitative detection of 5 more: perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perflyohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS). No PFCs were quantified in aluminum foil wrappers, baking paper materials or beverage cups. PFTrDA, PFTeDA and PFHxDA were detected in fast food boxes. In the ice cream cup sample only PFHxA was found. On the other hand, several PFCs were quantified and detected in fast food wrappers, while the highest levels of PFCs were found in the microwave popcorn bag. PFOA and PFOS were not detected in any of the samples. Compared to other studies from different countries, very low concentrations of PFCs were detected in the packaging materials analyzed. Our results suggest that probably no serious danger for consumers’ health can be associated with PFCs contamination of packaging materials used in Greece.

  18. Microcrystalline-cellulose and polypropylene based composite: A simple, selective and effective material for microwavable packaging.

    PubMed

    Ummartyotin, S; Pechyen, C

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose based composite was successfully designed as active packaging with additional feature of microwavable properties. Small amount of cellulose with 10 μm in diameter was integrated into polypropylene matrix. The use of maleic anhydride was employed as coupling agent. Thermal and mechanical properties of cellulose based composite were superior depending on polypropylene matrix. Crystallization temperature and compressive strength were estimated to be 130 °C and 5.5 MPa. The crystal formation and its percentage were therefore estimated to be 50% and it can be predicted on the feasibility of microwavable packaging. Morphological properties of cellulose based composite presented the good distribution and excellent uniformity. It was remarkable to note that cellulose derived from cotton can be prepared as composite with polypropylene matrix. It can be used as packaging for microwave application.

  19. Fungal mycelium and cotton plant materials in the manufacture of biodegradable molded packaging material: Evaluation study of select blends of cotton byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary material used by the packaging industry is extruded polystyrene foam, which is commonly marketed as Styrofoam™. In its original formulation, Styrofoam™ is resistant to photolysis and effectively does not decompose. The light weight of Styrofoam™ packaging materials reduces the likelihood...

  20. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis Originating in Fruit-Flavored Water to Packaging Materials

    PubMed Central

    Otlewska, Anna; Antolak, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6%) between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry). Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene. PMID:25295262

  1. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis originating in fruit-flavored water to packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota; Otlewska, Anna; Antolak, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6%) between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry). Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene.

  2. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  3. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye

    2015-01-01

    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives.

  4. Productivity Techniques and Quality Aspects in the Criticality Safety Evaluation of Y-12 Type-B Fissile Material Packages

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, J. F.

    2011-06-28

    The inventory of certified Type-B fissile material packages consists of ten performance-based packages for offsite transportation purposes, serving transportation programs at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The containment vessels range from 5 to 19 in. in diameter and from 17 to 58 in. in height. The drum assembly external to the containment vessel ranges from 18 to 34 in. in diameter and from 26 to 71 in. in height. The weight of the packaging (drum assembly and containment vessel) ranges from 239 to 1550 lb. The older DT-nn series of Cellotex-based packages are being phased-out and replaced by a new generation of Kaolite-based ('Y-12 patented insulation') packages capable of withstanding the dynamic crush test 10 CFR 71.73(c)(2). Three replacement packages are in various stages of development; two are in use. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package, which does not conform to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for Type-B packages, is no longer authorized for service on public roads. The ES-3100 shipping package is an example of a Kaolite-based Type-B fissile material package developed as a replacement package for the DOT 6M. With expanded utility, the ES-3100 is designed and licensed for transporting highly enriched uranium and plutonium materials on public roads. The ES-3100 provides added capability for air transport of up to 7-kg quantities of uranium material. This paper presents the productivity techniques and quality aspects in the criticality safety evaluation of Y-12 packages using the ES-3100 as an example.

  5. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  6. Calculation of shipboard fire conditions for radioactive materials packages with the methods of computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Shipboard fires both in the same ship hold and in an adjacent hold aboard a break-bulk cargo ship are simulated with a commercial finite-volume computational fluid mechanics code. The fire models and modeling techniques are described and discussed. Temperatures and heat fluxes to a simulated materials package are calculated and compared to experimental values. The overall accuracy of the calculations is assessed.

  7. Food-packaging materials: migration of constituents into food contents. January 1982-December 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  10. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  12. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  13. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  14. Study on the fabricating process monitoring of thermoplastic based materials packaged OFBG and their sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Zhichun; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    As common materials or engineering materials, thermoplastic resin based materials can be used not only directly fabricating products but also FRTP(fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymer) materials for other uses. As one kind of FRTP material, GFRPP(glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) has lots of merits, such as: light weight, high strength, high tenacity, high elongation percentage, good durability, reshaping character and no environmental pollution characters. And they also can be conveniently formed hoop rebar in civil engineering. While a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG smart rod which combined GFRPP and OFBG together can be used as not only structure materials but also sensing materials. Meanwhile, PP packaged OFBG strain sensor can be expected for its low modulus, good sensitivity and good durability. Furthermore, it can be used for large strain measuring. In this paper, we have successfully fabricated a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG(Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene-Optic Fiber Bragg Grating) rod by our own thermoplastic pultrusion production line and a new kind of PP packaged OFBG strain sensor by extruding techniques. And we monitored the inner strain and temperature changes with tow OFBG simultaneously of the fabricating process. The results show that: OFBG can truly reflect the strain and temperature changes in both the GFRPP rod and the PP packaged OFBG, these are very useful to modify our processing parameters. And we also find that because of the shrinkage of PP, this new kind of PP packaged OFBG have -13000μɛ storage, and the strain sensing performance is still very well, so which can be used for large strain measuring. Besides these, GFRPP-OFBG smart rod has good sensing performance in strain sensing just like that of FRSP-OFBG rod, the strain sensitivity coefficient is about1.19pm/μɛ. Besides these, the surface of GFRPP-OFBG rods can be handled just as steel bars and also can be bended and reshaped. These are all very useful and very important for the use

  15. Apprenticeship: A Partnership 5. A Learning Activities Package for Women in Apprenticeship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    This learning activity package is designed to help women prepare for the environment they may find while working in a trade. After completing this package, women should have a realistic idea about how well prepared they are to deal with job conditions that tend to be a problem for tradeswomen. Five units address the following topics: (1)…

  16. Development of more friendly food packaging materials base on polypropylene through blending with polylacticacid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Achmad Hanafi; Aulia, Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    The commonly food packaging materials today is used a thin layer plastic or film, which is made of a synthetic polymer, such as polypropylene (PP). However, the use of these polymers has a negative impact on the environment, because the synthetic polymer is difficult to degrade naturally by the biotic components such as micro-organisms decomposers and abiotic components such as the sunshine. The use of the biodegradable polymeric material will reduce the use of synthetic polymer products, thereby reducing plastic waste pollution at relatively low cost, it is expected to produce positive effects both for the environment and in terms of economy. PLA is a biodegradable polymer that can be substituted totally or partially to synthetic polymers as far as could fulfill the main function of packaging in the protection and preservation of food. Increasing PLA content in polypropylene blend will affect to the increasing in its water absorption and also its biodegradable. 20% PLA may the optimum composition of poly-blend for food packaging.

  17. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    PubMed

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality.

  18. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  19. Determination Of Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Packaging Materials For The Use In FEM-Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roellig, Mike; Boehme, Bjoern; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, René

    2011-09-01

    Conventional and future electronic packages merge several different materials. Polymers, metals, solders, dielectrics, glasses, silicon, composites come together and show strong mechanical and material interaction. These interfacial effects increase if the miniaturization and diversification keep on rising as it is proposed. Many efforts have to be done to assure the system reliability of new electronic packages. The Finite Element Simulation has the ability to support the development process of new packages. The application of the FEM-analysis requires the knowledge about the precise mechanical and thermal behaviour of the materials. The paper presents different measurement methods to determine accurate mechanical material properties of moulding compound polymers, underfillers, solder mask, and wafer photo resist and solder joints. The temperature dependency is essential to be respected. The polymer materials moulding compound as well as solder mask were characterized by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis under humidity influences to determine mechanical properties as function of moisture and temperature. Further experiments on polymer were conducted to extract the cure kinetics by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and to determine Bulk Modulus by Pressure-Volume-Temperature experiments (PVT). Altogether, these material properties need to be modeled in a comprehensive way fitting to each other. The common practice of just compiling data from different sources has been found to fail yielding in reliable and accurate results. The conditions under which the data were determined may cause mismatches between them and cause inconsistencies within the model. If a convergent solution was obtained at all, much simulation time would be needed as many iterations with small time steps were needed. In order to avoid this, the paper reports an approach of characterizing the temperature and time dependent mechanical material properties in one comprehensive scheme. The solder

  20. Displacement imprinted polymer receptor analysis (DIPRA) for chlorophenolic contaminants in drinking water and packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, C; Karim, K; Piletsky, S; Saini, S; Setford, S

    2006-01-15

    The preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for pentachlorophenol is described together with two alternative reporter derivatives for use in a displacement imprinted polymer receptor analysis (DIPRA) format procedure. In this procedure, alternative reporter molecules were rebound to the synthetic receptor sites and their displacement by the target analyte was employed as the basis of a simple procedure for the measurement of chlorophenols in water and packaging material samples. Water samples were extracted using the standard procedure (EPA 528) and a detection limit of 0.5 microg l(-1) was achieved using the DIPRA detection method, with good agreement between the displacement technique and GC-ECD analysis. A variety of packaging materials, extracted using a buffered detergent solution were also analysed using the DIPRA procedure and showed good agreement with GC results. In addition, investigation of the cross-reactivity of a range of pesticides and materials commonly encountered in environmental analysis indicated the procedure gave good discrimination between pesticides bearing a chlorophenolic moiety and other materials. The procedure is considered highly suitable for use as a rapid field-test method or for incorporation into a test kit device.

  1. Are Sintered Silver Joints Ready for Use as Interconnect Material in Microelectronic Packaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siow, Kim S.

    2014-04-01

    Silver (Ag) has been under development for use as interconnect material for power electronics packaging since the late 1980s. Despite its long development history, high thermal and electrical conductivities, and lead-free composition, sintered Ag technology has limited market penetration. This review sets out to explore what is required to make this technology more viable. This review also covers the origin of sintered Ag, the different types and application methods of sintered Ag pastes and laminates, and the long-term reliability of sintered Ag joints. Sintered Ag pastes are classified according to whether pressure is required for sintering and further classified according to their filler sizes. This review discusses the main methods of applying Ag pastes/laminates as die-attach materials and the related processing conditions. The long-term reliability of sintered Ag joints depends on the density of the sintered joint, selection of metallization or plating schemes, types of substrates, substrate roughness, formulation of Ag pastes/laminates, joint configurations (i.e., joint thicknesses and die sizes), and testing conditions. This paper identifies four challenges that must be overcome for the proliferation of sintered Ag technology: changes in materials formulation, the successful navigation of the complex patent landscape, the availability of production and inspection equipment, and the health concerns of Ag nanoparticles. This paper is expected to be useful to materials suppliers and semiconductor companies that are considering this technology for their future packages.

  2. Analytical determination of flavonoids aimed to analysis of natural samples and active packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, María del Mar; López-Vilariño, José Manuel; González-Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Several HPLC and UHPLC developed methods were compared to analyse the natural antioxidants catechins and quercetin used in active packaging and functional foods. Photodiode array detector coupled with a fluorescence detector and compared with LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was used. UHPLC was investigated as quick alternative without compromising the separation, analysis time shortened up to 6-fold. The feasibility of the four developed methods was compared. Linearity up to 0.9995, low detection limits (between 0.02 and 0.7 for HPLC-PDA, 2 to 7-fold lower for HPLC- LTQ-Orbitrap-MS and from 0.2 to 2mgL(-)(1) for UHPLC-PDA) and good precision parameters (RSD lower than 0.06%) were obtained. All methods were successfully applied to natural samples. LTQ-Orbitrap-MS allowed to identify other analytes of interest too. Good feasibility of the methods was also concluded from the analysis of catechin and quercetin release from new active packaging materials based on polypropylene added with catechins and green tea.

  3. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles.

  4. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  5. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riganakos, K. A.; Koller, W. D.; Ehlermann, D. A. E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M. G.

    1999-05-01

    Volatile compounds produced in flexible food packaging materials (LDPE, EVAc, PET/PE/EVOH/PE) during electron beam irradiation were isolated by purge and trap technique and identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), after thermal desorption and concentration. For comparison purposes non-irradiated films were also studied. Film samples were irradiated at low (5 kGy, corresponding to cold pasteurization), intermediate (20 kGy, corresponding to cold sterilization) and high (100 kGy) doses. It was observed that a number of volatile compounds are produced after irradiation in all cases. Furthermore the amounts of all volatile compounds increase with increasing irradiation dose. Both primary (methyl-derivatives etc.) as well as secondary i.e. oxidation products (ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, carboxylic acids etc.) are produced upon irradiation. These products may affect organoleptic properties and thus shelf-life of prepackaged irradiated foods. No significant changes were observed in the structure of polymer matrices as exhibited by IR spectra after irradiation of the materials at doses tested. Likewise, no significant changes were observed in O 2, H 2O and CO 2 permeability values of plastic packaging materials after irradiation.

  7. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg−1, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  8. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material, including forming the extrusion die

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1981-11-30

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  9. Biodegradable packaging materials conception based on starch and polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with cellulose.

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, Fatma; Bessadok, Atef; Dammak, Mohamed; Jaziri, Mohamed; Ammar, Emna

    2016-10-01

    The plastic materials used for packaging are increasing leading to a considerable amount of undegradable solid wastes. This work deals with the reduction of conventional plastics waste and the natural resources preservation by using cellulosic polymers from renewable resources (alfa and luffa). Plasticized starch films syntheses were achieved at a laboratory scale. These natural films showed some very attractive mechanical properties at relatively low plasticizers levels (12 to 17 % by weight). Furthermore, mixtures including polylactic acid polymer (PLA) and cellulose fibers extracted from alfa and luffa were investigated by melt extrusion technique. When used at a rate of 10 %, these fibers improved the mixture mechanical properties. Both developed materials were biodegradable, but the plasticized starch exhibited a faster biodegradation kinetic compared to the PLA/cellulose fibers. These new materials would contribute to a sustainable development and a waste reduction.

  10. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Peterson, Leroy L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  11. Gamma irradiation of yellow and blue colorants in polystyrene packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, V.; Diel, Todd; Sadler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 10- and 20-kGy gamma irradiation was studied on chromophtal yellow 2RLTS (Yellow 110-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachloro-6-cyanobenzoic acid) and Irgalite Blue GBP (copper (II) phthalocyanine blue) colorants, which were added to polystyrene (PS) material used to package food prior to irradiation. Analytical results obtained suggest that irradiation did not generate any new chemicals in the PS polymer containing either yellow or blue colorant at a concentration of up to 1% (w/w). Both yellow and blue colorants are relatively stable to gamma irradiation.

  12. Antimicrobial effectiveness of bioactive packaging materials from edible chitosan and casein polymers: assessment on carrot, cheese, and salami.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maria del Rosario; Pereda, Mariana; Marcovich, Norma E; Roura, Sara I

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the intrinsic antimicrobial properties of chitosan (CH) were combined with the excellent thermoplastic and film-forming properties of sodium caseinate (SC) to prepare SC/CH film-forming solutions and films. The antimicrobial effectiveness of SC, CH, and SC/CH coatings on the native microfloras of cheese, salami, and carrots was evaluated. In vitro assays through the test tube assay indicated that the most significant antimicrobial effect was achieved by CH and SC/CH solutions on carrot and cheese native microfloras. SC film-forming solutions did not exert antimicrobial activity on any of the native microflora studied. SC, CH, and SC/CH films stored in controlled environments showed that the retention of the antimicrobial action was observed until 5-d storage, at 65% relative humidity in both temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C). In vivo assays were also performed with SC, CH, and SC/CH applied as coatings or wrappers on the 3 food substrates. CH and SC/CH applied at both immersion and wrapper exerted a significant bactericidal action on mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and yeasts and molds counts, showing the 3 microbial populations analyzed a significant reduction (2.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g). An improvement of the bactericidal properties of the CH/SC blend respect to those of the neat CH film is reported. The ionic interaction between both macromolecules enhances its antimicrobial properties. Practical Application: The continuous consumer interest in high quality and food safety, combined with environmental concerns has stimulated the development and study of biodegradable coatings that avoid the use of synthetic materials. Among them, edible coatings, obtained from generally recognized as safe (GRAS) materials, have the potential to reduce weight loss, respiration rate, and improve food appearance and integrity. They can be used in

  13. Study of silicone-based materials for the packaging of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yeong-Her

    The first part of this work is to evaluate the main materials used for the packaging of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), i.e., the die attach materials, the encapsulant materials, and high color rendering index(CRI) sol-gel composite materials. All of these materials had been discussed the performance, reliability, and issues in high power LED packages. High power white LEDs are created either from blue or near-ultraviolet chips encapsulated with a yellow phosphor, or from red-green-blue LED light mixing systems. The phosphor excited by blue LED chip was mostly used in experiment of this dissertation. The die attach materials contains filler particles possessing a maximum particle size less than 1.5 mum in diameter blended with epoxy polymer matrix. Such compositions enable thin bond line thickness, which decreases thermal resistance that exists between thermal interface materials and the corresponding mating surfaces. The thermal conductivity of nano silver die attach materials is relatively low, the thermal resistance from the junction to board is just 1.6 KW-1 in the bond line thickness of 5.3 mum, which is much lower than the thermal resistance using conventional die attach materials. The silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab cures through the free radical reaction of epoxy-functional organopolysiloxane and through the hydrosilylation reaction between alkenyl-functional organopolysiloxane and silicone-boned hydrogen-functional organopolysiloxane. By the combination of the free radical reaction and the hydrosilylation reaction, the low-molecular-weight silicone oil will not be out-migrated and not contaminate wire bondability to the LED chip and lead frame. Hence, the silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab can pass all reliability tests, such as operating life test JEDEC 85°C/85RH and room temperature operating life test. For LED encapsulating materials, most of commercial silicone encapsulants still suffer thermal/radiation induced

  14. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Curtis, P.G.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel- and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron-absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. The stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on its chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high-chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. The results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  15. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  16. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  17. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  18. The effect of packaging material and storage period on microwave-dried potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cubes.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, Shahrzad; Ziaolhagh, Hamid Reza; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Heydari-Majd, Mojtaba; Tajali, Rohallah; Nezarat, Somayeh; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-06-01

    The effect of three packaging materials (transparent biaxially oriented polypropylene laminate (BOPP); semi-transparent BOPP; polyethylene-polyamide (PE-PA) laminate) in three packaging conditions (vacuum, N2, natural atmosphere) and in two temperature treatments (blanching in hot water; steam) on microwave-dried potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) cubes was studied. After storage for 60 and 120 days, the amount of ascorbic acid (AA), shrinkage and rehydration were determined. Dried potato cubes packaged under N2 atmosphere had the highest rehydration value (3.142 %). Since there is a direct relationship between the amount of water loss and shrinkage, samples packaged in PE-PA laminate packages under vacuum showed 4.947 % less shrinkage than transparent BOPP or semi-transparent BOPP due to low permeability of these packages. Potatoes stored for 120 days resulted in 7.89 % more shrinkage than those stored for 60 days. The least loss in AA occurred in PE-PA laminate packaging. The shelf-life of potato cubes can be increased and their quantitative and qualitative characteristics can be best preserved by package-drying in PE-PA laminate under vacuum conditions.

  19. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 15

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  20. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N.; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  1. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  2. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  3. Creating the Learning Activities Package. Instructional Improvement Through In-Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Holly; And Others

    This paper describes an in-service course for the design, development, and evaluation of mediated learning activities. Each Learning Activities Package (LAP) has six basic components: concept, rationale, objectives, preassessment, activities, and evaluation. Each of these components is outlined, with emphasis placed on writing objectives…

  4. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  5. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  6. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  7. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  8. 49 CFR 173.243 - Bulk packaging for certain high hazard liquids and dual hazard materials which pose a moderate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain high hazard liquids and dual hazard materials which pose a moderate hazard. 173.243 Section 173.243 Transportation Other... hazard liquids and dual hazard materials which pose a moderate hazard. When § 172.101 of this...

  9. 49 CFR 173.243 - Bulk packaging for certain high hazard liquids and dual hazard materials which pose a moderate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain high hazard liquids and dual hazard materials which pose a moderate hazard. 173.243 Section 173.243 Transportation Other... hazard liquids and dual hazard materials which pose a moderate hazard. When § 172.101 of this...

  10. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging materials in parts 174 through 179 of... and pet food....

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging materials in parts 174 through 179 of... and pet food....

  12. EFFECT OF IMPACT LIMITER MATERIAL DEGRATION ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF 9975 PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO TWO FORKLIFT TRUCK IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2007-07-09

    This paper evaluates the effect of the impact limiter material degradation on the structural integrity of the 9975 package containment vessel during a postulated accident event of forklift truck collision. The analytical results show that the primary and secondary containment vessels remain structurally intact for Celotex material degraded to 20% of the baseline value.

  13. Experimental measurement of a shipboard fire environment with simulated radioactive materials packages

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Beene, D.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. The calorimeters were both located adjacent to the fires and on the opposite side of the cargo hold bulkhead nearest the fire. The calorimeters were constructed from 1.5 m length sections of nominal 2 foot diameter schedule 60 steel pipe. Type K thermocouples were attached at 12 locations on the circumference and ends of the calorimeter. Fire heat fluxes to the calorimeter surfaces were estimated with the use of the Sandia SODDIT inverse heat conduction code. Experimental results from all types of tests are discussed, and some comparisons are made between the environments found on the ship and those found in land-based pool fire tests.

  14. Energy and materials use in the production and recycling of consumer-goods packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1981-02-01

    A comparison is made of the energy consumed annually in the United States to produce paper, glass, steel, aluminum, and plastic for consumer-goods packaging and types of energy used for production are examined. Energy saved through recycling and combustion for energy recovery also is considered. A maximum of 1.5 quad could be saved if this packaging material were recycled, and about 0.6 quad could be recovered if it were burned as part of municipal solid waste. Paper and plastic compete in several markets, including bags and milk containers: in almost all cases, the plastic container requires less energy to produce and recycle. However, the major energy input to paper manufacture is wood, rather than oil and natural gas. Glass bottles require less energy to produce than aluminum or steel cans. On the other hand, aluminum cans take less energy to recycle than bottles, and recycled aluminum cans are the least energy intensive of the single-serving beverage containers, except for refillable glass bottles that are reused several times. For family-sized beverage bottles, a plastic bottle uses less energy to make and to recycle than a glass bottle. In addition, plastic bottles are combustible. However, glass bottles could be made with no oil or natural gas input, and they can be reused.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE BLANTON CLAMSHELL CLOSUREFOR USE ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P

    2007-10-18

    This paper provides a brief history of the U.S. Type B 6M specification container, its introduction into U.S. Code of federal regulations and its scheduled elimination three decades later. The paper also presents development, testing and deployment by the Department of Energy (DOE) of an enhanced drum closure called the 'Blanton Clamshell' (patent pending) that was designed to replace the standard open-head C-ring closure for the 55- and 85-gallon drums described in the 6M specification to extend their safe use. Nuclear Filter Technology has the Exclusive License for Clamshell production. Drum packages utilizing the standard C-ring closure have been a main-stay for over a half of a century in the national and international nuclear industry for shipping radioactive materials and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Drum package use in the U.S. increased heavily in the 1950's with development of the Weapons Complex and subsequently the commercial nuclear reactor industry.

  16. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... specification cargo tank motor vehicles suitable for transport of liquids. (c) Portable tanks. DOT Specification..., 13L4, 13M1 and 13M2; and (iv) Composite: 11HZ2 and 21HZ2. (e) Large Packagings. Large Packagings...

  17. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  18. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  19. Determination of activation energy of pyrolysis of carton packaging wastes and its pure components using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Larissa M; Xavier, Thiago P; Barrozo, Marcos Antonio S; Bacelos, Marcelo S; Lira, Taisa S

    2016-07-01

    Many processes have been used for recycling of carton packaging wastes. The pyrolysis highlights as a promising technology to be used for recovering the aluminum from polyethylene and generating products with high heating value. In this paper, a study on pyrolysis reactions of carton packaging wastes and its pure components was performed in order to estimate the kinetic parameters of these reactions. For this, dynamic thermogravimetric analyses were carried out and two different kinds of kinetic models were used: the isoconversional and Independent Parallel Reactions. Isoconversional models allowed to calculate the overall activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction, in according to their conversions. The IPR model, in turn, allowed the calculation of kinetic parameters of each one of the carton packaging and paperboard subcomponents. The carton packaging pyrolysis follows three separated stages of devolatilization. The first step is moisture loss. The second stage is perfectly correlated to devolatilization of cardboard. The third step is correlated to devolatilization of polyethylene.

  20. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package fill materials

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-07-07

    Depleted uranium dioxide fill inside the waste package creates the potential for significant improvements in package performance based on uranium geochemistry, reduces the potential for criticality in a repository, and consumes DU inventory. As a new concept, significant uncertainties exist: fill properties, impacts on package design, post- closure performance.

  1. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  2. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-07-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact.

  3. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements.

  4. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  5. FIFTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.

    2014-04-15

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Additional samples will be added to each aging environment, to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Two additional softwood fiberboard source packages have been obtained and will begin to provide data on the range of variability of this material.

  6. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    PubMed

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-03-14

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  7. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  8. Work Experience Education; Learning Activity Packages; General Goals 1-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Polytechnic Coll., San Luis Obispo.

    For a general work experience education program for the secondary grades in California, learning activity packages (LAP) are provided separately for two general program goals, which focus on the relevance of school to career requirements and the importance of self-actualization. Program goals, performance objectives, learning activities with…

  9. Work Experience Education; Learning Activity Packages; Exploratory Goals 1-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Polytechnic Coll., San Luis Obispo.

    For an exploratory work experience education program for the secondary grades in California, learning activity packages (LAP) are provided separately for two general program goals, which focus on the relevance of school to career requirements and the importance of self-actualization. Program goals, performance objectives, learning activities with…

  10. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants.

    PubMed

    Adrados, A; De Marco, I; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm(3) reactor, swept with 1 L min(-1) N(2), at 500°C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg(-1)). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO(2); their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg(-1). The amount of COCO(2) increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  11. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

    1986-09-30

    This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

  12. Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

    We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

  13. Shock-isolation material selection for electronic packages in hard-target environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stotts, Jarrett Eugene

    2016-11-01

    High velocity munitions and kinetic penetrators experience monumental external forces, impulses, and accelerations. The hard target environment is immensely taxing on sophisticated electronic components and recorders designed to retrieve valuable data related to the systems performance and characteristics in the periods of flight, impact, and post-impact. Such electronic systems have upper limits of overall shock intensity which, if exceeded, will either shorten the operating life of the parts or risk destruction resulting in loss of both the data and the principal value of the recorder. The focus of this project was to refine the categorization of leading material types for encapsulation and passive shock isolation and implement them in a method useable for a wide variety of environments. Namely, a design methodology capable of being tailored to the specific impact conditions to maximize the lively hood of sensitive electronics and the information recorded. The results of the study concluded that the materials observed under consistent dynamic high strain rate tests, which include Conathane® EN-4/9, Slygard®-184, and Stycast™-2651, behaved well in certain aspects of energy transmission and shock when considering the frequency environment or package coupled with the isolation material’s application. Key points about the implementation of the materials in extreme shock environments is discussed with the connection to energy analysis, loss attributes, and pulse transmissibility modeling. However, attempts to model the materials solely based on energy transmissibility in the frequency domain using only external experimental data and simplified boundary conditions was not found to be consistent with that acquired from the pressure bar experiments. Further work will include the addition of further material experimentation of the encapsulants in other frequency and temperature states, confined and pre-load boundary states, and composite constructions.

  14. Immobilization of lysozyme on polyvinylalcohol films for active packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Bevilacqua, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2006-04-01

    A new technique for the immobilization of lysozyme onto the surface of polyvinylalcohol films is presented. The active compound was sprayed along with a suitable bonding agent onto the surface of the cross-linked polymeric matrix. Active compound release tests determined the amount of lysozyme immobilized on the film surface. With the use of Micrococcus lysodeikticus, the antimicrobial activity of the films was determined and the results correlated with the amount of immobilized lysozyme. This new technique was effective for immobilizing the enzyme, and the developed films were active against the test microorganism. Results were compared with those obtained with a different immobilizing technique, in which the active compound was bound into the bulk of the polymeric film. As expected, the surface-immobilized lysozyme films have a higher antimicrobial activity than bulk-bound films.

  15. The potential role of polymethyl methacrylate as a new packaging material for the implantable medical device in the bladder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Bumkyoo; Kim, Kang Sup; Bae, Woong Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Sae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used in implantable medical devices; however, PDMS is not a completely biocompatible material for electronic medical devices in the bladder. To identify novel biocompatible materials for intravesical implanted medical devices, we evaluated the biocompatibility of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by analyzing changes in the levels of macrophages, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), and inflammatory cytokines in the bladder. A ball-shaped metal coated with PMMA or PDMS was implanted into the bladders of rats, and after intravesical implantation, the inflammatory changes induced by the foreign body reaction were evaluated. In the early period after implantation, increased macrophage activity and MIF in the urothelium of the bladder were observed. However, significantly decreased macrophage activity and MIF in the bladder were observed after implantation with PMMA- or PDMS-coated metal in the later period. In addition, significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were observed with time. Based on these results, we suggest that MIF plays a role in the foreign body reaction and in the biocompatible packaging with PMMA for the implanted medical devices in the bladder.

  16. The Potential Role of Polymethyl Methacrylate as a New Packaging Material for the Implantable Medical Device in the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Bumkyoo; Kim, Kang Sup; Bae, Woong Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Sae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used in implantable medical devices; however, PDMS is not a completely biocompatible material for electronic medical devices in the bladder. To identify novel biocompatible materials for intravesical implanted medical devices, we evaluated the biocompatibility of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by analyzing changes in the levels of macrophages, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), and inflammatory cytokines in the bladder. A ball-shaped metal coated with PMMA or PDMS was implanted into the bladders of rats, and after intravesical implantation, the inflammatory changes induced by the foreign body reaction were evaluated. In the early period after implantation, increased macrophage activity and MIF in the urothelium of the bladder were observed. However, significantly decreased macrophage activity and MIF in the bladder were observed after implantation with PMMA- or PDMS-coated metal in the later period. In addition, significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were observed with time. Based on these results, we suggest that MIF plays a role in the foreign body reaction and in the biocompatible packaging with PMMA for the implanted medical devices in the bladder. PMID:25705692

  17. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-05-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  18. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  19. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  20. Innovative active packaging systems to prolong the shelf life of Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Scrocco, C; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2007-05-01

    In this work the effectiveness of different antimicrobial packaging systems on the microbial quality decay kinetics during storage of Mozzarella cheese was evaluated. Lemon extract, at 3 different concentrations, was used as active agent, in combination with brine and with a gel solution made of sodium alginate. Shelf life tests were run at 15 degrees C to simulate thermal abuse. The cell load of spoilage and dairy functional microorganisms were monitored at regular time intervals during storage. By fitting the experimental data through a modified version of the Gompertz equation, the shelf life of dairy products packaged in the different systems was calculated. Results show an increase in the shelf life of all active packaged Mozzarella cheeses, confirming that the investigated substance may exert an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms responsible for spoilage phenomena without affecting the functional microbiota of the product.

  1. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adrados, A.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of materials in the pyrolysis of real plastic waste samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic compounds remain unaltered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components give rise to an increase in char formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components promote the production of aqueous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components increase CO and CO{sub 2} contents in the gases. - Abstract: In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor, swept with 1 L min{sup -1} N{sub 2}, at 500 Degree-Sign C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg{sup -1}). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}; their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg{sup -1}. The amount of CO-CO{sub 2} increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  2. Mechanical and optical characterization of bio-nanocomposite from pineapple leaf fiber material for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikmatin, Siti; Rudwiyanti, Jerry R.; Prasetyo, Kurnia W.; Yedi, Dwi A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of Bio-nanocomposite material that was derived from pineapple leaf fiber as filler and tapioca starch with plasticizer glycerol as a matrix for food packaging can reduce the use of plastic that usually was made from petroleum materials. It is important to develop and producethis environmental friendly plastic because of limited availability of petroleum nowadays. The process of synthesize and characterization tapioca starch with the plasticizer glycerol bionanocomposites using print method had been conducted. There were 3 samples with different filler concentration variation; 3%, 4% and 5%.The results of mechanical test from each sample showed that bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration was the optimum sample with 4.6320 MPa for tensile strength test and 24.87% for the elongation test. Based on the result of optical test for each sample was gained that along with the increasing of concentration filler would make the absorbance value of the sample became decreased, bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration had several peaks with low absorbance values. The first peak was in 253 nm of wavelength regionwith absorbance of 0.131%, and the second peak was in 343 nmwavelength region and absorbance was 0.087%.

  3. FOURTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-03-05

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAMS environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  4. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  5. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  6. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  7. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  8. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  11. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  13. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  14. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  15. Integrated Approach To An Efficiency Assessment Of Self-Organizing Textile Materials Packages In The Subnormal Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodicheva, M.; Abramov, A.; Kanatnikova, P.; Kanatnikov, N.; Kharlamov, G.

    2017-01-01

    Design of heat-shielding clothes for subnormal climate still remains one of the unsolved problems of complex security. The solution is connected with the use of the self-organizing textile materials. Reasoning of textile package optimal selection requires the development of a comprehensive approach combining theoretical and experimental researches.

  16. Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on physical, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of p[olymeric packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the first part of our study we determined permeability, diffusion, and solubility coefficients of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) through the following packaging material: biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP); polyethylene terephthalate (PET); poly lactic acid (PLA); multilayer structure of ethy...

  17. 49 CFR 175.703 - Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages containing Class 7 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other special requirements for the acceptance and... Classification of Material § 175.703 Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages... §§ 173.457 and 173.459 of this subchapter. (c) No person shall offer or accept for transportation,...

  18. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  19. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  20. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  1. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  2. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  3. An Analysis of U.S. Business Schools' Catalogs, Application Packages, and Program Materials from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Marion S.; Mayer, Kenneth R.; Pioche, Virginie

    1999-01-01

    Catalogs, application packages, and program materials from 106 business schools were analyzed to determine the degree of international coverage in business schools' curricula. Findings indicated a trend to require international functional courses, such as international finance, in the traditional Master in business administration programs and to…

  4. Iron chelating active packaging: Influence of competing ions and pH value on effectiveness of soluble and immobilized hydroxamate chelators.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Yoshiko; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-04-01

    Many packaged foods utilize synthetic chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) to inhibit iron-promoted oxidation or microbial growth which would result in quality loss. To address consumer demands for all natural products, we have previously developed a non-migratory iron chelating active packaging material by covalent immobilization of polyhydroxamate and demonstrated its efficacy in delaying lipid oxidation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of this hydroxamate-functionalized iron chelating active packaging to retain iron chelating capacity; even in the presence of competing ions common in food. Both immobilized and soluble hydroxamate chelators retained iron chelating capacity in the presence of calcium, magnesium, and sodium competing ions, although at pH 5.0 the presence of calcium reduced immobilized hydroxamate iron chelation. A strong correlation was found between colorimetric and mass spectral analysis of iron chelation by the chelating packaging material. Such chelating active packaging may support reducing additive use in product formulations, while retaining quality and shelf life.

  5. [Determination of the migration of seven photoinitiators in food packaging materials into aqueous solvent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengyan; Huang, Enjie; Chen, Yanjie

    2012-12-01

    The quantity of photoinitiators (PIs) migrated into hydrosoluble foods from packaging materials is usually very small. It is hardly detectable by using the current methods. For this reason, the article describes a new effective method for detecting the migration of PIs. In this method, the migration experiment was done in aqueous food simulation. After the PIs in printing inks used in food contact materials were extracted from the solution via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB)-coated fiber, their migration amounts were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The PIs determined by SPME/GC-MS were benzophenone (BP), 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-phenylketone (CPK), ethyl-4-dimethyl-aminobenzoate (EDMAB), 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP), 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (2,2-DMPA), methyl 2-benzoylbenzoate (OMBB) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethyl-aminobenzoate (EHDAB). The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.0012 and 0.0069 microg/L. The linearity ranged from 0.03 to 1.0 microg/L (r2 > 0.9909). The recoveries were in the range from 70.8% to 112.0% (n = 3) with the relative standard deviations no more than 14.0%. Twenty samples were tested by using this developed method. The analytical results showed that BP was detected in all samples, and the migration amounts of BP were from 0.002 to 0.074 microg/dm2; 4-MBP was detected in ten samples, and the migration amounts of 4-MBP were from 0.006 to 0.019 microg/dm2; CPK was detected in three samples, and its amounts were 0.005, 0.005, 0.007 microg/dm2; 2,2-DMPA was detected as 0.009 microg/dm2 in one sample. The determination of real samples showed this method is feasible. The method is sensitive, simple and free from organic solvents. It could make reference to migrating determination of PIs in printing inks on food packaging surface.

  6. Migration from printing inks in multilayer food packaging materials by GC-MS analysis and pattern recognition with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Isabel; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Inks and varnishes used in food packaging multilayer materials can contain different substances that are potential migrants when packaging is in contact with food. Although printing inks are applied on the external layer, they can migrate due to set-off phenomena. In order to assess food safety, migration tests were performed from two materials sets: set A based on paper and set B based on PET; both contained inks. Migration was performed to four food simulants (EtOH 50%, isooctane, EtOH 95% and Tenax(®)) and the volatile compounds profile was analysed by GC-MS. The effect of presence/absence of inks and varnishes and also their position in the material was studied. A total of 149 volatile compounds were found in migration from set A and 156 from set B materials, some of them came from inks. Quantitative analysis and a principal component analysis were performed in order to identify patterns among sample groups.

  7. Study of thermally reworkable epoxy materials and thermal conductivity enhancement using carbon fiber for electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiying

    Epoxy resins are widely used as the underfill materials for the integrated circuit (IC) chips for the reliability enhancement and as the binder of electrically conductive adhesives (ECA). However, cured epoxy materials are infusible and insoluble networks which is a problem for the repair of a printed circuit board assembly packaged with epoxy materials. In this study, six diepoxides containing aromatic moieties and low temperature degradable linkages, secondary and tertiary benzoates, and carbonates, were synthesized and characterized. Underfills based on four of these epoxides were developed and evaluated respect to their properties and reworkabilility. One of the reworkable underfills was evaluated with the 85°C/85% relative humidity test as the underfill of several ball-grid-array components on a organic board, which showed a high enhanced reliability. Underfill materials based on a synthesized bisphenol-A diepoxide were developed for the no-flow underfill process and were evaluated regarding the application on both tin/lead and lead-free solders. The latent curing mechanism of the catalyst and the influence of fluxing agents were studied. The reworkable underfills showed satisfying overall properties on both Sn/Pb and Sn/Ag/Cu solders. A unique approach for solving the problem of low reliability of ECAs was demonstrated. Small amount of sacrificial metal and alloy powders were added in silver flake based ECA and applied on six pad surfaces. The aging of bulk resistivity and contact resistance of ECA/metal surface pairs were studied and two alloys stabilized the contact resistance on all tested metal surfaces. The internal heat generation of IC devices quickly increases which leads to deteriorated performance and low reliability. The thermally insulating property of polymeric underfills make this even worse with slow heat dissipation. In this study, a carbon fiber of high thermal conductivity was used together with silica in epoxy underfill materials and a 300

  8. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 8, 9, 10, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover nuclear reactions, alpha and beta particles, atomic radiation, medical use of nuclear energy, fission, fusion, simple machines, Newton's laws of motion, electricity, currents, electromagnetism, Oersted's experiment, sound, light,…

  9. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 103-104, LAPs 23-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    This set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in intermediate algebra covers number systems; exponents and radicals; polynomials and factoring; rational expressions; coordinate geometry; relations, functions, and inequalities; quadratic equations and inequalities; Quadratic functions; systems of equations and inequalities;…

  10. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover measuring techniques, operations of instruments, metric system heat, matter, energy, elements, atomic numbers, isotopes, molecules, mixtures, compounds, physical and chemical properties, liquids, solids, and gases. Each unit contains…

  11. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to time, space, and matter are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Besides the unit on introduction to individualized learning, 11 major topics are incorporated into three other units: (1) observation of the physical world, (2) space and exploration for environmental…

  12. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 5, 6, and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These three units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover the physical and chemical properties of water, dehydration of crystals, solutions, acidity, strong and weak bases, neutral properties of salts, amorphous forms of carbon, hydrocarbons, and petroleum products. Each unit contains a…

  13. Employer-Employee Relations. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package. LAP 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Herbert G.; Chernenko, Walter

    This learning activity package, one of six intended for use in Industrial Cooperative Training Programs, is designed to aid students in developing a good employer-employee relationship by gaining the kinds of worker traits sought by employers. (The industrial cooperative training program provides industrial occupational training experience for…

  14. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

  15. Work Experience Education; Learning Activity Packages: General Goals 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Polytechnic Coll., San Luis Obispo.

    For a general work experience education program for the secondary grades in California, learning activity packages (LAP) are provided separately for three program goals, which focus on self-awareness and self-evaluation, job requirements, and information necessary for successful job placement and job satisfaction. Program goals, performance…

  16. Work Experience Education; Learning Activity Packages: Exploratory Goals 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Polytechnic Coll., San Luis Obispo.

    For an exploratory work experience education program for the secondary grades in California, learning activity packages (LAP) are provided separately for three program goals, which focus on self-awareness and self-evaluation, job requirements, and information necessary for successful job placement and job satisfaction. Program goals, performance…

  17. Work Experience Education; Learning Activity Packages: Vocational Goals 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Polytechnic Coll., San Luis Obispo.

    For a vocational work experience education program for the secondary grades in California, learning activity packages (LAP) are provided separately for three program goals, which focus on self-awareness and self-evaluation, job requirements, and information necessary for successful job placement and job satisfaction. Program goals, performance…

  18. Apprenticeship: A Partnership 4. A Learning Activities Package about Apprentices in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    This learning activity package is designed to help apprentices understand some of the different ways in which words can be used to mean different things, depending on where and when one uses the words. It provides examples of words and phrases that are used in the workplace in ways different from the way they are used in regular conversation. Five…

  19. Corrosion and environmental-mechanical characterization of iron-base nuclear waste package structural barrier materials. Annual report, FY 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.; Haberman, J.H.; Pitman, S.G.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Sigalla, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories may require the development of waste packages that will keep the radioisotopes contained for up to 1000 y. A number of iron-base materials are being considered for the structural barrier members of waste packages. Their uniform and nonuniform (pitting and intergranular) corrosion behavior and their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in aqueous environments relevant to salt media are under study at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of the work is to provide data for a materials degradation model that can ultimately be used to predict the effective lifetime of a waste package overpack in the actual repository environment. The corrosion behavior of the candidate materials was investigated in simulated intrusion brine (essentially NaCl) in flowing autoclave tests at 150/sup 0/C, and in combinations of intrusion/inclusion (high-Mg) brine environments in moist salt tests, also at 150/sup 0/C. Studies utilizing a /sup 60/Co irradiation facility were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the candidate materials to products of brine radiolysis at dose rates of 2 x 10/sup 3/ and 1 x 10/sup 5/ rad/h and a temperature of 150/sup 0/C. These irradiation-corrosion tests were ''overtests,'' as the irradiation intensities employed were 10 to 1000 times as high as those expected at the surface of a thick-walled waste package. With the exception of the high general corrosion rates found in the tests using moist salt containing high-Mg brines, the ferrous materials exhibited a degree of corrosion resistance that indicates a potentially satisfactory application to waste package structural barrier members in a salt repository environment.

  20. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid... specification cargo tank motor vehicles suitable for transport of liquids. (c) Portable tanks. DOT...

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 9 ultraviolet stabilizers in food plastic packaging materials by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juzhou; Li, Jing; Shao, Dongliang; Yao, Bangben; Jiang, Junshu

    2012-02-01

    An effective high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 ultraviolet stabilizers in food plastic packaging materials. The food packaging samples were firstly extracted by methanol-ethyl acetate, and then purified by a C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The target compounds were separated on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) in gradient elution mode using methanol and water as mobile phases. The detection wavelength was at 310 nm. The linear plots of the nine ultraviolet stabilizers were obtained between 0.2 and 10 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients of above 0. 999 for the nine ultraviolet stabilizers. The limits of detection for this method were in the range from 0.05 to 0.1 mg/L. The recoveries spiked in commercial food plastic packaging materials were in the range of 70.2% - 89.0% with the relative standard deviations of 0.4% - 4.5%. The results indicated that the method is simple, accurate, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the nine ultraviolet stabilizers in food plastic packaging materials.

  2. Contribution of aluminum from packaging materials and cooking utensils to the daily aluminum intake.

    PubMed

    Müller, J P; Steinegger, A; Schlatter, C

    1993-10-01

    Migration of aluminum (Al) from packaging materials and cooking utensils into foods and beverages was determined at intervals during cooking or during storage by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. High amounts of Al migrated into acidic products such as mashed tomatoes during normal processing in normal, non-coated Al pans. After 60 min cooking an Al content of 10-15 mg/kg was measured in tomato sauce. Surprisingly, the Al concentration was also increased up to 2.6 mg/L after boiling tap water for 15 min in Al pans. Storage of Coca-Cola in internally lacquered Al cans resulted in Al levels below 0.25 mg/L. In contrast, non-coated Al camping bottles containing lime blossom tea acidified with lemon juice released up to 7 mg Al/L within 5 days. The Al concentration in coffee was lower than that of the tap water used in its preparation, even if prepared in Al heaters. In Switzerland, where most pans nowadays are made of stainless steel or teflon-coated Al, the average contribution for the use of Al utensils to the daily Al intake of 2-5 mg from the diet is estimated to be less than 0.1 mg.

  3. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541

  4. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  5. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  6. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  7. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  8. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  9. Development of spoilage microbiota in beef stored in nisin activated packaging.

    PubMed

    Ercolini, Danilo; Ferrocino, Ilario; La Storia, Antonietta; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Gigli, Sergio; Masi, Paolo; Villani, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial populations causing the spoilage of chilled beef during storage and to evaluate the effect of the use of an antimicrobial packaging for the meat storage. A nisin activated antimicrobial packaging was developed by using a nisin, HCL and EDTA solution and used for the storage of beef cuts at 1 degrees C. The common spoilage related microbial groups were monitored during the storage of beef in activated and non activated plastic bags by using selective media. The use of the antimicrobial packaging caused an overall significant reduction of viable counts of Gram positive bacteria such as carnobacteria, lactic acid bacteria and Brochotrix thermosphacta whose development was inhibited for at least 11 days of storage compared to the control. Moreover, a 1-3 log cycles reduction of enterobacteria was also registered between 22 and 32 days of storage. The microbiota was assessed at species level by using Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA gene of DNA extracted directly from meat and from bulk cells from selective media plates and showed that the species occurring within the targeted microbial groups did not change according to storage conditions. In conclusion, the use of the nisin activated packaging reduced the number of spoilage populations but did not affect the species diversity. Improved antimicrobial packaging is needed, possibly coupled with vacuum storage, to possibly achieve a simultaneous inhibition of more spoilage microbial groups and to preserve the microbiological quality of beef during chilled storage.

  10. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  11. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-11-06

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life.

  12. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  13. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    SciTech Connect

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of Alloy 22

  14. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for approval prior to implementation of the system. A proposed system of predesignated areas is approved if the Associate Administrator determines that it is designed to assure that: (1) The packages...

  15. Mechanics of soft active materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuanhe

    Soft active materials, mostly elastomers and polymeric gels, are being developed to mimic a salient feature of life: movement in response to stimuli. For example, when an electric voltage is applied across a layer of a dielectric elastomer, the layer reduces in thickness and expands in area, giving a strain greater than 100%. As another example, in response to a small change of pH or temperature, a hydrogel may absorb a large amount of water and increase its volume over 100 times. The mechanics involved in these processes is important, interesting, and not well understood. This thesis studies large deformations and instabilities in dielectric elastomers and polymeric gels. The thesis first presents a nonlinear field theory for deformable dielectrics. The theory uses measurable quantities to define field variables. The definitions lead to decoupled field equations, and electromechanical coupling enters the theory through material laws. We use the theory to study electromechanical instability and coexistent states in dielectric elastomers. A computational method is also developed to analyze inhomogeneous deformations in complicated structures of dielectric elastomers. The second part of the thesis discusses large deformation and mass transportation in polymeric gels. A gel can undergo large deformation of two modes: local rearrangement and long-range migration. We assume that the local rearrangement is instantaneous, and model the long-range migration by assuming that the solvent molecules diffuse inside the gel. We further study inhomogeneous and anisotropic deformations and instabilities in gels constrained by rigid materials.

  16. Application of modified atmosphere packaging (gas flushing and active packaging) for extending the shelf life of Beauveria bassiana conidia at high temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited shelf life has long been a major constraint to the development of fungus-based bioinsecticides (mycoinsecticides). Fungal spores comprising the active ingredients of most products typically lose viability within a few months when stored in conventional packaging at temperatures >30 deg C. Me...

  17. An evaluation of analytical techniques for determination of lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury in food-packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Perring, L; Alonso, M I; Andrey, D; Bourqui, B; Zbinden, P

    2001-05-01

    Closed microwave digestion and a high-pressure asher have been evaluated for wet-oxidation and extraction of lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury from a range of typical packaging materials used for food products. For the high-pressure asher a combination of nitric and sulfuric acids was efficient for destruction of a range of packaging materials; for polystyrene, however, nitric acid alone was more efficient. For microwave digestion, a reagent containing nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen peroxide was used for all materials except polystyrene. Use of the high-pressure asher resulted in the highest recoveries of spiked lead (median 92%), cadmium (median 92%), chromium (median 97%), and mercury (median 83%). All samples were spiked before digestion with 40 microg L(-1) Cd, Cr, and Pb and 8 microg L(-1) Hg in solution. The use of indium as internal standard improved the accuracy of results from both ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Average recovery of the four elements from spiked packaging materials was 92 +/- 14% by ICP-MS and 87 +/- 15% (except for mercury) by ICP-AES. For mercury analysis by CVAAS, use of tin(II) chloride as reducing agent resulted in considerably better accuracy than use of sodium borohydride reagent.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  19. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  20. Biocidal packaging for pharmaceuticals, foods, and other perishables.

    PubMed

    Larson, Alyssa M; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Many consumer goods must be protected from bacterial and fungal colonization to ensure their integrity and safety. By making these items' packaging biocidal, the interior environment can be preserved from microbial spoilage without altering the products themselves. Herein we briefly review this concept, referred to as active packaging, and discuss existing methods for constructing active packaging systems. They are based on either packaging materials that release biocides or those that are themselves intrinsically biocidal (or biostatic), with numerous variations within each category.

  1. Chitosan nanocomposite films based on Ag-NP and Au-NP biosynthesis by Bacillus Subtilis as packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; El-Sayed, Samah M

    2014-08-01

    Chitosan-silver (CS-Ag) and Chitosan-gold (CS-Au) nanocomposites films were synthesized by a simple chemical method. A local bacterial isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ss subtilis was found to be capable to synthesize both silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) and gold nanoparticles (Au-NP) from silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (AuCl(4-)) solutions, respectively. The biosynthesis of both Ag-NP and Au-NP characterize using UV/vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and then added to chitosan by different ratios (0.5, 1 and 2%). The prepared chitosan nanocomposites films were characterize using UV, XRD, SEM and TEM. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the prepared films was evaluated against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aerugenosa), fungi (Aspergillus niger) and yeast (Candida albicans). Therefore, these materials can be potential used as antimicrobial agents in packaging applications.

  2. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  3. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in packaging materials and textiles using pressurized liquid extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lv, Gang; Wang, Libing; Liu, Shaocong; Li, Shufen

    2009-03-01

    A simultaneous determination method of trace amounts of perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in packaging materials and textiles, has been developed, using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The perfluorinated compounds were primarily extracted from the samples by a PLE procedure, in which the parameters were optimized by response surface methodology. The solvent was then removed by blowing nitrogen and a silylation step was carried out with N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The silylated compounds were identified and quantified by GC/MS. The proposed method was applied to determine the PFOA and PFOS in polytetrafluoroethylene packaging materials and textiles, where the detection limits of the two compounds were 1.6 and 13.9 ng mL(-1), respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the packaging materials and textiles ranged from 17.5 to 45.9 and 33.7 to 81.3 ng g(-1), respectively.

  4. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  5. Development of Multifunctional Active Film and Its Application in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Shiitake Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong Jiang; An, Duck Soon; Lee, Dong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Agar-based films with multiple functions (CO2 absorption, water vapor absorption, and antimicrobial activity) were developed, tested for their properties, and then applied to the packaging of fresh shiitake mushrooms as an insert label. The films were cast from an agar-based aqueous solution containing a dissolving plasticizer (glycerol), a CO2 absorbent (sodium carbonate [SC] alone or a combination of SC and sodium glycinate [SC-SG]), and a volatile antimicrobial agent (carvacrol [CRV]). The agar of the film matrix is designed to serve as a water vapor absorbent. The multifunctional films tended to have poor mechanical properties, with a hard texture and an opaque and yellowish color. The CO2 absorbent, either SC alone or SC-SG, affected CRV retention and release along with the CO2 and water vapor absorption behavior. Both films (SC-CRV and SC-SG-CRV films) showed good inhibitory effects against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . SC-CRV film had a higher and faster CO2 absorption property, higher retention and extended release of CRV, and lower and slower water vapor absorption and was assessed to be better suited for use in shiitake mushroom packaging. The packaging in which the SC-CRV film with an appropriate amount of CRV was used as an insert label was able to generate the desired atmosphere and less moisture condensation inside the package, producing the best preservation of quality in terms of mushroom color, firmness, flavor score, and microbial counts after 6 days of storage at 10°C. A tailored modified atmosphere packaging system using multifunctional film would be useful in the preservation of CO2-sensitive fresh commodities.

  6. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  7. Antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Lopez-Carballo, Gracia; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2013-09-16

    Gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. Gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. P. expansum and A. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. Indeed 1.5% cinnamaldehyde was sufficient in the case of P. expansum. The amount of cinnamaldehyde retained in films after storage for 45 days at 20 °C and 0% RH was also sufficient in most cases to prevent fungal growth in vitro. Active food packaging with gliadin films incorporating 5% cinnamaldehyde increased the shelf-life of both sliced bread and cheese spread. Mold growth was observed on sliced bread after 27 days of storage at 23 °C with active packaging, whereas in the control bread packaged without the active film fungal growth appeared around the fourth day. In the cheese spread, no fungi were observed after 26 days of storage at 4 °C when the product was packaged with the active film. However, growth of fungi was observed in control packaged cheese after 16 days of storage. This work demonstrates a noteworthy potential of these novel bioplastics incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds as innovative solutions to be used in active food packaging to extend shelf-life of food products.

  8. ANITA-2000 activation code package - updating of the decay data libraries and validation on the experimental data of the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    ANITA-2000 is a code package for the activation characterization of materials exposed to neutron irradiation released by ENEA to OECD-NEADB and ORNL-RSICC. The main component of the package is the activation code ANITA-4M that computes the radioactive inventory of a material exposed to neutron irradiation. The code requires the decay data library (file fl1) containing the quantities describing the decay properties of the unstable nuclides and the library (file fl2) containing the gamma ray spectra emitted by the radioactive nuclei. The fl1 and fl2 files of the ANITA-2000 code package, originally based on the evaluated nuclear data library FENDL/D-2.0, were recently updated on the basis of the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library. This paper presents the results of the validation of the new fl1 decay data library through the comparison of the ANITA-4M calculated values with the measured electron and photon decay heats and activities of fusion material samples irradiated at the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) of the NEA-Frascati Research Centre. Twelve material samples were considered, namely: Mo, Cu, Hf, Mg, Ni, Cd, Sn, Re, Ti, W, Ag and Al. The ratios between calculated and experimental values (C/E) are shown and discussed in this paper.

  9. Representativeness of extracts of offset paper packaging and analysis of the main odor-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Landy, Pascale; Nicklaus, Sophie; Sémon, Etienne; Mielle, Patrick; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-04-21

    Packagings often carry odors due to the support and printing inks. The aim of the investigation was to define a representative solvent-free extract of paper-based packaging materials printed by the offset process, for the identification of the odor-causing volatile compounds. Static headspace and solid-phase microextraction were the two applied extraction methods. Representativeness tests showed that the odor of the PDMS fiber extract gave satisfying odor similarities with the original packaging. The sample incubation was performed at 40 degrees C for 30 min, whereas the extraction time was 3 min at 40 degrees C. Extracts of both the nonprinted and printed papers of different batches were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. 4-Phenylcyclohexene was identified as the most potent compound contributing to the latex-like odor of the nonprinted paper. Among the 13 major odorants identified by mass spectrometry, 10 were aldehydes and ketones generated by oxidation of the printing ink resins. The ratio of odorants to interferences was too low for a possible detection of the key odorants by nonseparative techniques such as sensor arrays.

  10. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the WP. This

  11. Effect of controlled potential on SCC of nuclear waste package container materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, B Y; Roy, A K; Spragge, M K

    1999-08-01

    The slow-strain-rate (SSR) test technique was used to evaluate the susceptibility of Titanium (Ti) Gr-7 (UNS R52400) and Ti Gr-12 (UNS R53400) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Ti Gr-7 and Ti Gr-12 are two candidate container materials for the multi-barrier package for nuclear waste. The tests were done in a deaerated 90 C acidic brine (pH {approx} 2.7) containing 5 weight percent (wt%) sodium chloride (NaCl) using a strain rate of 3.3 x 10{sup -6} sec{sup -1}. Before being tested in the acidic brine, specimens of each alloy were pulled inside the test chamber in the dry condition at ambient temperature. Then while in the test solution, specimens were strained under different cathodic (negative) controlled electrochemical potentials. These controlled potentials were selected based on the corrosion potential measured in the test solution before the specimens were strained. Results indicate that the times to failure (TTF) for Ti Gr-12 were much shorter than those for Ti Gr-7. Furthermore, as the applied potential became more cathodic, Ti Gr-12 showed reduced ductility in terms of percent reduction in area (%RA) and true fracture stress ({sigma}{sub f}). In addition, TTF and percent elongation (%El) reached the minimum values when Ti Gr-12 was tested under an impressed potential of -1162 mV. However, for Ti Gr-7, all these ductility parameters were not significantly influenced by the changes in applied potential. In general, the results of hydrogen analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) showed increased hydrogen concentration at more cathodic controlled potentials. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the morphology of cracking both at the primary fracture face and the secondary cracks along the gage section of the broken tensile specimen. Transgranular secondary cracks were observed in both alloys possibly resulting from the formation of brittle titanium hydrides due to cathodic charging. The primary fracture

  12. New cinnamon-based active paper packaging against Rhizopusstolonifer food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Nerín, C; Batlle, R

    2008-08-13

    A new active paper package based on the incorporation of cinnamon essential oil to solid wax paraffin as an active coating is proposed, developed, and evaluated. The antifungal activity of the active paper is tested against Rhizopusstolonifer, and the results demonstrate that 6% (w/w) of the essential oil in the active coating formulation completely inhibits the growth of R. stolonifer, whereas 4% still has strong antimicrobial activity in in vitro conditions. Then, active paper is evaluated with actual food, sliced bread, using different storage times. After 3 days of storage, almost complete inhibition is obtained with 6% cinnamon essential oil. Qualitative analysis by solid-phase microextraction and determination of cinnamaldehyde in the sliced bread were also performed and confirmed the strong correspondence between the inhibition of the mold and the amount of cinnamaldehyde in the bread.

  13. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages.

  14. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  15. FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1985-09-30

    This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

  16. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Measurements of the radiation levels, if the package contains a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of....405 Section 835.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless...

  17. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Measurements of the radiation levels, if the package contains a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of....405 Section 835.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless...

  18. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Measurements of the radiation levels, if the package contains a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of....405 Section 835.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless...

  19. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Measurements of the radiation levels, if the package contains a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of....405 Section 835.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of... paragraph (b) of this section shall include: (1) Measurements of removable contamination levels, unless...

  20. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  1. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  2. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  3. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  4. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reflection of the containment system by water on all sides, or such greater reflection of the containment... the package and the chemical and physical form of the contents; and (3) There is full reflection by... its contents limited so that it would be subcritical, assuming reflection by 20 cm (7.9 in) of...

  5. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  6. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  7. Food contamination with organic materials in perspective: packaging materials as the largest and least controlled source? A view focusing on the European situation.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni; Biedermann, Maurus; Scherbaum, Ellen; Roth, Maria; Rieger, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The comparison of the various sources of food contamination with organic chemicals suggests that in the public, but also among experts, the perception of risk is often distorted. Firstly, neither pesticides nor environmental pollutants contribute the most; the amount of material migrating from food packaging into food may well be 100 times higher. Secondly, control of these large migrants is often lagging behind the standards set up for other sources, since many of the components (particularly those not being "starting materials") have not been identified and, thus, not toxicologically evaluated. Finally, attitudes towards different types of food contaminants are divergent, also reflected by the legal measures: for most sources of food contamination there are strict rules calling for minimization, whereas the European packaging industry has even requested a further increase in the tolerance to as close as possible to the limit set by the toxicologists. This paper calls for a more realistic perception and more coherent legal measures-and improvements in the control of migration from packaging material.

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial monolayer and multilayer semirigid plastics packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulas, Antonios E.; Riganakos, Kyriakos A.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2004-04-01

    Tensile testing, overall migration tests and sensory tests were used to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (5-60 kGy) on six commercial semirigid packaging materials. The monolayer and multilayer materials in sheet or bottle form were: polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride/high-density polyethylene (PVC/HDPE), polyethylene terepthalate (PET), HDPE/polyamide (HDPE/PA) and HDPE. In terms of mechanical strength, PET was the most radiation-resistant material, while the HDPE monolayer and multilayer showed some degradation after 60 kGy. PS was slightly affected after 30 kGy, whereas PP was severly degraded and became very brittle. Generally, there was no change in overall migration at lower doses; at higher doses migration from PP tended to increase, while migration from HDPE/PVC tended to decrease. Odor and taste transfer as well as discoloration were observed with most plastics, especially at higher doses, and it is concluded that these tests are a sensitive and important quality control tool for evaluating irradiated packaging materials.

  9. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety.

  10. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  11. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat.

  12. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  13. Microbial control by packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2002-03-01

    Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the deterioration of foods resulting from exposure to air, moisture, or pH changes associated with the food or the surrounding atmosphere. Both flexible and rigid packaging materials, alone or in combination with other preservation methods, have been developed to offer the necessary barrier, inactivation, and containment properties required for successful food packaging. Examples of flexible packaging used to inactivate microorganisms associated with foods include controlled atmosphere, vacuum, modified atmosphere, active, and edible packaging. Additionally, the combination of rigid packaging materials made from metal, glass, or plastic with heat provides the most effective and widely used method for inactivating microorganisms. As with all food products, it is necessary to integrate a HACCP-based program to assure quality throughout the packaging operation. In addition to packaging improvements, other novel technologies include the development of detectors for oxygen levels, bacterial toxins, and microbial growth, or the integration of time-temperature indicators for detection of improper handling or storage.

  14. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). 173.427 Section 173.427... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). (a) In addition...

  15. Effectiveness of some recent antimicrobial packaging concepts.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2002-01-01

    A new type of active packaging is the combination of food-packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods. For both migrating and non-migrating antimicrobial materials, intensive contact between the food product and packaging material is required and therefore potential food applications include especially vacuum or skin-packaged products, e.g. vacuum-packaged meat, fish, poultry or cheese. Several antimicrobial compounds have been combined with different types of carriers (plastic and rubber articles, paper-based materials, textile fibrils and food-packaging materials). Until now, however, few antimicrobial concepts have found applications as a food-packaging material. Antimicrobial packaging materials cannot legally be used in the EU at the moment. The potential use would require amendments of several different legal texts involving areas such as food additives, food packaging, hygiene, etc. The main objective of this paper is to provide a state of the art about the different types of antimicrobial concepts, their experimental development and commercialization, and to present a case study summarizing the results of investigations on the feasibility of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-film containing triclosan to inhibit microbial growth on food surfaces and consequently prolong shelf-life or improve microbial food safety. In contrast with the strong antimicrobial effect in in-vitro simulated vacuum-packaged conditions against the psychrotrophic food pathogen L. monocytogenes, the 1000 mg kg(-1) containing triclosan film did not effectively reduce spoilage bacteria and growth of L. monocytogenes on refrigerated vacuum-packaged chicken breasts stored at 7 degrees C.

  16. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP.

  17. Modified hydrotalcite-like compounds as active fillers of biodegradable polymers for drug release and food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena; Tammaro, Loredana; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2012-11-01

    This review treats the recent patents and related literature, mainly from the Authors laboratories, on biomedical and food packaging applications of nano-composites constituted of biodegradable polymers filled with micro or nano crystals of organically modified Layered Double Hydroxides of Hydrotalcite type. After a brief outline of the chemical and structural aspects of Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) and of their manipulation via intercalation of functional molecular anions to obtain materials for numerous, sometime unexpected applications, the review approaches the theme in three separated parts. Part 1 deals with the synthetic method used to prepare the pristine Mg-Al and Zn-Al HTlc and with the procedures of their functionalization with anti-inflammatory (diclofenac), antibacterial (chloramphenicol hemisuccinate), antifibrinolytic (tranexamic acid) drugs and with benzoates with antimicrobial activity. Procedures used to form (nano) composites of polycaprolactone, used as an example of biodegradable polymer, and functionalized HTlc are also reported. Part 2 discusses a patent and related papers on the preparation and biomedical use of a controlled delivery system of the above mentioned pharmacologically active substances. After an introduction dealing with the recent progress in the field of local drug delivery systems, the chemical and structural aspects of the patented system constituted of a biodegradable polymer and HTlc loaded with the active substances will be presented together with an extensive discussion of the drug release in physiological medium. Part 3 deals with a recent patent and related papers on chemical, structural and release property of antimicrobial species of polymeric films containing antimicrobial loaded HTlc able to act as active packaging for food products prolonging their shelf life.

  18. Display life of beef packaged with an antioxidant active film as a function of the concentration of oregano extract.

    PubMed

    Camo, Javier; Lorés, Alberto; Djenane, Djamel; Beltrán, José Antonio; Roncalés, Pedro

    2011-05-01

    Fresh beef steaks were packaged with a new antioxidant active system containing increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) of an oregano extract. Control samples were packaged without the active film. Additional samples were sprayed with the extract and packaged as the control samples. Packages were filled with a 80%O(2)/20%CO(2) atmosphere and displayed under illumination (14 h) at 1 ± 1 °C for 28 days. Metmyoglobin formation, lipid oxidation (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE a*) and sensory colour, discoloration, off-odour and oregano smell were determined. Active packaging significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced oxidative stability of beef steaks, depending on the oregano concentration of the active film. The display life of beef samples demonstrated that at least 1% oregano was needed for obtaining a significant increase of display life from 14 to 23 days. A concentration of 4% gave rise to unacceptable oregano smell. As a consequence, most suitable oregano extract concentrations for optimum active packaging in this system should be within the range 1-2%.

  19. Materials Assessment of Insulating Foam in the 9977 Shipping Package for Long-Term Storage - Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The 9977 shipping package is being evaluated for long-term storage applications in the K-Area Complex (KAC) with specific focus on the packaging foam material. A rigid closed cell polyurethane foam, LAST-A-FOAM® FR-3716, produced by General Plastics Manufacturing Company is sprayed and expands to fill the void between the inner container and the outer shell of the package. The foam is sealed in this annular space and is not accessible. During shipping and storage, the foam experiences higher than ambient temperatures from the heat generated by nuclear material within the package creating the potential for degradation of the foam. A series of experiments is underway to determine the extent of foam degradation. Foam samples of three densities have been aging at elevated temperatures 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% relative humidity (RH), 185 °F, 215 °F, and 250 °F since 2014. Samples were periodically removed and tested. After approximately 80 weeks, samples conditioned at 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% RH, and 185 °F have retained initial property values while samples conditioned at 215 °F have reduced intumescence. Samples conditioned at 250 °F have shown the most degradation, loss of volume, mass, absorbed energy under compression, intumescence, and increased flammability. Based on the initial data, temperatures up to 185 °F have not yet shown an adverse effect on the foam properties and it is recommended that exposure of FR-3716 foam to temperatures in excess of 250 °F be avoided or minimized. Testing will continue beyond the 96 week mark. This will provide additional data to help define the long-term behavior for the lower temperature conditions. Additional testing will be pursued in an attempt to identify transition points (threshold times and temperatures) at the higher temperatures of interest, as well as possible benefits of aging within the relatively oxygen-free environment the foam experiences inside the 9977 shipping package.

  20. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.