Science.gov

Sample records for active packaging materials

  1. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  2. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  3. Molecularly imprinted hydrogels as functional active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Rico-Yuste, Alberto; Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Cruz, José Manuel; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) for the natural antioxidant ferulic acid (FA), and their application as packaging materials to prevent lipid oxidation of butter. A library of MIHs was synthesized using a synthetic surrogate of FA, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HFA), as template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, and 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers, at different molar concentrations. The DMAEMA/HEMA-based MIHs showed the greatest FA loading capacity, while the 1-ALLP/HEMA-based polymers exhibited the highest imprinting effect. During cold storage, FA-loaded MIHs protected butter from oxidation and led to TBARs values that were approximately half those of butter stored without protection and 25% less than those recorded for butter covered with hydrogels without FA, potentially extending the shelf life of butter. Active packaging is a new field of application for MIHs with great potential in the food industry. PMID:26213001

  4. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  5. Active packaging materials from Poly(Lactic Acid)and Pectin composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active packaging of foods is receiving considerable attention from the food industry and food researchers. The ability to wrap foods in packaging materials that can provide additional functions, such as retaining freshness or preventing spoilage and pathogen growth, would be very important for the f...

  6. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  7. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  8. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation`s hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation`s system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  9. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; Rodriguez-Lafuente, A; Alfaro, P; Nerin, C

    2012-10-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool in the analysis of non-volatile compounds, and the use of a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer allows a high sensitivity and accuracy when acquiring full fragment mode, providing a high assurance of correct identification of unknown compounds. In this work, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology has been applied to the analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials. The materials tested were based on polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The active packaging materials studied were one PP film containing a natural antioxidant, and two PP/EVOH films, two PET/EVOH films and one coextruded PP/EVOH/PP film containing natural antimicrobials. The chemical structure of several compounds was unequivocally identified. The analysis revealed the migration of some of the active substances used in the manufacture of active packaging, such as caffeine (0.07 ± 0.01 μg/g), carvacrol (0.31 ± 0.03 μg/g) and citral (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/g). Unintentionally added substances were also found, such as citral reaction compounds, or citral impurities present in the raw materials. PMID:22836481

  10. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  11. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

  12. Synthesis of Iminodiacetate Functionalized Polypropylene Films and Their Efficacy as Antioxidant Active-Packaging Materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuangsheng; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of metal-chelating ligands to the food-contact surface of packaging materials may enable the removal of synthetic chelators (e.g., ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)) from food products. In this study, the metal-chelating ligand iminodiacetate (IDA) was covalently grafted onto polypropylene surfaces to produce metal-chelating active-packaging films. The resulting films were able to chelate 138.1 ± 26 and 210.0 ± 28 nmol/cm(2) Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively, under acidic conditions (pH 3.0). The films demonstrated potent antioxidant efficacy in two model food systems. In an emulsified-oil system, the chelating materials extended the lag phase of both lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation from 5 to 25 days and were as effective as EDTA. The degradation half-life of ascorbic acid in an aqueous solution was extended from 5 to 14 days. This work demonstrates the potential application of surface-grafted chelating IDA ligands as effective antioxidant active food-packaging materials. PMID:27243793

  13. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  14. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials. PMID:24345085

  15. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  16. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  17. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N. A.; Glass, R. E.; McClure, J. D.; Finley, N. C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a hazardous materials Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Transportation Research Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are to evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI).

  18. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  19. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  20. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  1. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  2. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  3. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  4. Hydrophobization and antimicrobial activity of chitosan and paper-based packaging material.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, Nicolas; Grelier, Stephane; Coma, Veronique

    2010-01-11

    This study reports the elaboration of water-resistant, antimicrobial, chitosan and paper-based materials as environmentally friendly food packaging materials. Two types of papers were coated with chitosan-palmitic acid emulsions or with a blend of chitosan and O,O'-dipalmitoylchitosan (DPCT). Micromorphology studies showed that inclusion of hydrophobic compounds into the chitosan matrix was enhanced by grafting them onto chitosan and that this led to their penetration of the paper's core. Compared to chitosan-coated papers, the coating of chitosan-palmitic emulsion kept vapor-barrier properties unchanged (239 and 170 g.m(-2).d(-1) versus 241 and 161 g.m(-2).d(-1)), while the coating of chitosan-DPCT emulsion dramatically deteriorated them (441 and 442 g.m(-2).d(-1)). However, contact angle measurements (110-120 degrees after 1 min) and penetration dynamics analysis showed that both strategies improved liquid-water resistance of the materials. Kit-test showed that all hydrophobized chitosan-coated papers kept good grease barrier properties (degree of resistance 6-8/12). Finally, all chitosan-coated materials exhibited over 98% inhibition on Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes . PMID:19994882

  5. Migration from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenaer, B. De

    Various chemical compounds can be present in foodstuffs which may induce health problems in humans. The origin of these compounds can be very diverse. Mathematical modeling can sometimes be used to predict the concentration of these chemicals in the food. Particularly for compounds which are produced in the food during, e.g., processing and for compounds which migrate from a food contact material this technique can be very fruitful. For the former type of compounds, classical chemical kinetics can be applied. In this contribution, the modeling of the migration from polymeric food contact materials is considered. This migration phenomenon can be modeled mathematically since the physical processes which govern this process are very well studied and understood. Therefore, initially some of these fundamentals will be discussed in more detail.

  6. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  7. Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on temperature, pulse, and respiration is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  8. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  9. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  10. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  11. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    PubMed

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. PMID:25034453

  12. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  13. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  14. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or...

  15. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or...

  16. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  17. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  18. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  19. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  20. Syncope. What Is It? Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pam

    This learning activity packaage on syncope (fainting) is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a glossary, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  1. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  2. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7.13) will be... guaranty shall cease to be effective, and approval to continue using the specified packaging material in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24...

  3. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... guaranty shall cease to be effective and approval to continue using the specified packaging material in... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144...

  4. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7.13) will be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging...

  5. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7.13) will be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.24 Packaging...

  6. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-01

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  7. Materials for optoelectronic device packaging/manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan-Chang

    The first part of this work is to review the materials challenges and solutions for the packaging of high power LEDs, i.e., the light extraction efficiency, thermal and UV stability, and stress/delamination, which are all related to the reliability and lifetime of high power LEDs. The second part of this work is related to the development of transparent epoxy and silicone materials for the packaging of LEDs and the studies of light transmission stability under various treatments, including thermal, UV and combined treatments. It is found out that packaged high power blue LEDs encapsulated by epoxy materials have a very short lifetime due to the severe discoloration of epoxy at die-encapsulant interface caused by high flux radiation and junction temperature from LED chip. However, the reliability of formulated silicone outperforms epoxy materials, which can be explain by highly transparent in the UV-visible wavelength region and better thermal and UV resistance of silicone materials. The third part of this work is related to the study of optical properties of white LEDs, i.e., optical power, luminous efficiency, CCT, chromaticity coordinate and CRI as a function of phosphor wt% in silicone for the flat-top (FT) and flat-top-with lens (FTWL) packages. Due to the total internal reflection (TIR) at the encapsulant-air interface, the FT package shows a 10˜11% power (in mW) reduction compared with the FTWL package at the same phosphor concentration. However, it is demonstrated that the FT package provides a more efficient way of utilizing phosphor than the FTWL package based on the same targeted chromaticity coordinates due to the TIR effect inside, resulting in a reduced phosphor usage with a lumen output only about 3% lower than that of the FTWL package. Furthermore, the effects of fumed silica on optical properties are studied for these packages. In comparison to the package without fumed silica, the package with fumed silica has the advantages in anti-settling of

  8. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-02-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

  9. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  10. 49 CFR 173.459 - Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixing of fissile material packages with non... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.459 Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages. Mixing of fissile material packages with other types of Class 7 (radioactive)...

  11. Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, K

    2005-10-01

    Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use of such packaging materials is not meant to be a substitute for good sanitation practices, but it should enhance the safety of food as an additional hurdle for the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microorganisms. Studies have focused on establishing methods for coating low-density polyethylene film or barrier films with methyl cellulose as a carrier for nisin. These films have significantly reduced the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in solutions and in vacuum packaged hot dogs. Other research has focused on the use of chitosan to inhibit L. monocytogenes and chlorine dioxide sachets for the reduction of Salmonella on modified atmosphere-packaged fresh chicken breasts. Overall, antimicrobial packaging shows promise as an effective method for the inhibition of certain bacteria in foods, but barriers to their commercial implementation continue to exist. PMID:16227182

  12. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... 381.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (FFDCA). (b) Packaging materials...

  13. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section 381.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY...

  14. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaging materials. 317.24 Section 317.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING...

  15. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7.13) will be... 317.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (FFDCA). (b) Packaging materials entering the...

  16. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  17. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  18. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  19. 19 CFR 10.3022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.3022...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for...

  20. 19 CFR 10.3022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.3022...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for...

  1. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  2. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale,...

  3. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922... Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.922 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail...

  4. 19 CFR 10.2022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.2022... Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for...

  5. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale,...

  6. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale,...

  7. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  8. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922... Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.922 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail...

  9. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  10. 19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.922... Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.922 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail...

  11. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  12. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  13. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.539...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging... requirement, the value of such packaging materials and containers will be taken into account as originating...

  14. Polylactide nanocomposites for packaging materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastuti, Indah

    2016-02-01

    This review aims at highlighting on an attempt for improving the properties of polylactide (PLA) as packaging material by application of nanocomposite technology. PLA is attracting considerable interest because of more eco-friendliness from its origin as contrast to the petrochemical-based polymers and its biodegradability. Despite possessing good mechanical and optical properties, deterioration of the material properties in PLA materials during their service time could occur after prolonged exposure to humidity and high temperature condition. Limited gas barrier is another drawback of PLA material that should be overcome to satisfy the requirement for packaging application. To further extend the range of mechanical and thermal properties achievable, several attempts have been made in modifying the material such as blending with other polymers, use of plasticizing material and development of PLA nanocomposites. Nanocomposite is a fairly new type of composite that has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nanometer scale dimensions (at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm). In this review, the critical properties of PLA as packaging materials and its degradation mechanism are presented. This paper discusses the current effort and key research challenges in the development of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymer matrices and nano-fillers. The PLA layered silicate nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modification, frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of mechanical strength, gas barrier and thermal stability.

  15. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  16. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... design. (1) Inner packaging closures. A Large Packaging containing liquid hazardous materials must be... for transportation in a Large Packaging except as authorized by this subchapter. Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, no Large Packaging may be filled with a Packing Group I or II material....

  17. Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly status report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Fife, K.W.; Nielsen, J.B.; Pierce, S.W.; Ricketts, T.E.; Rink, N.A.; Robinson, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents progress on the Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the second quarter of FY 1996. It covers development and production activities for the Plutonium Packaging Project, the Plutonium Recovery and Processing Project, and the Uranium Recovery and Processing Project. In addition, it reports on quality assurance activities for the Plutonium Packaging Project.

  18. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  19. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... meets the standards for packaging of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the...

  20. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is...

  1. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.601...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is...

  2. A Package of Dramatic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Describes a drama game invented by college students for use in the primary school and details the educational goals, instructional materials, and potential uses for such learning activities. Speech and Drama, White College, ALLINGTON, Chippenham, Wilts. Subscription Rates: $6.00 per year. (MH)

  3. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  4. Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  6. TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

    2007-02-21

    Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

  7. An overview of polylactides as packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Auras, Rafael; Harte, Bruce; Selke, Susan

    2004-09-16

    Polylactide polymers have gained enormous attention as a replacement for conventional synthetic packaging materials in the last decade. By being truly biodegradable, derived from renewable resources and by providing consumers with extra end-use benefits such as avoiding paying the "green tax" in Germany or meeting environmental regulations in Japan, polylactides (PLAs) are a growing alternative as a packaging material for demanding markets. The aim of this paper is to review the production techniques for PLAs, summarize the main properties of PLA and to delineate the main advantages and disadvantages of PLA as a polymeric packaging material. PLA films have better ultraviolet light barrier properties than low density polyethylene (LDPE), but they are slightly worse than those of cellophane, polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). PLA films have mechanical properties comparable to those of PET and better than those of PS. PLA also has lower melting and glass transition temperatures than PET and PS. The glass transition temperature of PLA changes with time. Humidity between 10 and 95% and storage temperatures of 5 to 40 degrees C do not have an effect on the transition temperature of PLA, which can be explained by its low water sorption values (i.e. <100 ppm at Aw = 1). PLA seals well at temperatures below the melting temperature but an appreciable shrinking of the films has been noted when the material is sealed near its melting temperature. Solubility parameter predictions indicate that PLA will interact with nitrogen compounds, anhydrides and some alcohols and that it will not interact with aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, sulfur compounds or water. The CO2, O2 and water permeability coefficients of PLA are lower than those of PS and higher than those of PET. Its barrier to ethyl acetate and D-limonene is comparable to PET. The amount of lactic acid and its derivatives that migrate to food simulant solutions from PLA is much lower than any

  8. Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

    A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

  9. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  10. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  11. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  12. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  13. Activity Packages for Use in Junior High School Math Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Rita; Peterson, Karen

    Eight activity packages, designed to teach students mathematical topics which are inappropriate to teach through a paper and pencil approach, are presented. The materials were created so that students: (1) can follow the instructions with little supervision; (2) are physically engaged in the activity, either measuring, counting, drawing pictures…

  14. Nanoclay migration from food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Silvia; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A recent trend is to use nanocomposites materials for food-packaging applications. Different kinds of nanoparticles are incorporated into the polymers to improve their characteristics, and, among them, nanoclay is used to improve their barrier properties to gases. In this work, the results of migration studies with different food simulants (ethanol 10% and acetic acid 3%), temperatures and times (40 ºC for 10 days and 70 ºC for 2 h) from two commercialised LDPE nanocomposite bags are presented. The migration solutions thus obtained were analysed by ICP-MS to evaluate the amount of aluminium which migrated into the solutions both in dissolved form and as a part of nanoparticles. Aluminium migration was observed for both samples with a maximum migration value of 51.65 ng cm(-)(2) for the Aisaika bags and 24.14 ng cm(-)(2) for the Debbie Meyer bags. The presence of spikes working in single-particle mode using ICP-MS indicated that part of this aluminium was present as nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the nanoclay, in both the original material and the migration solutions, was studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (SEM-EDX). In this manner, nanoparticles of different morphologies and sizes were found to migrate into the food simulants. PMID:26751017

  15. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    integrity. The development of mechanical models complimented the experimental studies. A model of the overcoat materials used the film properties and elastic deformations to study the stress-strain behavior of the suspended dielectric films under external forces. The experimental molding tests and mechanical models were used to establish processing conditions and physical designs for the cavities as a function of cavity size. A novel, metal-free chip package was investigated combining the in-situ thermal decomposition of the sacrificial material during post-mold curing of the lead frame molding compound. Sacrificial materials were characterized for their degree of decomposition during the molding cure to provide a chip package with improved mechanical support and no size restrictions. Improvements to the air cavities for MEMS packaging led to investigations and refinements of other microfabrication processes. The sacrificial polycarbonate materials were shown to be useful as temporary bonding materials for wafer-level bonding. The release temperature and conditions of the processed wafer can be changed based on the polycarbonates formulation. The electroless deposition of metal was investigated as an alternative process for metalizing the air cavities. The deposition of silver and copper using a Sn/Ag catalyst as a replacement for costly palladium activation was demonstrated. The electroless deposition was tested on polymer and silicon dioxide surfaces for organic boards and through-silicon vias.

  16. Application of combinatorial approach in packaging material selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    Packaging material selection (PMS) problems have always been important to packaging designers and engineers. Not only does the selection of packaging material determine the costs and the environmental impacts of packaging, but also influences packaging physical characteristics and associated manufacturing methods. In order to reduce economic and environmental impacts, one has to take a holistic approach to packaging material selection by considering material effects throughout the packaging life cycle. To evaluate economic costs and environmental impacts both quantitative factors and subjective criteria play an important role in the packaging design. In the present work, fuzzy set theory is used for representing and manipulating the vague and subjective descriptions of packaging performance and design attributes. Further a genetic algorithm based approach is used for addressing the packaging material selection problem through multiple criteria decision-making. The overall approach comprises of two phases. In the first phase, fuzzy set theory is used for the linguistic transformation of performance attributes into numerical values. It results in a decision matrix that contains crisp scores. Also in this phase, a weight is assigned to each sub-criterion to show its importance compared to others. In the second phase, a GA is used to globally search for near-optimal or optimal design solutions. The implementation of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a numerical example.

  17. Mesoporous silica as carrier of antioxidant for food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Gargiulo, Nicola; Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Lavorgna, Marino; Caputo, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been long recognized as very promising materials for the preparation of drug delivery systems. In this work SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been functionalized with amino-silane to be used as carrier of antioxidant compound in the preparation of active food packaging materials exhibiting tailored release properties. Active films have been prepared by loading the antioxidant tocopherol, the purely siliceous SBA-15 and the aminofunctionalized SBA-15 loaded with tocopherol into LDPE matrix trough a two-step process (mixing+extrusion). The aim of the present work is the study of the effect of the pore size and of the chemical functionality of the internal walls of the mesophase on the migration of tocopherol from active LDPE polymer films. Moreover, it has been proved that the addition of the active compound do not worsen the properties of the film such as optical characteristic and water vapor permeability, thus leading to the development of a material which could be favorably used mainly, but not exclusively, in the sector of food packaging.

  18. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  19. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  20. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  1. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  2. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  3. Learning Activity Package, Pre-Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in pre-algebra, the units cover the decimal numeration system; number theory; fractions and decimals; ratio, proportion, and percent; sets; properties of operations; rational numbers; real numbers; open expressions; and open rational…

  4. Optimizing biomass blends for manufacturing molded packaging materials using mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  5. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

  6. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... strength to protect all parts of the cylinder and valve, if any, from deformation and breakage resulting... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...

  7. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strength to protect all parts of the cylinder and valve, if any, from deformation and breakage resulting... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...

  8. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  9. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  10. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  11. The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.; Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing.

  12. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  13. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized fissile materials packages. 173.417 Section 173.417 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND...

  14. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous materials in Large Packagings. 173.36 Section 173.36 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND...

  15. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous materials in Large Packagings. 173.36 Section 173.36 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND...

  16. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. PMID:25892577

  17. Micromachining of packaging materials for MEMS using lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kancharla, Vijay; Hendricks, Kira; Chen, Shaochen

    2001-09-01

    New lithographic, deposition, and etching tools for micro fabrication on planar silicon substrates have led to remarkable advances in miniaturization of silicon devices. However silicon is often not the substrate material of choice for applications in which there are requirements for electrically or thermally insulating substrates, low capacitance, resistance to corrosion, or hermetic sealing. Some of the MEMS packaging materials such as ceramics, polymers, and glass are currently being used to fabricate many microdevices. To support the rapid advancements of non-silicon MEMS it is necessary to introduce innovative techniques to process these MEMS packaging materials. In this study we present the application of pulsed laser ablation of ceramics, polymers and glass (MEMS packaging materials) to assist in fabrication of MEMS devices. Microstructuring of Al2O3 ceramic, polymers Poly-Vinyl-Alcohol (PVA), polystyrene (PS), and Pyrex glass were performed and studied by pulsed lasers at 193-nm, 266-nm and 308-nm wavelengths.

  18. Novel silicone materials for LED packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ann W.; Bahadur, Maneesh; Yoshitake, Makoto

    2005-09-01

    Silicone based materials have attracted considerable attention from Light Emitting Diode (LED) manufacturers for use as encapsulants and lenses for many next generation LED device designs. Silicones can function in several roles that include protective lenses, stress relieving encapsulants, mechanical protection and light path materials. The key attributes of silicones that make them attractive materials for high brightness (HB) LEDs include their high transparency in the UV-visible region, controlled refractive index (RI), stable thermo-mechanical properties, and tuneable hardness from soft gels to hard resins. The high current and high operating temperatures of HB-LEDs present a significant materials challenge for traditional organic materials such as epoxies, acrylics and cyclo olefin copolymers (COC) that lack the thermal and molecular stability needed to provide optical clarity and mechanical performance required for next generation devices. In addition, the retention of optical clarity over the lifetime of the device, which involves long term exposure to high flux in the UV-visible wavelength region, is a critical requirement. Silicones have been demonstrated to provide the required stability. This paper will describe recent silicone materials development efforts directed towards providing LED manufacturers with silicone materials solutions for LED device fabrication. Injection molding of novel silicone resin based materials will be discussed as a surmountable challenge for high throughput LED device manufacturing.

  19. Peer Review of the Waste Package Material Performance Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Beavers; T. M. Devine, Jr.; G. S. Frankel; R. H. Jones; R. G. Kelly; R. M. Latanision; J. H. Payer

    2001-09-04

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, formed the Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel (the Panel) to review the technical basis for evaluating the long-term performance of waste package materials in a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is the interim report of the Panel; a final report will be issued in February 2002. In its work to date, the Panel has identified important issues regarding waste package materials performance. In the remainder of its work, the Panel will address approaches and plans to resolve these issues. In its review to date, the Panel has not found a technical basis to conclude that the waste package materials are unsuitable for long-term containment at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Nevertheless, significant technical issues remain unsettled and, primarily because of the extremely long life required for the waste packages, there will always be some uncertainty in the assessment. A significant base of scientific and engineering knowledge for assessing materials performance does exist and, therefore, the likelihood is great that uncertainty about the long-term performance can be substantially reduced through further experiments and analysis.

  20. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine. PMID:19405337

  1. Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

    2009-06-01

    The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These “Represented” documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master “Represented” table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

  2. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

    2007-11-16

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

  3. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  4. Interaction of DOE SNF and Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Anderson

    1998-09-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify and evaluate potential destructive interactions between the materials in US Department of Energy (USDOE) spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) and their storage/disposal canisters. The technical assessment was based on the thermodynamic properties as well as the chemical and physical characteristics of the materials expected inside the canisters. No chemical reactions were disclosed that could feasibly corrode stainless steel canisters to the point of failure. However, the possibility of embrittlement (loss of ductility) of the stainless steel through contact with liquid metal fission products or hydrogen inside the canisters cannot be dismissed. Higher-than-currently-permitted internal gas pressures must also be considered. These results, based on the assessment of two representative 90-year-cooled fuels that are stored at 200°C in stainless steel canisters with internal blankets of helium, may be applied to most of the fuels in the USDOE's SNF inventory.

  5. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and (2... specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or (2) Has been transported as low specific activity...

  6. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and (2... specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or (2) Has been transported as low specific activity...

  7. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and (2... specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or (2) Has been transported as low specific activity...

  8. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and (2... specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or (2) Has been transported as low specific activity...

  9. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are... package contains only special form (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) or gaseous radioactive material; and (2... specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or (2) Has been transported as low specific activity...

  10. Design Brief--Packaging: More than Just a Box! Communications: Getting the Message across with Advertising. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Each technology learning activity in this article includes content description, objectives, required materials, challenge, and evaluation questions. Subjects are designing product packages and communication through advertising. (SK)

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  12. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.461 Section 10.461 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...

  13. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials...

  14. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials...

  15. 19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 10.601 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials...

  16. Recent developments in fissile material exemptions for shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M. K., Liu, Y.Y., Wangler, M.E., Keeton, S.C., Fischer, L.E

    1996-10-15

    This paper discusses the regulatory exemptions for shipping packages that contain limited amounts of fissile material and concerns that have arisen over the adequacy of these regulations. The results of an ongoing review of these exemptions by the various regulatory agencies will be presented in the session.

  17. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 173.21, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Packages containing materials (other than those classed as explosive) which will detonate in a fire. (1... peroxide of the “ketone peroxide” category which contains more than 9 percent available oxygen...

  18. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 173.21, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Packages containing materials (other than those classed as explosive) which will detonate in a fire. (1... peroxide of the “ketone peroxide” category which contains more than 9 percent available oxygen...

  19. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 173.21, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...) Packages containing materials (other than those classed as explosive) which will detonate in a fire. (1... peroxide of the “ketone peroxide” category which contains more than 9 percent available oxygen...

  20. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  1. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  2. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  3. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  4. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  5. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  6. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  7. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. PMID:26500642

  8. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  9. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  10. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  11. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. PMID:27261728

  12. Modeling of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.

    1988-09-01

    A methodology is developed for the assessment of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials. An assessment of the current status of understanding with regard to waste package materials and their behavior in radiation environments is presented. The methodology is used to make prediction as to the chemically induced changes in the groundwater surrounding nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff. The predictions indicate that mechanisms not currently being pursued by the Department of Energy may be a factor in the long-term performance of nuclear waste packages. The methodology embodies a physical model of the effects of radiation on aqueous solutions. Coupled to the physical model is a method for analyzing the complex nature of the physical model using adjoint sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity aid in both the physical understanding of the processes involved as well as aiding in eliminating portions of the model that have no bearing on the desired results. A computer implementation of the methodology is provided. 128 refs.

  13. Demonstration of packaging materials alternatives to expanded polystyrene. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, D.M.

    1998-04-01

    The report presents information on the environmental, economical, and performance characteristics of alternative packaging materials. Three alternative cushioning materials were identified for evaluation within this research; starch-based foam planks, layered corrugated pads, and recycled polyethylene foam. Through some have been used as cushioning materials for some time, these materials are termed alternative because each offers unique features beyond their cushioning capabilities. These unique features include their manufacture from recycled materials, biodegradability, water solubility, recyclability, and reusability. The properties and cushioning characteristics of expanded polystyrene (EPS) represent the baseline for this research; evaluation results for each material are compared against those of EPS. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluations were completed to assess various characteristics and parameters concerning the cushioning materials.

  14. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  15. Module Packaging Research and Reliability: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; delCueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K.

    2005-11-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples are described.

  16. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  17. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  18. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  19. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  20. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  1. Gardening and Groundskeeping. A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume II: Learning Activity Packages 43-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning Activity packages are presented in three areas: (1) preparing or improving soil, (2) operating…

  2. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Electronic packaging and interconnections are the elements that today limit the ultimate performance of advanced electronic systems. Materials in use today and those becoming available are critically examined to ascertain what actions are needed for U.S. industry to compete favorably in the world market for advanced electronics. Materials and processes are discussed in terms of the final properties achievable and systems design compatibility. Weak points in the domestic industrial capability, including technical, industrial philosophy, and political, are identified. Recommendations are presented for actions that could help U.S. industry regain its former leadership position in advanced semiconductor systems production.

  3. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  4. Electrospun antimicrobial hybrid mats: Innovative packaging material for meat and meat-products.

    PubMed

    Amna, Touseef; Yang, Jieun; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Hwang, I H

    2015-07-01

    To prevent the development and spread of spoilage/pathogenic microorganisms via meat foodstuffs, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging can serve as a potential alternative. The objective of this study was to develop a new class of antimicrobial hybrid packaging mat composed of biodegradable polyurethane supplemented with virgin olive oil and zinc oxide via electrospinning. Instead of mixing antimicrobial compounds directly with food, incorporation in packaging materials allows the functional effect at food surfaces where microbial activity is localized. The nanofibers were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD and TEM. The antibacterial activity was tested against two common foodborne pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. The present results indicated that incorporation of olive oil in the polymer affected morphology of PU nanofibers and nanocomposite packaging were able to inhibit growth of pathogens. Thus; as-spun mat can be used as prospective antimicrobial packaging, which potentially reduces contamination of meat/meat-products. Moreover, introduced biodegradable packaging for meat products could serve to replace PVC films and simultaneously help to protect natural environment. PMID:26139931

  5. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  6. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  12. 78 FR 29016 - Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in Transport of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. The NRC is issuing for public...), that would amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material in Part... requirements for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. III. Draft Regulatory Guide The...

  13. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.312 Liquid hazardous materials in non... packagings containing liquid hazardous materials, single packaging fitted with vents, or open...

  14. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.312 Liquid hazardous materials in non... packagings containing liquid hazardous materials, single packaging fitted with vents, or open...

  15. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.312 Liquid hazardous materials in non... packagings containing liquid hazardous materials, single packaging fitted with vents, or open...

  16. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.312 Liquid hazardous materials in non... packagings containing liquid hazardous materials, single packaging fitted with vents, or open...

  17. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.316 Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on...

  18. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.316 Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on...

  19. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.316 Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on...

  20. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.316 Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on...

  1. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.316 Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on...

  2. Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Stenberg, D R; Bronowski, D. R.; Arviso, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly constructed linear variable differential transformers, and piezoresistive accelerometers with enhanced measurement capabilities. In addition to developing measurement devices, a method has been derived to evaluate accelerometers and strain gages for measurement repeatability, ruggedness, and manufacturers' calibration data under both laboratory and field conditions. The developed measurement devices and evaluation technique will be discussed and the results of the evaluation will be presented.

  3. Nanostructured Materials Utilized in Biopolymer-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Almasi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Most materials currently used for food packaging are nondegradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for ecofriendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix-filler interactions, which tend to improve with decreasing filler dimensions. The use of fillers with at least one nanoscale dimension (nanoparticles) produces nanocomposites. Nanoparticles have proportionally larger surface area than their microscale counterparts, which favors the filler-matrix interactions and the performance of the resulting material. Besides nanoreinforcements, nanoparticles can have other functions when added to a polymer, such as antimicrobial activity, etc. in this review paper, the structure and properties of main kinds of nanostructured materials which have been studied to use as nanofiller in biopolymer matrices are overviewed, as well as their effects and applications. PMID:24798951

  4. 49 CFR 175.703 - Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages containing Class 7 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transport, by air— (1) Vented Type B(M) packages, packages which require external cooling by an ancillary... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (d) Packages with radiation levels at the package surface or...

  5. Nanogranular soft magnetic material and on-package integrated inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liangliang

    2007-12-01

    Integrated inductors used in electronic circuits are mainly spiral-shaped aluminum devices fabricated on Si chip. They have several disadvantages---large silicon area consumption, high DC resistance and high cost. An attractive approach to address these issues is directly integrating inductors into package substrates, which provide plenty of usage area, low resistance and low cost. The goals of this dissertation are designing and fabricating magnetic and air-core inductors with characteristic low resistance and high quality factor on package substrates. The research work includes three parts which are summarized below. First, the CoFeHfO nanogranular magnetic material developed on Si wafers and package substrates by pulsed DC reactive sputtering were investigated. On Si wafers, the optimized CoFeHfO film has soft magnetic properties. On printed circuit board (PCB) substrates, these magnetic properties degrade due to the rough surface. Surface planarization such as chemical-mechanical polishing can be applied on PCB substrates to reduce the surface roughness and hence improve these properties. Second, on-package inductors with small resistances and high quality factors were designed, fabricated, measured and analyzed. Air-core and magnetic inductors (20 design variations) were built on 8-inch PCB substrates. The DC resistances of these inductors are less than 12 mO, one of the lowest values ever reported. The maximum quality factors can be as large as ˜80 at around 1 GHz for the air-core inductors and ˜25 at 200 MHz for the magnetic inductors. Third, inductor simulation was carried out to study the effects of magnetic materials on the properties of inductors using the Ansoft HFSS software package. The measurement data for the permeability spectra of the CoFeHfO film and the tensor nature of the permeability were taken into account in the simulation. The simulation results matched the experimental data for the inductances, resistances and quality factors. This

  6. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  7. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  8. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an inner packaging is constructed of paper or flexible plastic, the inner packaging must be replaced... may not be transported in paper or fiber inner packagings. The inner packagings must be capable of... the transportation of liquids with a flash point of 60.5 °C (141 °F) (closed cup) or lower, or...

  9. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an inner packaging is constructed of paper or flexible plastic, the inner packaging must be replaced... may not be transported in paper or fiber inner packagings. The inner packagings must be capable of... the transportation of liquids with a flash point of 60.5 °C (141 °F) (closed cup) or lower, or...

  10. Changes in antioxidant compounds during the shelf life of commercial tomato juices in different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Francisco J; Bravo, Sergio; Casas, Javier; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; Jacob, Karin; Periago, María J

    2009-08-12

    Tomatoes provide an optimal mix of dietary antioxidants that may be responsible for the reported health benefits of tomato consumption. However, technological processing, packaging materials, and storage conditions have an impact on the nutritional quality of tomato products by affecting the stability of antioxidant nutrients to different extents. In this study, we evaluated the stability of the antioxidant compounds (lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total flavonoids) present in commercially available tomato juices during storage extended for 12 months at three different temperatures (8, 22, and 37 degrees C). To further characterize the impact of storage conditions, two commonly used packaging materials (Tetra pack and glass bottles) were used to determine whether packaging materials affect antioxidant stability. Overall, the total lycopene, total phenolic compounds, and total flavonoids remained almost stable during storage for 12 months, regardless of the packaging material used, indicating that tomato juices maintain their nutritional value in terms of antioxidant composition during their shelf life. However, ascorbic acid was the most labile antioxidant and was markedly affected by storage conditions. The hydrophilic total antioxidant activity (TAA) paralleled the losses in ascorbic acid content, whereas the lipophilic TAA remained substantially stable throughout the storage trial. PMID:19586031

  11. THE USE OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGING PERFORMANCE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Boyd Howard, B

    2007-03-22

    New designs of radioactive material shipping packages are required to be evaluated in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, ''Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''. This paper will discuss the use of digital radiography to evaluate the effects of the tests required by 10 CFR 71.71, Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), and 10 CFR 71.73, Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). One acceptable means of evaluating packaging performance is to subject packagings to the series of NCT and HAC tests. The evaluation includes a determination of the effect on the packaging by the conditions and tests. That determination has required that packagings be cut and sectioned to learn the actual effects on internal components. Digital radiography permits the examination of internal packaging components without sectioning a package. This allows a single package to be subjected to a series of tests. After each test, the package is digitally radiographed and the effects of particular tests evaluated. Radiography reduces the number of packages required for testing and also reduces labor and materials required to section and evaluate numerous packages. This paper will include a description of the digital radiography equipment used in the testing and evaluation of the 9977 and 9978 packages at SRNL. The equipment is capable of making a single radiograph of a full-sized package in one exposure. Radiographs will be compared to sectioned packages that show actual conditions compared to radiographic images.

  12. Kinetics of water sorption in packaging materials for food.

    PubMed

    Weisser, H; Liebenspacher, F

    1991-01-01

    The water content of paper and its time dependence are of great importance for the use of paper and cardboard as packaging materials. The physical process of water sorption and the mechanisms of water "binding" in paper, as fundamental principles of the kinetics, are discussed. Water exists in up to four different "states" (i.e. domains of mobility) in paper: the first layer at the primary sites on the surface of the fibers; the multimolecular layers, with less "binding" energy, on these inner surfaces; condensed water in the voids; and dissolved water in the cellulose fibers. All these "states" influence the shape of the sorption isotherm and correspond to a different water content and to different transport mechanisms. The various types of water "binding" on paper were studied by measuring the transversal relaxation rate, T2, using a pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometer (minispec pc 120). In addition, a non-destructive, fast method of determining the water content in packaging materials with NMR spectroscopy is described. PMID:1746342

  13. Packaging Materials and Design for Improved PV Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Glick, S.; del Cueto, J.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2005-01-01

    A number of candidate alternative encapsulant and soft backsheet materials have been evaluated in terms of their suitability for photovoltaic (PV) module packaging applications. Relevant properties, including peel strength as a function of damp heat exposure and permeability, have been measured. Based on these tests, promising new encapsulants with adhesion-promoting primers have been identified that result in improved properties. Test results for backsheets provided by industry and prepared at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have suggested strategies to achieve significantly improved products. The ability of glass/glass and glass/breathable backsheet constructions laminated with various encapsulant and/or edge seal materials to protect thin-film aluminum coatings deposited onto glass substrates was assessed. Glass/glass laminate constructions can trap harmful compounds that catalyze moisture-driven corrosion of the aluminum. Constructions with breathable backsheets allow higher rates of moisture ingress, but also allow egress of deleterious substances that can result in decreased corrosion.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  15. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  16. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  17. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  18. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  19. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  20. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  1. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. A Class...

  2. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  3. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  4. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  5. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.

    1985-09-01

    The results of FY 1985 corrosion testing and design development efforts are presented in support of a feasibility assessment of copper-base materials for use in waste container applications for a proposed nuclear waste repository in basalt. Two materials were included in the assessment activities: (1) high purity copper (UNS C10200), and (2) Cupronickel 90-10 (UNS C70600). Testing activities during FY 1985 included general corrosion, pitting corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking studies. The FY 1985 waste package design studies considered consolidated spent nuclear fuel and West Valley high-level waste. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Electrically conductive and thermally conductive materials for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zongrong

    The aim of this dissertation is to develop electrically or thermally conductive materials that are needed for electronic packaging and microelectronic cooling. These materials are in the form of coatings and are made from pastes. The research work encompasses paste formulation, studying the process of converting a paste to a conductive material, relating the processing conditions to the structure and performance, and evaluating performance attributes that are relevant to the application of these conductive materials. The research has resulted in new information that is valuable to the microelectronic industry. Work on electrically conductive materials emphasizes the development of electrical interconnection materials in the form of air-firable glass-free silver-based electrically conductive thick films, which use the Ti-Al alloy as the binder and are in contrast to conventional films that use glass as the binder. The air-firability, as enabled by minor additions of tin and zinc to the paste, is in contrast to previous glass-free films that are not firable. The recommended firing condition is 930°C in air. The organic vehicle in the paste comprises ethyl cellulose, which undergoes thermal decomposition during burnout of the paste. The ethyl cellulose is dissolved in ether, which facilitates the burnout. Excessive ethyl cellulose hinders the burnout. A higher heating rate results in more residue after burnout. The presence of silver particles facilitates drying and burnout. Firing in air gives lower resistivity than firing in oxygen. Firing in argon gives poor films. Compared to conventional films that use glass as the binder, these films, when appropriately fired, exhibit lower electrical resistivity (2.5 x 10-6 O.cm) and higher scratch resistance. Work on thermally conductive materials addresses thermal interface materials, which are materials placed at the interface between a heat sink and a heat source for the purpose of improving the thermal contact. Heat

  7. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.

    1995-01-20

    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  8. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.

    1995-01-01

    Mankind must continue to explore the universe in order to gain a better understanding of how we relate to it and how we can best use its resources to our benefit. This exploration will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F.

  9. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials...

  11. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than 5 percent reduction in the total effective volume of the packaging on which nuclear safety is... Section 71.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE... system as may additionally be provided by the surrounding material of the packaging. (c) The...

  12. Syncope. What Is It? Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pam

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on syncope (fainting). Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  13. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  14. The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  15. 78 FR 16044 - Hazardous Materials Packaging-Composite Cylinder Standards; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Hazardous Materials Packaging--Composite..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Department of Transportation, Washington, DC 20590...), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is to advise...

  16. Characterizing, for packaging and transport, large objects contaminated by radioactive material having a limited A{sub 2} value

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Cash, J.M.; Best, R.E.

    1998-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the safe packaging and transportation of radioactive materials follow a graded approach to the requirements for both packaging and controls during transport. The concept is that, the lower the risk posed to the people and the environment by the contents, (1) the less demanding are the packaging requirements and (2) the smaller in number are the controls imposed on the transport of the material. There are likely to be a great number of situations arising in coming years when large objects, contaminated with radioactive material having unlimited A{sub 2} values will result from various decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities and will then require shipment from the D and D site to a disposal site. Such situations may arise relatively frequently during the cleanup of operations involving mining, milling, feedstock, and uranium enrichment processing facilities. Because these objects are contaminated with materials having an unlimited A{sub 2} value they present a low radiological risk to worker and public safety and to the environment during transport. However, when these radioactive materials reside on the surfaces of equipment and other large objects, where the equipment and objects themselves are not radioactive, the radioactive materials appear as surface contamination and, if the contaminated object is categorized as a surface contaminated object, it would need to be packaged for shipment according to the requirements of the Regulations for SCO. Despite this categorization, alternatives may be available which will allow these contaminants, when considered by themselves for packaging and transport, to be categorized as either (1) a limited quantity of radioactive material to be shipped in an excepted package or (2) low specific activity (LSA) materials to be shipped in an IP-1 package or possibly even shipped unpackaged. These options are discussed in this paper.

  17. YPHON: A package for calculating phonons of polar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2014-11-01

    In our recent works, we have developed a mixed-space approach within the framework of direct method for the first-principle calculation of phonon properties. It makes full use of the accuracy of the force constants calculated in the real space and the dipole-dipole interactions in the reciprocal space, making the accurate phonon calculation possible with the direct method for polar materials. In this paper, an efficient C++ implementation of the mixed-space approach, YPHON, is provided as open source, including demos and Linux scripts for extracting input data to YPHON from the output of VASP.5. The functions of the current package include the calculations of: (1) the phonon dispersions; (2) the phonon density of states; (3) the neutron scattering section weighted phonon density of state; (4) the phonons of the high symmetry structure using the force constants from low symmetry structure; (5) the phonon dispersions of random alloys; and (6) the analysis of the vibrational modes using the point group theory. Catalogue identifier: AETS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 567815 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9763594 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Linux scripts. Computer: Linux systems with a g++ or C++ compiler. Operating system: Linux. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to a few Gbytes, dynamically depending on the system size. Classification: 7.8. External routines: GSL-the GNU Scientific Library (GSL) is a numerical library for C and C++ programmers. VASP.5 or later for the calculations of force constants and dielectric constants and Born effective charge for polar materials. Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing

  18. Learning Activity Package, Biology 102, (LAP) Studies 1, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included are three Learning Activity Package (LAP) studies for use in high school biology: Everything has a Place (Grouping and the Diversity of Life), Energy Relations, and Reproduction. Each LAP contains a rationale for teaching the material included, student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), a list of related resources (books,…

  19. Learning Activity Package, American Civics 92, LAPs 1 Through 3 and 5 Through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, B. C.

    This self paced program in American Civics is for the ninth grade student who needs help on basic skills and who plans to enroll in vocational or business courses. Instructional materials, written at 9th grade level, consist of eight Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) on the following topics: Citizenship and Our Democracy; The Constitution of the…

  20. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I. LAP Numbers 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    As a set of seven Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in chemistry, the units cover the unit system, matter, energy, atomic structures, chemical formulas, physical states of matter, solutions and suspensions, ionization, acids, bases, and salts. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral…

  1. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  2. 75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) under Docket HM-231 (71 FR 52017) that proposed to: (1... (December 21, 1990; 55 FR 52401). The exception in Sec. 173.12(c) is not authorized for a packaging intended...-0005 (HM-215J); 74 FR 2200). This section requires manufacturers of IBC packagings that...

  3. Production of Learning Activity Packages for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes the development of individualized instruction programs for adults in various areas of vocational education, including the use of advisory committees to identify occupational skills, preparing learning activity packages (LAPS) for the programs, and installation and operation of the programs in Halifax, Nova Scotia. (MF)

  4. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  5. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  6. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 102, LAPs 10 Through 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tommy

    A set of seven teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; The Age of Revolution; The World at War; and…

  7. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 103, LAPs 10 Through 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane; And Others

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; Revolution; The World at War; Totalitarianism;…

  8. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 112, LAPs 17 Through 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following topics: New World Settlement and Colonial Growth; American Revolution and the New Nation; Developing an Effective National Government; The Growth of Nationalism and Democracy…

  9. Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

  10. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 124, LAPs 29 Through 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Mary Ann

    A set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on western civilization at the twelfth grade level includes the following units: Establishment of Western Civilization; Middle Period of Western Civilization; Islam and the Saracenic Civilization; the Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern Western…

  11. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  12. Greenhouse Production: A Series of Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. C.; And Others

    Designed for use when the student or the class is expected to grow a crop using the high school greenhouse, these learning activity packages are sequenced in typical greenhouse cropping fashion: (1) poinsettias in the fall, (2) Easter lilies (bulb crop) in the winter, (3) bedding plants (seed crop) in the spring, and (4) a nursery crop (from…

  13. PATRAM '83: 7th International Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials, summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers were presented at the following sessions: international regulations; materials, fracture toughness of ferritic steels; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF6 packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; radiation risk experience; emergency response; structural modeling and testing; transportation system planning; institutional issues and public response; packaging systems; thermal analysis and testing; systems analysis; structural analyses; quality assurance; packaging and transportation systems; physical protection; criticality and shielding; transportation operations and experience; standards; shock absorber technology; and information and training for regulatory compliance. Individual summaries are title listed.

  14. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  15. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  16. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  17. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  18. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  19. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  20. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  1. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  2. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  3. 48 CFR 552.211-89 - Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-manufactured wood... and Clauses 552.211-89 Non-manufactured wood packaging material for export. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(4), insert the following clause: Non-Manufactured Wood Packaging Material for Export (JAN 2010)...

  4. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require...

  5. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require...

  6. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain substances employed in the manufacture of... Food Ingredients § 181.22 Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials..., 181.28, 181.29, and 181.30 in the manufacture of packaging materials. So used, these substances...

  7. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  8. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Nathan T; Leucht, Philipp; Zhao, Ludan; Kim, Jae-Beom; ten Berge, Derk; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Carre, A Lyonel; Dudek, Henryk; Zachlederova, Marie; McElhaney, Michael; Brunton, Shirley; Gunzner, Janet; Callow, Marinella; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike; Zhang, Xiaoyan M; Helms, Jill A; Nusse, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context. PMID:18698373

  9. Aluminum-Scandium: A Material for Semiconductor Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Ute; Thomas, Sven; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-06-01

    A well-known aluminum-scandium (Al-Sc) alloy, already used in lightweight sports equipment, is about to be established for use in electronic packaging. One application for Al-Sc alloy is manufacture of bonding wires. The special feature of the alloy is its ability to harden by precipitation. The new bonding wires with electrical conductivity similar to pure Al wires can be processed on common wire bonders for aluminum wedge/wedge (w/w) bonding. The wires exhibit very fine-grained microstructure. Small Al3Sc particles are the main reason for its high strength and prevent recrystallization and grain growth at higher temperatures (>150°C). After the wire-bonding process, the interface is well closed. Reliability investigations by active power cycling demonstrated considerably improved lifetime compared with pure Al heavy wires. Furthermore, the Al-Sc alloy was sputter-deposited onto silicon wafer to test it as chip metallization in copper (Cu) ball/wedge bonding technology. After deposition, the layers exhibited fine-grained columnar structure and small coherent Al3Sc particles with dimensions of a few nanometers. These particles inhibit softening processes such as Al splashing in fine wire bonding processes and increase the thickness of remnant Al under the copper balls to 85% of the initial thickness.

  10. Performance report for a small package counter that uses active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, R.A.; Wishard, B.E.; Santopietro, R.D.; Anderson, B.P.

    1993-07-07

    An active neutron interrogation system utilizing the differential die-away technique (DDT), was built to assay fissile material in small waste packages for a variety of matrices. Within minutes the system can make a ``go/no-go`` decision for sorting low-level waste (LLW) from transuranic waste (TRUW). It can also provide gram-level accountability of weapons-grade (WG) Pu in TRUW providing lumps of self-shielding fissile material are absent.

  11. Gardening and Groundskeeping: A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume I: Learning Activity Packages 1-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    These forty-two learning activity packages, intended for student use, are based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening-groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). They are organized by four areas of instruction: Organizing and Planning…

  12. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  13. Elucidating the role of interfacial materials properties in microfluidic packages.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Thayne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to discover a method to investigate the properties of interfaces as described by a numerical physical model. The model used was adopted from literature and applied to a commercially available multiphysics software package. By doing this the internal properties of simple structures could be elucidated and then readily applied to more complex structures such as valves and pumps in laminate microfluidic structures. A numerical finite element multi-scale model of a cohesive interface comprised of heterogeneous material properties was used to elucidate irreversible damage from applied strain energy. An unknown internal state variable was applied to characterize the damage process. Using a constrained blister test, this unknown internal state variable could be determined for an adherend/adhesive/adherend body. This is particularly interesting for laminate systems with microfluidic and microstructures contained within the body. A laminate structure was designed and fabricated that could accommodate a variety of binary systems joined using nearly any technique such as adhesive, welding (solvent, laser, ultrasonic, RF, etc.), or thermal. The adhesive method was the most successful and easy to implement but also one of the more difficult to understand, especially over long periods of time. Welding methods are meant to achieve a bond that is similar to bulk properties and so are easier to predict. However, methods of welding often produce defects in the bonds.. Examples of the test structures used to elucidate the internal properties of the model were shown and demonstrated. The real life examples used this research to improve upon current designs and aided in creating complex structures for sensor and other applications.

  14. Shipment of Small Quantities of Unspecified Radioactive Material in Chalfant Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Allen; Abramczyk, Glenn; Nathan, Steven; Bellamy, Steve

    2009-06-12

    In the post 6M era, radioactive materials package users are faced with the disciplined operations associated with use of Certified Type B packagings. Many DOE, commercial and academic programs have a requirement to ship and/or store small masses of poorly characterized or unspecified radioactive material. For quantities which are small enough to be fissile exempt and have low radiation levels, the materials could be transported in a package which provides the required containment level. Because their Chalfant type containment vessels meet the highest standard of containment (helium leak-tight), the 9975, 9977, and 9978 are capable of transporting any of these contents. The issues associated with certification of a high-integrity, general purpose package for shipping small quantities of unspecified radioactive material are discussed and certification of the packages for this mission is recommended.

  15. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-05-07

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date.

  16. Material flow analysis for an industry - A case study in packaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Sandgren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The basic materials used in packaging are glass, metals (primarily aluminum and steel), an ever-growing range of plastics, paper and paperboard, wood, textiles for bags, and miscellaneous other materials (such as glues, inks, and other supplies). They are fabricated into rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible containers. The most common forms of these containers include cans, drums, bottles, cartons, boxes, bags, pouches, and wraps. Packaging products are, for the most part, low cost, bulky products that are manufactured close to their customers. There is virtually no import or export of packaging products. A material flow analysis can be developed that looks at all inputs to an industrial sector, inventories the losses in processing, and tracks the fate of the material after its useful life. An example is presented that identifies the material inputs to the packaging industry, and addresses the ultimate fate of the materials used. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIALS IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.; Murphy, J.

    2010-05-27

    Compaction of lower layers in the 9975 fiberboard overpack has been observed in packages that contain excess moisture. Dynamic loading of the package during transportation may also contribute to compaction of the fiberboard. This condition is being tested and analyzed to better understand these compaction mechanisms and provide a basis from which to evaluate their impact to the safety basis for transportation (Safety Analysis Report for Packaging) and storage (facility Design Safety Analysis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A test program has been developed and is being implemented to identify the extent of the compaction as a function of fiberboard moisture and typical transport dynamic loadings. Test conditions will be compared to regulatory requirements for dynamic loading. Characterization of the recovery of short-term compaction following the application of dynamic loading is also being evaluated. Interim results from this test program will be summarized.

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  20. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Engine, Learning Activity Packages 78-89; Lubricating the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 90-94; Painting the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 95-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on three areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the engine, (2) lubricating the tractor, and (3) painting the tractor. Each of the nineteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any

  2. Mass Transfer Study of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Through Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous system for measuring the mass transfer of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a strong oxidizing agent and used in food and pharmaceutical packaging, through 10 different types of polymeric packaging material was developed utilizing electrochemical sensor as a detector. Permeability, diff...

  3. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... in the Federal Register on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11288) for a 60 days public comment period. The... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 7.4, ``Leakage Tests on Packages for...

  4. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof non... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When §...

  5. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof non... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When §...

  6. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof non... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.240 Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials. When §...

  7. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  8. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  9. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  10. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 101 and IM 102 portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials....

  11. Evaluation of select blends of cotton byproducts in the manufacture of biodegradable packaging material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics in the manufacture of packaging materials. Extruded polystyrene foam is commonly sold under the trademark name of StyrofoamTM. Polystyrene packaging is a multibillion dollar a year industry. Since polystyrene is non-biodegradable, a biodegradable m...

  12. Optimization of biomass blends in the manufacture of molded packaging materials produced using fungal mycelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics and is commonly produced in three forms: 1) Extruded polystyrene – disposable utensils, CD/DVD cases, yogurt containers, smoke alarm housing, etc.; 2) Expanded polystyrene foam – molded packaging materials and packaging "peanuts"; 3) Extruded polys...

  13. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-01

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications. PMID:26256350

  14. 49 CFR 172.312 - Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid hazardous materials in non-bulk packagings. 172.312 Section 172.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL...

  15. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.15 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a)...

  16. Active Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2011-01-01

    Cells make use of dynamic internal structures to control shape and create movement. By consuming energy to assemble into highly organized systems of interacting parts, these structures can generate force and resist compression, as well as adaptively change in response to their environment. Recent progress in reconstituting cytoskeletal structures in vitro has provided an opportunity to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of filament networks formed from purified proteins. Results indicate that a complex interplay between length scales and timescales underlies the mechanical responses of these systems and that energy consumption, as manifested in molecular motor activity and cytoskeletal filament growth, can drive transitions between distinct material states. This review discusses the basic characteristics of these active biological materials that set them apart from conventional materials and that create a rich array of unique behaviors. PMID:18999991

  17. Optimum packaging material for irradiated dried salted striped mackerel (restrelliger chrysozonus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablo, Ignacio S.

    Eight different packaging materials namely: polyester polyethylene (PET/PE), nylon polyethylene (N/PE), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), cello polyethylene (cello/PE), kraft paper, jute sack and plastic sack were exposed to a population of 120 larvae and adult beetles. Out of these eight types of packaging materials, PET/PE was found to be the most resistant packaging material. PET/ PE utilized as bulk packaging material was overwrapped with plastic sack to offer more protection from any physical damages. Irradiated dried striped mackerel at 225 krad and packed in PET/PE were stored in the laboratory and in 3 different market places. Results showed that after a month of storage, there was no infestation nor any damage in PET/PE. No holes, scratches or punctures were found in the lined plastic sack. There were no significant differences noted on the moisture, mold and yeast count and Total Plate Count among samples stored at different market conditions.

  18. Packaging strategies for printed circuit board components. Volume I, materials & thermal stresses.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Austin, Kevin N.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott W.; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Chambers, Robert S.

    2011-09-01

    Decisions on material selections for electronics packaging can be quite complicated by the need to balance the criteria to withstand severe impacts yet survive deep thermal cycles intact. Many times, material choices are based on historical precedence perhaps ignorant of whether those initial choices were carefully investigated or whether the requirements on the new component match those of previous units. The goal of this program focuses on developing both increased intuition for generic packaging guidelines and computational methodologies for optimizing packaging in specific components. Initial efforts centered on characterization of classes of materials common to packaging strategies and computational analyses of stresses generated during thermal cycling to identify strengths and weaknesses of various material choices. Future studies will analyze the same example problems incorporating the effects of curing stresses as needed and analyzing dynamic loadings to compare trends with the quasi-static conclusions.

  19. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material. PMID:26396389

  20. The LARSYS educational package: Instructor's notes. [instructional materials for training people to analyze remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenlaub, J. C.; Davis, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Materials are presented for assisting instructors in teaching the LARSYS Educational Package, which is a set of instructional materials to train people to analyze remotely sensed multispectral data. The seven units of the package are described. These units are: quantitative remote sensing, overview of the LARSYS software system, the 2780 remote terminal, demonstration of LARSYS on the 2780 remote terminal, exercises, guide to multispectral data analysis, and a case study using LARSYS for analysis of LANDSAT data.

  1. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  2. Compositional and functional dynamics of dried papaya as affected by storage time and packaging material.

    PubMed

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Nagle, Marcus; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Latif, Sajid; Müller, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Papaya has been identified as a valuable source of nutrients and antioxidants, which are beneficial for human health. To preserve the nutritional properties after drying, appropriate storage specifications should be considered. This study aimed to investigate the quality and stability of air-dried papaya in terms of quality dynamics and behavior of bio-active compounds during storage for up to 9 months in two packaging materials: aluminum laminated polyethylene and polyamide/polyethylene. Samples with moisture content (MC) of 0.1328 g g(-1) and water activity (aw) of 0.5 were stored at 30 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 40-50%. The MC, aw, degree of browning (DB) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content were found to notably increase as storage progressed. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS), total phenolic (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents. Packaging in aluminum laminated polyethylene under ambient conditions was found to better preserve bio-active compounds and retard increases in MC, aw and DB, when compared to polyamide/polyethylene. PMID:26593545

  3. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  4. Potential crush loading of radioactive material packages in highway, rail and marine accidents. Regulatory report

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, J.D.; Romander, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential crush loads on radioactive material packages in highway, rail, and marine accidents. The study concluded that if allowance is made for small gaps between packages, the deflections produced by inertial crush are comparable (within 20%) of those produced by impact under the same accident conditions. Therefore an additional qualification test is not needed to ensure that the level of protection against crush is comparable to the current level of protection against impact. The study also evaluated potential crush loads in extremely severe transportation accidents. In highway accidents, the most severe crush environment is produced when a truck carrying several small, soft packages strikes a rigid barrier and the inertia of the aft packages crushes the front package. In railroad accidents, severe crush environments are produced when a railcar on which the packages are carried strikes a barrier or when the packages are pinned between two railcars after a derailment. Analysis of ship collisions showed that for packages carried by a containerized cargo ship struck by another ship, the probability of producing significant crush loads is small because most collisions occur at low velocities during maneuvering. The study suggested various types of package tests which would simulate severe crush loads in each mode of transport.

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. PMID:23831005

  6. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  7. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  8. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  9. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  10. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  11. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  12. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  13. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  14. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  15. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  16. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  17. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  18. Strategy for determining extractables from rubber packaging materials in drug products.

    PubMed

    Paskiet, D M

    1997-01-01

    The migration of substances from rubber packaging materials into drug products can be significant with certain packaging materials in contact with organic solvent systems. Recommendations for testing drug products for leachables are continually evolving to address new developments. Testing packaging materials using simulated solvents is not always an acceptable protocol for the pharmaceutical industry. We describe a rational strategy for evaluation of the drug product for packaging extractables. A profile of the extractables from rubber packaging materials was made with a range of organic solvents and stress conditions to provide information on substances to target in the drug product. The drug product was evaluated to determine if the matrix would cause interferences that might inhibit detection of the found extractables. Analytical methods were selected based on these findings. The procedures were validated according to FDA guidelines. A stability program using time and storage conditions as variables provided information for acceptance criteria. This same strategy can be used on other types of pharmaceuticals and packaging materials. PMID:9448435

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  20. Corrosion test on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curtis, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials in order to assist in selecting materials for package design and to help in designing longer-term corrosion tests. The corrosion solution was buffered near pH4, was in contact with air, and contained chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron absorber elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron absorber elements were studied.

  1. Materials science in pre-plated leadframes for electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lilin

    Au/Pd/Ni pre-plated leadframes (PPF) are high performance frames for accommodating high-end electronic packages. Cost and reliability are major concerns in their wide application. The present work, from a materials science point view, deepens the understanding of PPFs, optimizes the conventional PPFs, develops a novel PPF architecture and models the residual stress relaxation in heteroepitaxial thin films. The wire pull test, the solderability test, and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to characterize the PPFs in order to understand the relationship between performance and microstructure. We optimized the electroplating profiles and determined the minimum thickness of the Pd layer with the PPF performance satisfying the industry standards. Further increasing the Pd layer thickness beyond the critical thickness will not enhance the performance more, but increase the product cost. With the optimized electroplating profile, the electroplated Au layer is epitaxially deposited on the Pd layer, and so does the Pd layer on the Ni layer. Misfit dislocations and nanotwins are present at the interface between the Pd and Ni layers, which are generated to release the about 10.4% misfit strain between the Pd and Ni lattices. This work demonstrates that the electro-deposition technique can electroplate epitaxy-like Pd films on the highly (200) textured Ni films, which are grown on the Cu substrates. A novel technique for impeding Cu out-diffusion in Cu alloy based pre-plated leadframes was developed by electroplating a 3-4 nm thick Sn layer on a Cu alloy base prior to electroplating a Ni layer. A 10-14 nm thick epitaxy-like and dense (Cu,Ni)3Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) layer is automatically formed en route of diffuse reaction, which leads to a drastic reduction in Cu out-diffusion and hence improves significantly the protection of the leadframes against oxidation and corrosion attack. The oxidation behaviours were quantified by Electron

  2. Advanced copper/low-k IC devices: Packaging process development and materials integrtion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chungpaiboonpatana, Surasit

    Cu/low-k technology provides a number of key advantages including higher interconnect density, improved electrical performance, enhanced thermal performance, and reduced cost. Nevertheless, Cu/low-k IC technology poses many challenges to the packaging industry today. Specifically, low-k dielectric is much more fragile mechanically and copper surfaces are readily oxidized thereby weakening their adhesion to the ILD/metallization layers. The purpose of the study is to provide integrated and reliable materials and process solutions for the packaging of advanced Cu/low-k devices through fundamental materials science understanding. Novel solutions for advanced wirebond and flip-chip technologies are developed, along with resolutions for local and global material interaction issues. The zero-th packaging level study examines a novel direct gold wirebonding onto the Cu/low-k terminal pad structure. The first packaging level study attempts to eliminate the Cu/low-k wiresweeping issue through assembly material interactions with both bonding and transfer molding processes. The second packaging level study exams at the impact of Cu/low-k and processing material implementations on the copper trace cracking failures at the substrate level of a package. An integrated first and second level study on high performance flip chip technology using 8M Cu/low-k silicon chip is performed by the optimization of the underfill and substrate materials selections. Lastly, electromigration phenomena and corrosion mechanisms of copper metallization are developed for biased stressing assembly environment through the fundamental of electrochemistry. Throughout the experiment, the 90/130nm technology node of copper wafer fabrication using Black Diamond low-k dielectric is implemented in several large form-factor package assemblies. Functional test vehicles are assembled, reliability-stressed, and failure-analyzed according to the JEDEC standards for the validity of the integrated materials

  3. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... under the Regulatory Policies and Procedures of the Department of Transportation (44 FR 11034). The...--(i) offers hazardous material for transportation in commerce; (ii) transports hazardous material to... determination of its ability to transport a specific type of hazardous material safely in transportation....

  4. Mainland China -- An Abacus and the Hoes. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies, Grade 8. [And] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Amy; Kiracofe, Rolland

    Developed for the Carroll County Public Schools, this Learning Activity Package (LAP) for grade 8 offers a way to provide individualized learning about China before the Communists came to power. Learning activities are based on curriculum and audiovisual materials available in the Carroll County Schools. The focus of the unit is on the life styles…

  5. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  6. Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2002-04-17

    This report summarizes a research and development program that produced a stand-alone active desiccant module (ADM) that can be easily integrated with new or existing packaged cooling equipment. The program also produced a fully integrated hybrid system, combining the active desiccant section with a conventional direct expansion air-conditioning unit, that resulted in a compact, low-cost, energy-efficient end product. Based upon the results of this investigation, both systems were determined to be highly viable products for commercialization. Major challenges--including wheel development, compact packaging, regeneration burner development, control optimization, and low-cost design--were all successfully addressed by the final prototypes produced and tested as part of this program. Extensive laboratory testing was completed in the SEMCO laboratory for each of the two ADM system approaches. This testing confirmed the performance of the ADM systems to be attractive compared with that of alternate approaches currently used to precondition outdoor air, where a return air path is not readily available for passive desiccant recovery or where first cost is the primary design criterion. Photographs, schematics, and performance maps are provided for the ADM systems that were developed; and many of the control advantages are discussed. Based upon the positive results of this research and development program, field tests are under way for fully instrumented pilot installations of ADM systems in both a hotel/motel and a restaurant.

  7. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR GENERAL PURPOSE RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2009-02-18

    Polyurethane foam has been employed in impact limiters for large radioactive materials packagings since the early 1980's. Its consistent crush response, controllable structural properties and excellent thermal insulating characteristics have made it attractive as replacement for the widely used cane fiberboard for smaller, drum size packagings. Accordingly, polyurethane foam was chosen for the overpack material for the 9977 and 9978 packagings. The study reported here was undertaken to provide data to support the analyses performed as part of the development of the 9977 and 9978, and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  8. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frysinger, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal cycling and performance tests, performed to verify the package integrity, life, and stability of the chub packaged materials system for storage coolness with application to residential air conditioning, are described. The moisture vapor retention characteristics of the laminate film for long term chub performance was determined. The stability, mechanical integrity, and thermal performance of chubs following mechanical shock, vibration, and temperature extremes is reported.

  9. Packaging Comprehension Materials: Towards Effective Language Instruction in Difficult Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Norman; Gary, Judith O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research findings from a three-year curriculum research and development project involving developing English language materials for science education students at Ains Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Materials concentrate on comprehension skills of listening and reading and are taught by a cassette tape player in conjunction with…

  10. Impact of Chlorine dioxide Gas on the Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One important criterion of polymeric material selection and packaging design for fresh produce is choosing the material with suitable ratio of carbon dioxide and oxygen permabilities (PCO2/P O2), to the respiratory proportion of the targeted produce. The ratio of [O2] and [CO2] in the head space var...

  11. 77 FR 22504 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Policies and Procedures of the Department of Transportation (44 FR 11034). Additionally, E.O. 13563... transportation of liquid hazardous materials by preventing releases or containing releases that do occur within... that a combination packaging intended for the air transportation of liquid hazardous materials...

  12. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the material at a speed greater than the speed of sound. (2) When tests are required to evaluate the... § 173.21, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...

  13. An Investigation Into The Viability Of Nanocrystalline Cellulose As A Packaging Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, John

    The focus of this proposal is to identify unexplored areas of research in the field of packaging science, specifically related to the incorporation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) as a functional material in fiber based packaging, as well as to highlight some of potential risks and unknowns in the product lifecycle. This research hypothesizes that incorporating NCC into wood fiber-based c-flute corrugated packaging medium will show a sufficient performance improvement to justify additional research. Nanomaterials, as a whole, are still being understood, including those using naturally occurring bases such as NCC. Further incremental testing with NCC will help provide a performance and safety baseline for the necessary future research prior to mass production. NCC holds great promise for the future: a commonly available, naturally occurring material that's easily recyclable and biodegradable, yet has the strength of steel. Due diligence is required for this material to come to market in a safe and sustainable manner.

  14. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  15. Effect of packaging materials and storage environment on postharvest quality of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Azene, Mulualem; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Woldetsadik, Kebede

    2014-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of packaging materials and storage environments on shelf life of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.). A factorial combination of five packaging materials and two storage environments using randomized complete block design with three replications were used. The papaya fruits were evaluated for weight loss, percentage marketability, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar content. The packaged and cooled fruits remained firmer than unpackaged and evaporatively cooled fruits. Higher chemical compositions were recorded in the control fruits stored under ambient conditions during the earlier times of storage. Packaging and cooling maintained the chemical quality of papaya fruits better than the control sample fruits towards the end of storage periods. The evaporatively cooled storage combined with packaging improved the shelf life of papaya fruits by more than two fold. The polyethylene bag packaging combined with evaporatively cooled storage maintained the superior quality of papaya fruit for a period of 21 days. This integrated agro-technology is recommended for postharvest loss reduction biotechnology in hot regions. PMID:24876636

  16. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  17. Active packaging of cheese with allyl isothiocyanate, an alternative to modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Winther, Mette; Nielsen, Per Vaeggemose

    2006-10-01

    The natural antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), found in mustard oil, is effective against cheese-related fungi both on laboratory media and cheese. Penicillium commune, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus flavus were more sensitive to AITC when it was added just after the spores had completed 100% germination and branching had started on Czapek yeast extract agar than were spores in the dormant phase. The use of 1 AITC label (Wasaouro interior labels, LD30D, 20 by 20 mm) in combination with atmospheric air in the packaging extended the shelf life of Danish Danbo cheese from 4 1/2 to 13 weeks. Two AITC labels extended the shelf life from 4 1/2 to 28 weeks. Both 1 and 2 labels in combination with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of the cheese from 18 to 28 weeks. This study showed that AITC was absorbed in the cheese, but it was not possible to detect any volatile breakdown products from AITC in the cheese. Cheese stored for up to 12 weeks with an AITC label had an unacceptable mustard flavor. The mustard flavor decreased to an acceptable level between weeks 12 and 28. Cheese stored in atmospheric air had a fresher taste without a CO2 off-flavor than did cheese stored in modified atmosphere packaging. AITC may be a good alternative to modified atmosphere packaging for cheese. The extended shelf life of cheese in the package is very desirable: the cheese can be transported longer distances, and the packaging can be used for the final maturing of the cheese. Furthermore, AITC can address problems such as pinholes and leaking seals in cheese packaging. PMID:17066923

  18. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 173.21, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) For purposes of this paragraph, “detonate” means an explosion in which the shock wave travels through the material at a speed greater than the speed of sound. (2) When tests are required to evaluate...

  19. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  20. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O(2) active packaging in comparison with low O(2) packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Li, X H; Fan, X; Tang, Y; Yun, J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (initial O(2)/CO(2): 5/5; 30/5; and 80/0) and passive packaging [initial O(2)/CO(2): 20.8/0 (air)] on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pear stored at 4 °C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O(2) (30% and 80%) packages had higher phenolics and anthocyanin contents compared with those in passive and low O(2) packages. After 12 days of storage, phenolics and anthocyanin contents of 80% O(2) samples were 2.5 and 12 times, respectively, higher than those in the passive package and 3 and 2 times higher than those in low O(2) package. High O(2) modified atmosphere packaging was effective in keeping free radical scavenging capacity as measured by the DPPH assay. The sensory evaluation indicated that surface color of cut fruits were stable for at least 12 days in the high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging. The results suggested that high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging could be used to inhibit browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pears in spite of more than 50% loss in vitamin C content. PMID:22397831

  1. Physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends; effects of packaging material, storage temperature and time

    PubMed Central

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of packaging materials, seasonality, storage temperature and time on physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends. Roselle extract (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) was mixed with mango juice and stored in glass and plastic bottles at 4°C and 28°C. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, color, vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidant activity (FRAP) were evaluated in freshly prepared juice, and after, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage. The results showed that total soluble solids, reducing sugars, and pH increased with storage times under different storage time, irrespective of packaging materials. The acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, vitamin C, total phenols, and antioxidant activity decreased during storage irrespective of storage temperature and packaging material. Loss of anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C content were higher in blends stored at 28°C than 4°C. PMID:25838888

  2. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  3. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.815 Section 10.815 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  4. 19 CFR 10.878 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.878 Section 10.878 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  5. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.775 Section 10.775 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  6. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.815 Section 10.815 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of aroma compound absorption in plastic packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenström, Kristina; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, Ragnar; Wiebert, Anders; Skog, Göran; Nielsen, Tim

    1994-05-01

    Absorption of aroma compounds in plastic packaging materials may affect the taste of the packaged food and it may also change the quality of the packaging material. A method to determine the aroma compound absorption in polymers by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is being developed at the Lund Pelletron AMS facility. The high sensitivity of the AMS method makes it possible to study these phenomena under realistic conditions. As a first test low density polyethylene exposed to 14C-doped ethyl acetate is examined. After converting the polymer samples with the absorbed aroma compounds to graphite, the {14C }/{13C } ratio of the samples is measured by the AMS system and the degree of aroma compound absorption is established. The results are compared with those obtained by supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography (SFE-GC).

  8. Testing of candidate waste-package backfill and canister materials for basalt. [Cupronickel 90/10

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.I.; Anderson, W.J.; Aden, G.D.

    1982-09-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is developing a multiple-barrier waste package to contain high-level nuclear waste as part of an overall system (e.g., waste package, repository sealing system, and host rock) designed to isolate the waste in a repository located in basalt beneath the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The three basic components of the waste package are the waste form, the canister, and the backfill. An extensive testing program is under way to determine the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of potential canister and backfill materials. The data derived from this testing program will be used to recommend those materials that most adequately perform the functions assigned to the canister and backfill.

  9. The challenge of identifying non-intentionally added substances from food packaging materials: a review.

    PubMed

    Nerin, C; Alfaro, P; Aznar, M; Domeño, C

    2013-05-01

    Packaged food can contain non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) as a result of reaction and degradation processes or the presence of impurities in the raw materials used for the packaging production. This manuscript reviews the evidence of NIAS and their possible origin. One of the most challenging and difficult tasks when a sample of packaging materials arrives at the laboratory is knowing the procedure to apply for identifying the unknown compounds. This work proposes an analytical procedure for sample treatment, applicable to polymers as well as to migration samples, and for NIAS identification. The identification protocol comprises the determination of both volatile and non-volatile compounds. A review is presented of the most novel analytical techniques used for identification purposes, particularly high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). PMID:23601971

  10. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  11. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei

    As the integration scale of transistors/devices in a chip/system keeps increasing, effective cooling has become more and more important in microelectronics. To address the thermal dissipation issue, one important solution is to develop thermal interface materials with higher performance. Carbon nanotubes, given their high intrinsic thermal and mechanical properties, and their high thermal and chemical stabilities, have received extensive attention from both academia and industry as a candidate for high-performance thermal interface materials. The thesis is devoted to addressing some challenges related to the potential application of carbon nanotubes as thermal interface materials in microelectronics. These challenges include: 1) controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates via chemical vapor deposition and the fundamental understanding involved; 2) development of a scalable annealing process to improve the intrinsic properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes; 3) development of a state-of-art assembling process to effectively implement high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes into a flip-chip assembly; 4) a reliable thermal measurement of intrinsic thermal transport property of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films; 5) improvement of interfacial thermal transport between carbon nanotubes and other materials. The major achievements are summarized. 1. Based on the fundamental understanding of catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes and the growth mechanism of carbon nanotube, fast synthesis of high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates (e.g., copper, quartz, silicon, aluminum oxide, etc.) has been successfully achieved. The synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the bulk copper substrate by the thermal chemical vapor deposition process has set a world record. In order to functionalize the synthesized carbon nanotubes while maintaining their good vertical alignment

  12. Low temperature activation of Au/Ti getter film for application to wafer-level vacuum packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Moulin, Johan; Lani, Sébastien; Hallais, Géraldine; Renard, Charles; Bosseboeuf, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin films based on alloys of transition metals have been studied by various authors for vacuum control in wafer-level packages of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). These materials have typically a relatively high activation temperature (300-450 °C) which is incompatible with some temperature sensitive MEMS devices. In this work we investigate the potential of Au/Ti system with a thin or ultrathin non oxidizable Au layer as a low activation temperature getter material. In this bilayer system, gettering activation is produced by thermal outdiffusion of titanium atoms through the gold film. The outdiffusion kinetics of titanium was modelled and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) at various temperatures. Results confirm that Au/Ti bilayer is a promising getter material for wafer-level packaging with an activation temperature below 300 °C for 1 h annealing time.

  13. Direct determination of carnosic acid in a new active packaging based on natural extract of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Rubio, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2007-11-01

    A new antioxidant film is being developed that incorporates a natural extract of rosemary and is intended for contact with food. The rosemary extract has been screened and carnosic acid and carnosol have been determined as the major antioxidant components (6.96% and 0.88%, respectively) that are responsible for the antioxidant properties of the whole extract. Thus, a fast method for the direct determination of carnosic acid in the packaging material, in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the new active plastic, has been developed and optimized. The method consists of extraction from the plastic with methanol, followed by anion exchange solid-phase extraction and final analysis by UPLC-MS. Using this process, the recovery of carnosic acid is about 99%. The complete analytical performance of the method developed here is also assessed. The analytical features of the method, such as the relative standard deviation, reproducibility, repeatability, linear range, and detection and quantification limits, are shown. This method can be subsequently modified to monitor other active components in different packages, and it constitutes a crucial step forward in research into new and improved commercial antioxidant packages. PMID:17938896

  14. Retaining Oxidative Stability of Emulsified Foods by Novel Nonmigratory Polyphenol Coated Active Packaging.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-07-13

    Oxidation causes lipid rancidity, discoloration, and nutrient degradation that decrease shelf life of packaged foods. Synthetic additives are effective oxidation inhibitors, but are undesirable to consumers who prefer "clean" label products. The aim of this study was to improve oxidative stability of emulsified foods by a novel nonmigratory polyphenol coated active packaging. Polyphenol coatings were applied to chitosan functionalized polypropylene (PP) by laccase assisted polymerization of catechol and catechin. Polyphenol coated PP exhibited both metal chelating (39.3 ± 2.5 nmol Fe(3+) cm(-2), pH 4.0) and radical scavenging (up to 52.9 ± 1.8 nmol Trolox eq cm(-2)) capacity, resulting in dual antioxidant functionality to inhibit lipid oxidation and lycopene degradation in emulsions. Nonmigratory polyphenol coated PP inhibited ferric iron promoted degradation better than soluble chelators, potentially by partitioning iron from the emulsion droplet interface. This work demonstrates that polyphenol coatings can be designed for advanced material chemistry solutions in active food packaging. PMID:27310107

  15. Impact of thermal loading on waste package material performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; McCoy, J.K.; McCright, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    This report focuses on the prediction of materials performance for the carbon steel corrosion-allowance container as a function of thermal loading for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Low, intermediate and high thermal loads were evaluated as to their performance given assumptions regarding the temperature and humidity changes with time and the resultant depth of corrosion penetration. The reference case involved a kinetic relation for corrosion that was utilized in a sensitivity analysis to examine the impacts of time exponent, pitting, and mirobiologically-influenced corrosion. As a result of this study, the high thermal load appears to offer the best corrosion performance. However, other factors must be considered in making the final thermal loading decision.

  16. Biocomposite cellulose-alginate films: promising packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Kolehmainen, Aleksi; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Niinimäki, Jouko; Hormi, Osmo E O

    2014-05-15

    Biocomposite films based on cellulose and alginate were produced using unmodified birch pulp, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and birch pulp derivate, nanofibrillated anionic dicarboxylic acid cellulose (DCC), having widths of fibres ranging from 19.0 μm to 25 nm as cellulose fibre materials. Ionically cross-linked biocomposites were produced using Ca(2+) cross-linking. Addition of micro- and nanocelluloses as a reinforcement increased the mechanical properties of the alginate films remarkably, e.g. addition of 15% of NFC increased a tensile strength of the film from 70.02 to 97.97 MPa. After ionic cross-linking, the tensile strength of the film containing 10% of DCC was increased from 69.63 to 125.31 MPa. The biocomposite films showed excellent grease barrier properties and reduced water vapour permeability (WVP) after the addition of cellulose fibres, except when unmodified birch pulp was used. PMID:24423542

  17. Particle LET spectra from microelectronics packaging materials subjected to neutron and proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J. S.; Holtkamp, D. B.

    1988-12-01

    Cumulative fractions for LET spectra were measured for particles ejected from microelectronics packaging materials subjected to neutron and proton irradiation. The measurements for the neutron irradiation compare well with Monte Carlo theoretical calculations. The spectra can be used to access microelectronics vulnerabilities in strategic-nuclear- weapon, space-trapped, and neutral-beam directed-energy particle environments.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  19. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and non-DOT Specification portable... solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  20. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and non-DOT Specification portable... solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  1. 49 CFR 173.241 - Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and non-DOT Specification portable... solid materials. 173.241 Section 173.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.241 Bulk packagings for certain low hazard liquid and...

  2. CCD photoresponse calibration and contrast adjustment for reliable material discrimination in the inspection of electronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Ralph M.; Kerstens, Pieter J. M.; Dorundo, Alan D.

    1992-08-01

    Inspection of complex electronic packages requires discrimination between the various materials used in such packages. Variations in the appearance of these materials and in the equipment''s illumination complicates the segmentation process. In addition, some materials have similar reflectance and absorption characteristics. As a result, the segmentation process is sensitive to small variations in the illumination settings, photoresponse nonuniformity, and contrast fluctuations. In this paper, we present two techniques that reduce these variations: (1) a new method to calibrate and correct the photoresponse characteristics of optical inspection systems, and (2) a method to automatically correct for contrast variations between the inspected packages. This results in a more repetitive appearance of the used packaging materials, which in turn results in improved segmentation performance. The photoresponse correction procedure, models the output of each photosite as a linear function of input illumination and the parameters of the model are measured. The response is corrected using image processing hardware. Experimental results show that the nonuniformity is corrected to within +/- 1 of the A/D dynamic range which agrees with the error analysis. The contrast adjustment method adjusts the image contrast based on histogram features and is adjusted using vendor and custom developed hardware. The relationship between the two techniques is also discussed.

  3. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof non... subject to the conditions and limitations of this section provided the IBC type is authorized according to the IBC packaging code specified for the specific hazardous material in Column (7) of the §...

  4. 49 CFR 173.240 - Bulk packaging for certain low hazard solid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... portable tanks; UN portable tanks; marine portable tanks conforming to 46 CFR part 64; and sift-proof non... subject to the conditions and limitations of this section provided the IBC type is authorized according to the IBC packaging code specified for the specific hazardous material in Column (7) of the §...

  5. 49 CFR 171.23 - Requirements for specific materials and packagings transported under the ICAO Technical...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oxygen service conform to the requirements of this paragraph, except when the cylinder is used for...-belt pretensioners meeting the criteria for a Division 1.4G material. (3) Chemical oxygen generators. Chemical oxygen generators must be approved, classed, described, packaged, and transported in...

  6. Off-flavour release from packaging materials and its prevention: a foods company's approach.

    PubMed

    Huber, M; Ruiz, J; Chastellain, F

    2002-01-01

    Off-flavours in packed food are causes for consumer complaints. Often, they are related to packaging materials. For food companies, this represents not only costs related to production, but also a possible loss of brand confidence and market share. The origin of packaging-related off-odours are many sided. Odours derive from the degradation of base packaging materials and their converting processes, including printing, coating and lamination as well as the interaction between food and packaging. Many substances and groups of substances have been identified so far. In spite of the fact that the quality of packaging materials is clearly defined in the specifications (e.g. limit for residual solvents, standardized odour and taste transfer tests), off-flavour cases still do occur. This paper sets out ways of avoiding such problems, even in factories and laboratories which are not so well equipped. Prevention at Nestlé is based on several pillars. For a number of years, a sensory panel at the central laboratory has been specialized in and trained on packaging off-favours. The panel can describe and identify odours and their origin. To confirm the results by instrumental analysis, various extraction and separation techniques are available, including distillation/extraction techniques and direct thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy and an olfactory sniffing port. However, this knowledge must also be present in the operational plants where the problem usually originates. To manage this knowledge transfer, two tools were introduced to build up sensory panels that can evaluate packaging material. First, an aroma library kit was developed that contained odours that are often involved in off-odour cases. For each odour, a typical descriptor and the chemical composition are given. Beside that, information is added about the occurrence. Second, a glossary, which contains descriptors for packaging-related off-odours, was published

  7. A COMPARISON OF TWO THERMAL INSULATION AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR USE IN TYPE B PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-16

    This paper presents the summary of design features and test results of two Type B Shipping Package prototype configurations comprising different insulating materials developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy. The materials evaluated, a closed-cell polyurethane foam and a vacuformed ceramic fiber material, were selected to provide adequate structural protection to the package containment vessel during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and to provide thermal protection during the HAC fire. Polyurethane foam has been used in shipping package designs for many years because of the stiffness it provides to the structure and because of the thermal protection it provides during fire scenarios. This comparison describes how ceramic fiber material offers an alternative to the polyurethane foam in a specific overpack design. Because of the high operating temperature ({approx}2,300 F) of the ceramic material, it allows for contents with higher heat loads to be shipped than is possible with polyurethane foam. Methods of manufacturing and design considerations using the two materials will be addressed.

  8. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2007-05-15

    Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation.

  9. A review of poly(lactic acid)-based materials for antimicrobial packaging.

    PubMed

    Tawakkal, Intan S M A; Cran, Marlene J; Miltz, Joseph; Bigger, Stephen W

    2014-08-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) can be synthesized from renewable bio-derived monomers and, as such, it is an alternative to conventional petroleum-based polymers. Since PLA is a relatively new polymer, much effort has been directed toward its development in order to make it an acceptable and effective option to the more traditional petroleum-based polymers. Commercially, PLA has received considerable attention in food packaging applications with a focus on films and coatings that are suitable for short shelf life and ready-to-eat food products. The potential for PLA to be used in active packaging has also been recognized by a number of researchers. This review focuses on the use of PLA in antimicrobial systems for food packaging applications and explores the engineering characteristics and antimicrobial activity of PLA films incorporated and/or coated with antimicrobial agents. PMID:25039867

  10. Microfibrillated cellulose coatings as new release systems for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Desloges, Isabelle; Bras, Julien

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a new use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is highlighted for high-added-value applications. For the first time, a nanoporous network formed by MFC coated on paper is used for a controlled release of molecules. The release study was carried out in water with caffeine as a model molecule. The release process was studied by means of (i) continuous, and (ii) intermittent diffusion experiments (with renewal of the medium every 10 min). The effect of the MFC was first observed for the samples impregnated in the caffeine solution. These samples, coated with MFC (coat weight of about 7 g/m(2)), released the caffeine over a longer period (29 washings compared with 16), even if the continuous diffusions were similar for both samples (without and with MFC coating). The slowest release of caffeine was observed for samples coated with the mixture (MFC+caffeine). Moreover, the caffeine was only fully released 9h after the release from the other samples was completed. This study compared two techniques for the introduction of model molecules in MFC-coated papers. The latter offers a more controlled and gradual release. This new approach creates many opportunities especially in the food-packaging field. A similar study could be carried out with an active species. PMID:24528763

  11. Effects of package geometry, materials, and die design on energy dependence of pMOS dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Brucker, G.J.; Kronenberg, S.; Gentner, F.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of further studies enhancement in dual and single-dielectric pMOSFET dosimeters for various package and die designs. Eight different MOSFET designs and package types were investigated over a photon energy range from 14 to 1250 keV. Seven X-ray effective energies and two radioactive sources of cesium and cobalt provided the radiation. As in a previous study Rutherford back-scattered electrons were primarily responsible for the dose enhancement factors which achieved values as high as 20. Packages filled with silicon grease, aluminum oxide, or paraffin eliminated the contribution of back-scatter to the enhanced dose. These modifications allowed measurements of the usual dose enhancement at the aluminum or polysilicon gate-silicon nitride (dual dielectric devices), or silicon dioxide interfaces (single dielectric parts), and at the silicon nitride-silicon dioxide interface. In addition to the primary peak in the DEF (Dose Enhancement Factor) curve versus energy at 45.7 keV, there is a second peak at about 215 keV. This peak might be due to enhancements at the interfaces of a MOSFET. These interface effects were small in the single-insulator parts in standard ceramic packages, and significantly larger in the dual-insulator devices. The effects were reduced by filling the packages with the materials as previously described. The geometry of the package, for example, the size of the air gap between the die`s surface, and the lid of the package impacts the value of the DEF.

  12. Wafer-level vacuum packaging for an optical readout bi-material cantilever infrared FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuyu; Zhou, Xiaoxiong; Yu, Xiaomei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of an uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) on quartz substrate and the wafer-level vacuum packaging for the IR FPA in view of an optical readout method. This FPA is composed of bi-material cantilever array which fabricated by the Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, and the wafer-level packaging of the IR FPA is realized based on AuSn solder bonding technique. The interface of soldering is observed by scan electron microscope (SEM), which indicates that bonding interface is smooth and with no bubbles. The air leakage rate of packaged FPA is measured to be 1.3×10-9 atm·cc/s.

  13. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  14. Safety assessment of microwave susceptors and other high temperature packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Risch, S

    1993-01-01

    A number of packaging materials are being used not only to contain food during distribution but also to serve as the cooking container. The higher temperatures that these materials reach led the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to issue an intent to publish new regulations in 1989. The food and packaging industries responded by conducting extensive research and submitting the results to FDA. The methods used and results obtained are discussed. Most of the data were focused on microwave susceptors and the volatile compounds generated. One project showed that for a specific product, popcorn, there was no transfer into the food. Work is continuing to validate methods to test for non-volatile compounds. In addition to susceptors, various paper and plastic materials are used in dual ovenable (microwave and conventional ovens) applications. Most of the research on these materials has investigated the food contact temperatures on testing for migrants. An update on the current regulatory status of packaging materials intended for high temperature use in the US is discussed. PMID:8288009

  15. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  16. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O2,active packaging compared with low O2 packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, initial O2/CO2: 5/5; 30/5; 80/0) and passive packaging (initial O2/CO2: 20.8/0 (air)) on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut ‘Yaoshan’ pear stored at 4C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O2 (30% and 80%) ...

  17. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  18. Contribution of Two Different Packaging Material to Microbial Contamination of Peaches: Implications in Their Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Patrignani, Francesca; Siroli, Lorenzo; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aim of this work was understanding the microbial transfer dynamics from packaging to packed peaches in relation to the packaging used. Method and Results: A challenge test was performed, inoculating Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on cardboards and RPC (Reusable Plastic Containers), and monitoring their cell loads on fruits according to a probabilistic model and a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in relation to several independent variables (number of fruit lesions, fruit temperature storage and commercialization time). The data recorded on packed peaches for Pseudomonas and S. cerevisiae were modeled to fit the second order model to study the main, interactive and quadratic effects of the independent variables on the cell loads of target microorganisms as well as on the shelf-life of the fruits in relation to packaging material used. The data collected for E. coli were codified as presence (1) or absence (0) and modeled with a logistic regression analysis to assess the probability of E. coli transferring from packaging to fruits in relation to the adopted variables. The data showed a higher contamination frequency of the fruits packed in plastic than in cardboard. Increasing the storage temperature and the number of lesions, the probability of transferring of E. coli from packaging materials to fruits increased, independently on commercialization time or packaging used. For Pseudomonas, the contamination levels detected on fruits packaged in plastic were significantly higher compared to those found on fruits packed in cardboard, independently on the considered variables. The polynomial equations showed the S. cerevisiae cell loads of fruits stored in plastic was positively affected by the quadratic term of temperature. Conclusions: the use of cardboard, compared to plastic, can significantly reduce the potential of microbial transferring from packaging to fruits. The probabilistic and kinetic models used showed a higher

  19. Microcrystalline-cellulose and polypropylene based composite: A simple, selective and effective material for microwavable packaging.

    PubMed

    Ummartyotin, S; Pechyen, C

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose based composite was successfully designed as active packaging with additional feature of microwavable properties. Small amount of cellulose with 10 μm in diameter was integrated into polypropylene matrix. The use of maleic anhydride was employed as coupling agent. Thermal and mechanical properties of cellulose based composite were superior depending on polypropylene matrix. Crystallization temperature and compressive strength were estimated to be 130 °C and 5.5 MPa. The crystal formation and its percentage were therefore estimated to be 50% and it can be predicted on the feasibility of microwavable packaging. Morphological properties of cellulose based composite presented the good distribution and excellent uniformity. It was remarkable to note that cellulose derived from cotton can be prepared as composite with polypropylene matrix. It can be used as packaging for microwave application. PMID:26917383

  20. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in various foodstuff packaging materials used in the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Bakeas, Evangelos; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in food packaging materials as coatings/additives for oil and moisture resistance. In the current study, foodstuff-packaging materials collected from the Greek market, made of paper, paperboard or aluminum foil were analyzed for the determination of PFCs. For the analysis of the samples, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and isotope dilution method were applied to develop a specific and sensitive method of analysis for the quantification of 12 PFCs: perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the qualitative detection of 5 more: perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perflyohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS). No PFCs were quantified in aluminum foil wrappers, baking paper materials or beverage cups. PFTrDA, PFTeDA and PFHxDA were detected in fast food boxes. In the ice cream cup sample only PFHxA was found. On the other hand, several PFCs were quantified and detected in fast food wrappers, while the highest levels of PFCs were found in the microwave popcorn bag. PFOA and PFOS were not detected in any of the samples. Compared to other studies from different countries, very low concentrations of PFCs were detected in the packaging materials analyzed. Our results suggest that probably no serious danger for consumers’ health can be associated with PFCs contamination of packaging materials used in Greece. PMID:24367824

  1. Fungal mycelium and cotton plant materials in the manufacture of biodegradable molded packaging material: Evaluation study of select blends of cotton byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary material used by the packaging industry is extruded polystyrene foam, which is commonly marketed as Styrofoam™. In its original formulation, Styrofoam™ is resistant to photolysis and effectively does not decompose. The light weight of Styrofoam™ packaging materials reduces the likelihood...

  2. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

  3. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  4. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis Originating in Fruit-Flavored Water to Packaging Materials

    PubMed Central

    Otlewska, Anna; Antolak, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6%) between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry). Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene. PMID:25295262

  5. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis and subsequent quality improvement of plastic infusion packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Z; Rófusz, T; Angyal, V; Szabó-Révész, P; Aigner, Z

    2014-08-01

    Although the opalescence of sterile transparent plastic materials utilized for the packaging of parenteral infusion drugs is a serious quality problem, most suppliers do not report the exact compositions of such polymers, and no literature data are available. Similarly, no information is available as concerns the potential incompatibility of the inner bag and the overpouch. Our gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric study revealed that the cause of the opalescence is the presence of a low-molecular-weight slip additive, 13-docosenamide (erucamide), which is transferred into the primary infusion bag from the overpouch during the heat-sterilization process. Autoclaving trials confirmed the analytical results. In view of these findings, a new slip additive-free overpouch has been produced as secondary packaging material, which does not give rise to opalescence. PMID:24863371

  6. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis originating in fruit-flavored water to packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota; Otlewska, Anna; Antolak, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6%) between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry). Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene. PMID:25295262

  7. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye

    2015-01-01

    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives. PMID:26098861

  8. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  9. Productivity Techniques and Quality Aspects in the Criticality Safety Evaluation of Y-12 Type-B Fissile Material Packages

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, J. F.

    2011-06-28

    The inventory of certified Type-B fissile material packages consists of ten performance-based packages for offsite transportation purposes, serving transportation programs at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The containment vessels range from 5 to 19 in. in diameter and from 17 to 58 in. in height. The drum assembly external to the containment vessel ranges from 18 to 34 in. in diameter and from 26 to 71 in. in height. The weight of the packaging (drum assembly and containment vessel) ranges from 239 to 1550 lb. The older DT-nn series of Cellotex-based packages are being phased-out and replaced by a new generation of Kaolite-based ('Y-12 patented insulation') packages capable of withstanding the dynamic crush test 10 CFR 71.73(c)(2). Three replacement packages are in various stages of development; two are in use. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package, which does not conform to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for Type-B packages, is no longer authorized for service on public roads. The ES-3100 shipping package is an example of a Kaolite-based Type-B fissile material package developed as a replacement package for the DOT 6M. With expanded utility, the ES-3100 is designed and licensed for transporting highly enriched uranium and plutonium materials on public roads. The ES-3100 provides added capability for air transport of up to 7-kg quantities of uranium material. This paper presents the productivity techniques and quality aspects in the criticality safety evaluation of Y-12 packages using the ES-3100 as an example.

  10. Calculation of shipboard fire conditions for radioactive materials packages with the methods of computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Shipboard fires both in the same ship hold and in an adjacent hold aboard a break-bulk cargo ship are simulated with a commercial finite-volume computational fluid mechanics code. The fire models and modeling techniques are described and discussed. Temperatures and heat fluxes to a simulated materials package are calculated and compared to experimental values. The overall accuracy of the calculations is assessed.

  11. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIALS IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    VORMELKER, PHILLIP; DAUGHERTY, W. L.

    2005-06-10

    The 9975 shipping package incorporates a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Thermal properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity) have been measured on cane fiberboard and a similar wood fiber-based product at several temperatures representing potential storage conditions. While the two products exhibit similar behavior, the measured specific heat capacity varies significantly from prior data. The current data are being developed as the basis to verify that this material remains acceptable over the extended storage time period.

  12. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm. PMID:27068491

  13. Effect of mixed antimicrobial agents and flavors in active packaging films.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Batlle, Ramón; Nerín, Cristina

    2009-09-23

    Active packaging is an emerging food technology to improve the quality and safety of food products. Many works have been developed to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Essential oils have been traditionally used as flavorings in food, so they have an important odor impact but they have as well antimicrobial properties that could be used to protect the food. Recent developments in antimicrobial active packaging showed the efficiency of essential oils versus bread and bakery products among other applications. However, one of the main problems to face is the odor and taste they could provide to the packaged food. Using some aromas to mask the odor could be a good approach. That is why the main objective of this paper is to develop an antimicrobial packaging material based on the combination of the most active compounds of essential oils (hydrocinnamaldehyde, oregano essential oil, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol) together with some aromas commonly used in the food industry. A study of the concentration required to get the antimicrobial properties, the organoleptic compatibility with typical aroma present in many food systems (vanilla, banana, and strawberry), and the right combination of both systems has been carried out. Antimicrobial tests of both the mentioned aromas, the main components of some essential oils, and the combination of both groups were carried out against bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli), yeasts (Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii), and molds (Botrytis cinerae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Eurotium repens, Penicillium islandicum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium nalgiovensis). The sensory properties of the combinations were evaluated with a triangular test and classification was by an order test; the odor threshold of the aroma compounds was also

  14. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. 10.775 Section 10.775 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and...

  15. Study on the fabricating process monitoring of thermoplastic based materials packaged OFBG and their sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Zhichun; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    As common materials or engineering materials, thermoplastic resin based materials can be used not only directly fabricating products but also FRTP(fiber reinforced thermoplastic polymer) materials for other uses. As one kind of FRTP material, GFRPP(glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) has lots of merits, such as: light weight, high strength, high tenacity, high elongation percentage, good durability, reshaping character and no environmental pollution characters. And they also can be conveniently formed hoop rebar in civil engineering. While a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG smart rod which combined GFRPP and OFBG together can be used as not only structure materials but also sensing materials. Meanwhile, PP packaged OFBG strain sensor can be expected for its low modulus, good sensitivity and good durability. Furthermore, it can be used for large strain measuring. In this paper, we have successfully fabricated a new kind of GFRPP-OFBG(Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene-Optic Fiber Bragg Grating) rod by our own thermoplastic pultrusion production line and a new kind of PP packaged OFBG strain sensor by extruding techniques. And we monitored the inner strain and temperature changes with tow OFBG simultaneously of the fabricating process. The results show that: OFBG can truly reflect the strain and temperature changes in both the GFRPP rod and the PP packaged OFBG, these are very useful to modify our processing parameters. And we also find that because of the shrinkage of PP, this new kind of PP packaged OFBG have -13000μɛ storage, and the strain sensing performance is still very well, so which can be used for large strain measuring. Besides these, GFRPP-OFBG smart rod has good sensing performance in strain sensing just like that of FRSP-OFBG rod, the strain sensitivity coefficient is about1.19pm/μɛ. Besides these, the surface of GFRPP-OFBG rods can be handled just as steel bars and also can be bended and reshaped. These are all very useful and very important for the use

  16. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    PubMed

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. PMID:24769086

  17. 2-Isopropylthioxanthone (2-ITX) in food and food packaging materials on the German market.

    PubMed

    Rothenbacher, T; Baumann, M; Fügel, D

    2007-04-01

    To elucidate the occurrence of the photo-initiator, 2-isopropylthioxanthone (2-ITX), more than 100 food products on the German market, packed in cartons, plastic cups and foils, were investigated. For this, a rapid method to detect 2-ITX in food packaging materials was established. In case of positive findings, the accompanying foodstuffs were analysed in a subsequent step using different extraction methods, depending on the fat content of the food. Determination of the photo-initiator was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD/FLD). Recoveries ranged between 94 and 106% for non-fatty (RSD packages (26%) and significant migration occurred in 75% of the packaging materials tested positive. The levels of 2-ITX ranged up to 357 microg kg(-1) in orange juice. PMID:17454118

  18. Graded approach for eastablishment of QA (quality assurance) requirements for type B packaging of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, R.R.; Woodruff, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    A study that was conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the US Congress to assess the effectiveness of quality assurance (QA) activities has demonstrated a need to modify and improve the application of QA requirements for the nuclear industry. As a result, the packaging community, along with the nuclear industry as a whole, has taken action to increase the efficacy of the QA function. The results of the study indicate that a graded approach for establishing QA requirements is the preferred method. The essence of the graded approach is the establishment of applicable QA requirements to an extent consistent with the importance to safety of an item, component, system, or activity. This paper presents the process that is used to develop the graded approach for QA requirements pertaining to Type B packaging.

  19. Composite Die-Attach Materials for High-Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Tiegs, Terry N; Johnson, R Wayne

    2006-01-01

    Devices based on SiC can potentially be used at temperature up to 600oC. However, technology is needed to package SiC devices such that they can be reliably operated at these high temperatures. Materials that are typically used in low temperature packages are not suitable for high temperature use. Also stresses from mismatched coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) increase with larger thermal cycles and so the potential for fatigue failure is greater with higher temperature operation. This paper focuses on the processing of selected composite solder joints based on Au-Sn with the potential to achieve tailored thermal expansion coefficients. Microstructure of the joints and the effect of processing on the microstructure are outlined.

  20. Biologically-Induced Micropitting of Alloy 22, a Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Material

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Horn, J

    2003-11-03

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment (or microcosm) consisting of crushed rock (tuff) from the Yucca Mountain repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years at room temperature and 30 C. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Room temperature, biotically-incubated coupons show a wide distribution of pores covering the coupon surface, while coupons incubated at 30 C show the pores restricted to polishing ridges.

  1. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  2. Are Sintered Silver Joints Ready for Use as Interconnect Material in Microelectronic Packaging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siow, Kim S.

    2014-04-01

    Silver (Ag) has been under development for use as interconnect material for power electronics packaging since the late 1980s. Despite its long development history, high thermal and electrical conductivities, and lead-free composition, sintered Ag technology has limited market penetration. This review sets out to explore what is required to make this technology more viable. This review also covers the origin of sintered Ag, the different types and application methods of sintered Ag pastes and laminates, and the long-term reliability of sintered Ag joints. Sintered Ag pastes are classified according to whether pressure is required for sintering and further classified according to their filler sizes. This review discusses the main methods of applying Ag pastes/laminates as die-attach materials and the related processing conditions. The long-term reliability of sintered Ag joints depends on the density of the sintered joint, selection of metallization or plating schemes, types of substrates, substrate roughness, formulation of Ag pastes/laminates, joint configurations (i.e., joint thicknesses and die sizes), and testing conditions. This paper identifies four challenges that must be overcome for the proliferation of sintered Ag technology: changes in materials formulation, the successful navigation of the complex patent landscape, the availability of production and inspection equipment, and the health concerns of Ag nanoparticles. This paper is expected to be useful to materials suppliers and semiconductor companies that are considering this technology for their future packages.

  3. Materials study for interfacial adhesion and reliability of microelectronics packaging structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiang

    Multilayers and interfaces are ubiquitous in microelectronics devices, interconnect and packaging structures. Because of the differential thermal expansion of the dissimilar materials, thermal excursions from manufacturing processes and component operations cause thermal stresses which often drive delamination at various interfaces. As the interface integrity becomes the major concern of performance, yield, and reliability, the need to evaluate the fracture and delamination behavior of various interfaces increases. The present work focuses on a typical flip-chip-on-board (FCOB) packaging structure. The FCOB package utilizes a particulate filled liquid epoxy (underfill) to adhere the chip to the board for improved reliability of solder interconnections. However, underfill delamination from chip and/or board is most commonly observed in premature failure of flip-chip-on-board packages. The objectives of this work are to develop experimental and analysis techniques for quantifying the underfill interface fracture resistance, to identify interface adhesion and toughening mechanisms, and to develop a methodology for the reliability assessment of the interface integrity. Series of experiments and analyses are conducted to investigate the adhesion and fracture behaviors of the underfill/silicon and underfill/board interfaces. The experimental techniques for the interface fracture experiments are developed to produce the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) sandwich specimens and to establish a reproducible testing protocol. To extract the interfacial fracture energies, a closed-form solution is developed based on a beam-on-elastic-foundation model for DCB underfill/silicon specimens. A corrected beam theory model is adopted for DCB underfill/board specimens. A two-dimensional elastoplastic finite element analysis (FEA) model is also implemented to examine effects of mode-mixity, thermal/residual stresses, and underfill plasticity. The fracture energies of underfill/silicon and

  4. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements.

  5. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  6. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles. PMID:23744114

  7. Technological substitution: the potential of plastic as primary packaging material in the US brewing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Roeleveld, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation develops a general model of technological substitution that could be of help to planners and decision makers in industry who are faced with the problems created by continual technological change. The model as presented differs from existing models in the theoretical literature because of its emphasis on analyzing current and potential technologies in an attempt to understand the underlying factors contributing to technological substitution. The general model and the cost model that is part of it belong to that step in the interactive planning cycle called the formulation of the mess. The methodology underlying the cost model is a combination of life-cycle analysis (i.e., from raw materials in nature, through all intermediate products, to waste returned to the environment) and resoumetrics, which is an engineering approach to measuring all physical inputs required to produce a certain level of output. The models are illustrated with a specific field of interest: substitution of primary packaging technologies in the US brewing industry. The physical costs of packaging beer in different containers are compared. Strategic considerations for a brewery deciding to adopt plastic packaging technology are discussed. Attention is given to another potential fruitful application of the model in the field of technology transfer to developing countries.

  8. Biodegradation of PVP-CMC hydrogel film: a useful food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Roy, Niladri; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2012-06-20

    Hydrogels can offer new opportunities for the design of efficient packaging materials with desirable properties (i.e. durability, biodegradability and mechanical strength). It is a promising and emerging concept, as most of the biopolymer based hydrogels are supposed to be biodegradable, they can be considered as alternative eco-friendly packaging materials. This article reports about synthetic (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and biopolymer (carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) based a novel hydrogel film and its nature of biodegradability under controlled environmental condition. The dry hydrogel films were prepared by solution casting method and designated as 'PVP-CMC hydrogel films'. The hydrogel film containing PVP and CMC in a ratio of 20:80 shows best mechanical properties among all the test samples (i.e. 10:90, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 and 90:10). Thus, PVP-CMC hydrogel film of 20:80 was considered as a useful food packaging material and further experiments were carried out with this particular hydrogel film. Biodegradation of the PVP-CMC hydrogel films were studied in liquid state (Czapec-Dox liquid medium+soil extracts) until 8 weeks. Variation in mechanical, viscoelastic properties and weight loss of the hydrogel films with time provide the direct evidence of biodegradation of the hydrogels. About 38% weight loss was observed within 8 weeks. FTIR spectra of the hydrogel films (before and after biodegradation) show shifts of the peaks and also change in the peak intensities, which refer to the physico-chemical change in the hydrogel structure and SEM views of the hydrogels show how internal structure of the PVP-CMC film changes in the course of biodegradation. PMID:24750729

  9. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  10. Antimicrobial effectiveness of bioactive packaging materials from edible chitosan and casein polymers: assessment on carrot, cheese, and salami.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Maria del Rosario; Pereda, Mariana; Marcovich, Norma E; Roura, Sara I

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the intrinsic antimicrobial properties of chitosan (CH) were combined with the excellent thermoplastic and film-forming properties of sodium caseinate (SC) to prepare SC/CH film-forming solutions and films. The antimicrobial effectiveness of SC, CH, and SC/CH coatings on the native microfloras of cheese, salami, and carrots was evaluated. In vitro assays through the test tube assay indicated that the most significant antimicrobial effect was achieved by CH and SC/CH solutions on carrot and cheese native microfloras. SC film-forming solutions did not exert antimicrobial activity on any of the native microflora studied. SC, CH, and SC/CH films stored in controlled environments showed that the retention of the antimicrobial action was observed until 5-d storage, at 65% relative humidity in both temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C). In vivo assays were also performed with SC, CH, and SC/CH applied as coatings or wrappers on the 3 food substrates. CH and SC/CH applied at both immersion and wrapper exerted a significant bactericidal action on mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and yeasts and molds counts, showing the 3 microbial populations analyzed a significant reduction (2.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g). An improvement of the bactericidal properties of the CH/SC blend respect to those of the neat CH film is reported. The ionic interaction between both macromolecules enhances its antimicrobial properties. Practical Application: The continuous consumer interest in high quality and food safety, combined with environmental concerns has stimulated the development and study of biodegradable coatings that avoid the use of synthetic materials. Among them, edible coatings, obtained from generally recognized as safe (GRAS) materials, have the potential to reduce weight loss, respiration rate, and improve food appearance and integrity. They can be used in

  11. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on properties of monolayer and multilayer flexible food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riganakos, K. A.; Koller, W. D.; Ehlermann, D. A. E.; Bauer, B.; Kontominas, M. G.

    1999-05-01

    Volatile compounds produced in flexible food packaging materials (LDPE, EVAc, PET/PE/EVOH/PE) during electron beam irradiation were isolated by purge and trap technique and identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), after thermal desorption and concentration. For comparison purposes non-irradiated films were also studied. Film samples were irradiated at low (5 kGy, corresponding to cold pasteurization), intermediate (20 kGy, corresponding to cold sterilization) and high (100 kGy) doses. It was observed that a number of volatile compounds are produced after irradiation in all cases. Furthermore the amounts of all volatile compounds increase with increasing irradiation dose. Both primary (methyl-derivatives etc.) as well as secondary i.e. oxidation products (ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, carboxylic acids etc.) are produced upon irradiation. These products may affect organoleptic properties and thus shelf-life of prepackaged irradiated foods. No significant changes were observed in the structure of polymer matrices as exhibited by IR spectra after irradiation of the materials at doses tested. Likewise, no significant changes were observed in O 2, H 2O and CO 2 permeability values of plastic packaging materials after irradiation.

  13. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg−1, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  14. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Peterson, Leroy L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  15. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material, including forming the extrusion die

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1981-11-30

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  16. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section 173.245 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  17. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section 173.245 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 49 CFR 173.245 - Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk packaging for extremely hazardous materials such as poisonous gases (Division 2.3). 173.245 Section 173.245 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  19. Study of silicone-based materials for the packaging of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yeong-Her

    The first part of this work is to evaluate the main materials used for the packaging of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), i.e., the die attach materials, the encapsulant materials, and high color rendering index(CRI) sol-gel composite materials. All of these materials had been discussed the performance, reliability, and issues in high power LED packages. High power white LEDs are created either from blue or near-ultraviolet chips encapsulated with a yellow phosphor, or from red-green-blue LED light mixing systems. The phosphor excited by blue LED chip was mostly used in experiment of this dissertation. The die attach materials contains filler particles possessing a maximum particle size less than 1.5 mum in diameter blended with epoxy polymer matrix. Such compositions enable thin bond line thickness, which decreases thermal resistance that exists between thermal interface materials and the corresponding mating surfaces. The thermal conductivity of nano silver die attach materials is relatively low, the thermal resistance from the junction to board is just 1.6 KW-1 in the bond line thickness of 5.3 mum, which is much lower than the thermal resistance using conventional die attach materials. The silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab cures through the free radical reaction of epoxy-functional organopolysiloxane and through the hydrosilylation reaction between alkenyl-functional organopolysiloxane and silicone-boned hydrogen-functional organopolysiloxane. By the combination of the free radical reaction and the hydrosilylation reaction, the low-molecular-weight silicone oil will not be out-migrated and not contaminate wire bondability to the LED chip and lead frame. Hence, the silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab can pass all reliability tests, such as operating life test JEDEC 85°C/85RH and room temperature operating life test. For LED encapsulating materials, most of commercial silicone encapsulants still suffer thermal/radiation induced

  20. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curits, P.C.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90{degrees}C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron- absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. the stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on it chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high- chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. the results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  1. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Curtis, P.G.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel- and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron-absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. The stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on its chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high-chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. The results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility.

  2. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  3. Physico-chemical behaviour of β irradiated plastic materials currently used as packagings and medical products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoubi, N.; Baillet, A.; Pellerin, F.; Ferrier, D.

    1995-11-01

    The combined chromatographic technics and thermal analysis constitute an informative methodology for studying the modifications which could occur following a radiotreatment of plastic material at different doses (25 to 100 kGy). Several plastic materials used as packagings (PVC, PE, PS) were investigated. SEC method coupled with UV and DDL detections was applied to document any changes in molecular weight distribution. Reticulation and scission were the main observed degradation phenomena. These structural modifications were supported by TGA data, while the DSC provided information on modifications in crystallinity. In addition, RP-HPLC was carried out for the evaluation of the radiochemical behaviour of the additives and monomers. Firstly we demonstrated the degradation of high molecular weight phenolic antioxidants in BHT within the PEVA. Secondly, the modifications of amino 6 caproic acid and ɛ caprolactam, present in polyamid 6, depend on the irradiation doses.

  4. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 15

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  5. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N.; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  6. Determination of activation energy of pyrolysis of carton packaging wastes and its pure components using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Larissa M; Xavier, Thiago P; Barrozo, Marcos Antonio S; Bacelos, Marcelo S; Lira, Taisa S

    2016-07-01

    Many processes have been used for recycling of carton packaging wastes. The pyrolysis highlights as a promising technology to be used for recovering the aluminum from polyethylene and generating products with high heating value. In this paper, a study on pyrolysis reactions of carton packaging wastes and its pure components was performed in order to estimate the kinetic parameters of these reactions. For this, dynamic thermogravimetric analyses were carried out and two different kinds of kinetic models were used: the isoconversional and Independent Parallel Reactions. Isoconversional models allowed to calculate the overall activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction, in according to their conversions. The IPR model, in turn, allowed the calculation of kinetic parameters of each one of the carton packaging and paperboard subcomponents. The carton packaging pyrolysis follows three separated stages of devolatilization. The first step is moisture loss. The second stage is perfectly correlated to devolatilization of cardboard. The third step is correlated to devolatilization of polyethylene. PMID:27156364

  7. Use of activated carbon inside modified atmosphere packages to maintain tomato fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bailén, Gloria; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo

    2006-03-22

    Ethylene triggers the ripening process of tomato affecting the storage durability and shelf life (loss of quality) and inducing fruit decay. In this paper, an active packaging has been developed on the basis of the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the addition of granular-activated carbon (GAC) alone or impregnated with palladium as a catalyst (GAC-Pd). A steady-state atmosphere was 4 and 10 kPa for O2 and CO2 in control packages, while it was 8 and 7 kPa for O2 and CO2 in treated ones. The addition of GAC-Pd led to the lower ethylene accumulation inside packages, while the higher was obtained in controls. The parameters related to ripening showed that treated tomatoes exhibited a reduction in color evolution, softening, and weight loss, especially for GAC-Pd treatment. Moreover, these treatments were also effective in delaying tomato decay. After sensorial panel, tomatoes treated with GAC-Pd received the higher scores in terms of sweetness, firmness, juiciness, color, odor, and flavor. Results from the GC-MS analysis of the MAP headspace showed that 23 volatile compounds were identified in control packages, with these volatiles being significantly reduced in MAP-treated packages, which was correlated to the odor intensity detected by panelists after bag opening. PMID:16536601

  8. Use of component analyses to identify active variables in treatment packages for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, L J; Wacker, D P; McComas, J J; Brown, K; Peck, S M; Richman, D; Drew, J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the separate components in treatment packages for food refusal of 4 young children. First, treatment packages were implemented until food acceptance improved. Next, a component analysis was conducted within a multielement or reversal design to identify the active components that facilitated food acceptance. The results indicated that escape extinction was always identified as an active variable when assessed; however, other variables, including positive reinforcement and noncontingent play, were also identified as active variables for 2 of the children. The results suggest that the component analysis was useful for identifying variables that affected food acceptance. PMID:7601802

  9. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  10. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  11. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopy Analysis of Aged EVOH films with Application to Deterioration of Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Timothy

    2007-06-01

    Samples of EVOH films from compositions of 29 - 44 mol% ethylene content were exposed to thermal aging with and without light exposure. The results of Dielectric Spectroscopy on select samples showed Cole-Cole plots of skewed dielectric constant indicating multiple distributions of dipole relaxation times. The onset for decreases in dielectric response occurs earlier in samples exposed to elevated temperature under light exposure. Lower permittivity is exhibited in samples of higher ethylene content. Results from heat exposed samples are presented. Colorimetric analysis indicates only a slight film yellowing in one case. Raman spectroscopy on untreated films discerns changes in the C-C-O stretch associated with the alcohol. The effects of aging on microstructure may cause hindrance of molecular motion from moisture desorption. Slight material degradation occurs from film hardening presumably due to crosslinking. An electrical circuit model of the conduction processes associated with the EVOH films is presented. Dielectric analysis shows promise for monitoring material changes related to deterioration. We are also using these methods to understand Fluorescence Imaging which has been recently released for paper and plastic materials analysis. Future work may include refinement of these techniques for identification of changes in material properties correlated to packaging material barrier resistance.

  13. Effect of active packaging on low-sodium restructured chicken steaks.

    PubMed

    Cestari, L A; Gaiotto, R C; Antigo, J L; Scapim, M R S; Madrona, G S; Yamashita, F; Pozza, M S S; Prado, I N

    2015-06-01

    Contributing for a healthier lifestyle, the technology of active and biodegradable packaging with antimicrobial and/or antioxidants compounds and reduced sodium intake have been increasingly applied in meat and meat products. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of oregano essential oil (OEO) and potassium sorbate incorporated in packaging applied to the restructured chicken steaks with 40 % reduction in sodium chloride in frozen storage for 150 days. The composition of packaging did not influence moisture, crude protein, total lipids, ash, sodium and potassium content as well as pH evaluated on days 0 and 150. Salty taste was the only significant indication in the sensory analysis (p < 0.05). The use of 1 % and 0.5 % OEO incorporated in packaging reduced rancidity through lipid oxidation and can be regarded as an active antioxidant; the use of oregano or potassium sorbate in active films caused the development delay effect E. coli. Thus, the use of active packaging may maintain the product quality. PMID:26028718

  14. Active material based active sealing technology: Part 1. Active seal requirements vs. active material actuator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher P.; Carter, William; Herrera, Guillermo A.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Bazzi, Imad F.

    2010-04-01

    Current seals used for vehicle closures/swing panels are essentially flexible, frequently hollow structures whose designs are constrained by numerous requirements, many of them competing, including door closing effort (both air bind and seal compression), sound isolation, prevention of water leaks, and accommodation of variations in vehicle build. This paper documents the first portion of a collaborative research study/exploration of the feasibility of and approaches for using active materials with shape and stiffness changing attributes to produce active seal technologies, seals with improved performance. An important design advantage of an active material approach compared to previous active seal technologies is the distribution of active material regions throughout the seal length, which would enable continued active function even with localized failure. Included as a major focus of this study was the assessment of polymeric active materials because of their potential ease of integration into the current seal manufacturing process. In Part 1 of this study, which is documented in this paper, potential materials were evaluated in terms of their cost, activation mechanisms, and mechanical and actuation properties. Based on these properties, simple designs were proposed and utilized to help determine which materials are best suited for active seals. Shape memory alloys (SMA) and electroactive polymers (EAP) were judged to be the most promising.

  15. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  16. Fast and simple determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Bilbao, D; Etxebarria, N; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-05-15

    A simple and fast analytical method for the determination of fourteen perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and ten potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs) in different packaging materials was developed in the present work. In order to achieve this objective the optimization of an ultrasonic probe-assisted extraction (UPAE) method was carried out before the analysis of the target compounds by liquid-chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS). 7 mL of 1 % acetic acid in methanol and a 2.5-min single extraction cycle were sufficient for the extraction of all the target analytes. The optimized analytical method was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values after correction with the corresponding labeled standard were in the 69-103 % and 62-98 % range for samples fortified at 25 ng/g and 50 ng/g concentration levels, respectively and MDL values in the 0.6-2.2 ng/g range were obtained. The developed method was applied to the analysis of plastic (milk bottle, muffin cup, pre-cooked food wrapper and cup of coffee) and cardboard materials (microwave popcorn bag, greaseproof paper for French fries, cardboard box for pizza and cinema cardboard box for popcorn). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that describes the determination of fourteen PFCs and ten potential precursors in packaging materials. Moreover, 6:2 FTCA, 6:2 FTUCA and 5:3 FTCA analytes were detected for the first time in microwave popcorn bags. PMID:26992531

  17. A Thermodynamics Course Package in Onenote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.; Medlin, J. Will; deGrazia, Janet; McDanel, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    A ready-to-use package of active-learning materials for a semester-long chemical engineering thermodynamics course was prepared for instructors, and similar materials are being prepared for a material and energy balance course. The course package includes ConcepTests, explanations of the ConcepTests for instructors, links to screencasts, chapter…

  18. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  19. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  20. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  1. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  2. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  3. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and... Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand accident conditions in transportation. Each Type B... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  5. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  6. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  7. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. EFFECT OF IMPACT LIMITER MATERIAL DEGRATION ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF 9975 PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO TWO FORKLIFT TRUCK IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2007-07-09

    This paper evaluates the effect of the impact limiter material degradation on the structural integrity of the 9975 package containment vessel during a postulated accident event of forklift truck collision. The analytical results show that the primary and secondary containment vessels remain structurally intact for Celotex material degraded to 20% of the baseline value.

  10. Migrants determination and bioaccessibility study of ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) from a LAE based antimicrobial food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; Gómez-Estaca, J; Vélez, D; Devesa, V; Nerín, C

    2013-06-01

    Ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE, ethyl-N-dodecanoyl-L-arginate hydrochloride) is a strong antimicrobial agent that was included as an active compound in an antimicrobial food packaging material. The potential existence of non-intentionally added substances (NIASs) such as impurities must therefore be checked before launching any food contact material onto the market. For this reason, an untargeted analysis of the migration was performed in both food simulants and fresh chicken breast fillets wrapped with the active material. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection with a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer, LC-MS(QTOF), for the identification of nonvolatile substances. The migration values found for LAE were 0.94±0.14 and 1.62±0.70 μg/g in ethanol 10% v/v (simulant A) and in ethanol 95% v/v (simulant D), respectively, and 0.93±0.17 μg/g in chicken. Other migrants such as dipropylene glycol methyl ether or tributyl-o-acetylcitrate, both coming from the coating were also found, but none of them have potential adverse effects. Bioaccessibility studies showed that after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, LAE was not available anymore for subsequent intestinal absorption and new toxic compounds were not formed. PMID:23485618

  11. Experimental measurement of a shipboard fire environment with simulated radioactive materials packages

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Beene, D.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. The calorimeters were both located adjacent to the fires and on the opposite side of the cargo hold bulkhead nearest the fire. The calorimeters were constructed from 1.5 m length sections of nominal 2 foot diameter schedule 60 steel pipe. Type K thermocouples were attached at 12 locations on the circumference and ends of the calorimeter. Fire heat fluxes to the calorimeter surfaces were estimated with the use of the Sandia SODDIT inverse heat conduction code. Experimental results from all types of tests are discussed, and some comparisons are made between the environments found on the ship and those found in land-based pool fire tests.

  12. The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Energy and materials use in the production and recycling of consumer-goods packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1981-02-01

    A comparison is made of the energy consumed annually in the United States to produce paper, glass, steel, aluminum, and plastic for consumer-goods packaging and types of energy used for production are examined. Energy saved through recycling and combustion for energy recovery also is considered. A maximum of 1.5 quad could be saved if this packaging material were recycled, and about 0.6 quad could be recovered if it were burned as part of municipal solid waste. Paper and plastic compete in several markets, including bags and milk containers: in almost all cases, the plastic container requires less energy to produce and recycle. However, the major energy input to paper manufacture is wood, rather than oil and natural gas. Glass bottles require less energy to produce than aluminum or steel cans. On the other hand, aluminum cans take less energy to recycle than bottles, and recycled aluminum cans are the least energy intensive of the single-serving beverage containers, except for refillable glass bottles that are reused several times. For family-sized beverage bottles, a plastic bottle uses less energy to make and to recycle than a glass bottle. In addition, plastic bottles are combustible. However, glass bottles could be made with no oil or natural gas input, and they can be reused.

  14. Development of complementary HPLC-DAD/APCI MS methods for chemical characterization of pharmaceutical packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Petruševski, V; Jolevska, S T; Ribarska, J T; Chachorovska, M; Petkovska, A; Ugarković, S

    2016-05-30

    The chemical characterization of plastics for pharmaceutical packaging has been subject to ever increasing regulatory scrutiny, the reasons for which being: a) plastic additives and degradation products can be extremely hazardous to the patients' health (especially patients on chronic therapy) and b) they offer no therapeutic or formulatory benefit whatsoever. The last decade has seen the issuing of several books, monographs and guidelines dealing with extractables and leachables, however the amount of scientific work done so far is still fairly small (the majority of it performed by only a few research groups), with only a small number of methods published in the literature. This work focuses on developing a set of two complementary HPLC-DAD/APCI MS methods for simultaneous separation, detection, identification and quantification of a wide variety of packaging additives and degradants, the second method specifically targeting a group of compounds known as polymeric hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS), which are known to be notoriously difficult to separate and analyze with standard analytical techniques. The methods are capable of detecting plastic additives present in low ppb concentrations, from samples extracted in solvents with various polarities and pH values. Both methods were developed and optimized using system suitability mixtures comprised of 9 additives commonly encountered in plastic materials, and their practical applicability tested on a variety of extracts from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP), where several additives were successfully separated, detected and identified. PMID:26966896

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE BLANTON CLAMSHELL CLOSUREFOR USE ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P

    2007-10-18

    This paper provides a brief history of the U.S. Type B 6M specification container, its introduction into U.S. Code of federal regulations and its scheduled elimination three decades later. The paper also presents development, testing and deployment by the Department of Energy (DOE) of an enhanced drum closure called the 'Blanton Clamshell' (patent pending) that was designed to replace the standard open-head C-ring closure for the 55- and 85-gallon drums described in the 6M specification to extend their safe use. Nuclear Filter Technology has the Exclusive License for Clamshell production. Drum packages utilizing the standard C-ring closure have been a main-stay for over a half of a century in the national and international nuclear industry for shipping radioactive materials and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Drum package use in the U.S. increased heavily in the 1950's with development of the Weapons Complex and subsequently the commercial nuclear reactor industry.

  16. Production and Characterization of Active Transparent PET Films for Oxygen Sensitive Foods Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaria Galdi, Maria; Incarnato, Loredana

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate possible solutions to realize active, transparent PET film suitable for packaging oxygen sensitive foods. At this purpose, monolayer active PET films at different oxygen scavenger concentrations and multilayer active ones were produced by cast extrusion laboratory scale equipments. To assess their activity and to verify the efficacy of such solutions, O2 absorption analyses were carried out in continuous by an innovative oxygen meter.

  17. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-10-01

    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems. PMID:26396360

  18. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

  19. Measurement of gas permeation through packaging materials of OLED by mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongliang; Li, Junjian; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Jianxiang

    2010-10-01

    Mass spectrometry method was introduced to measure the gas permeability of OLED packaging materials in this paper. Mass spectrum measuring gas permeability of barrier material have the characteristics of quick measure speed, may measuring any gas permeability, and high sensitivity. The penetration rates and the permeability coefficient of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide permeating the encapsulation materials of OLED such as PET plastic film, UV curable adhesive and vacuum sealing wax film have been measured by using the mass spectrometry. The results of experiments show that the permeability coefficient of water vapor through a PET plastic film is 1.8×10-6 cm2/s, and of water vapor through UV curable adhesive is 1.2×10-6 cm2/s at temperature of 80 °C and relative humidity of 68 %. The water permeability coefficient of vacuum sealing wax at 50 °C and 92 %RH is 1.4×10-7 g/m2day. The water permeability of vacuum sealing wax decreases an order of magnitude than that of UV curable adhesive, So Vacuum sealing wax is suitable for the seal material in the packing of OLED than UV curable adhesive.

  20. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  1. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements.

  2. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-07-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact.

  3. Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasmas Applied to Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrow, Patrick; Fernandez, Sulmer; Pitts, Marvin

    2008-10-01

    Active packaging of fruits and vegetables uses films that absorb molecules from or contribute molecules to the produce. Applying uniform film to specific parts of a plant will enhance safe and economic adoption of expensive biofilms and biochemicals which would damage the plant or surrounding environment if misapplied. The pilot application will be to apply wax film to apples, replacing hot wax which is expensive and lowers the textural quality of the apple. The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (Argon + monomer) is sufficiently high to yield electron avalanches. The ``corona onset criterion'' is used to design the cold plasma reactor. The apple will be placed in a treatment chamber downstream from the activation zone. Key physical properties of the film will be measured. The deposition rate will be optimized in terms of economics and fruit surface quality for the purpose of determining if the technique is competitive in food processing plants.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles for carboxymethylcellulose film applications in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Maria C; Coelho, Gustavo F; de Moura, Márcia R; Bresolin, Joana D; Hubinger, Silviane Z; Marconcini, José M; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-07-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were prepared and incorporated into carboxymethylcellulose films to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications. The techniques carried out for material characterization were: infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis for the silver nanoparticles and films, as well as particle size distribution for the nanoparticles and water vapor permeability for the films. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by casting method was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the silver nanoparticles to test Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms was carried out by the serial dilution technique, tested in triplicate to confirm the concentration used. The results were developed using the Mcfarland scale which indicates that the presence or absence of turbidity tube demonstrates the inhibition of bacteria in relation to the substance inoculated. It was found that the silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of the tested microorganisms. The carboxymethylcellulose film embedded with silver nanoparticles showed the best antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive (E. faecalis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria (0.1 microg cm(-3)). PMID:24758059

  5. An environmentally friendly method for the determination of pentachlorophenol in paper packaging materials using ultrasonic-assisted micellar extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Li, Zhonghao; Bian, Zhaoyang; Wang, Ying; Fan, Ziyan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted micellar extraction coupled with high-pressure liquid chromatography has been developed for the determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in paper packaging materials. A non-ionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), was used for ultrasonic extraction and the method was applied to different paper packaging materials under optimized conditions. The recoveries for spiked samples were 83-90.1% and relative standard deviations were <5.0%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for PCP were 0.9 and 2.0 µg/g, respectively. Results confirmed that this relatively simple procedure proved satisfactory for the determination of PCP in paper packaging materials. PMID:26136274

  6. FIFTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.

    2014-04-15

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Additional samples will be added to each aging environment, to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Two additional softwood fiberboard source packages have been obtained and will begin to provide data on the range of variability of this material.

  7. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  8. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  9. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

    1986-09-30

    This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

  10. Electrophysiological and behavioral activity of (E)-2-hexenal in the granary weevil and its application in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Germinara, G S; Conte, A; De Cristofaro, A; Lecce, L; Di Palma, A; Rotundo, G; Del Nobile, M A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a biodegradable carrier material to control insect pests in cereal products. To this aim, (E)-2-hexenal was used, being a natural compound with antimicrobial activity that is also commonly adopted as a flavoring agent. Three coating layers of polycaprolactone (PCL) were spread onto the internal side of a paperboard carton, the first being the active coating containing (E)-2-hexenal. The antennal sensitivity of Sitophilus granarius to a broad range of doses of (E)-2-hexenal was first demonstrated. Next, the ability of different concentrations of this compound to disrupt the orientation of adult S. granarius beetles to odors of intact wheat kernels was established in a two-choice pitfall bioassay. In addition, invasion tests were carried out over an 8-week period to highlight the effects of the biobased repellent packaging and their potential persistence. The results demonstrated that during the entire monitoring period, the percentage of S. granarius adults found in cartons coated with (E)-2-hexenal-loaded multilayer PCL was about 10 % of the total number of insects used in the bioassay, very low compared with the respective control samples, thus assessing both the effectiveness and persistence of the repellent system developed. Although the infestation level of treated packages was reduced relative to the infestation levels in the controls, any infestation of food packages is unacceptable to consumers, so further tests are required to determine whether infestation can be completely prevented using (E)-2-hexenal. PMID:22289599

  11. Iron chelating active packaging: Influence of competing ions and pH value on effectiveness of soluble and immobilized hydroxamate chelators.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Yoshiko; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-04-01

    Many packaged foods utilize synthetic chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) to inhibit iron-promoted oxidation or microbial growth which would result in quality loss. To address consumer demands for all natural products, we have previously developed a non-migratory iron chelating active packaging material by covalent immobilization of polyhydroxamate and demonstrated its efficacy in delaying lipid oxidation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of this hydroxamate-functionalized iron chelating active packaging to retain iron chelating capacity; even in the presence of competing ions common in food. Both immobilized and soluble hydroxamate chelators retained iron chelating capacity in the presence of calcium, magnesium, and sodium competing ions, although at pH 5.0 the presence of calcium reduced immobilized hydroxamate iron chelation. A strong correlation was found between colorimetric and mass spectral analysis of iron chelation by the chelating packaging material. Such chelating active packaging may support reducing additive use in product formulations, while retaining quality and shelf life. PMID:26593563

  12. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 5, 6, and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These three units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover the physical and chemical properties of water, dehydration of crystals, solutions, acidity, strong and weak bases, neutral properties of salts, amorphous forms of carbon, hydrocarbons, and petroleum products. Each unit contains a…

  13. Decision Making. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Combs, Paul William

    This learning activity package (LAP) on decision making is designed for student self-study. It is intended to help students clarify their values as well as lead them through the steps of making a decision. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the end of the LAP). Ten learning activities…

  14. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

  15. Using the Metric System in Health Careers. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on using the metric system. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, an additional resources list, a word game (handout), and student completion cards to issue to…

  16. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover measuring techniques, operations of instruments, metric system heat, matter, energy, elements, atomic numbers, isotopes, molecules, mixtures, compounds, physical and chemical properties, liquids, solids, and gases. Each unit contains…

  17. Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Machado, Ana Vera; Costa, Helena S

    2014-01-01

    The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to its unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimise food loss and minimise contaminants from industrial production and reutilisation by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed. PMID:24405324

  18. Mountain-Plains Master Course List. Curriculum Areas: Job Titles: Learning Activity Packages: Courses: Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document contains a master listing of all Mountain-Plains curriculum, compiled by job title, course, unit and LAP (Learning Activity Package), and arranged in numerical order by curriculum area. Preceding each curriculum area is a page of explanatory notes describing the curriculum area and including relevant job descriptions. Where a job…

  19. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 103-104, LAPs 23-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    This set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in intermediate algebra covers number systems; exponents and radicals; polynomials and factoring; rational expressions; coordinate geometry; relations, functions, and inequalities; quadratic equations and inequalities; Quadratic functions; systems of equations and inequalities;…

  20. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to time, space, and matter are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Besides the unit on introduction to individualized learning, 11 major topics are incorporated into three other units: (1) observation of the physical world, (2) space and exploration for environmental…

  1. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 93-94, LAPs 12-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, operations over real numbers, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities, equations and inequalities with two variables, solution sets of equations with two variables, exponents, factoring and…

  2. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 8, 9, 10, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover nuclear reactions, alpha and beta particles, atomic radiation, medical use of nuclear energy, fission, fusion, simple machines, Newton's laws of motion, electricity, currents, electromagnetism, Oersted's experiment, sound, light,…

  3. Learning Activity Package, U.S. History 111, LAPs 7 Through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldreth, Todd

    A set of six teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following units: Colonial Growth; The American Revolution; A New Nation and The Constitution; The Civil War; Exploration, Inventions, and Transportation; and World War I, World War II and the…

  4. Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

    2002-06-01

    Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES&H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial! Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing ''lessons

  5. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable active PLA film for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Avallone, E.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on the preparation and characterization of a biodegradable active PLA film (aPLA), intended for food packaging applications. The film was obtained by cast extrusion blending a commercial PLA matrix with an active system, developed in our laboratory and based on PLA microparticles containing a-tocopherol (aTCP) as natural antioxidant agent. In order to optimize the film composition and processing, the active microparticles were preliminarily characterized with the aim to evaluate their morphology (size and shape), thermal resistance and a-tocopherol content. The aPLA film, produced with a 5wt% of aTCP, was characterized in terms of performance and activity. The experimental results demonstrated that the aPLA film has mechanical, thermal, barrier and optical properties adequate for packaging applications and shows oxygen scavenging activity and prolonged exhaustion lag time, compared to pure PLA films.

  6. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  7. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adrados, A.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of materials in the pyrolysis of real plastic waste samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic compounds remain unaltered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components give rise to an increase in char formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components promote the production of aqueous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components increase CO and CO{sub 2} contents in the gases. - Abstract: In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor, swept with 1 L min{sup -1} N{sub 2}, at 500 Degree-Sign C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg{sup -1}). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}; their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg{sup -1}. The amount of CO-CO{sub 2} increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  8. FOURTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-03-05

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAMS environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  9. Mechanical and optical characterization of bio-nanocomposite from pineapple leaf fiber material for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikmatin, Siti; Rudwiyanti, Jerry R.; Prasetyo, Kurnia W.; Yedi, Dwi A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of Bio-nanocomposite material that was derived from pineapple leaf fiber as filler and tapioca starch with plasticizer glycerol as a matrix for food packaging can reduce the use of plastic that usually was made from petroleum materials. It is important to develop and producethis environmental friendly plastic because of limited availability of petroleum nowadays. The process of synthesize and characterization tapioca starch with the plasticizer glycerol bionanocomposites using print method had been conducted. There were 3 samples with different filler concentration variation; 3%, 4% and 5%.The results of mechanical test from each sample showed that bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration was the optimum sample with 4.6320 MPa for tensile strength test and 24.87% for the elongation test. Based on the result of optical test for each sample was gained that along with the increasing of concentration filler would make the absorbance value of the sample became decreased, bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration had several peaks with low absorbance values. The first peak was in 253 nm of wavelength regionwith absorbance of 0.131%, and the second peak was in 343 nmwavelength region and absorbance was 0.087%.

  10. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  11. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  12. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  13. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  14. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  15. 49 CFR 175.706 - Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Separation distances for undeveloped film from... Classification of Material § 175.706 Separation distances for undeveloped film from packages containing Class 7... film. Transport index Minimum separation distance to nearest undeveloped film for various times...

  16. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  17. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  18. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  19. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  20. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  1. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  2. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  3. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  5. 21 CFR 178.3130 - Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antistatic and/or anti-fogging agents in food-packaging materials. 178.3130 Section 178.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND...

  6. Effect of chlorine dioxide gas on physical, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of p[olymeric packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the first part of our study we determined permeability, diffusion, and solubility coefficients of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) through the following packaging material: biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP); polyethylene terephthalate (PET); poly lactic acid (PLA); multilayer structure of ethy...

  7. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  8. 77 FR 36017 - Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Packaging Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material'' which was issued in March 2012 and announced in the Federal Register (77 FR 18871; March 28, 2012). ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC....7 was finalized in March 2012 and announced in the Federal Register (77 FR 18871; March 28,...

  9. [Determination of the migration of seven photoinitiators in food packaging materials into aqueous solvent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengyan; Huang, Enjie; Chen, Yanjie

    2012-12-01

    The quantity of photoinitiators (PIs) migrated into hydrosoluble foods from packaging materials is usually very small. It is hardly detectable by using the current methods. For this reason, the article describes a new effective method for detecting the migration of PIs. In this method, the migration experiment was done in aqueous food simulation. After the PIs in printing inks used in food contact materials were extracted from the solution via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) using 65 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB)-coated fiber, their migration amounts were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The PIs determined by SPME/GC-MS were benzophenone (BP), 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-phenylketone (CPK), ethyl-4-dimethyl-aminobenzoate (EDMAB), 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP), 2, 2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (2,2-DMPA), methyl 2-benzoylbenzoate (OMBB) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethyl-aminobenzoate (EHDAB). The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.0012 and 0.0069 microg/L. The linearity ranged from 0.03 to 1.0 microg/L (r2 > 0.9909). The recoveries were in the range from 70.8% to 112.0% (n = 3) with the relative standard deviations no more than 14.0%. Twenty samples were tested by using this developed method. The analytical results showed that BP was detected in all samples, and the migration amounts of BP were from 0.002 to 0.074 microg/dm2; 4-MBP was detected in ten samples, and the migration amounts of 4-MBP were from 0.006 to 0.019 microg/dm2; CPK was detected in three samples, and its amounts were 0.005, 0.005, 0.007 microg/dm2; 2,2-DMPA was detected as 0.009 microg/dm2 in one sample. The determination of real samples showed this method is feasible. The method is sensitive, simple and free from organic solvents. It could make reference to migrating determination of PIs in printing inks on food packaging surface. PMID:23593879

  10. Single-mode array optoelectronic packaging based on actively aligned planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Robert F.; Silva, Edward R.; Knapp, Daniel F.

    1996-03-01

    Packaging of integrated optoelectronic devices (e.g., laser diode arrays and OEICs) is motivated by potential cost savings and the increased functionality of more highly integrated devices. To date, attempts to package integrated optoelectronic devices with arrays of single- mode fibers have tended to exhibit high optical losses. We have developed a single-mode array packaging process based on the use of an intermediate silica-on-silicon planar optical waveguides (POWs) assembly to which optical fibers are attached using V-grooves. By lensing the POWs, we have achieved coupling efficiencies of greater than 50%. The photolithographic registration of the POWs allows a large (greater than or equal to 8) array of POWs with attached fibers to be aligned to an array of optoelectronic devices in a single active alignment procedure. This single active alignment step is well-suited to automation, and our approach is thus well-suited to achieving low cost in a manufacturing environment. We also discuss our positioning and mounting techniques, which provide high-stability coupling in adverse temperature and vibration environments and are compatible with hermetic packaging.

  11. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  12. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  13. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  14. Migration studies to assess the safety in use of a new antioxidant active packaging.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Laura; Salafranca, Jesús; Sánchez, Cristina; Nerín, Cristina

    2005-06-29

    Both specific and overall migration tests have been applied to new experimental food packaging-active plastic films with antioxidant properties, including in its composition a natural rosemary extract. Determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds migrating from plastic to the four established simulants showed that both specific and overall migration was very low. The results obtained gave values 20 times lower than the established limits in the worst case. So, from the point of view of health risk, the new active packaging can be considered as safe. Analytical procedure used provided the necessary information about the migration behavior, with good analytical characteristics and detection limits in the sub mug kg(-1) range. Besides, no significant difference was found between laboratory and factory-made samples, which is an important issue for industrial production, the next step in the development of the new antioxidant active film. PMID:15969507

  15. Corrosion and environmental-mechanical characterization of iron-base nuclear waste package structural barrier materials. Annual report, FY 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, R.E.; Haberman, J.H.; Pitman, S.G.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Sigalla, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories may require the development of waste packages that will keep the radioisotopes contained for up to 1000 y. A number of iron-base materials are being considered for the structural barrier members of waste packages. Their uniform and nonuniform (pitting and intergranular) corrosion behavior and their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in aqueous environments relevant to salt media are under study at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of the work is to provide data for a materials degradation model that can ultimately be used to predict the effective lifetime of a waste package overpack in the actual repository environment. The corrosion behavior of the candidate materials was investigated in simulated intrusion brine (essentially NaCl) in flowing autoclave tests at 150/sup 0/C, and in combinations of intrusion/inclusion (high-Mg) brine environments in moist salt tests, also at 150/sup 0/C. Studies utilizing a /sup 60/Co irradiation facility were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the candidate materials to products of brine radiolysis at dose rates of 2 x 10/sup 3/ and 1 x 10/sup 5/ rad/h and a temperature of 150/sup 0/C. These irradiation-corrosion tests were ''overtests,'' as the irradiation intensities employed were 10 to 1000 times as high as those expected at the surface of a thick-walled waste package. With the exception of the high general corrosion rates found in the tests using moist salt containing high-Mg brines, the ferrous materials exhibited a degree of corrosion resistance that indicates a potentially satisfactory application to waste package structural barrier members in a salt repository environment.

  16. 49 CFR 175.88 - Inspection, orientation and securing packages of hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, orientation and securing packages of... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT Loading, Unloading and Handling § 175.88 Inspection, orientation and securing... END UP”, or with arrows to indicate the proper orientation of the package, must be stored and...

  17. Using dairy ingredients to produce edible films and biodegradable packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging is comprised of multi-layers of films which are thin continuous sheets of synthetic polymers. Recently, major food retailers and consumers have become concerned about the waste that packaging generates and the scarce natural resources and energy used in its manufacture. They are deman...

  18. In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    H.W> Stockman; S. LeStrange

    2000-09-28

    The objective of this calculation is to provide estimates of the amount of fissile material flowing out of the waste package (source term) and the accumulation of fissile elements (U and Pu) in a crushed-tuff invert. These calculations provide input for the analysis of repository impacts of the Pu-ceramic waste forms. In particular, the source term results are used as input to the far-field accumulation calculation reported in Ref. 51, and the in-drift accumulation results are used as inputs for the criticality calculations reported in Ref. 2. The results are also summarized and interpreted in Ref. 52. The scope of this calculation is the waste package (WP) Viability Assessment (VA) design, which consists of an outer corrosion-allowance material (CAM) and an inner corrosion-resistant material (CRM). This design is used in this calculation in order to be consistent with earlier Pu-ceramic degradation calculations (Ref. 15). The impact of the new Enhanced Design Alternative-I1 (EDA-11) design on the results will be addressed in a subsequent report. The design of the invert (a leveling foundation, which creates a level surface of the drift floor and supports the WP mounting structure) is consistent with the EDA-I1 design. The invert will be composed of crushed stone and a steel support structure (Ref. 17). The scope of this calculation is also defined by the nominal degradation scenario, which involves the breach of the WP (Section 10.5.1.2, Ref. 48), followed by the influx of water. Water in the WP may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the ceramic waste forms. Thus, the water in the WP may become laden with dissolved actinides (e.g., Pu and U), and may eventually overflow or leak from the WP. Once the water leaves the WP, it may encounter the invert, in which the actinides may reprecipitate. Several factors could induce reprecipitation; these factors include: the high surface area of the crushed stone, and the presence of

  19. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    PubMed

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541

  20. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings. PMID:26938541