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Sample records for active packaging systems

  1. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    PubMed

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. PMID:25034453

  2. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Cooling System, Learning Activity Packages 34-40; Maintaining and Servicing Hydraulic Systems, Learning Activity Packages 41-48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on two areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the cooling system and (2) maintaining and servicing hydraulic systems. Each of the fifteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  3. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  4. Microfibrillated cellulose coatings as new release systems for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Desloges, Isabelle; Bras, Julien

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a new use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is highlighted for high-added-value applications. For the first time, a nanoporous network formed by MFC coated on paper is used for a controlled release of molecules. The release study was carried out in water with caffeine as a model molecule. The release process was studied by means of (i) continuous, and (ii) intermittent diffusion experiments (with renewal of the medium every 10 min). The effect of the MFC was first observed for the samples impregnated in the caffeine solution. These samples, coated with MFC (coat weight of about 7 g/m(2)), released the caffeine over a longer period (29 washings compared with 16), even if the continuous diffusions were similar for both samples (without and with MFC coating). The slowest release of caffeine was observed for samples coated with the mixture (MFC+caffeine). Moreover, the caffeine was only fully released 9h after the release from the other samples was completed. This study compared two techniques for the introduction of model molecules in MFC-coated papers. The latter offers a more controlled and gradual release. This new approach creates many opportunities especially in the food-packaging field. A similar study could be carried out with an active species. PMID:24528763

  5. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  6. Using the Metric System in Health Careers. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carolyn

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on using the metric system. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, an additional resources list, a word game (handout), and student completion cards to issue to…

  7. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  8. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP. PMID:25571119

  9. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  10. System packager strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in combined equipment technologies, the ability to supply fuel flexibility and new financial support structures are helping power systems packagers meet a diverse series of client and project needs. Systems packagers continue to capture orders for various size power plants around the globe. A competitive buyer`s market remains the order of the day. In cogeneration markets, clients continue to search for efficiency rather than specific output for inside-the-fence projects. Letter-perfect service remains a requisite as successful suppliers strive to meet customers` ever-changing needs for thermal and power applications.

  11. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  12. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  13. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  14. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories. PMID:26089188

  15. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  16. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-10-01

    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems. PMID:26396360

  17. Learning Activity Package, Pre-Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in pre-algebra, the units cover the decimal numeration system; number theory; fractions and decimals; ratio, proportion, and percent; sets; properties of operations; rational numbers; real numbers; open expressions; and open rational…

  18. Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Castro-Mayorga, J L; Randazzo, W; Lagarón, J M; López-Rubio, A; Aznar, R; Sánchez, G

    2016-06-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6-7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this paper analyzed, for the first time, the antiviral activity of adding an active electrospun interlayer based on zein and CNMA to a polyhydroxybutyrate packaging material (PHB) in a multilayer form. Biodegradable multilayer systems prepared with 2.60 mg/cm(2) (~9.7 %) of CNMA completely inactivated FCV according to ISO 22196:2011, while MNV titers were reduced by 2.75 log10. When the developed multilayer films were evaluated after one month of preparation or at 25 °C, the antiviral activity was reduced as compared to freshly prepared multilayer films evaluated at 37 °C. The results show the excellent potential of this system for food contact applications as well as for active packaging technologies in order to maintain or extend food quality and safety. PMID:27008344

  19. Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

  20. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  1. Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on temperature, pulse, and respiration is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  2. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  3. Software Packages to Deal with Fuzzy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahariev, Z.

    2007-10-01

    This paper investigates currently available software packages dealing with fuzzy inference systems (FIS). Fifteen packages are investigated and are described here. Some comparisons are created. At the end there are some conclusions.

  4. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a*) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage. PMID:25178378

  5. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  6. Y-12 defense programs: Nuclear Packaging Systems testing capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Nuclear Packaging Systems (NPS) Department can manage/accomplish any packaging task. The NPS organization is responsible for managing the design, testing, certification, procurement, operation, refurbishment, maintenance, and disposal of packaging used to transport radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, and general cargoes on public roads and within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Additionally, the NPS Department has developed a Quality Assurance plan for all packaging, design and procurement of nonweapon shipping containers for radioactive materials, and design and procurement of performance-oriented packaging for hazardous materials. Further, the NPS Department is responsible for preparation and submittal of Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP). The NPS Department coordinates shipping container procurement and safety certification activities that have lead-times of up to two years. A Packaging Testing Capabilities Table at the Oak Ridge complex is included as a table.

  7. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  8. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  9. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  10. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology. PMID:26891564

  11. Installation package for a solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  12. A Package of Dramatic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Describes a drama game invented by college students for use in the primary school and details the educational goals, instructional materials, and potential uses for such learning activities. Speech and Drama, White College, ALLINGTON, Chippenham, Wilts. Subscription Rates: $6.00 per year. (MH)

  13. Syncope. What Is It? Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pam

    This learning activity packaage on syncope (fainting) is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a glossary, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  14. Learning Activity Package, Algebra-Trigonometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, the units cover logic; absolute value, inequalities, exponents, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric function; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  15. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  16. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  17. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. PMID:25892577

  18. Thermal management of LEDs: package to system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Mehmet; Becker, Charles A.; Weaver, Stanton E.; Petroski, James

    2004-01-01

    Light emitting diodes, LEDs, historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors have led to a movement towards general illumination. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have focused more attention on the thermal paths in the developments of LED power packaging. The luminous efficiency of LEDs is soon expected to reach over 80 lumens/W, this is approximately 6 times the efficiency of a conventional incandescent tungsten bulb. Thermal management for the solid-state lighting applications is a key design parameter for both package and system level. Package and system level thermal management is discussed in separate sections. Effect of chip packages on junction to board thermal resistance was compared for both SiC and Sapphire chips. The higher thermal conductivity of the SiC chip provided about 2 times better thermal performance than the latter, while the under-filled Sapphire chip package can only catch the SiC chip performance. Later, system level thermal management was studied based on established numerical models for a conceptual solid-state lighting system. A conceptual LED illumination system was chosen and CFD models were created to determine the availability and limitations of passive air-cooling.

  19. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  20. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  1. Aircraft sensor analysis package system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the Aircraft Sensor Analysis Package (ASAP) is presented. The approach is non-technical, and several output products are illustrated. The major features of the system are described in more detail than is found in the User's Guide to a potential user, or to a user looking for a specific capability to be incorporated in another system.

  2. WASTE PACKAGE REMEDIATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Sudan

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Package Remediation System remediates waste packages (WPs) and disposal containers (DCs) in one of two ways: preparation of rejected DC closure welds for repair or opening of the DC/WP. DCs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for preparation of rejected closure welds if testing of the closure weld by the Disposal Container Handling System indicates an unacceptable, but repairable, welding flaw. DC preparation of rejected closure welds will require removal of the weld in such a way that the Disposal Container Handling System may resume and complete the closure welding process. DCs/WPs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for opening if the Disposal Container Handling System testing of the DC closure weld indicates an unrepairable welding flaw, or if a WP is recovered from the subsurface repository because suspected damage to the WP or failure of the WP has occurred. DC/WP opening will require cutting of the DC/WP such that a temporary seal may be installed and the waste inside the DC/WP removed by another system. The system operates in a Waste Package Remediation System hot cell located in the Waste Handling Building that has direct access to the Disposal Container Handling System. One DC/WP at a time can be handled in the hot cell. The DC/WP arrives on a transfer cart, is positioned within the cell for system operations, and exits the cell without being removed from the cart. The system includes a wide variety of remotely operated components including a manipulator with hoist and/or jib crane, viewing systems, machine tools for opening WPs, and equipment used to perform pressure and gas composition sampling. Remotely operated equipment is designed to facilitate DC/WP decontamination and hot cell equipment maintenance, and interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. The Waste Package Remediation System interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System for the receipt and transport of WPs and DCs. The Waste

  3. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  4. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients. PMID:23815565

  5. Occupational Information System (OIS) Handbook Training Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.

    This training package, consisting of information concerning the content, use, and applications of the Occupational Information System (OIS), is designed for use in a training presentation conducted for administrators, trainers, counselors, job placement specialists, and economic development staff who will be working with the OIS. Included in the…

  6. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  7. Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2002-04-17

    This report summarizes a research and development program that produced a stand-alone active desiccant module (ADM) that can be easily integrated with new or existing packaged cooling equipment. The program also produced a fully integrated hybrid system, combining the active desiccant section with a conventional direct expansion air-conditioning unit, that resulted in a compact, low-cost, energy-efficient end product. Based upon the results of this investigation, both systems were determined to be highly viable products for commercialization. Major challenges--including wheel development, compact packaging, regeneration burner development, control optimization, and low-cost design--were all successfully addressed by the final prototypes produced and tested as part of this program. Extensive laboratory testing was completed in the SEMCO laboratory for each of the two ADM system approaches. This testing confirmed the performance of the ADM systems to be attractive compared with that of alternate approaches currently used to precondition outdoor air, where a return air path is not readily available for passive desiccant recovery or where first cost is the primary design criterion. Photographs, schematics, and performance maps are provided for the ADM systems that were developed; and many of the control advantages are discussed. Based upon the positive results of this research and development program, field tests are under way for fully instrumented pilot installations of ADM systems in both a hotel/motel and a restaurant.

  8. Gardening and Groundskeeping. A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume II: Learning Activity Packages 43-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning Activity packages are presented in three areas: (1) preparing or improving soil, (2) operating…

  9. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  10. An underwater work systems package. [remote handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, N. B.

    1975-01-01

    A modular unit which is adaptable to several existing deep sea submersibles was developed to extend their working abilities and acquire knowledge of components and techniques for working in the deep sea environment. This work systems package is composed of an aluminum pipe structure on which are mounted two six-function grabber arms, a seven function manipulator, tool suit, 1,000/lb. capacity winch, electrohydraulic power supply, electronics housing, lights, and television. The unit is designed to be operated by itself either remotely or with divers, attached to manned submersibles, or mounted on unmanned cable-controlled submersibles.

  11. Packaging and Reliability Issues in Micro/Nano Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongbaeg; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Chiao, Mu; Lin, Liwei

    The potential of MEMS/NEMS technologies has been viewed as a revolution comparable or even bigger than that of microelectronics. These scientific and engineering advancements in micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS)/(NEMS) could bring previously unthinkable applications to reality, from space systems, environmental instruments, to daily-life appliances. As presented in previous chapters, the development of core MEMS/NEMS processes has already demonstrated a lot of commercial applications as well as future potentials with elaborate functionalities. However, creating a low-cost reliable package for the protection of these MEMS/NEMS products is still a very difficult task. Without addressing these packaging and reliability issues, no commercial products can be sold on the market. Packaging design and modeling, packaging material selection, packaging process integration, and packaging cost are the main issues to be considered. In this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of MEMS/NEMS packaging technology, including packaging processes, hermetic and vacuum encapsulations, thermal issues, packaging reliability, and future packaging trends. The future development of MEMS packaging will rely on the success of the implementation of several unique techniques, such as packaging design kits for system and circuit designer, low-cost wafer-level and chip-scale packaging techniques, effective testing techniques, and reliable fabrication of an interposer [56.1] with vertical through-interconnects for device integrations.

  12. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-08-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  13. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  14. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products. PMID:26396358

  15. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. PMID:27261728

  16. System specification for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document describes functional design requirements for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS), as required by DOE contract DE-AC03-96SF20948 through contract modification 9 for equipment in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS).

  17. Low volume packaging for a microinstrumentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, A.; Wise, K.

    1995-01-01

    A folding, multi-platform assembly has been developed for the packaging of a multi-chip microinstrumentation system. The assembly includes three solid platforms connected by flexible micromachined ribbon cables and it can be populated by sensors and electronics from a variety of technologies including surface mount and integrated circuit (IC) processes. The entire structure is fabricated from a four-inch silicon wafer using a simple four mask process and a post-process EDP etch. The micromachined ribbon cables allow the platform assembly to be folded into a three level structure with control electronics on the bottom level, microsensors and interface electronics on the second level, and sensors that need environmental access on the top level. Using the silicon multi-platform assembly, a prototype microinstrumentation system has been developed that includes a microcontroller unit and sensors for measuring temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, altitude, and acceleration as well as a telemetry device for wireless communication. When folded in the three level structure, this microsystem occupies only 5 cc and can be placed in an outer case the size of a wristwatch.

  18. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  19. PACKAGE PLANTS FOR SMALL SYSTEMS: A FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint field study was conducted by AWWA and the Drinking Water Research Division of USEPA to evaluate existing small community systems that use package plant technology. Forty-eight package plant systems representing a geographic and technological cross section were evaluated t...

  20. Syncope. What Is It? Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Pam

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on syncope (fainting). Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  1. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I, (LAP) Study 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    Presented is a Learning Activity Package (LAP) study concerned with carbon and its compounds. This LAP in chemistry includes a rationale for studying the chemical element of carbon, a list of student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), of activities (reading, laboratory experiments, model construction, etc.), a two-page worksheet, a…

  2. The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  3. Activity Packages for Use in Junior High School Math Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Rita; Peterson, Karen

    Eight activity packages, designed to teach students mathematical topics which are inappropriate to teach through a paper and pencil approach, are presented. The materials were created so that students: (1) can follow the instructions with little supervision; (2) are physically engaged in the activity, either measuring, counting, drawing pictures…

  4. AZTEC: A parallel iterative package for the solving linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    We describe a parallel linear system package, AZTEC. The package incorporates a number of parallel iterative methods (e.g. GMRES, biCGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR) and preconditioners (e.g. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, polynomial, domain decomposition with LU or ILU within subdomains). Additionally, AZTEC allows for the reuse of previous preconditioning factorizations within Newton schemes for nonlinear methods. Currently, a number of different users are using this package to solve a variety of PDE applications.

  5. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  6. Production of Learning Activity Packages for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes the development of individualized instruction programs for adults in various areas of vocational education, including the use of advisory committees to identify occupational skills, preparing learning activity packages (LAPS) for the programs, and installation and operation of the programs in Halifax, Nova Scotia. (MF)

  7. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  8. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  9. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 102, LAPs 10 Through 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tommy

    A set of seven teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; The Age of Revolution; The World at War; and…

  10. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 103, LAPs 10 Through 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane; And Others

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on world history at the tenth grade level includes the following units: Early Man and the Beginning of Civilization; Our Heritage from Greece and Rome; Life in the Middle Ages; The Renaissance and the Reformation; Revolution; The World at War; Totalitarianism;…

  11. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 112, LAPs 17 Through 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgdorf, Jane

    A set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction in United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following topics: New World Settlement and Colonial Growth; American Revolution and the New Nation; Developing an Effective National Government; The Growth of Nationalism and Democracy…

  12. Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

  13. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies 124, LAPs 29 Through 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Mary Ann

    A set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on western civilization at the twelfth grade level includes the following units: Establishment of Western Civilization; Middle Period of Western Civilization; Islam and the Saracenic Civilization; the Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern Western…

  14. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 124, LAPs 46-55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bill

    A series of 10 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in advanced algebra and trigonometry, these units cover absolute value, inequalities, exponents, radicals, and complex numbers; functions; higher degree equations and the derivative; the trigonometric functions; graphs and applications of the trigonometric functions; sequences and…

  15. Greenhouse Production: A Series of Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. C.; And Others

    Designed for use when the student or the class is expected to grow a crop using the high school greenhouse, these learning activity packages are sequenced in typical greenhouse cropping fashion: (1) poinsettias in the fall, (2) Easter lilies (bulb crop) in the winter, (3) bedding plants (seed crop) in the spring, and (4) a nursery crop (from…

  16. Alumina Based 500 C Electronic Packaging Systems and Future Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2012-01-01

    NASA space and aeronautical missions for probing the inner solar planets as well as for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines require high-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics. A 96% aluminum oxide and Au thick-film metallization based packaging system including chip-level packages, printed circuit board, and edge-connector is in development for high temperature SiC electronics. An electronic packaging system based on this material system was successfully tested and demonstrated with SiC electronics at 500 C for over 10,000 hours in laboratory conditions previously. In addition to the tests in laboratory environments, this packaging system has more recently been tested with a SiC junction field effect transistor (JFET) on low earth orbit through the NASA Materials on the International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE7). A SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE7 suite to International Space Station via a Shuttle mission and tested on the orbit for eighteen months. A summary of results of tests in both laboratory and space environments will be presented. The future development of alumina based high temperature packaging using co-fired material systems for improved performance at high temperature and more feasible mass production will also be discussed.

  17. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 103-104, LAPs 23-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    This set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in intermediate algebra covers number systems; exponents and radicals; polynomials and factoring; rational expressions; coordinate geometry; relations, functions, and inequalities; quadratic equations and inequalities; Quadratic functions; systems of equations and inequalities;…

  18. Liposomal packaging generates Wnt protein with in vivo biological activity.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Nathan T; Leucht, Philipp; Zhao, Ludan; Kim, Jae-Beom; ten Berge, Derk; Ponnusamy, Karthik; Carre, A Lyonel; Dudek, Henryk; Zachlederova, Marie; McElhaney, Michael; Brunton, Shirley; Gunzner, Janet; Callow, Marinella; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike; Zhang, Xiaoyan M; Helms, Jill A; Nusse, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Wnt signals exercise strong cell-biological and regenerative effects of considerable therapeutic value. There are, however, no specific Wnt agonists and no method for in vivo delivery of purified Wnt proteins. Wnts contain lipid adducts that are required for activity and we exploited this lipophilicity by packaging purified Wnt3a protein into lipid vesicles. Rather than being encapsulated, Wnts are tethered to the liposomal surface, where they enhance and sustain Wnt signaling in vitro. Molecules that effectively antagonize soluble Wnt3a protein but are ineffective against the Wnt3a signal presented by a cell in a paracrine or autocrine manner are also unable to block liposomal Wnt3a activity, suggesting that liposomal packaging mimics the biological state of active Wnts. When delivered subcutaneously, Wnt3a liposomes induce hair follicle neogenesis, demonstrating their robust biological activity in a regenerative context. PMID:18698373

  19. Gardening and Groundskeeping: A Series of Learning Activity Packages. Volume I: Learning Activity Packages 1-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    These forty-two learning activity packages, intended for student use, are based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening-groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). They are organized by four areas of instruction: Organizing and Planning…

  20. Development of an automated pit packaging system for Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a system that uses robots to package pits at Pantex in the AT-400A pit storage and transportation container. This report will give an overview of the AT-400A packaging process, and the parts of the overall AT-400A packaging operation that will be performed robotically. The process employed to move from development in the laboratory at Sandia to production use at Pantex will be described. Finally, important technology components being developed for and incorporated into the robotic system will be described. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. System certification: An alternative to package certification

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Robert E.; Jefferson, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    One precept of the current radioactive material transportation regulations is that the package is the primary protection for the public. A packaging is chosen to provide containment, shielding, and criticality control suitable to the quantity and characteristics of the radionuclide being transported. Occasionally, radioactive materials requiring transport are not of a mass or size that would allow the materials to be shipped in an appropriate packaging. Where the shipment to be made is relatively infrequent, there may be economic and time penalties that may hamper shipment or force the shipper into uneconomic or high risk options. However, there is recognition of such situations in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations under the provisions for Special Arrangement. The principal paragraphs defining Special Arrangement in Regulations for the Safe of Radioactive Material; Safety Series 6 (SS6) [IAEA, 1990a] are 141, 211, 720, and 727. In the US regulations the applicable term is Exemption.'' An exemption is obtained from either the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) or the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) depending on the character of the needed exemption. The essential concept is that some requirements of the regulations that apply in a given situation are not required if the shipment is subjected to other operational controls that provide an equivalent level of risk to that attained if the regulations were observed fully. This paper deals primarily with changing of packaging requirements in Special Arrangements, but it is also true that operational requirements also may be changed as a result of an Exemption or Special Arrangement approval by a regulatory authority.

  2. EPANET - AN ADVANCED WATER QUALITY MODELING PACKAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPANET is a third generation software package for modeling water quality within drinking water distribution systems. he program performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality conditions within pressurized pipe networks. n addition to substance concentration wa...

  3. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Cabral, M; da Cruz, N F; Simões, P; Marques, R C

    2014-09-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called "Baseline" scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called "Incineration" scenario) or to landfill ("Landfill" scenario). Overall, the results show that the "Baseline" scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios. PMID:24910140

  4. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Engine, Learning Activity Packages 78-89; Lubricating the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 90-94; Painting the Tractor, Learning Activity Packages 95-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on three areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the engine, (2) lubricating the tractor, and (3) painting the tractor. Each of the nineteen illustrated learning activity packages follows a typical format: introduction, directions, objectives, learning activities, tools and…

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  6. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover measuring techniques, operations of instruments, metric system heat, matter, energy, elements, atomic numbers, isotopes, molecules, mixtures, compounds, physical and chemical properties, liquids, solids, and gases. Each unit contains…

  7. Learning Activity Package, Chemistry I. LAP Numbers 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Naomi

    As a set of seven Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in chemistry, the units cover the unit system, matter, energy, atomic structures, chemical formulas, physical states of matter, solutions and suspensions, ionization, acids, bases, and salts. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral…

  8. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  10. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures of the solar hot water system. This system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  11. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  12. Installation package - SIMS prototype system 1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This report consists of details for the installation, operation and maintenance of a prototype heating and hot water system, designed for residential or light commercial applications. This system consists of the following subsystems: air type collectors, pebble bed thermal storage, air handling unit, air to water heat exchanger, hot water preheat tank, auxiliary energy, ducting system.

  13. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable active PLA film for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Avallone, E.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on the preparation and characterization of a biodegradable active PLA film (aPLA), intended for food packaging applications. The film was obtained by cast extrusion blending a commercial PLA matrix with an active system, developed in our laboratory and based on PLA microparticles containing a-tocopherol (aTCP) as natural antioxidant agent. In order to optimize the film composition and processing, the active microparticles were preliminarily characterized with the aim to evaluate their morphology (size and shape), thermal resistance and a-tocopherol content. The aPLA film, produced with a 5wt% of aTCP, was characterized in terms of performance and activity. The experimental results demonstrated that the aPLA film has mechanical, thermal, barrier and optical properties adequate for packaging applications and shows oxygen scavenging activity and prolonged exhaustion lag time, compared to pure PLA films.

  14. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  15. Performance report for a small package counter that uses active neutron interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, R.A.; Wishard, B.E.; Santopietro, R.D.; Anderson, B.P.

    1993-07-07

    An active neutron interrogation system utilizing the differential die-away technique (DDT), was built to assay fissile material in small waste packages for a variety of matrices. Within minutes the system can make a ``go/no-go`` decision for sorting low-level waste (LLW) from transuranic waste (TRUW). It can also provide gram-level accountability of weapons-grade (WG) Pu in TRUW providing lumps of self-shielding fissile material are absent.

  16. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  17. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  18. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-03-27

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  19. Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).

  20. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  1. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Plahn, Paul; Keene, Kevin; Pendray, John

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  2. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  3. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  4. Molecularly imprinted hydrogels as functional active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Rico-Yuste, Alberto; Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Cruz, José Manuel; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) for the natural antioxidant ferulic acid (FA), and their application as packaging materials to prevent lipid oxidation of butter. A library of MIHs was synthesized using a synthetic surrogate of FA, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HFA), as template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, and 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers, at different molar concentrations. The DMAEMA/HEMA-based MIHs showed the greatest FA loading capacity, while the 1-ALLP/HEMA-based polymers exhibited the highest imprinting effect. During cold storage, FA-loaded MIHs protected butter from oxidation and led to TBARs values that were approximately half those of butter stored without protection and 25% less than those recorded for butter covered with hydrogels without FA, potentially extending the shelf life of butter. Active packaging is a new field of application for MIHs with great potential in the food industry. PMID:26213001

  5. The work request system of a NASA Q1 package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A computer package is described which can be used to track any type of work that is controlled on the basis of work requests and purchase orders/contracts. Run on any NASA Ql, using floppy disks only, the system can handle about 1,200 requests per year, and provides performance and summary reports for management. The milestones tracked at Goddard are described as well as directions for installing the system. Sample reports and operator instructions are included.

  6. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  7. Ray tracing package through a lens system and a spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zurro, B.; King, P.W.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    To study the light collection optics of the ISX-B two-dimensional (2-D) Thomson scattering system, we have implemented in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fusion Energy Division (FED) PDP-10 two computer programs, LENS and SPECT, that trace rays through a lens system and a spectrometer, respectively. The lens package follows the path of any kind of ray (meridional or skew) through a centered optical system formed by an arbitrary number of spherical surfaces. The spectrometer package performs geometrical ray tracing through a Czerney-Turner spectrometer and can be easily modified for studying any other configuration. Contained herein is a description of the procedures followed and a listing of the computer programs.

  8. Module Packaging Research and Reliability: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; delCueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K.

    2005-11-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples are described.

  9. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  10. Active packaging of cheese with allyl isothiocyanate, an alternative to modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Winther, Mette; Nielsen, Per Vaeggemose

    2006-10-01

    The natural antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), found in mustard oil, is effective against cheese-related fungi both on laboratory media and cheese. Penicillium commune, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus flavus were more sensitive to AITC when it was added just after the spores had completed 100% germination and branching had started on Czapek yeast extract agar than were spores in the dormant phase. The use of 1 AITC label (Wasaouro interior labels, LD30D, 20 by 20 mm) in combination with atmospheric air in the packaging extended the shelf life of Danish Danbo cheese from 4 1/2 to 13 weeks. Two AITC labels extended the shelf life from 4 1/2 to 28 weeks. Both 1 and 2 labels in combination with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of the cheese from 18 to 28 weeks. This study showed that AITC was absorbed in the cheese, but it was not possible to detect any volatile breakdown products from AITC in the cheese. Cheese stored for up to 12 weeks with an AITC label had an unacceptable mustard flavor. The mustard flavor decreased to an acceptable level between weeks 12 and 28. Cheese stored in atmospheric air had a fresher taste without a CO2 off-flavor than did cheese stored in modified atmosphere packaging. AITC may be a good alternative to modified atmosphere packaging for cheese. The extended shelf life of cheese in the package is very desirable: the cheese can be transported longer distances, and the packaging can be used for the final maturing of the cheese. Furthermore, AITC can address problems such as pinholes and leaking seals in cheese packaging. PMID:17066923

  11. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O(2) active packaging in comparison with low O(2) packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Li, X H; Fan, X; Tang, Y; Yun, J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (initial O(2)/CO(2): 5/5; 30/5; and 80/0) and passive packaging [initial O(2)/CO(2): 20.8/0 (air)] on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pear stored at 4 °C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O(2) (30% and 80%) packages had higher phenolics and anthocyanin contents compared with those in passive and low O(2) packages. After 12 days of storage, phenolics and anthocyanin contents of 80% O(2) samples were 2.5 and 12 times, respectively, higher than those in the passive package and 3 and 2 times higher than those in low O(2) package. High O(2) modified atmosphere packaging was effective in keeping free radical scavenging capacity as measured by the DPPH assay. The sensory evaluation indicated that surface color of cut fruits were stable for at least 12 days in the high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging. The results suggested that high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging could be used to inhibit browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pears in spite of more than 50% loss in vitamin C content. PMID:22397831

  12. SV40 in vitro packaging: a pseudovirion gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kimchi-Sarfaty, Chava; Gottesman, Michael M

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear extracts of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells infected with baculoviruses encode the simian virus 40 (SV40) major coat protein (VP1). As described in this protocol, these extracts are able to package supercoiled plasmid DNA or RNA interference (RNAi) sequences in the presence of MgCl(2), CaCl(2), and ATP, thus forming SV40 pseudovirions in vitro. Such packaging has numerous advantages over other viral and nonviral delivery systems. Specifically, it provides a wide host range and high transduction efficiency. The only major disadvantage of this system is low expression per transduced cell observed in vitro, likely a result of DNA trapped in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell that does not enter the cell nucleus. PMID:22949719

  13. FRAMES Software System: Linking to the Statistical Package R

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Whelan, Gene; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2006-12-11

    This document provides requirements, design, data-file specifications, test plan, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control protocol for the linkage between the statistical package R and the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Versions 1.x and 2.0. The requirements identify the attributes of the system. The design describes how the system will be structured to meet those requirements. The specification presents the specific modifications to FRAMES to meet the requirements and design. The test plan confirms that the basic functionality listed in the requirements (black box testing) actually functions as designed, and QA/QC confirms that the software meets the client’s needs.

  14. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Patrick C.; Moody, Donald A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71'' (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G's at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G's was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  15. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Trends in antimicrobial food packaging systems: Emitting sachets and absorbent pads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active antimicrobial packaging interacts with packaged food and headspace to reduce, retard, or even inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Sachets and pads are one of the most successful applications of active food packaging. This review discusses recent developments of antim...

  17. Coupling High-Energy Radiography And Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) To Optimize The Characterization Of Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Carrel, F.; Agelou, M.; Gmar, M.; Laine, F.; Lamotte, T.; Lazaro, D.; Poumarede, B.; Rattoni, B.

    2009-12-02

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste packages is an industrial issue in order to select the best mode of storage. The alpha-activity, mainly due to the presence of actinides ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu,...) inside the package, is one of the most important parameter to assess during the characterization. Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) is a non-destructive active method (NDA method) based on the photofission process and on the detection of delayed particles (neutrons and gammas). This technique is well-adapted to the characterization of large concrete waste packages. However, PAA methods often require a simulation step which is necessary to analyze experimental results and to quantify the global mass of actinides. The weak point of this approach is that characteristics of the package are often not well-known, these latter having a huge impact on the final simulation result. High-energy radiography, based on the use of a linear electron accelerator (LINAC), allows to visualize the content of the package and is also a performing way to tune simulation models and to optimize the characterization process by PAA. In this article, we present high-energy radiography results obtained for two different large concrete waste packages in the SAPHIR facility (Active Photon and Irradiation System). This facility is dedicated to PAA study and development and setup for a decade in CEA Saclay. We also discuss possibilities offered by the coupling between high-energy radiography and PAA techniques.

  18. Synthesis of Iminodiacetate Functionalized Polypropylene Films and Their Efficacy as Antioxidant Active-Packaging Materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuangsheng; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of metal-chelating ligands to the food-contact surface of packaging materials may enable the removal of synthetic chelators (e.g., ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)) from food products. In this study, the metal-chelating ligand iminodiacetate (IDA) was covalently grafted onto polypropylene surfaces to produce metal-chelating active-packaging films. The resulting films were able to chelate 138.1 ± 26 and 210.0 ± 28 nmol/cm(2) Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively, under acidic conditions (pH 3.0). The films demonstrated potent antioxidant efficacy in two model food systems. In an emulsified-oil system, the chelating materials extended the lag phase of both lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation from 5 to 25 days and were as effective as EDTA. The degradation half-life of ascorbic acid in an aqueous solution was extended from 5 to 14 days. This work demonstrates the potential application of surface-grafted chelating IDA ligands as effective antioxidant active food-packaging materials. PMID:27243793

  19. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  20. Heat transfer in vacuum packaged microelectromechanical system devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunpei

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes heat transfer effects inside vacuum packaged microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices. A packaged device is simplified as four plates forming a square cavity, the bottom plate represents a hot chip, while the other three plates are maintained at room temperature. For a highly rarefied free molecular internal gas flow scenario, the corresponding detailed density and temperature fields are analytically determined with a proposed speculation. This speculation indicates that for a steady free molecular gas flow inside a convex closure domain formed by walls maintained at different temperatures: (1) the velocity distribution functions for those molecules diffusely reflected at different walls and traveling away from them are Maxwellian with different number densities; (2) for each distribution, ni√Ti is a constant, where ni is the number density for the group of reflected molecules, and Ti is the temperature for the ith plate. For a near continuum flow scenario, the governing energy equation degenerates to Laplace's equation with several temperature-jump wall boundary conditions. This study also includes discussions and comparisons among analytical results, simulation results from the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, and results by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with proper wall boundary conditions. The approach used in this study is generally applicable to study internal flows and heat transfer effects in other vacuum packaged MEMS devices with different shapes.

  1. Scilab software package for the study of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeianu, C. C.; Beşliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Felea, D.; Grossu, I. V.

    2008-05-01

    This work presents a new software package for the study of chaotic flows and maps. The codes were written using Scilab, a software package for numerical computations providing a powerful open computing environment for engineering and scientific applications. It was found that Scilab provides various functions for ordinary differential equation solving, Fast Fourier Transform, autocorrelation, and excellent 2D and 3D graphical capabilities. The chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamics systems were analyzed using phase-space maps, autocorrelation functions, power spectra, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Various well known examples are implemented, with the capability of the users inserting their own ODE. Program summaryProgram title: Chaos Catalogue identifier: AEAP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 885 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5925 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Scilab 3.1.1 Computer: PC-compatible running Scilab on MS Windows or Linux Operating system: Windows XP, Linux RAM: below 100 Megabytes Classification: 6.2 Nature of problem: Any physical model containing linear or nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE). Solution method: Numerical solving of ordinary differential equations. The chaotic behavior of the nonlinear dynamical system is analyzed using Poincaré sections, phase-space maps, autocorrelation functions, power spectra, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies. Restrictions: The package routines are normally able to handle ODE systems of high orders (up to order twelve and possibly higher), depending on the nature of the problem. Running time: 10 to 20 seconds for problems that do not

  2. Assessment and Assurance of Microelectronics Packaging Technology of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the packaging technology. In the case of MEMS the microstructures (active elements) often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it 'measures to assure the MEMS technology by lowering the risk to zero. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided assurance of MEMS technology is sufficiently addressed nondestructively. This technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's safety and mission assurance goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively by teaming-up with the other NASA centers using the limited resources available. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS

  3. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O2,active packaging compared with low O2 packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, initial O2/CO2: 5/5; 30/5; 80/0) and passive packaging (initial O2/CO2: 20.8/0 (air)) on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut ‘Yaoshan’ pear stored at 4C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O2 (30% and 80%) ...

  4. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  5. Active packaging materials from Poly(Lactic Acid)and Pectin composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active packaging of foods is receiving considerable attention from the food industry and food researchers. The ability to wrap foods in packaging materials that can provide additional functions, such as retaining freshness or preventing spoilage and pathogen growth, would be very important for the f...

  6. An innovative thermal system approach significantly increases system reliability and power and packaging densities

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.K.; Alexander, R.; Burns, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An innovative self-contained active cooling system for electronic products, which increases power and packaging densities and improves reliability, was investigated. The cooling technology uses low cost, readily available, and reliable components. While this thermal control method can be applied to many applications, a simple power system cooling application will be demonstrated. The application demonstrates increased power density of a common 48 Vdc to 5Vdc high density DC-DC power converter module having standard dimensions of 2.4in.x4.6in.x0.5in. An increase in power density from 50W/in{sup 3} to over 80W/in{sup 3} was realized. In addition, significantly high calculated MTBF, from 300K hours to greater than 3M hours, was realized with low temperature operation.

  7. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 3: PEP analysis and tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The objectives, conclusions, and approaches for accomplishing 19 specific design and analysis activities related to the installation of the power extension package (PEP) into the Orbiter cargo bay are described as well as those related to its deployment, extension, and retraction. The proposed cable handling system designed to transmit power from PEP to the Orbiter by way of the shuttle remote manipulator system is described and a preliminary specification for the gimbal assembly, solar array drive is included.

  8. Packaged Fault Model for Geometric Segmentation of Active Faults Into Earthquake Source Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, T.; Kumamoto, T.

    2004-12-01

    successfully on the active faults generated the 1943 Tottori earthquake, the Chojagahara-Yoshii fault zone in Chugoku district in southwest Japan, as well as the active fault system in northern Luzon, the Philippines. Thus, we name this conceptual model as _gPackaged Fault Model_h and call the active faults grouped by the model as _gPackaged Faults_h for individual earthquake source faults. Moreover, we come to know that active fault mapping with _gPackaged Fault Model_h in mind enables us to find many new active fault traces (e.g., the Shigenobu fault along the MTL in Japan).

  9. Data processing unit and power system for the LANL REM instrument package. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, W.

    1994-03-01

    The NEPSTP spacecraft needs highly reliable instrumentation to measure the nuclear reactor health and performance. These reactor measurements are essential for initial on-orbit phase operations and documentation of performance over time. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the guidance of W. C. Feldman, principal investigator, has designed the Radiation Environment Monitoring (REM) package to meet these needs. The instrumentation package contains two neutron detectors, one gamma-ray detector, a data processing unit, and an instrument power system. The REM package is an integration of quick turn-around, state of the practice technology for detectors, data processors, and power systems. A significant portion of REM consists of subsystems with flight history. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been tasked by LANL to design support electronics, including the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and Power System for REM. The goal for this project is to use technologies from current programs to speed up and simplify the design process. To meet these design goals, the authors use an open architecture VME bus for the DPU and derivatives of CASSINI power supplies for the instrument power system. To simplify integration and test activities, they incorporate a proven software development strategy and tool kits from outside vendors. The objective of this report is to illustrate easily incorporated system level designs for the DPU, power system and ground support electronics (GSE) in support of the important NEPSTP program.

  10. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  11. Low temperature activation of Au/Ti getter film for application to wafer-level vacuum packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming; Moulin, Johan; Lani, Sébastien; Hallais, Géraldine; Renard, Charles; Bosseboeuf, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin films based on alloys of transition metals have been studied by various authors for vacuum control in wafer-level packages of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). These materials have typically a relatively high activation temperature (300-450 °C) which is incompatible with some temperature sensitive MEMS devices. In this work we investigate the potential of Au/Ti system with a thin or ultrathin non oxidizable Au layer as a low activation temperature getter material. In this bilayer system, gettering activation is produced by thermal outdiffusion of titanium atoms through the gold film. The outdiffusion kinetics of titanium was modelled and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) at various temperatures. Results confirm that Au/Ti bilayer is a promising getter material for wafer-level packaging with an activation temperature below 300 °C for 1 h annealing time.

  12. System-in-package LTCC platform for 3D RF to millimeter wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation shows recent trends and results in 3D Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics (LTCC) modules in applications from RF to millimeter waves. The system-in-package LTCC platform is a true three dimensional module technology. LTCC is a lightweight multi-layer technology having typically 6-20 ceramic layers and metallizations between. The metallization levels i.e different metal layers can be patterned and connected together with metal vias. Passive devices can also be fabricated on LTCC while active devices and other chips are connected with flip-chip, wire bonding or soldering. In addition to passives directly fabricated to LTCC, several different technologies/ chips can be hybrid integrated to the same module. LTCC platform is also well suited for the realization of antenna arrays for microwave and millimeter wave applications. Potential applications are ranging from short range communications to space and radars. VTT has designed, fabricated and characterized microwave and millimeter wave packages for Radio Frequency (RF) Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as active devices. Also, several types of system-in-package modules have been realized containing hybrid integrated CMOS and GaAs MMICs and antenna arrays.

  13. Effect of mixed antimicrobial agents and flavors in active packaging films.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Batlle, Ramón; Nerín, Cristina

    2009-09-23

    Active packaging is an emerging food technology to improve the quality and safety of food products. Many works have been developed to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Essential oils have been traditionally used as flavorings in food, so they have an important odor impact but they have as well antimicrobial properties that could be used to protect the food. Recent developments in antimicrobial active packaging showed the efficiency of essential oils versus bread and bakery products among other applications. However, one of the main problems to face is the odor and taste they could provide to the packaged food. Using some aromas to mask the odor could be a good approach. That is why the main objective of this paper is to develop an antimicrobial packaging material based on the combination of the most active compounds of essential oils (hydrocinnamaldehyde, oregano essential oil, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol) together with some aromas commonly used in the food industry. A study of the concentration required to get the antimicrobial properties, the organoleptic compatibility with typical aroma present in many food systems (vanilla, banana, and strawberry), and the right combination of both systems has been carried out. Antimicrobial tests of both the mentioned aromas, the main components of some essential oils, and the combination of both groups were carried out against bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli), yeasts (Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii), and molds (Botrytis cinerae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Eurotium repens, Penicillium islandicum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium nalgiovensis). The sensory properties of the combinations were evaluated with a triangular test and classification was by an order test; the odor threshold of the aroma compounds was also

  14. Design package test weights for fuel retrieval system (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-10-26

    This is a design package that documents the development of test weights used in the Spent Nuclear Fuels subproject Fuel Retrieval System. The K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project consists of the safe retrieval, preparation, and repackaging of the spent fuel stored at the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins for interim safe storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) scrap baskets and fuel baskets will be loaded and weighed under water. The equipment used to weigh the loaded fuel baskets requires daily calibration checks, using test weights traceable to National Institute of Standards Testing (NIST) standards. The test weights have been designated as OCRWM related in accordance with HNF-SD-SNF-RF'T-007 (McCormack).

  15. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  16. Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

    2006-04-01

    High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

  17. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Roseane B. P.; de L. Oliveira, Afonso; Glória, M. Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm2 were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS) from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100°C for 10 min) and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0). These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products. PMID:24031232

  18. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  19. Smart Packaging Technologies and Their Application in Conventional Meat Packaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Michael N.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala & Davidson, 1970). Cooked meats are usually stored in 70% N2:30% CO2 (Smiddy, Papkovsky, & Kerry, 2002). The function of oxygen in MAP is to maintain acceptable fresh meat colour and carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of spoilage bacteria (Seideman & Durland, 1984). Nitrogen is used as an inert filler gas either to reduce the proportions of the other gases or to maintain the pack shape (Bell & Bourke, 1996).

  20. Welding Robot and Remote Handling System for the Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, M.E.; Holt, T.E.; LaValle, D.R.; Pace, D.P.; Croft, K.M.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2008-07-01

    In preparation for the license application and construction of a repository for housing the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste in Yucca Mountain, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with preparing a mock-up of a full-scale prototype system for sealing the waste packages (WP). Three critical pieces of the closure room include two PaR Systems TR4350 Telerobotic Manipulators and a PaR Systems XR100 Remote Handling System (RHS). The TR4350 Manipulators are 6-axis programmable robots that will be used to weld the WP lids and purge port cap as well as conduct nondestructive examinations. The XR100 Remote Handling System is a 4-axis programmable robot that will be used to transport the WP lids and process tools to the WP for operations and remove equipment for maintenance. The welding and RHS robots will be controlled using separate PaR 5/21 CIMROC Controllers capable of complex motion control tasks. A tele-operated PaR 4350 Manipulator will also be provided with the XR100 Remote Handling System. It will be used for maintenance and associated activities within the closure room. (authors)

  1. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  2. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  3. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  4. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  5. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  6. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    C. I. Nichol; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; D. E. Clark; M. L. Clark; K. L. Skinner; A. D. Watkins; H. B. Smartt

    2011-10-01

    The Waste Package Closure System (WPCS), for the closure of radioactive waste in canisters for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste in the Yucca Mountain Repository was designed, fabricated, and successfully demonstrated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This article focuses on the robotic hardware and tools necessary to remotely weld and inspect the closure lid welds. The system was operated remotely and designed for use in a radiation field, due to the SNF contained in the waste packages being closed.

  7. Installation package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package consists of installation, operation and maintenance manuals for four commercial solar energy subsystems, including flat plate solar collector pebble bed thermal-storage. Manual gives design information, sizing data, specification drawings, and other material for subsystem.

  8. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-06-13

    This design package documents design, fabrication, and testing of new stinger tool design. Future revisions will document further development of the stinger tool and incorporate various developmental stages, and final test results.

  9. Image dissector control and data system, part 1. [instrument packages and equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A general description of the image dissector control and data system is presented along with detailed design information, operating instructions, and maintenance and trouble-shooting procedures for the four instrumentation packages. The four instrumentation packages include a 90 inch telescope, a simplified telescope module for use on the 90 inch or other telescopes, a photographic plate scanner module which permits the scanning of astronomical photographic plates in the laboratory, and the lunar experiment package module.

  10. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  11. Packaged Au-PPy valves for drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Han-Kuan A.; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Zoval, Jim; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2006-03-01

    The most common methods for the drug delivery are swallowing pills or receiving injections. However, formulations that control the rate and period of medicine (i.e., time-release medications) are still problematic. The proposed implantable devices which include batteries, sensors, telemetry, valves, and drug storage reservoirs provide an alternative method for the responsive drug delivery system [1]. Using this device, drug concentration can be precisely controlled which enhances drug efficiency and decreases the side effects. In order to achieve responsive drug delivery, a reliable release valve has to be developed. Biocompatibility, low energy consumption, and minimized leakage are the main requirements for such release method. A bilayer structure composed of Au/PPy film is fabricated as a flap to control the release valve. Optimized potentiostatic control to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) is presented. The release of miniaturize valve is tested and showed in this paper. A novel idea to simultaneously fabricate the device reservoirs as well as protective packaging is proposed in this paper. The solution of PDMS permeability problem is also mentioned in this article.

  12. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  13. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  15. Planar architecture for microstrip interfaced packaging of coplanar-waveguide-based radio frequency microelectromechanical system switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailendra; Giridhar, Malalahalli Sreenivasamurthy; Rao, Cheemalamarri Venkata Narasimha; Bhalke, Sangam; Islam, Rifqul

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of microstrip (MS) interfaced packaging of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-based radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) switch in a hermetic metal-ceramic RF package. The switch is integrated along with CPW to MS (CPW-MS) transitions within the package itself. This makes the MS interfaced packaged switch module readily mountable on MS based RF boards and subsystems. The CPW-MS transition for the package was designed as a separate off-chip entity on an alumina substrate and utilizes via hole. The integrated three-dimensional model of the package consisting of the RF MEMS switch and the transitions was simulated using high frequency structure simulator. The realized module shows an insertion loss of 0.2 and 1.1 dB at 100 MHz and 7 GHz, respectively. The measured isolation is better than 60 dB at 100 MHz and 30 dB at 7 GHz. The return loss is better than 15 dB up to 7 GHz. The estimated packaging and transitioning loss is 0.5 dB at 5 GHz. This packaging architecture is a planar solution for the MS interfaced packaging of CPW based RF MEMS switches for designers who do not have access to high-end technologies, such as zero-level packaging, through silicon via or low temperature co-fired ceramics.

  16. Determination of activation energy of pyrolysis of carton packaging wastes and its pure components using thermogravimetry.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Larissa M; Xavier, Thiago P; Barrozo, Marcos Antonio S; Bacelos, Marcelo S; Lira, Taisa S

    2016-07-01

    Many processes have been used for recycling of carton packaging wastes. The pyrolysis highlights as a promising technology to be used for recovering the aluminum from polyethylene and generating products with high heating value. In this paper, a study on pyrolysis reactions of carton packaging wastes and its pure components was performed in order to estimate the kinetic parameters of these reactions. For this, dynamic thermogravimetric analyses were carried out and two different kinds of kinetic models were used: the isoconversional and Independent Parallel Reactions. Isoconversional models allowed to calculate the overall activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction, in according to their conversions. The IPR model, in turn, allowed the calculation of kinetic parameters of each one of the carton packaging and paperboard subcomponents. The carton packaging pyrolysis follows three separated stages of devolatilization. The first step is moisture loss. The second stage is perfectly correlated to devolatilization of cardboard. The third step is correlated to devolatilization of polyethylene. PMID:27156364

  17. Use of activated carbon inside modified atmosphere packages to maintain tomato fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bailén, Gloria; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo

    2006-03-22

    Ethylene triggers the ripening process of tomato affecting the storage durability and shelf life (loss of quality) and inducing fruit decay. In this paper, an active packaging has been developed on the basis of the combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the addition of granular-activated carbon (GAC) alone or impregnated with palladium as a catalyst (GAC-Pd). A steady-state atmosphere was 4 and 10 kPa for O2 and CO2 in control packages, while it was 8 and 7 kPa for O2 and CO2 in treated ones. The addition of GAC-Pd led to the lower ethylene accumulation inside packages, while the higher was obtained in controls. The parameters related to ripening showed that treated tomatoes exhibited a reduction in color evolution, softening, and weight loss, especially for GAC-Pd treatment. Moreover, these treatments were also effective in delaying tomato decay. After sensorial panel, tomatoes treated with GAC-Pd received the higher scores in terms of sweetness, firmness, juiciness, color, odor, and flavor. Results from the GC-MS analysis of the MAP headspace showed that 23 volatile compounds were identified in control packages, with these volatiles being significantly reduced in MAP-treated packages, which was correlated to the odor intensity detected by panelists after bag opening. PMID:16536601

  18. Use of component analyses to identify active variables in treatment packages for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, L J; Wacker, D P; McComas, J J; Brown, K; Peck, S M; Richman, D; Drew, J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the separate components in treatment packages for food refusal of 4 young children. First, treatment packages were implemented until food acceptance improved. Next, a component analysis was conducted within a multielement or reversal design to identify the active components that facilitated food acceptance. The results indicated that escape extinction was always identified as an active variable when assessed; however, other variables, including positive reinforcement and noncontingent play, were also identified as active variables for 2 of the children. The results suggest that the component analysis was useful for identifying variables that affected food acceptance. PMID:7601802

  19. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  20. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  1. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

  2. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 2: PEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    User power, duration, and orbit requirements, which were the prime factors influencing power extension package (PEP) design, are discussed. A representative configuration of the PEP concept is presented and the major elements of the system are described as well as the PEP-to-Orbiter and remote manipulator interface provisions.

  3. Effect of active packaging on low-sodium restructured chicken steaks.

    PubMed

    Cestari, L A; Gaiotto, R C; Antigo, J L; Scapim, M R S; Madrona, G S; Yamashita, F; Pozza, M S S; Prado, I N

    2015-06-01

    Contributing for a healthier lifestyle, the technology of active and biodegradable packaging with antimicrobial and/or antioxidants compounds and reduced sodium intake have been increasingly applied in meat and meat products. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of oregano essential oil (OEO) and potassium sorbate incorporated in packaging applied to the restructured chicken steaks with 40 % reduction in sodium chloride in frozen storage for 150 days. The composition of packaging did not influence moisture, crude protein, total lipids, ash, sodium and potassium content as well as pH evaluated on days 0 and 150. Salty taste was the only significant indication in the sensory analysis (p < 0.05). The use of 1 % and 0.5 % OEO incorporated in packaging reduced rancidity through lipid oxidation and can be regarded as an active antioxidant; the use of oregano or potassium sorbate in active films caused the development delay effect E. coli. Thus, the use of active packaging may maintain the product quality. PMID:26028718

  4. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched uranium than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the is documented in Reference 4.

  5. Environmental Monitoring System for Home-Delivery Service of Packages by Using MEMS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takayuki; Masaki, Kentaro; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    Nowadays, home-delivery services of packages are imperative in everyday life. These service industries are trying to provide cheaper, faster and safer service. However, package condition and handling during transportation are not disclosed to a customer. In this study, we realized a prototype system by MEMS technology for measuring the environmental conditions around a package for home-delivery service. The system includes barometric pressure, temperature, relative humidity and three dimensional acceleration (shock) sensing devices, as well as an interface circuitry. The system is a size of 115 × 54 × 10 mm3 and a weight of 50 g. We measured the package conditions during the transportation by three Japanese domestic home-delivery services, and using data mining, we were able to obtain a representation of the package's circumstances.

  6. Implementation guide for MINPACK-1. [Package of Fortran subprograms for solution of systems of nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Garbow, B.S.; Hillstrom, K.E.; More, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    MINPACK-1 is a package of Fortran subprograms for the numerical solution of systems of nonlinear equations and nonlinear least-squares problems. This report describes how to implement the package from the tape on which it is transmitted. 3 tables.

  7. Production and Characterization of Active Transparent PET Films for Oxygen Sensitive Foods Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaria Galdi, Maria; Incarnato, Loredana

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate possible solutions to realize active, transparent PET film suitable for packaging oxygen sensitive foods. At this purpose, monolayer active PET films at different oxygen scavenger concentrations and multilayer active ones were produced by cast extrusion laboratory scale equipments. To assess their activity and to verify the efficacy of such solutions, O2 absorption analyses were carried out in continuous by an innovative oxygen meter.

  8. Design Brief--Packaging: More than Just a Box! Communications: Getting the Message across with Advertising. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Each technology learning activity in this article includes content description, objectives, required materials, challenge, and evaluation questions. Subjects are designing product packages and communication through advertising. (SK)

  9. Scheduled vs. on-demand service for a fast package delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jared; Palmer, Kurt; Chan, Martin; Karasi, Anand; Glas, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    Fast Package Delivery refers to the transportation of freight over transpacific distances in a period of hours, and provides opportunity for synergistic development with reusable launch vehicle and HSCT technologies. Previous analyses of this topic have not recognized the bifurcation in the market and system requirements of a Fast Package Delivery service. This market is dichotomized as scheduled service, for less urgent items, operating similar to existing delivery services, and on-demand service, a charter type system for extremely time-sensitive commodities such as assembly line parts. Each of these solutions to the Fast Package Delivery issue has different market and system characteristics.

  10. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  11. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

  12. Progress in waste package and engineered barrier system performance assessment and design

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A.; Harrison, D.

    1993-12-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s evaluation of site suitability for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, long-term interactions between the engineered barrier system and the site must be determined. This requires a waste-package/engineered-system design, a description of the environment around the emplacement zone, and models that simulate operative processes describing these engineered/natural systems interactions. Candidate designs are being evaluated, including a more robust, multi-barrier waste package, and a drift emplacement mode. Tools for evaluating designs, and emplacement mode are the currently available waste-package/engineered-system performance assessment codes development for the project. For assessments that support site suitability, environmental impact, or licensing decisions, more capable codes are needed. Code capability requirements are being written, and existing codes are to be evaluated against those requirements. Recommendations are being made to focus waste-packaging/engineered-system code-development.

  13. Microfluidics on compliant substrates: recent developments in foldable and bendable devices and system packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Bonnie L.

    2012-04-01

    Microfluidics is revolutionizing laboratory methods and biomedical devices, offering new capabilities and instrumentation in multiple areas such as DNA analysis, proteomics, enzymatic analysis, single cell analysis, immunology, point-of-care medicine, personalized medicine, drug delivery, and environmental toxin and pathogen detection. For many applications (e.g., wearable and implantable health monitors, drug delivery devices, and prosthetics) mechanically flexible polymer devices and systems that can conform to the body offer benefits that cannot be achieved using systems based on conventional rigid substrate materials. However, difficulties in implementing active devices and reliable packaging technologies have limited the success of flexible microfluidics. Employing highly compliant materials such as PDMS that are typically employed for prototyping, we review mechanically flexible polymer microfluidic technologies based on free-standing polymer substrates and novel electronic and microfluidic interconnection schemes. Central to these new technologies are hybrid microfabrication methods employing novel nanocomposite polymer materials and devices. We review microfabrication methods using these materials, along with demonstrations of example devices and packaging schemes that employ them. We review these recent developments and place them in the context of the fields of flexible microfluidics and conformable systems, and discuss cross-over applications to conventional rigid-substrate microfluidics.

  14. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  15. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 5, 6, and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These three units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover the physical and chemical properties of water, dehydration of crystals, solutions, acidity, strong and weak bases, neutral properties of salts, amorphous forms of carbon, hydrocarbons, and petroleum products. Each unit contains a…

  16. Decision Making. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenk, Lester G.; Combs, Paul William

    This learning activity package (LAP) on decision making is designed for student self-study. It is intended to help students clarify their values as well as lead them through the steps of making a decision. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the end of the LAP). Ten learning activities…

  17. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

  18. Learning Activity Package, Biology 102, (LAP) Studies 1, 3, and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included are three Learning Activity Package (LAP) studies for use in high school biology: Everything has a Place (Grouping and the Diversity of Life), Energy Relations, and Reproduction. Each LAP contains a rationale for teaching the material included, student objectives (stated in behavioral terms), a list of related resources (books,…

  19. Learning Activity Package, American Civics 92, LAPs 1 Through 3 and 5 Through 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, B. C.

    This self paced program in American Civics is for the ninth grade student who needs help on basic skills and who plans to enroll in vocational or business courses. Instructional materials, written at 9th grade level, consist of eight Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) on the following topics: Citizenship and Our Democracy; The Constitution of the…

  20. Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Machado, Ana Vera; Costa, Helena S

    2014-01-01

    The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to its unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimise food loss and minimise contaminants from industrial production and reutilisation by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed. PMID:24405324

  1. Mountain-Plains Master Course List. Curriculum Areas: Job Titles: Learning Activity Packages: Courses: Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document contains a master listing of all Mountain-Plains curriculum, compiled by job title, course, unit and LAP (Learning Activity Package), and arranged in numerical order by curriculum area. Preceding each curriculum area is a page of explanatory notes describing the curriculum area and including relevant job descriptions. Where a job…

  2. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to time, space, and matter are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Besides the unit on introduction to individualized learning, 11 major topics are incorporated into three other units: (1) observation of the physical world, (2) space and exploration for environmental…

  3. Learning Activity Package, Algebra 93-94, LAPs 12-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of 11 teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, operations over real numbers, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities, equations and inequalities with two variables, solution sets of equations with two variables, exponents, factoring and…

  4. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 8, 9, 10, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover nuclear reactions, alpha and beta particles, atomic radiation, medical use of nuclear energy, fission, fusion, simple machines, Newton's laws of motion, electricity, currents, electromagnetism, Oersted's experiment, sound, light,…

  5. Learning Activity Package, U.S. History 111, LAPs 7 Through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heldreth, Todd

    A set of six teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages for individualized instruction on United States history at the eleventh grade level includes the following units: Colonial Growth; The American Revolution; A New Nation and The Constitution; The Civil War; Exploration, Inventions, and Transportation; and World War I, World War II and the…

  6. Development of a Packaged and Integrated Microturbine/ Chiller Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to define, develop, integrate, and validate at full scale the technology for a 1 MWe, microturbine-driven CHP packaged system for industrial or large commercial applications.

  7. Quantitative Packaging of Active Enzymes into a Protein Cage.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Yusuke; Zschoche, Reinhard; Tinzl, Matthias; Hilvert, Donald

    2016-01-22

    Genetic fusion of cargo proteins to a positively supercharged variant of green fluorescent protein enables their quantitative encapsulation by engineered lumazine synthase capsids possessing a negatively charged lumenal surface. This simple tagging system provides a robust and versatile means of creating hierarchically ordered protein assemblies for use as nanoreactors. The generality of the encapsulation strategy and its effect on enzyme function were investigated with eight structurally and mechanistically distinct catalysts. PMID:26695342

  8. Operating Experience and Lessons Learned in the Use of Soft-Sided Packaging for Transportation and Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, A.; Gordon, S.; Goldston, W.

    2013-07-08

    This paper describes the operating experience and lessons learned at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a result of an evaluation of potential trailer contamination and soft-sided packaging integrity issues related to the disposal of low-level and mixed low-level (LLW/MLLW) radioactive waste shipments. Nearly 4.3 million cubic meters of LLW/MLLW will have been generated and disposed of during fiscal year (FY) 2010 to FY 2015—either at commercial disposal sites or disposal sites owned by DOE. The LLW/MLLW is packaged in several different types of regulatory compliant packaging and transported via highway or rail to disposal sites safely and efficiently in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and DOE orders. In 1999, DOE supported the development of LLW containers that are more volumetrically efficient, more cost effective, and easier to use as compared to metal or wooden containers that existed at that time. The DOE Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), working in conjunction with the plastic industry, tested several types of soft-sided waste packaging systems that meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements for transport of low specific activity and surface contaminated objects. Since then, soft-sided packaging of various capacities have been used successfully by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects to package, transport, and dispose D&D wastes throughout the DOE complex. The joint team of experts assembled by the Energy Facility Contractors Group from DOE waste generating sites, DOE and commercial waste disposal facilities, and soft-sided packaging suppliers conducted the review of soft-sided packaging operations and transportation of these packages to the disposal sites. As a result of this evaluation, the team developed several recommendations and best practices to prevent or minimize the recurrences of equipment contamination issues and proper use of soft-sided packaging for transport

  9. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  10. Active food packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymers: study of the release kinetics of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Otero-Pazos, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Sendón, Raquel; Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Moreno-Bondi, M Cruz; Angulo, Immaculada; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2014-11-19

    A novel active packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed for the controlled release of ferulic acid. The release kinetics of ferulic acid from the active system to food simulants (10, 20, and 50% ethanol (v/v), 3% acetic acid (w/v), and vegetable oil), substitutes (95% ethanol (v/v) and isooctane), and real food samples at different temperatures were studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process were calculated by using a mathematical modeling based on Fick's second law. The ferulic acid release was affected by the temperature as well as the percentage of ethanol of the simulant. The fastest release occurred in 95% ethanol (v/v) at 20 °C. The diffusion coefficients (D) obtained ranged between 1.8 × 10(-11) and 4.2 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s. A very good correlation between experimental and estimated data was obtained, and consequently the model could be used to predict the release of ferulic acid into food simulants and real food samples. PMID:25369799

  11. Single-mode array optoelectronic packaging based on actively aligned planar optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalman, Robert F.; Silva, Edward R.; Knapp, Daniel F.

    1996-03-01

    Packaging of integrated optoelectronic devices (e.g., laser diode arrays and OEICs) is motivated by potential cost savings and the increased functionality of more highly integrated devices. To date, attempts to package integrated optoelectronic devices with arrays of single- mode fibers have tended to exhibit high optical losses. We have developed a single-mode array packaging process based on the use of an intermediate silica-on-silicon planar optical waveguides (POWs) assembly to which optical fibers are attached using V-grooves. By lensing the POWs, we have achieved coupling efficiencies of greater than 50%. The photolithographic registration of the POWs allows a large (greater than or equal to 8) array of POWs with attached fibers to be aligned to an array of optoelectronic devices in a single active alignment procedure. This single active alignment step is well-suited to automation, and our approach is thus well-suited to achieving low cost in a manufacturing environment. We also discuss our positioning and mounting techniques, which provide high-stability coupling in adverse temperature and vibration environments and are compatible with hermetic packaging.

  12. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  13. Impact of Nisin-Activated Packaging on Microbiota of Beef Burgers during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ferrocino, Ilario; Greppi, Anna; La Storia, Antonietta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Beef burgers were stored at 4°C in a vacuum in nisin-activated antimicrobial packaging. Microbial ecology analyses were performed on samples collected between days 0 and 21 of storage to discover the population diversity. Two batches were analyzed using RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The active packaging retarded the growth of the total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of RNA extracted directly from meat showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum, Lactococcus piscium, Lactobacillus sakei, and Leuconostoc carnosum were the major operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between control and treated samples. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence data and RNA-DGGE showed a clear separation between two batches based on the microbiota. Control samples from batch B showed a significant high abundance of some taxa sensitive to nisin, such as Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus xylosus, Leuconostoc carnosum, and Carnobacterium divergens, compared to control samples from batch A. However, only from batch B was it possible to find a significant difference between controls and treated samples during storage due to the active packaging. Predicted metagenomes confirmed differences between the two batches and indicated that the use of nisin-based antimicrobial packaging can determine a reduction in the abundance of specific metabolic pathways related to spoilage. The present study aimed to assess the viable bacterial communities in beef burgers stored in nisin-based antimicrobial packaging, and it highlights the efficacy of this strategy to prolong beef burger shelf life. PMID:26546424

  14. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  15. Migration studies to assess the safety in use of a new antioxidant active packaging.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Laura; Salafranca, Jesús; Sánchez, Cristina; Nerín, Cristina

    2005-06-29

    Both specific and overall migration tests have been applied to new experimental food packaging-active plastic films with antioxidant properties, including in its composition a natural rosemary extract. Determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds migrating from plastic to the four established simulants showed that both specific and overall migration was very low. The results obtained gave values 20 times lower than the established limits in the worst case. So, from the point of view of health risk, the new active packaging can be considered as safe. Analytical procedure used provided the necessary information about the migration behavior, with good analytical characteristics and detection limits in the sub mug kg(-1) range. Besides, no significant difference was found between laboratory and factory-made samples, which is an important issue for industrial production, the next step in the development of the new antioxidant active film. PMID:15969507

  16. Electrophysiological and behavioral activity of (E)-2-hexenal in the granary weevil and its application in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Germinara, G S; Conte, A; De Cristofaro, A; Lecce, L; Di Palma, A; Rotundo, G; Del Nobile, M A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a biodegradable carrier material to control insect pests in cereal products. To this aim, (E)-2-hexenal was used, being a natural compound with antimicrobial activity that is also commonly adopted as a flavoring agent. Three coating layers of polycaprolactone (PCL) were spread onto the internal side of a paperboard carton, the first being the active coating containing (E)-2-hexenal. The antennal sensitivity of Sitophilus granarius to a broad range of doses of (E)-2-hexenal was first demonstrated. Next, the ability of different concentrations of this compound to disrupt the orientation of adult S. granarius beetles to odors of intact wheat kernels was established in a two-choice pitfall bioassay. In addition, invasion tests were carried out over an 8-week period to highlight the effects of the biobased repellent packaging and their potential persistence. The results demonstrated that during the entire monitoring period, the percentage of S. granarius adults found in cartons coated with (E)-2-hexenal-loaded multilayer PCL was about 10 % of the total number of insects used in the bioassay, very low compared with the respective control samples, thus assessing both the effectiveness and persistence of the repellent system developed. Although the infestation level of treated packages was reduced relative to the infestation levels in the controls, any infestation of food packages is unacceptable to consumers, so further tests are required to determine whether infestation can be completely prevented using (E)-2-hexenal. PMID:22289599

  17. A Fruit of Yucca Mountain: The Remote Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Skinner; Greg Housley; Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2011-11-01

    Was the death of the Yucca Mountain repository the fate of a technical lemon or a political lemon? Without caution, this debate could lure us away from capitalizing on the fruits of the project. In March 2009, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully demonstrated the Waste Package Closure System, a full-scale prototype system for closing waste packages that were to be entombed in the now abandoned Yucca Mountain repository. This article describes the system, which INL designed and built, to weld the closure lids on the waste packages, nondestructively examine the welds using four different techniques, repair the welds if necessary, mitigate crack initiating stresses in the surfaces of the welds, evacuate and backfill the packages with an inert gas, and perform all of these tasks remotely. As a nation, we now have a proven method for securely sealing nuclear waste packages for long term storage—regardless of whether or not the future destination for these packages will be an underground repository. Additionally, many of the system’s features and concepts may benefit other remote nuclear applications.

  18. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  19. Application of modified atmosphere packaging (gas flushing and active packaging) for extending the shelf life of Beauveria bassiana conidia at high temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited shelf life has long been a major constraint to the development of fungus-based bioinsecticides (mycoinsecticides). Fungal spores comprising the active ingredients of most products typically lose viability within a few months when stored in conventional packaging at temperatures >30 deg C. Me...

  20. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; Rodriguez-Lafuente, A; Alfaro, P; Nerin, C

    2012-10-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool in the analysis of non-volatile compounds, and the use of a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer allows a high sensitivity and accuracy when acquiring full fragment mode, providing a high assurance of correct identification of unknown compounds. In this work, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology has been applied to the analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials. The materials tested were based on polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The active packaging materials studied were one PP film containing a natural antioxidant, and two PP/EVOH films, two PET/EVOH films and one coextruded PP/EVOH/PP film containing natural antimicrobials. The chemical structure of several compounds was unequivocally identified. The analysis revealed the migration of some of the active substances used in the manufacture of active packaging, such as caffeine (0.07 ± 0.01 μg/g), carvacrol (0.31 ± 0.03 μg/g) and citral (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/g). Unintentionally added substances were also found, such as citral reaction compounds, or citral impurities present in the raw materials. PMID:22836481

  1. Development of expert system for biobased polymer material selection: food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M

    2015-10-01

    Biobased food packaging materials are gaining more attention owing to their intrinsic biodegradable nature and renewability. Selection of suitable biobased polymers for food packaging applications could be a tedious task with potential mistakes in choosing the best materials. In this paper, an expert system was developed using Exsys Corvid software to select suitable biobased polymer materials for packaging fruits, dry food and dairy products. If - Then rule based system was utilized to accomplish the material selection process whereas a score system was formulated to facilitate the ranking of selected materials. The expert system selected materials that satisfied all constraints and selection results were presented in suitability sequence depending on their scores. The expert system selected polylactic acid (PLA) as the most suitable material. PMID:26396389

  2. Control law design to meet constraints using SYNPAC-synthesis package for active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Major features of SYNPAC (Synthesis Package for Active Controls) are described. SYNPAC employs constrained optimization techniques which allow explicit inclusion of design criteria (constraints) in the control law design process. Interrelationships are indicated between this constrained optimization approach, classical and linear quadratic Gaussian design techniques. Results are presented that were obtained by applying SYNPAC to the design of a combined stability augmentation/gust load alleviation control law for the DAST ARW-2.

  3. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information contained in this report includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition.

  4. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  5. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  6. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  7. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  8. Direct determination of carnosic acid in a new active packaging based on natural extract of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Rubio, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2007-11-01

    A new antioxidant film is being developed that incorporates a natural extract of rosemary and is intended for contact with food. The rosemary extract has been screened and carnosic acid and carnosol have been determined as the major antioxidant components (6.96% and 0.88%, respectively) that are responsible for the antioxidant properties of the whole extract. Thus, a fast method for the direct determination of carnosic acid in the packaging material, in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the new active plastic, has been developed and optimized. The method consists of extraction from the plastic with methanol, followed by anion exchange solid-phase extraction and final analysis by UPLC-MS. Using this process, the recovery of carnosic acid is about 99%. The complete analytical performance of the method developed here is also assessed. The analytical features of the method, such as the relative standard deviation, reproducibility, repeatability, linear range, and detection and quantification limits, are shown. This method can be subsequently modified to monitor other active components in different packages, and it constitutes a crucial step forward in research into new and improved commercial antioxidant packages. PMID:17938896

  9. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages. PMID:22406218

  10. Retaining Oxidative Stability of Emulsified Foods by Novel Nonmigratory Polyphenol Coated Active Packaging.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-07-13

    Oxidation causes lipid rancidity, discoloration, and nutrient degradation that decrease shelf life of packaged foods. Synthetic additives are effective oxidation inhibitors, but are undesirable to consumers who prefer "clean" label products. The aim of this study was to improve oxidative stability of emulsified foods by a novel nonmigratory polyphenol coated active packaging. Polyphenol coatings were applied to chitosan functionalized polypropylene (PP) by laccase assisted polymerization of catechol and catechin. Polyphenol coated PP exhibited both metal chelating (39.3 ± 2.5 nmol Fe(3+) cm(-2), pH 4.0) and radical scavenging (up to 52.9 ± 1.8 nmol Trolox eq cm(-2)) capacity, resulting in dual antioxidant functionality to inhibit lipid oxidation and lycopene degradation in emulsions. Nonmigratory polyphenol coated PP inhibited ferric iron promoted degradation better than soluble chelators, potentially by partitioning iron from the emulsion droplet interface. This work demonstrates that polyphenol coatings can be designed for advanced material chemistry solutions in active food packaging. PMID:27310107

  11. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  12. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  13. Prototype residential solar-energy system-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Installation guidelines for architects and engineers discussing solar-heating system built in Togus, Maine are presented. Includes brief, functional description of system and summary of operation. Drawings complement text.

  14. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  15. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  16. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  17. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  18. PLATSIM: A Simulation and Analysis Package for Large-Order Flexible Systems. Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    The software package PLATSIM provides efficient time and frequency domain analysis of large-order generic space platforms. PLATSIM can perform open-loop analysis or closed-loop analysis with linear or nonlinear control system models. PLATSIM exploits the particular form of sparsity of the plant matrices for very efficient linear and nonlinear time domain analysis, as well as frequency domain analysis. A new, original algorithm for the efficient computation of open-loop and closed-loop frequency response functions for large-order systems has been developed and is implemented within the package. Furthermore, a novel and efficient jitter analysis routine which determines jitter and stability values from time simulations in a very efficient manner has been developed and is incorporated in the PLATSIM package. In the time domain analysis, PLATSIM simulates the response of the space platform to disturbances and calculates the jitter and stability values from the response time histories. In the frequency domain analysis, PLATSIM calculates frequency response function matrices and provides the corresponding Bode plots. The PLATSIM software package is written in MATLAB script language. A graphical user interface is developed in the package to provide convenient access to its various features.

  19. EQ3/6, a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems: Package overview and installation guide (Version 7.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-09-14

    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. This report describes version 7.0. The major components of the package include: EQ3NR, a speciation-solubility code; EQ6, a reaction path code which models water/rock interaction or fluid mixing in either a pure reaction progress mode or a time mode; EQPT, a data file preprocessor, EQLIB, a supporting software library; and five supporting thermodynamic data files. The software deals with the concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamic disequilibrium, and reaction kinetics. The five supporting data files contain both standard state and activity coefficient-related data. Three support the use of the Davies or B-dot equations for the activity coefficients; the other two support the use of Pitzer`s equations. The temperature range of the thermodynamic data on the data files varies from 25{degree}C only to 0--300{degree}C. EQPT takes a formatted data file (a data0 file) and writes an unformatted near-equivalent called a datal file, which is actually the form read by EQ3NR and EQ6. EQ3NR is useful for analyzing groundwater chemistry data, calculating solubility limits, and determining whether certain reactions are in states of partial equilibrium or disequilibrium. It is also required to initialize an EQ6 calculation. EQ6 models the consequences of reacting an aqueous solution with a set of reactants which react irreversibly. It can also model fluid mixing and the consequences of changes in temperature. This code operates both in a pure reaction progress frame and in a time frame.

  20. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  1. Documentation pckage for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Of Model 9977 packages at NTS).

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-02-20

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  2. Installation package for SIMS prototype system 2, solar hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The prototype system 2 solar hot water was designed for use in a single family dwelling and consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, energy transport, and control. Guidelines are presented for utilization in the development of detailed installation plans and specifications. Instruction on operation, maintenance, and repair of the system is discussed.

  3. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Vanica

    1995-06-14

    The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

  4. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  5. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  6. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation`s hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation`s system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  7. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  8. Staphylococcal pathogenicity island DNA packaging system involving cos-site packaging and phage-encoded HNH endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Carpena, Nuria; Alonso, Juan C.; Novick, Richard P.; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are the prototypical members of a widespread family of chromosomally located mobile genetic elements that contribute substantially to intra- and interspecies gene transfer, host adaptation, and virulence. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain helper phages and their efficient encapsidation into phage-like infectious particles. Most SaPIs use the headful packaging mechanism and encode small terminase subunit (TerS) homologs that recognize the SaPI-specific pac site and determine SaPI packaging specificity. Several of the known SaPIs do not encode a recognizable TerS homolog but are nevertheless packaged efficiently by helper phages and transferred at high frequencies. In this report, we have characterized one of the non–terS-coding SaPIs, SaPIbov5, and found that it uses two different, undescribed packaging strategies. SaPIbov5 is packaged in full-sized phage-like particles either by typical pac-type helper phages, or by cos-type phages—i.e., it has both pac and cos sites—a configuration that has not hitherto been described for any mobile element, phages included—and uses the two different phage-coded TerSs. To our knowledge, this is the first example of SaPI packaging by a cos phage, and in this, it resembles the P4 plasmid of Escherichia coli. Cos-site packaging in Staphylococcus aureus is additionally unique in that it requires the HNH nuclease, carried only by cos phages, in addition to the large terminase subunit, for cos-site cleavage and melting. PMID:24711396

  9. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design review on the development of a prototype solar heating system for single family dwellings is presented. The collector, storage, transport, control, and site data acquisition subsystems are described.

  10. Design package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains sufficient information to assemble complete tested residential flat-plate solar heating system. Descriptive material provides design, performance, and hardware specifications for utilization by architectural engineers, and contractors in procurement, installation, operation, and maintenance of similar solar applications.

  11. Computer aided system engineering and analysis (CASE/A) modeling package for ECLS systems - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalee, Robert C.; Bacskay, Allen S.; Knox, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the CASE/A-ECLSS series modeling package is presented. CASE/A is an analytical tool that has supplied engineering productivity accomplishments during ECLSS design activities. A components verification program was performed to assure component modeling validity based on test data from the Phase II comparative test program completed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An integrated plotting feature has been added to the program which allows the operator to analyze on-screen data trends or get hard copy plots from within the CASE/A operating environment. New command features in the areas of schematic, output, and model management, and component data editing have been incorporated to enhance the engineer's productivity during a modeling program.

  12. TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-12-29

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.

  13. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  14. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mountain Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton-Davis, C.V.

    2003-09-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  15. Vendor Assessment for the Waste Package Closure System (Yucca Mtn. Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been tasked with developing, designing, constructing, and operating a full-scale prototype of the work package closure system. As a precursor to developing the conceptual design, all commercially available equipment was assessed to identify any existing technology gaps. This report presents the results of that assessment for all major equipment.

  16. Multiple internal seal ring micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum packaging method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum packaging method that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  17. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  18. Multiple internal seal right micro-electro-mechanical system vacuum package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Multiple Internal Seal Ring (MISR) Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) vacuum package that hermetically seals MEMS devices using MISR. The method bonds a capping plate having metal seal rings to a base plate having metal seal rings by wafer bonding the capping plate wafer to the base plate wafer. Bulk electrodes may be used to provide conductive paths between the seal rings on the base plate and the capping plate. All seals are made using only metal-to-metal seal rings deposited on the polished surfaces of the base plate and capping plate wafers. However, multiple electrical feed-through metal traces are provided by fabricating via holes through the capping plate for electrical connection from the outside of the package through the via-holes to the inside of the package. Each metal seal ring serves the dual purposes of hermetic sealing and providing the electrical feed-through metal trace.

  19. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  20. Review and analysis of dense linear system solver package for distributed memory machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narang, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    A dense linear system solver package recently developed at the University of Texas at Austin for distributed memory machine (e.g. Intel Paragon) has been reviewed and analyzed. The package contains about 45 software routines, some written in FORTRAN, and some in C-language, and forms the basis for parallel/distributed solutions of systems of linear equations encountered in many problems of scientific and engineering nature. The package, being studied by the Computer Applications Branch of the Analysis and Computation Division, may provide a significant computational resource for NASA scientists and engineers in parallel/distributed computing. Since the package is new and not well tested or documented, many of its underlying concepts and implementations were unclear; our task was to review, analyze, and critique the package as a step in the process that will enable scientists and engineers to apply it to the solution of their problems. All routines in the package were reviewed and analyzed. Underlying theory or concepts which exist in the form of published papers or technical reports, or memos, were either obtained from the author, or from the scientific literature; and general algorithms, explanations, examples, and critiques have been provided to explain the workings of these programs. Wherever the things were still unclear, communications were made with the developer (author), either by telephone or by electronic mail, to understand the workings of the routines. Whenever possible, tests were made to verify the concepts and logic employed in their implementations. A detailed report is being separately documented to explain the workings of these routines.

  1. Combining simulaton techniques and design expertise in a renewable energy system design package, RESSAD

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.U.; Pryor, T.L.; Remmer, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Computer simulation is an increasingly popular tool for determining the most suitable renewable energy system type, design and control for an isolated community or homestead. However for the user without any expertise in system design, the complicated process of system component and control selection using computer simulation takes on a trial and error approach. Our renewable energy system design package, RESSAD, has been developed to simulate a wide range of renewable power supply systems, and to go beyond system simulation, by combining design expertise with the simulation model. The knowledge of the system designer is incorporated into the package through a range of analysis tools that assist in the selection process, without removing or restricting individual choices. The system selection process is analysed from the early stages of renewable resource assessment to the final evaluation of the results from a simulation of the chosen system. The approach of the RESSAD package in this selection process is described and its use is illustrated by two case studies in Western Australia. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Characterization of laser-optical systems packaged for use in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Michelle; Morelli, Gregg

    2007-09-01

    The characterization of laser-optical subsystems packaged for survivability in harsh environments is crucial for the development of robust laser-optical firing systems. Previously, custom mounts and bonded optical assemblies were environmentally tested to ensure their survivability1. The results verified the sub-assemblies would enable the design of a laser-optical initiation system that could be fielded for use in extreme conditions. A design package, which utilized the proven opto-mechanical sub-assemblies, was selected. This design was based on past experience and desired performance criteria. The packaged laser-optical assembly was tested to the same environmental levels as the sub-assemblies. This test regiment encompassed the harshest environments currently utilized. Temperature tests were performed ranging from a maximum of +75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for a two hour soak at each temperature set point. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three critical axes. Shock tests were performed until failure which was an impulse level of 5700 G's with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse. The laser-optical assembly was visually inspected and functionally tested before and after each test to verify survival. As designed, the system was intended to be hermetically sealed via laser welding. Therefore the visual inspection of the interior was performed post mortem. Experimental results obtained from the environmental tests will be discussed as will their impact on future packaging strategies.

  3. Mid infrared LHS system packaging using flexible waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chung

    1987-01-01

    As mid IR fiber optic systems are rapidly approaching a reality, so is the feasibility of fiber optic laser heterodyne systems. Laser heterodyne spectroscopy for high resolution monitoring of atmospheric gaseous pollutants is necessarily in the mid IR, the region in which the absorption signature of gaseous species is most prominent. It so happens that the lowest theoretical loss due to Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering also lies in the mid IR. Prospects of highly efficient laser heterodyne systems are thus very good. Such fibers are now beginning to be commercially available, and a test program is being conducted for such fibers with ambient temperature ranging from cryogenic to above room, and stringest mechanical flexibility requirements. Preliminary results are encouraging. A program is being started to explore the possibility of mid IR fiber optic device applications, by taking advantage of this phonon rich region. The potential long interaction length in fibers coupled with predicted extremely low losses point to stimulated Brillouin scattering based devices in the mW range. The generation of backscattered sBs at low laser powers is significant not only as an ultimate power limiting factor for laser transmission in fibers in the mid IR, but also the presence of frequency-shifted multiple order sBs Stokes and antiStokes lines will certainly have severe effect on the laser beats crucial in high resolution heterodyne spectroscopy.

  4. Space shuttle/food system study. Package feasibility study, modifications 3S, 4C and 5S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An optimum feeding system for the space shuttle was presented. This system consisted of all rehydratable type foods which were enclosed in a 4 in. x 4 in. x 1 in. flexible package. A feasibility follow-on study was conducted, and two acceptable, feasible prototypes for this package are described.

  5. Assessment of engineered barrier system and design of waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1988-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established two post-closure performance objectives for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in a geologic repository. These require containment of the waste followed by controlled release. The EBS for a repository in unsaturated tuff at Yucca Mountain is designed to meet these performance objectives. The major components are the waste form, container, air gap, and borehole liner. Assessment of post-closure performance of the EBS is based on allocating performance for various components toward meeting overall design objectives. Because of the unprecedented time periods considered, 1000 to 10,000 years, computer modeling is essential and will be used in conjunction with testing to assess whether the performance allocations are met. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Electronic scanning pressure measuring system and transducer package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, C. F. (Inventor); Parra, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    An electronic scanning pressure system that includes a plurality of pressure transducers is examined. A means obtains an electrical signal indicative of a pressure measurement from each of the plurality of pressure transducers. A multiplexing means is connected for selectivity supplying inputs from the plurality of pressure transducers to the signal obtaining means. A data bus connects the plurality of pressure transducers to the multiplexing means. A latch circuit is connected to supply control inputs to the multiplexing means. An address bus is connected to supply an address signal of a selected one of the plurality of pressure transducers to the latch circuit. In operation, each of the pressure transducers is successively scanned by the multiplexing means in response to address signals supplied on the address bus to the latch circuit.

  7. Feature test report for the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1995-03-17

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Equipment Engineering group performed feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) in the 305 Cold Test Facility from January 30, 1995, to February 1, 1995. Feature testing of the Small Debris Collection and Packaging System (SDCPS) was performed for the following reasons: To assess the feasibility of using ``drop-out`` vessels to collect small debris (<2.5 cm) in MK-II fuel canisters while transferring sludge to the Weasel Pit. To evaluate system performance under conditions similar to those in the K-Basins (e.g. submerged under 4.9 meters of water and operated with long handled tools) while using a surrogate sludge mixed with debris. To determine if canister weight could be used to predict the volume of sludge and/or debris contained within the canisters during system operation.

  8. Effectiveness of Active Packaging on Control of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Total Aerobic Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2015-06-01

    Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables. PMID:25974213

  9. Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System Evaluation (Work Package LL1015080425)

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J A; Buscheck, T A; Halsey, W G; Wolery, T

    2010-03-19

    The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) will use a logical process for developing one or more disposal system concepts (also referred to as repository system in this report) for any given waste form and geologic setting combination. In the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) group of work packages, there are seven categories of waste forms and eight categories of geologic setting being studied. The DSEF will also establish a Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) knowledge management system to organize high-level information, data, and assumptions, thereby facilitating consistency in high-level system simulation and economic analyses. This system likely will be housed with the INL-based documentation system. Attention is given to lessons oearned from the systems used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Where reference material from other programs (e.g., international) is used or cited, the knowledge-management system imports the reference material directly or refer to it in bibliography form. Alternative data sets (e.g., from other programs) will also be utilized to evaluate their influence on DSEF analyses for given waste form and disposal-system combinations. The knowledge-management system can also be used to maintain the results of DSEF realizations, enabling the comparison and ranking of various waste-form/disposal-system-environment/disposal-system-design options. Finally, the UFDC knowledge-management system will be able to provide a compendium of 'templates' that can be utilized, in a labor-efficient fashion, to build parallel DSEF analyses (e.g., 'one offs'). The DSEF will not be a stand-alone, push-the-button and wait for the results, item of software. it will use osftware (probably EXCEL, initially), to guide the team members through a logical process of evaluating combinations of waste-form, disposal-syste-environment, and disposal-system design. In later stages, it will utilize software developed

  10. Interfaces between statistical analysis packages and the ESRI geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.

    1980-01-01

    Interfaces between ESRI's geographic information system (GIS) data files and real valued data files written to facilitate statistical analysis and display of spatially referenced multivariable data are described. An example of data analysis which utilized the GIS and the statistical analysis system is presented to illustrate the utility of combining the analytic capability of a statistical package with the data management and display features of the GIS.

  11. Application of Au-Sn eutectic bonding in hermetic radio-frequency microelectromechanical system wafer level packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Choa, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Woonbae; Hwang, Junsik; Ham, Sukjin; Moon, Changyoul

    2006-03-01

    Development of packaging is one of the critical issues toward realizing commercialization of radio-frequency-microelectromechanical system (RF-MEMS) devices. The RF-MEMS package should be designed to have small size, hermetic protection, good RF performance, and high reliability. In addition, packaging should be conducted at sufficiently low temperature. In this paper, a low-temperature hermetic wafer level packaging scheme for the RF-MEMS devices is presented. For hermetic sealing, Au-Sn eutectic bonding technology at temperatures below 300°C is used. Au-Sn multilayer metallization with a square loop of 70 µm in width is performed. The electrical feed-through is achieved by the vertical through-hole via filling with electroplated Cu. The size of the MEMS package is 1 mm × 1 mm × 700 µm. The shear strength and hermeticity of the package satisfies the requirements of MIL-STD-883F. Any organic gases or contamination are not observed inside the package. The total insertion loss for the packaging is 0.075 dB at 2 GHz. Furthermore, the robustness of the package is demonstrated by observing no performance degradation and physical damage of the package after several reliability tests.

  12. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    PubMed

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach. PMID:26528568

  13. The ALEXIS data processing package: An IDL-based system

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.J.; Smith, B.W.; Edwards, B.C.

    1991-12-31

    The ALEXIS experiment is a mini-satellite containing six wide angle EUV/ultrasoft x-ray telescopes. Its purpose is to map out the sky in three narrow (5%) bandpasses around 66, 71, and 93 eV. The 66 and 71 eV bandpasses are centered on intense Fe emission lines which are characteristic of million-degree plasmas such as the one thought to produce the soft x-ray background. The 93 eV bandpass is not near any strong emission lines and is more sensitive to continuum sources. The emission will be launched on the Pegasus Air-Launched Vehicle in the first quarter of 1992 into a 400-nautical-mile, high-inclination orbit and will be controlled entirely from a small ground station located at Los Alamos. The project is a collaborative effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the University of California-Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory. The six telescopes are arranged in three pairs. As the satellite spins twice a minute they scan the entire anti-solar hemisphere. Each f/1 telescope consists of a spherical, multilayer-coated mirror with a curved, microchannel plate detector located at the prime focus. The multilayer coatings determine the bandpasses of the telescopes. The field of each telescope is 30 degrees with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, limited by spherical aberration. The data processing requirements for ALEXIS are large. Each event in one of the six telescopes is telemetered to the ground with its time of arrival and position on the detector. This information must be folded with the aspect solution for the satellite to reconstruct the direction on the sky from which the photon came. Because of the way the six telescopes scan the sky, the effective exposure calculations is also very compute-intensive. ALEXIS may generate up to 100 megabytes of raw data per day, which are converted into a gigabyte per day of processed data. The entire analysis system is built on a set of SPARCstation platforms.

  14. The ALEXIS data processing package: An IDL based system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, J. J.; Smith, B. W.; Edwards, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    processing job for ALEXIS is sizable, the programming staff is small. To maximize programming efficiency, and to make the best use of tools available in the public domain, we chose IDL as our software development platform. IDL was used from the start of instrument development through flight. We use IDL as a top-level executive for the processing tasks (replacing Unix shell scripts), as a device independent graphics engine, as a database manager, and as a final data manipulator. IDL routines spawn special purpose C programs to perform detailed telemetry deconvolution and other specialized functions. We discuss the use of IDL and C within the processing and archiving strategy for the ALEXIS data anlaysis system as implemented on a SPARCstation platform. We also show results from our End-to-End software simulation capability as processed by our analysis codes.

  15. Health and Safety Management Plan for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-04

    This Health and Safety Management Plan (HSMP) presents safety and health policies and a project health and safety organizational structure designed to minimize potential risks of harm to personnel performing activities associated with Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objectives of the Pu SPS are to design, fabricate, install, and startup of a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxides and metals, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. This HSMP is intended as an initial project health and safety submittal as part of a three phase effort to address health and safety issues related to personnel working the Pu SPS project. Phase 1 includes this HSMP and sets up the basic approach to health and safety on the project and addresses health and safety issues related to the engineering and design effort. Phase 2 will include the Site Specific Construction health and Safety Plan (SSCHSP). Phase 3 will include an additional addendum to this HSMP and address health and safety issues associated with the start up and on-site test phase of the project. This initial submittal of the HSMP is intended to address those activities anticipated to be performed during phase 1 of the project. This HSMP is intended to be a living document which shall be modified as information regarding the individual tasks associated with the project becomes available. These modifications will be in the form of addenda to be submitted prior to the initiation of each phase of the project. For additional work authorized under this project this HSMP will be modified as described in section 1.4.

  16. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides. PMID:27198727

  17. Activation of HIV-1 with Nanoparticle-Packaged Small-Molecule Protein Phosphatase-1-Targeting Compound

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kahli A.; Lin, Xionghao; Bolshakov, Oleg; Griffin, James; Niu, Xiaomei; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Ivanov, Andrey; Jerebtsova, Marina; Taylor, Robert E.; Akala, Emmanuel; Nekhai, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Complete eradication of HIV-1 infection is impeded by the existence of latent HIV-1 reservoirs in which the integrated HIV-1 provirus is transcriptionally inactive. Activation of HIV-1 transcription requires the viral Tat protein and host cell factors, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). We previously developed a library of small compounds that targeted PP1 and identified a compound, SMAPP1, which induced HIV-1 transcription. However, this compound has a limited bioavailability in vivo and may not be able to reach HIV-1-infected cells and induce HIV-1 transcription in patients. We packaged SMAPP1 in polymeric polyethylene glycol polymethyl methacrylate nanoparticles and analyzed its release and the effect on HIV-1 transcription in a cell culture. SMAPP1 was efficiently packaged in the nanoparticles and released during a 120-hr period. Treatment of the HIV-1-infected cells with the SMAPP1-loaded nanoparticles induced HIV-1 transcription. Thus, nanoparticles loaded with HIV-1-targeting compounds might be useful for future anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. PMID:26839837

  18. Packaging for logistical support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  19. Design and market study of retrofit photovoltaic system for commercial building and applications. Volume IV. Drawing package

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, G.T.; Hagely, J.R.; Ulmer, R.A.; Ayres, J.G.

    1982-03-01

    Drawing packages including architectural and engineering drawings for the eleven system concepts are provided. Each drawing package includes: an architectural rendering; a site plan; detailed drawings of foundation and support structure; detailed drawings of the electrical wiring and grounding concepts; drawings illustrating thermal energy and control subsystems (where applicable); and a sequence of cartoon-type assembly/installation procedure drawings.

  20. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials. PMID:24345085

  1. Poly(lactic) acid fibers loaded with mesoporous silica for potential applications in the active food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Nanni, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional fibrous systems based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA), mesoporous silica (SiO2) and ascorbic acid (AA) were produced by means of electrospinning technique, for potential applications in the active food packaging sector, as platform for the controlled release of antioxidant and/or antimicrobial agents with the additional filtering function. The ascorbic acid was physisorbed on the surface of mesoporous silica in order to stabilize it and to extend its antioxidant action. The influence of mesoporous silica and ascorbic acid on the microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated, revealing a revelant mechanical reinforcement in the case of fibers loaded only with SiO2 and a decrement in the case of SiO2 with physisorbed ascorbic acid, due to the worse interface between the fillers and the polymeric matrix.

  2. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature heat pipe experiment package power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of a self-contained Direct Energy Transfer Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Low-Temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package is presented. The power system operated successfully for the entire mission. Data recorded by the onboard recorder shows that the system operated within design specifications. Other than unanticipated overcharging of the battery, the power system operated as expected for nearly 32,000 low earth orbit cycles, and was still operational when tested after the LDEF recovery. Some physical damage was sustained by the solar array panels due to micrometeoroid hits, but there were not electrical failures.

  3. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) power system results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Smith E.; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    An overview of a self contained Direct Energy Transfer (DET) Power System which was developed to provide power to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) Experiment. A brief synopsis of the flight characteristics of the power system are presented to illustrate the system's capability to function successfully in a low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. The successful space flight operations of the battery, solar arrays, and power system electronics during the flight period of almost six years (approximately 32,000 LEO cycles) are discussed.

  4. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  5. Next-generation avionics packaging and cooling 'test results from a prototype system'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seals, J. D.

    The author reports on the design, material characteristics, and test results obtained under the US Air Force's advanced aircraft avionics packaging technologies (AAAPT) program, whose charter is to investigate new designs and technologies for reliable packaging, interconnection, and thermal management. Under this program, AT&T Bell Laboratories has completed the preliminary testing of and is evaluating a number of promising materials and technologies, including conformal encapsulation, liquid flow-through cooling, and a cyanate ester backplane. A fifty-two module system incorporating these and and other technologies has undergone preliminary cooling efficiency, shock, sine and random vibration, and maintenance testing. One of the primary objectives was to evaluate the interaction compatibility of new materials and designs with other components in the system.

  6. Programmed packaging of multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2010-05-01

    A programmed packaging strategy to develop a multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system (MENS) is presented. To this end, we took specific advantage of using in-house tailored liposomes that have been recently shown to exhibit intrinsic endosomal rupture properties that allow plasmid DNA to escape from endosomes and to enter the nucleus with extremely high efficiency. Transfection efficiency experiments on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicate that MENS is a promising transfection candidate.

  7. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-01

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics. PMID:26634808

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  9. Mainland China -- An Abacus and the Hoes. Learning Activity Package, Social Studies, Grade 8. [And] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Amy; Kiracofe, Rolland

    Developed for the Carroll County Public Schools, this Learning Activity Package (LAP) for grade 8 offers a way to provide individualized learning about China before the Communists came to power. Learning activities are based on curriculum and audiovisual materials available in the Carroll County Schools. The focus of the unit is on the life styles…

  10. Characterization of poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanocomposites containing hydroxytyrosol for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Ana; Valente, Artur J M; Jiménez, Alfonso; Garrigós, María Carmen

    2014-03-12

    Antioxidant nanobiocomposites based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared by incorporating hydroxytyrosol (HT) and a commercial montmorillonite, Cloisite30B (C30B), at different concentrations. A full structural, thermal, mechanical, and functional characterization of the developed nanobiocomposites was carried out. The presence of the nanoclay and HT increased PCL crystallinity, whereas some decrease in thermal stability was observed. TEM analyses corroborated the good dispersion of C30B into the PCL macromolecular structure as already asserted by XRD tests, because no large aggregates were observed. A reduction in oxygen permeability and an increase in elastic modulus were obtained for films containing the nanoclay. Finally, the presence of the nanoclay produced a decrease in the HT release from films due to some interaction between HT and C30B. Results proved that these nanobiocomposites can be an interesting and environmentally friendly alternative for active food packaging applications with antioxidant performance. PMID:24552402

  11. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 12: PEP data item descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Contractor information requirements necessary to support the power extension package project of the space shuttle program are specified for the following categories of data: project management; configuration management; systems engineering and test; manufacturing; reliability, quality assurance and safety; logistics; training; and operations.

  12. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 5: PEP environmental specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This specification establishes the natural and induced environments to which the power extension package may be exposed during ground operations and space operations with the shuttle system. Space induced environments are applicable at the Orbiter attach point interface location. All probable environments are systematically listed according to each ground and mission phase.

  13. System-in Package of Integrated Humidity Sensor Using CMOS-MEMS Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2015-10-01

    Temperature/humidity microchips with micropump were fabricated using a CMOS-MEMS process and combined with ZigBee modules to implement a sensor system in package (SIP) for a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) and/or a wireless communication system. The current of a diode temperature sensor to temperature and a normalized current of FET humidity sensor to relative humidity showed linear characteristics, respectively, and the use of the micropump has enabled a faster response. A wireless reception module using the same protocol as that in transmission systems processed the received data within 10 m and showed temperature and humidity values in the display. PMID:26726359

  14. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  15. PLATSIM: An efficient linear simulation and analysis package for large-order flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Periman; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    PLATSIM is a software package designed to provide efficient time and frequency domain analysis of large-order generic space platforms implemented with any linear time-invariant control system. Time domain analysis provides simulations of the overall spacecraft response levels due to either onboard or external disturbances. The time domain results can then be processed by the jitter analysis module to assess the spacecraft's pointing performance in a computationally efficient manner. The resulting jitter analysis algorithms have produced an increase in speed of several orders of magnitude over the brute force approach of sweeping minima and maxima. Frequency domain analysis produces frequency response functions for uncontrolled and controlled platform configurations. The latter represents an enabling technology for large-order flexible systems. PLATSIM uses a sparse matrix formulation for the spacecraft dynamics model which makes both the time and frequency domain operations quite efficient, particularly when a large number of modes are required to capture the true dynamics of the spacecraft. The package is written in MATLAB script language. A graphical user interface (GUI) is included in the PLATSIM software package. This GUI uses MATLAB's Handle graphics to provide a convenient way for setting simulation and analysis parameters.

  16. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 7: PEP logistics and training plan requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Recommendations for logistics activities and logistics planning are presented based on the assumption that a system prime contractor will perform logistics functions to support all program hardware and will implement a logistics system to include the planning and provision of products and services to assure cost effective coverage of the following: maintainability; maintenance; spares and supply support; fuels; pressurants and fluids; operations and maintenance documentation training; preservation, packaging and packing; transportation and handling; storage; and logistics management information reporting. The training courses, manpower, materials, and training aids required will be identified and implemented in a training program.

  17. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  18. Enhancement of Integrated Power System Analysis Package Capability by Integration of Object-Oriented Physical System Modeling Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongesombut, Komsan; Takazawa, Tsuyoshi; Tada, Yasuyuki; Mitani, Yasunori

    There are many commercial power system analysis packages available on the market. Although most of these tools are typically computationally efficient, they do not provide the flexibility and ability to simulate generic models of generators or networks. This is cumbersome for research and development purposes. The development of power system models of appropriate fidelity is a key aspect of power system simulation processes. The models must allow all relevant multi-disciplinary modeling criteria, e.g. model structure and data handling, to be computed efficiently, easily, and with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents how the adoption of recent technology on object-oriented physical systems modeling can be implemented with an integrated power system analysis package MidFielder. Used in combination with MidFielder, this can provide the completeness of power system analysis package for industrial, educational and research purposes. In order to realize the proposed interface system, this paper also discusses about methods to manage a large set of power system data by using database technology and means of graphical user interface (GUI).

  19. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  20. A Description and Analysis of the German Packaging Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The German packaging ordinance is an example of legislated extended producer responsibility (also known as product take-back). Consumers can leave packaging with retailers, and packagers are required to pay for their recycling and disposal. It can be considered to be successful in reducing waste, spurring the redesign of packaging to be more…

  1. Antibacterial activity of three Leuconostoc strains isolated from vacuum-packaged processed meats.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, M A; Hastings, J W; von Holy, A

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and fifty lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from vacuum-packaged processed meats were screened for antagonistic activity against various food spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. Nineteen strains produced bacteriocins active against closely related LAB and Listeria strains. Leuconostoc carnosum (LA54a and TA26b) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies dextranicum (TA33a) produced bacteriocins that were susceptible to proteolytic enzymes, but not to catalase, lysozyme or chloroform. They were heat stable up to 100 degrees C for thirty minutes at pH 2 to 7, and exerted a bacteriolytic effect. Bacteriocin production by all Leuconostoc strains was growth associated, occurring at incubation temperatures of 0 degrees C to 30 degrees C and initial medium pH 4.5 to 7.5. Probing of plasmid DNA from the three Leuconostoc strains with an oligonucleotide probe homologous to the nucleotide sequence of leucocin A-UAL 187 indicated plasmid-mediated bacteriocin production. Homology of the three Leuconostoc bacteriocin-coding genes to the amino-terminal end of the leucocin A-UAL 187 gene from Leuconostoc gelidum UAL 187 is therefore suggested. This evidence implies that all three Leuconostoc strains produce type 2, Listeria active bacteriocins. PMID:8071804

  2. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 and 178, or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. The generally accepted method for securing the overpack during shipment is to bolt its base to the trailer bed. International shipments typically are not made using dedicated trailers, and numerous trailers have been received at PORTS with improperly and potentially dangerously secured overpacks. Also, many trailers have not been loaded at PORTS for international shipment because of mechanical problems, rotten flooring, bald tires, no brakes or brake lights, or broken springs. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4 [Report No. WHC-MR-0233].

  3. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  4. FREQ: A computational package for multivariable system loop-shaping procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, Daniel P.; Armstrong, Ernest S.

    1989-01-01

    Many approaches in the field of linear, multivariable time-invariant systems analysis and controller synthesis employ loop-sharing procedures wherein design parameters are chosen to shape frequency-response singular value plots of selected transfer matrices. A software package, FREQ, is documented for computing within on unified framework many of the most used multivariable transfer matrices for both continuous and discrete systems. The matrices are evaluated at user-selected frequency-response values, and singular values against frequency. Example computations are presented to demonstrate the use of the FREQ code.

  5. Fitting Community Based Newborn Care Package into the health systems of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, S R; Kc, N P; Thapa, K; Shrestha, P R; Shedain, P R; Dhakwa, J R; Aryal, D R; Aryal, S; Paudel, D C; Paudel, D; Khanal, S; Bhandari, A; Kc, A

    2011-10-01

    Community-based strategies for delivering effective newborn interventions are an essential step to avert newborn death, in settings where the health facilities are unable to effectively deliver the interventions and reach their population. Effective implementation of community-based interventions as a large scale program and within the existing health system depends on the appropriate design and planning, monitoring and support systems. This article provides an overview of implementation design of Community-Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) program, its setup within the health system, and early results of the implementation from one of the pilot districts. The evaluation of CB-NCP in one of the pilot districts shows significant improvement in antenatal, intrapartum and post natal care. The implementation design of the CB-NCP has six different health system management functions: i) district planning and orientation, ii) training/human resource development, iii) monitoring and evaluation, iv) logistics and supply chain management, v) communication strategy, and vi) pay for performance. The CB-NCP program embraced the existing system of monitoring with some additional components for the pilot phase to test implementation feasibility, and aligns with existing safe motherhood and child health programs. Though CB-NCP interventions are proven independently in different local and global contexts, they are piloted in 10 districts as a "package" within the national health system settings of Nepal. PMID:22929840

  6. Preparing safety data packages for experimenters using the Get Away Special (GAS) carrier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Jerome

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of NSTS 1700.7B and more forceful scruntiny of data packages by the Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) lead to the development of a classification policy for GAS/CAP payloads. The purpose of this policy is to classify experiments using the carrier system so that they receive an appropriate level of JSC review (i.e., one or multiphase reviews). This policy is based on energy containment to show inherent payload safety. It impacts the approach to performing hazard analyses and the nature of the data package. This paper endeavors to explain the impact of this policy as well as the impact of recent JSC as well as Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) 'interpretations' of existing requirements. The GAS canister does adequately contain most experiments when flown in the sealed configuration (however this must be shown, not merely stated). This paper also includes data package preparation guidelines for those experiments that require an opening door which often present unique safety issues.

  7. ESPResSo—an extensible simulation package for research on soft matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbach, H. J.; Arnold, A.; Mann, B. A.; Holm, C.

    2006-05-01

    We describe a new program package that is designed to perform numerical Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a broad class of soft matter systems in a parallel computing environment. Our main concept in developing ESPResSo was to provide a user friendly and fast simulation tool which serves at the same time as a research platform capable of rapidly incorporating the latest algorithmic developments in the field of soft matter sciences. A particular strength of ESPResSo is its efficient treatment of long range interactions for various geometries using sophisticated algorithms like P 3M, MMM2D, MMM1D and ELC. It is already equipped with a broad variety of interaction potentials, thermostats, and ensemble integrators; it offers the usage of constraints, masses and rotational degrees of freedom; it allows to move between different ensembles on-the-fly. An efficient MPI parallelization allows the usage of multi-processor architectures. Strict usage of ANSI-C for the core functions and a Tcl-script driven user interface makes ESPResSo platform independent. This also ensures easily modifiable interfaces to communicate with other MD/MC Packages, real-time visualization and other graphic programs. We tried to maintain a clear program structure to keep ESPResSo extensible for future enhancements and additions. ESPResSo is implemented as an open source project with the goal to stimulate researchers to contribute to the package.

  8. A computer package for optimal multi-objective VAR planning in large scale power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.D. . School of Electrical Engineering); Liu, C.C.; Chen, Y.L. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Hsiao, Y.T.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a simulated annealing based computer package for multi-objective, VAR planning in large scale power systems - SAMVAR. This computer package has three distinct features. First, the optimal VAR planning is reformulated as a constrained, multi-objective, non-differentiable optimization problem. The new formulation considers four different objective functions related to system investment, system operational efficiency, system security and system service quality. The new formulation also takes into consideration load, operation and contingency constraints. Second, it allows both the objective functions and equality and inequality constraints to be non-differentiable; making the problem formulation more realistic. Third, the package employs a two-stage solution algorithm based on an extended simulated annealing technique and the [var epsilon]-constraint method. The first-stage of the solution algorithm uses an extended simulated annealing technique to find a global, non-inferior solution. The results obtained from the first stage provide a basis for planners to prioritize the objective functions such that a primary objective function is chosen and tradeoff tolerances for the other objective functions are set. The primary objective function and the trade-off tolerances are then used to transform the constrained multi-objective optimization problem into a single-objective optimization problem with more constraints by employing the [var epsilon]-constraint method. The second-stage uses the simulated annealing technique to find the global optimal solution. A salient feature of SAMVAR is that it allows planners to find an acceptable, global non-inferior solution for the VAR problem. Simulation results indicate that SAMVAR has the ability to handle the multi-objective VAR planning problem and meet with the planner's requirements.

  9. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used. PMID:26528565

  10. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney M. Shurtliff

    2005-09-01

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system—a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge.

  11. Owning and Operating a Small Business. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Robert P.; Remzi, Kerim

    This learning activity package (LAP) on starting a small business is designed for student self-study. It will help students learn about their aptitudes and abilities as well as about the basics of running a small business. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the end of the LAP). Ten learning…

  12. Novel water-resistant UV-activated oxygen indicator for intelligent food packaging.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chau Hai Thai; Won, Keehoon

    2013-09-01

    For the first time, alginate polymer has been applied to prevent dyes from leaching out of colorimetric oxygen indicator films, which enable people to notice the presence of oxygen in the package in an economic and simple manner. The dye-based oxygen indicator film suffers from dye leaching upon contact with water. In this work, UV-activated visual oxygen indicator films were fabricated using thionine, glycerol, P25 TiO2, and zein as a redox dye, a sacrificial electron donor, UV-absorbing semiconducting photocatalyst, and an encapsulation polymer, respectively. When this zein-coated film was immersed in water for 24h, the dye leakage was as high as 80.80±0.45%. However, introduction of alginate (1.25%) as the coating polymer considerably diminished the dye leaching to only 5.80±0.06%. This is because the ion-binding ability of alginate could prevent the cation dye from leaching into water. This novel water-resistant UV-activated oxygen indicator was also successfully photo-bleached and regained colour fast in the presence of oxygen. PMID:23578614

  13. Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasmas Applied to Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrow, Patrick; Fernandez, Sulmer; Pitts, Marvin

    2008-10-01

    Active packaging of fruits and vegetables uses films that absorb molecules from or contribute molecules to the produce. Applying uniform film to specific parts of a plant will enhance safe and economic adoption of expensive biofilms and biochemicals which would damage the plant or surrounding environment if misapplied. The pilot application will be to apply wax film to apples, replacing hot wax which is expensive and lowers the textural quality of the apple. The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (Argon + monomer) is sufficiently high to yield electron avalanches. The ``corona onset criterion'' is used to design the cold plasma reactor. The apple will be placed in a treatment chamber downstream from the activation zone. Key physical properties of the film will be measured. The deposition rate will be optimized in terms of economics and fruit surface quality for the purpose of determining if the technique is competitive in food processing plants.

  14. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. PMID:24832986

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles for carboxymethylcellulose film applications in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Maria C; Coelho, Gustavo F; de Moura, Márcia R; Bresolin, Joana D; Hubinger, Silviane Z; Marconcini, José M; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-07-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were prepared and incorporated into carboxymethylcellulose films to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications. The techniques carried out for material characterization were: infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis for the silver nanoparticles and films, as well as particle size distribution for the nanoparticles and water vapor permeability for the films. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by casting method was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the silver nanoparticles to test Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms was carried out by the serial dilution technique, tested in triplicate to confirm the concentration used. The results were developed using the Mcfarland scale which indicates that the presence or absence of turbidity tube demonstrates the inhibition of bacteria in relation to the substance inoculated. It was found that the silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of the tested microorganisms. The carboxymethylcellulose film embedded with silver nanoparticles showed the best antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive (E. faecalis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria (0.1 microg cm(-3)). PMID:24758059

  16. Modular modeling system for building distributed hydrologic models with a user-friendly software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, S.; Ray, P. A.; Brown, C.

    2015-12-01

    A software package developed to facilitate building distributed hydrologic models in a modular modeling system is presented. The software package provides a user-friendly graphical user interface that eases its practical use in water resources-related research and practice. The modular modeling system organizes the options available to users when assembling models according to the stages of hydrological cycle, such as potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture accounting, and snow/glacier melting processes. The software is intended to be a comprehensive tool that simplifies the task of developing, calibrating, validating, and using hydrologic models through the inclusion of intelligent automation to minimize user effort, and reduce opportunities for error. Processes so far automated include the definition of system boundaries (i.e., watershed delineation), climate and geographical input generation, and parameter calibration. Built-in post-processing toolkits greatly improve the functionality of the software as a decision support tool for water resources system management and planning. Example post-processing toolkits enable streamflow simulation at ungauged sites with predefined model parameters, and perform climate change risk assessment by means of the decision scaling approach. The software is validated through application to watersheds representing a variety of hydrologic regimes.

  17. Antimicrobial food packaging in meat industry.

    PubMed

    Quintavalla, Stefania; Vicini, Loredana

    2002-11-01

    Antimicrobial packaging, an active packaging concept, can be considered an extremely challenging technology that could have a significant impact on shelf-life extension and food safety of meat and meat products. Use of antimicrobial substances can control the microbial population and target specific microorganisms to provide higher safety and quality products. Many classes of antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures, both synthetic polymers and edible films: organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins, and miscellaneous compounds such as triclosan, silver zeolites, and fungicides. The characteristics of some antimicrobial packaging systems are reviewed in this article. The regulatory status of antimicrobial packaging in EU is also examined. PMID:22061613

  18. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.

  19. Configurations of high-frequency ultrasonics complex vibration systems for packaging in microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Harada, Yoshiki; Ihara, Shigeru; Kasahara, Kohei; Shimizu, Masanori; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic high-frequency complex vibrations are effective for various ultrasonic high-power applications. Three types of ultrasonic complex vibration system with a welding tip vibrating elliptical to circular locus for packaging in microelectronics were studied. The complex vibration sources are using (1) a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with diagonal slits that is driven only by a longitudinal vibration source, (2) a complex transverse vibration rod with several stepped parts that is driven by two longitudinal vibration source crossed at a right angle and (3) a longitudinal vibration circular disk and three longitudinal transducers that are installed at the circumference of the disk. PMID:15047273

  20. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  1. Development of new active packaging films coated with natural phenolic compounds to improve the oxidative stability of beef.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Aurrekoetxea, Goizane P; Angulo, Inmaculada; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto; Cruz, José M

    2014-06-01

    The aim is to develop active packaging films containing natural antioxidants and to evaluate their capacity to enhance the oxidative stability of beef during refrigeration. The antioxidant activity of a natural extract obtained from a brewery residual waste was evaluated and compared with that of a commercial rosemary extract and two synthetic antioxidants (BHT and propyl gallate). Different concentrations of each antioxidant were also added directly to beef samples, resulting in a reduction in lipid oxidation of up to 70-80% relative to the control. Active antioxidant films coated with PVPP-WS extract reduced lipid oxidation by up to 80%, relative to the control, during cold storage. The use of active packaging films containing natural extracts could improve the oxidative stability of meat products and should therefore be of great interest in the food industry. PMID:24598072

  2. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  3. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  4. Laser beam scanning system for irradiation in an external quadrangular form for soldering of quad flat package IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Hitoshi; Homma, Tetsuya

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new soldering process and a system for a quad flat package IC (QFP-IC). The incident line-formed laser beam converted by this system can realize an external quadrangular form line for the non-contact regional heating, to provide thin and light weight electronic packages as required. The laser beam pumped by an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser oscillator is split into four beams. Using a galvano motor, which can scan the reflection mirror with high frequencies, the laser beam can change the heating line. The soldering time for QFP-IC of 100 pins with the 0.65 mm pitch was 6 s. As the regional heating just only junctions, the temperature in the resin package was lower than 141 °C after solder fusion. From the experimental result, it is confirmed that this method is less damage to a resin package than a conventional whole heating method.

  5. Development of wheat gluten/nanocellulose/titanium dioxide nanocomposites for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    El-Wakil, Nahla A; Hassan, Enas A; Abou-Zeid, Ragab E; Dufresne, Alain

    2015-06-25

    Bionanocomposites were developed by casting/evaporation of wheat gluten (WG), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and TiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of addition of different percentages of CNC, and TiO2 on tensile strength (TS), Young's modulus and water sensitivity was studied. A significant improvement in the studied properties is observed when 7.5% CNC and 0.6% TiO2 is added to WG. WG/CNC 7.5%/0.6% TiO2 blend suspension was chosen to coat commercial packaging unbleached kraft paper sheets via 1, 2 and 3 coating layers. A significant enhancement of 56% and 53% in breaking length and burst index, respectively, was achieved for 3 layers coated paper. The antimicrobial activity of the coated papers, against Saccharomyces cervisiae, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, was investigated and expressed in terms of reduction % of surviving number (CFU) of the tested organisms. More than 98.5% reduction in CFU was observed against the organisms compared to TiO2-free coated paper. PMID:25839828

  6. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. pyunicorn is available online at https://github.com/pik-copan/pyunicorn. Reference: J.F. Donges, J. Heitzig, B. Beronov, M. Wiedermann, J. Runge, Q.-Y. Feng, L. Tupikina, V. Stolbova, R.V. Donner, N. Marwan, H.A. Dijkstra, and J. Kurths, Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package, Chaos 25, 113101 (2015), DOI: 10.1063/1.4934554, Preprint: arxiv.org:1507.01571 [physics.data-an].

  7. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system- Interim topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials.

  8. Modular avionics packaging standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.; McNichols, J. K.

    The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology independence with common functions, improved maintainability and life cycle costs are discussed. Progress made in MAP is briefly reviewed.

  9. Antioxidant activities of curcumin and ascorbyl dipalmitate nanoparticles and their activities after incorporation into cellulose-based packaging films.

    PubMed

    Sonkaew, Piyapong; Sane, Amporn; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2012-05-30

    Curcumin (Ccm) and ascorbyl dipalmitate (ADP) nanoparticles (NPs) with average sizes of ∼50 and ∼80 nm, respectively, were successfully produced by rapid expansion of subcritical solutions into liquid solvents (RESOLV). Pluronic F127 was employed as a stabilizer for both Ccm- and ADP-NPs in an aqueous receiving solution. Antioxidant activities of the Ccm-NPs and ADP-NPs were subsequently investigated using four assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation decolorization, β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Ccm-NPs and ADP-NPs showed higher antioxidant activities than those of Ccm and ADP. Ccm-NPs yielded higher antioxidant activities than those of Ccm in ethanol and water (Ccm-EtOH and Ccm-H(2)O), respectively. ADP-NPs yielded lower antioxidant activities than that of ADP in ethanol (ADP-EtOH) but higher activities than that of ADP in water (ADP-H(2)O). Moreover, incorporation of Ccm-NPs and ADP-NPs into cellulose-based films indicated that Ccm-NPs and ADP-NPs significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities of Ccm and ADP (p < 0.05). Our results show that the environmentally benign supercritical CO(2) technique should be generally applicable to NP fabrication of other important bioactive ingredients, especially in liquid form. In addition, we suggest that Ccm-NPs and ADP-NPs can be used to reduce the dosage of Ccm and ADP and improve their bioavailability, and thus merit further investigation for antioxidant packaging film and coating applications. PMID:22583595

  10. PCG: A software package for the iterative solution of linear systems on scalar, vector and parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.; Carey, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    A great need exists for high performance numerical software libraries transportable across parallel machines. This talk concerns the PCG package, which solves systems of linear equations by iterative methods on parallel computers. The features of the package are discussed, as well as techniques used to obtain high performance as well as transportability across architectures. Representative numerical results are presented for several machines including the Connection Machine CM-5, Intel Paragon and Cray T3D parallel computers.

  11. Solar cell activation system

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian, L.

    1983-07-05

    A system for activating solar cells involves the use of phosphorescent paint, the light from which is amplified by a thin magnifying lens and used to activate solar cells. In a typical system, a member painted with phosphorescent paint is mounted adjacent a thin magnifying lens which focuses the light on a predetermined array of sensitive cells such as selenium, cadmium or silicon, mounted on a plastic board. A one-sided mirror is mounted adjacent the cells to reflect the light back onto said cells for purposes of further intensification. The cells may be coupled to rechargeable batteries or used to directly power a small radio or watch.

  12. The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) Modeling Package for Space Vehicle Flow System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jason; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) is a modeling software package that combines nodal analysis and the hydraulic-electric analogy to simulate fluid, electrical, and thermal flow systems. GUNNS is developed by L-3 Communications under the TS21 (Training Systems for the 21st Century) project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), primarily for use in space vehicle training simulators at JSC. It has sufficient compactness and fidelity to model the fluid, electrical, and thermal aspects of space vehicles in real-time simulations running on commodity workstations, for vehicle crew and flight controller training. It has a reusable and flexible component and system design, and a Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing capability for rapid GUI-based simulator development, ease of maintenance, and associated cost savings. GUNNS is optimized for NASA's Trick simulation environment, but can be run independently of Trick.

  13. An implementation of the HACCP system in the production of food-packaging material.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, A-M; Sillanpää, J; Sipiläinen-Malm, T; Weber, A; Raaska, L

    2002-04-01

    The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system according to the Codex Alimentarius model was applied to the processes of five paper and paperboard mills and four plants further converting paper or board intended for contact with foodstuffs. The generalised flow diagrams of the processes are presented. Each of the overall processes contained 40-150 process steps. Normally three to five sessions with HACCP teams and additional private negotiations were needed for each mill or plant. Hazards leading to critical control points (CCPs) were microbiological (handling/storage, circulation water, starch, process environment) and physical (process environment) in mills, and microbiological (storage, lacquers or glues, packaging and process environment), chemical (printing) and physical (storage of products, packaging and process environment) in plants. Specifications, critical limits (e.g., based on different kinds of reports and instructions), monitoring methods (microbiological and visual) and frequency, responsibilities and corrective actions of the processes are presented. Most of the improvements focused on improving the process environment. In five cases, hygiene training was included in the implementation of the HACCP system. PMID:11986922

  14. Online Data Monitoring Framework Based on Histogram Packaging in Network Distributed Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, T.; Cabarera, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kuze, M.; Sakamoto, Y.

    2011-12-01

    "Online monitor framework" is a new general software framework for online data monitoring, which provides a way to collect information from online systems, including data acquisition, and displays them to shifters far from experimental sites. "Monitor Server", a core system in this framework gathers the monitoring information from the online subsystems and the information is handled as collections of histograms named "Histogram Package". Monitor Server broadcasts the histogram packages to "Monitor Viewers", graphical user interfaces in the framework. We developed two types of the viewers with different technologies: Java and web browser. We adapted XML based file for the configuration of GUI components on the windows and graphical objects on the canvases. Monitor Viewer creates its GUIs automatically with the configuration files.This monitoring framework has been developed for the Double Chooz reactor neutrino oscillation experiment in France, but can be extended for general application to be used in other experiments. This document reports the structure of the online monitor framework with some examples from the adaption to the Double Chooz experiment.

  15. WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grime, G. W.

    2013-07-01

    The software package TRAX was a simulation tool for modelling the path of charged particles through linear cylindrical multipole fields described by analytical expressions and was a development of the earlier OXRAY program (Grime and Watt, 1983; Grime et al., 1982) [1,2]. In a 2005 comparison of raytracing software packages (Incerti et al., 2005) [3], TRAX/OXRAY was compared with Geant4 and Zgoubi and was found to give close agreement with the more modern codes. TRAX was a text-based program which was only available for operation in a now rare VMS workstation environment, so a new program, WinTRAX, has been developed for the Windows operating system. This implements the same basic computing strategy as TRAX, and key sections of the code are direct translations from FORTRAN to C++, but the Windows environment is exploited to make an intuitive graphical user interface which simplifies and enhances many operations including system definition and storage, optimisation, beam simulation (including with misaligned elements) and aberration coefficient determination. This paper describes the program and presents comparisons with other software and real installations.

  16. The effect of two packaging systems on the post-thaw characteristics of canine sperm.

    PubMed

    Strzeżek, R; Polakiewicz, P; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different packaging systems on some parameters of cryopreserved canine spermatozoa. The experimental material consisted of the sperm-rich fractions of ejaculates collected from four Beagle dogs. Semen samples for cryopreservation were stored in 0.25 ml plastic straws and two aluminum tubes with a total volume of 5.0 ml. Semen was frozen in static nitrogen vapor for 10 minutes (0.25 ml straws) or 15 and 20 minutes (aluminum tubes). Post-thaw assessments involved the determination of sperm motility parameters using a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA), sperm plasma membrane integrity (SPMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Regardless of the packaging system applied, no significant differences in total sperm motility (TMOT) or selected kinematic parameters were observed after freezing-thawing. However, spermatozoa frozen in 0.25 mL straws were characterized by improved functionality, in particular mitochondrial function, after thawing. The results indicate that large quantities of canine semen can be frozen in aluminum tubes. Further studies are required, however, to evaluate different freezing and thawing rates of aluminum tubes. PMID:26172172

  17. A MATLAB-based planar array design assistant package with applications to meteor radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, C.; Palo, S.

    Interferometric techniques are commonly used in all-sky meteor radar systems for meteor location determination Essentially interferometric techniques use the phase information recorded from different receiving antennas to estimate the elevation and azimuth of the meteors Prior efforts have been made to determine an antenna geometry that improves the performance of meteor radar systems For example Hocking and Thayaparan 1997 used four antennas typically spaced by 1 5 to 3 wavelengths to locate the meteors Jones 1992 and Hocking 1997 presented an antenna geometry using a 5 element array with minimum antenna spacing of 2 wavelengths to estimate the direction of arrival DOA of the meteors By spacing the antennas more than 2 wavelength apart these array geometries were successful in reducing the electromagnetic coupling effect between the antennas which can introduce errors in the estimation of meteor locations Without a clear metric for performance it is difficult to compare geometries In this work a MATLAB planar antenna array package mainly designed for visualization of the direction of arrival DOA estimation performance of arbitrary user designed antenna array is presented Performance comparisons of nominal array geometries are also provided Several metrics are available in this package in an effort to provide the user with a comprehensive examination of an array s performance The metrics are the Cramer-Rao bound CRB which is the minimum variance that can be obtained for any unbiased estimator the co-array the

  18. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  19. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  20. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  1. Preparation of ultrasound microbubbles crosslinked to albumin nanoparticles packaged with tissue-type plasminogen activator gene plasmid and method of in vivo transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji; Shang-Yi, Ji; Xia, He; Wen-Ping, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Aims To observe the effect of constructed ultrasound microbubble crosslinked to albium nanoparticles packaged with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gene plasmid on the in vivo transfection. Methods The rabbits were chosen for all experiments. A highly expressive gene plasmid for tPA was constructed and packaged into a prepared nanoparticle with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This albium nanoparticle packaged with tPA gene plasmid was crosslinked to an ultrasound microbubble prepared with BSA and sucrose to form a nano-targeting vector system for tPA gene transfection. The transfection and effective expression of tPA in heart, liver, leg skeletal muscle and the cervical rib were detected with polyclonal antibodies to tPA using immunohistochemical method; the tPA level and D-dimer content of blood were also tested. Results The expression of tPA could be seen in the tissues mentioned above, with the increase in blood tPA level and D-dimer content from 0.20 ± 0.05 µg/L and 81.76 ± 9.84 µg/L before the operation, to the higher levels of 0.44 ± 0.05 µg/L and 669.28 ± 97.74 µg/L after transfection. Conclusion The nano-targeting vector system for tPA gene was contructed successfully. This provides a new theory and experimental method for the nano-targeted transgene.

  2. Modeling and analysis of equipment managers in manufacturing execution systems for semiconductor packaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F T; Yang, H C; Luo, T L; Feng, C; Jeng, M

    2000-01-01

    Equipment Managers (EMs) play a major role in a Manufacturing Execution System (MES). They serve as the communication bridge between the components of an MES and the equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel methodology for developing analytical and simulation models for the EM such that the validity and performance of the EM can be evaluated. Domain knowledge and requirements are collected from a real semiconductor packaging factory. By using IDEFO and state diagrams, a static functional model and a dynamic state model of the EM are built. Next, these two models are translated into a Petri net model. This allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. The EM net model is then expanded into the MES net model. Therefore, the performance of an EM in the MES environment can be evaluated. These evaluation results are good references for design and decision making. PMID:18252408

  3. An Inverter Packaging Scheme for an Integrated Segmented Traction Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin; Ayers, Curtis William; Wiles, Randy H

    2013-01-01

    The standard voltage source inverter (VSI), widely used in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) traction drives, requires a bulky dc bus capacitor to absorb the large switching ripple currents and prevent them from shortening the battery s life. The dc bus capacitor presents a significant barrier to meeting inverter cost, volume, and weight requirements for mass production of affordable EVs/HEVs. The large ripple currents become even more problematic for the film capacitors (the capacitor technology of choice for EVs/HEVs) in high temperature environments as their ripple current handling capability decreases rapidly with rising temperatures. It is shown in previous work that segmenting the VSI based traction drive system can significantly decrease the ripple currents and thus the size of the dc bus capacitor. This paper presents an integrated packaging scheme to reduce the system cost of a segmented traction drive.

  4. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V.; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology.

  5. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package.

    PubMed

    Donges, Jonathan F; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. PMID:26627561

  6. Advanced optical system simulation in a coupled CAD/optical analysis package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Michael A.; Campillo, Chris J.; Jenkins, David G.

    1999-05-01

    Software packages capable of simulating complex optical systems have the power to shorten the design process for non-imaging illumination, projection display, and other imaging illumination systems, Breault Research Organization's Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) and Robert McNeel and Associates' Rhinoceros computer aided design software, together, allow complicated optical systems to be simulated and analyzed. Through the use of Rhinoceros, an optical system can be accurately modeled in a 3D design environment. ASAP is then used to assign optical properties to the Rhinoceros CAD model. After the optical system has been characterized, it can be analyzed and optimized, by way of features specific to the ASAP optical analysis engine. Using this simulation technique, an HID arc source manufactured by Ushio America, Inc. is accurately represented. 2D CCD images are gathered for the source's emitting-volume across its spectral bandwidth. The images are processed within ASAP, via the inverse Abel command, to produce a 3D emitting-volume. This emitting-volume is combined with an accurate model of the source geometry and its optical properties, to finalize a functioning virtual source model. The characterized source is then joined with a simulated optical system for detailed performance analysis: namely, a projection display system.

  7. Characterization of the Aerosol Instrument Package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Berg, Marcel; Tettig, Frank; Franke, Harald; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2C) consists of two modified Butanol based CPCs (Model Grimm 5.410) and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). A thermodenuder at 250°C is placed upstream the second CPC, thus the number concentrations of the total aerosol and the non-volatile aerosol fraction is measured. The Sky OPC measures the size distribution in the rage theoretically up to 32 μ m. Because of the inlet cut off diameter of D50=3 μ m we are using the 16 channel mode in the range of 250 nm - 2.5 μ m at 1 Hz resolution. In this presentation the IAGOS Aerosol package is characterized for pressure levels relevant for the planned application, down to cruising level of 150 hPa including the inlet system. In our aerosol lab we have tested the system against standard instrumentation with different aerosol test substances in a long duration test. Particle losses are characterized for the inlet system. In addition first results for airborne measurements are shown from a first field campaign.

  8. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and

  9. Evidence for Lipid Packaging in the Crystal Structure of the GM2-Activator Complex with Platelet Activating Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Christine S.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2010-11-16

    GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP) is a lipid transfer protein that has the ability to stimulate the enzymatic processing of gangliosides as well as T-cell activation through lipid presentation. Our previous X-ray crystallographic studies of GM2-AP have revealed a large lipid binding pocket as the central overall feature of the structure with non-protein electron density within this pocket suggesting bound lipid. To extend these studies, we present here the 2 {angstrom} crystal structure of GM2-AP complexed with platelet activating factor (PAF). PAF is a potent phosphoacylglycerol whose toxic patho-physiological effects can be inhibited by GM2-AP. The structure shows an ordered arrangement of two bound lipids and a fatty acid molecule. One PAF molecule binds in an extended conformation within the hydrophobic channel that has an open and closed conformation, and was seen to contain bound phospholipid in the low pH apo structure. The second molecule is submerged inside the pocket in a U-shaped conformation with its head group near the single polar residue S141. It was refined as lyso-PAF as it lacks electron density for the sn-2 acetate group. The alkyl chains of PAF interact through van der Waals contacts, while the head groups bind in different environments with their phosphocholine moieties in contact with aromatic rings (Y137, F80). The structure has revealed further insights into the lipid binding properties of GM2-AP, suggesting an unexpected unique mode of lipid packaging that may explain the efficiency of GM2-AP in inhibiting the detrimental biological effects of PAF.

  10. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  11. Innovative Soft-Sided Waste Packaging System Implementation at a Small Department of Energy Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, J.

    2002-02-28

    Weiss Associates (WA) performs a broad range of environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the former Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR), University of California, Davis (UC Davis). Over the last three years, the LEHR ER/WM program transitioned from a baseline packaging system of steel, 2.7 cubic meter (3.5-cubic yard) B-25 boxes to a 7.0 cubic meter (9.1-cubic yard) soft-sided container (Lift Liner) system. The transition increased efficiencies in processing, packaging, and storage, and when combined with decreased procurement costs, achieved a $402,000 cost savings (Table I). Additional disposal costs between $128,600 and $182,600 were avoided by minimizing void space. Future cost savings by the end of fiscal year 2003 are projected between $250,640 and $1,003,360.

  12. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  13. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  14. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  15. Effect of chitosan based active packaging film on the keeping quality of chilled stored barracuda fish.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Mohan, C O; Bindu, J; Sivaraman, G K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, active antimicrobial (AM) packaging films were prepared from chitosan (CH) incorporated with ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % v/v) and characterized. GC-MS analysis revealed zingiberene (22.54 ± 0.13), geranial (12.34 ± 0.33), β-sesquiphellandrene (8.14 ± 0.14), camphene (7.44 ± 0.54) and neral (5.45 ± 0.23) as the major components of essential oil extracted from ginger. Addition of ginger essential oil (GEO) improved the AM activity of the CH film against food borne pathogens, without significantly (p < 0.05) affecting the mechanical properties of the film. CH film with GEO was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and maximum antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was shown by 0.3 % GEO added CH film. In a further experiment, steaks of barracuda (Sphyraena jello) fish were wrapped with the CH-GEO (0.3 %) film and stored at 2 °C for 20 days. Throughout the storage period, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and total mesophilic count of fish steak wrapped with the CH-GEO film were significantly (p < 0.05) lesser than both the unwrapped control fish steak and aerobically packed fish steak in synthetic multilayer film of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (nylon, EVOH and polyethylene). Sensorily, CH-GEO film wrapped sample was acceptable till the end of storage for 20 days compared to 12 days for unwrapped control and fish steak packed in EVOH film. The results indicate that the developed CH-GEO film is efficient in extending the storage life of fish. PMID:26787988

  16. A numerical simulation package for analysis of neutronics and thermal fluids of space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J. ); Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C. )

    1993-01-20

    A system of computer codes for engineering simulation and in-depth analysis of nuclear and thermal fluid design of nuclear thermal rockets is developed. The computational system includes a neutronic solver package, a thermal fluid solver package and a propellant and materials property package. The Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system code is incorporated with computational modules specific to nuclear powered engines. ROCETS features a component based performance architecture that interfaces component modules into the user designed configuration, interprets user commands, creates an executable FORTRAN computer program, and executes the program to provide output to the user. Basic design features of the Pratt Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket concept and its operational performance are analyzed and simulated.

  17. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  18. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  19. A systems approach to solder joint fatigue in spacecraft electronic packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Differential expansion induced fatigue resulting from temperature cycling is a leading cause of solder joint failures in spacecraft. Achieving high reliability flight hardware requires that each element of the fatigue issue be addressed carefully. This includes defining the complete thermal-cycle environment to be experienced by the hardware, developing electronic packaging concepts that are consistent with the defined environments, and validating the completed designs with a thorough qualification and acceptance test program. This paper describes a useful systems approach to solder fatigue based principally on the fundamental log-strain versus log-cycles-to-failure behavior of fatigue. This fundamental behavior has been useful to integrate diverse ground test and flight operational thermal-cycle environments into a unified electronics design approach. Each element of the approach reflects both the mechanism physics that control solder fatigue, as well as the practical realities of the hardware build, test, delivery, and application cycle.

  20. CAST: a new program package for the accurate characterization of large and flexible molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Christoph; Becker, Johannes; Weber, Daniel; Bellinger, Daniel; Tafipolski, Maxim; Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2014-09-15

    The presented program package, Conformational Analysis and Search Tool (CAST) allows the accurate treatment of large and flexible (macro) molecular systems. For the determination of thermally accessible minima CAST offers the newly developed TabuSearch algorithm, but algorithms such as Monte Carlo (MC), MC with minimization, and molecular dynamics are implemented as well. For the determination of reaction paths, CAST provides the PathOpt, the Nudge Elastic band, and the umbrella sampling approach. Access to free energies is possible through the free energy perturbation approach. Along with a number of standard force fields, a newly developed symmetry-adapted perturbation theory-based force field is included. Semiempirical computations are possible through DFTB+ and MOPAC interfaces. For calculations based on density functional theory, a Message Passing Interface (MPI) interface to the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-accelerated TeraChem program is available. The program is available on request. PMID:25056524

  1. [Computerized barcode operational system for package of surgical instruments in operating room].

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Lan; Liu, Yu-Chu; Shih, Whie-Mei; Wu, Shu-Chu; Lee, Hsiu-Fang; Lin, Chau-Tzu

    2008-10-01

    About 8,000 people die every year in Taiwan as a result of nosocomial infection. Clinically, there is a high possibility for patients to contract nosocomial infection if medical equipment is not completely sterilized. In order to provide care and safety to patients in the operating room, increase management effectiveness and efficiency, and to reduce equipment operating costs, a project was developed to improve operating room management through data collection and analysis. A computerized barcode operational system for packages of surgical instruments was developed and executed throughout an entire operating room. The results showed that average time spent searching for surgical instruments decreased by 2,872 minutes (47.8hrs/month), 150% of the target figure; computerized monitoring of equipment expiration dates reduced total cost by 29.2% abnormal recognition of equipment tags was reduced to 0%. This project is the first one of its kind in the world. PMID:18836975

  2. Flight activity of 4-lb Australian package bee colonies used for almond pollination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing acreage of almonds in California has increased the demand for honey bee colonies for pollination. Since 2005, domestic U.S. colonies have been supplemented with colonies started from package bees imported from Australia. The need for almond pollination in late winter in California fits we...

  3. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  4. Development of a Robust and Integrated Methodology for Predicting the Reliability of Microelectronic Packaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah-Adl, Ali

    Ball Grid Array (BGA) using lead-free or lead-rich solder materials are widely used as Second Level Interconnects (SLI) in mounting packaged components to the printed circuit board (PCB). The reliability of these solder joints is of significant importance to the performance of microelectronics components and systems. Product design/form-factor, solder material, manufacturing process, use condition, as well as, the inherent variabilities present in the system, greatly influence product reliability. Accurate reliability analysis requires an integrated approach to concurrently account for all these factors and their synergistic effects. Such an integrated and robust methodology can be used in design and development of new and advanced microelectronics systems and can provide significant improvement in cycle-time, cost, and reliability. IMPRPK approach is based on a probabilistic methodology, focusing on three major tasks of (1) Characterization of BGA solder joints to identify failure mechanisms and obtain statistical data, (2) Finite Element analysis (FEM) to predict system response needed for life prediction, and (3) development of a probabilistic methodology to predict the reliability, as well as, the sensitivity of the system to various parameters and the variabilities. These tasks and the predictive capabilities of IMPRPK in microelectronic reliability analysis are discussed.

  5. Afghanistan's basic package of health services: its development and effects on rebuilding the health system.

    PubMed

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional. PMID:24865404

  6. Afghanistan's Basic Package of Health Services: Its development and effects on rebuilding the health system

    PubMed Central

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Feroz, Ferozuddin; Stanekzai, Hedayatullah

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, Afghanistan's Ministry of Public Health inherited a devastated health system and some of the worst health statistics in the world. The health system was rebuilt based on the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS). This paper examines why the BPHS was needed, how it was developed, its content and the changes resulting from the rebuilding. The methods used for assessing change were to review health outcome and health system indicator changes from 2004 to 2011 structured along World Health Organisation's six building blocks of health system strengthening. BPHS implementation contributed to success in improving health status by translating policy and strategy into practical interventions, focusing health services on priority health problems, clearly defining the services to be delivered at different service levels and helped the Ministry to exert its stewardship role. BPHS was expanded nationwide by contracting out its provision of services to non-governmental organisations. As a result, access to and utilisation of primary health care services in rural areas increased dramatically because the number of BPHS facilities more than doubled; access for women to basic health care improved; more deliveries were attended by skilled personnel; supply of essential medicines increased; and the health information system became more functional. PMID:24865404

  7. Space shuttle food system study: Food and beverage package development, modification 8S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A new, highly utile rehydration package was developed for foods in zero gravity. Rehydratable foods will become more acceptable as a result of their overall rehydration capability and improved palatability. This new package design is greatly enhanced by the specified spacecraft condition of atmospheric pressure; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the package carries the functional responsibility for rapid food rehydration without excess package manipulation by the consumer. Crew acceptance will further be enhanced by less manipulation, hotter rehydration water temperatures and the ability to hold the foods at preparation temperatures until they are consumed.

  8. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  9. A new control system hardware architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope prime focus instrument package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramiller, Chuck; Taylor, Trey; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.; Rafal, Marc; Savage, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) will be undergoing a major upgrade as a precursor to the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX‡). As part of this upgrade, the Prime Focus Instrument Package (PFIP) will be replaced with a new design that supports the HETDEX requirements along with the existing suite of instruments and anticipated future additions. This paper describes the new PFIP control system hardware plus the physical constraints and other considerations driving its design. Because of its location at the top end of the telescope, the new PFIP is essentially a stand-alone remote automation island containing over a dozen subsystems. Within the PFIP, motion controllers and modular IO systems are interconnected using a local Controller Area Network (CAN) bus and the CANOpen messaging protocol. CCD cameras that are equipped only with USB 2.0 interfaces are connected to a local Ethernet network via small microcontroller boards running embedded Linux. Links to ground-level systems pass through a 100 m cable bundle and use Ethernet over fiber optic cable exclusively; communications are either direct or through Ethernet/CAN gateways that pass CANOpen messages transparently. All of the control system hardware components are commercially available, designed for rugged industrial applications, and rated for extended temperature operation down to -10 °C.

  10. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  11. Evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Nisin, Lysozyme and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate incorporated in starch based active food packaging film.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sugandha; Bharti, Anoop

    2015-06-01

    The pleothera of micro organisms obtained from contaminated food cultured in a starch broth was effectively tested against antibacterial agents, i.e. nisin, lysozyme and chelating agent EDTA. A variety of combination treatments of these antimicrobial agents and their incorporation in Starch based active packaging film according to their permissibility standards was done. 4 variables of Nisin concentration (ranging from 0 to 750 IU/ml), 3 variables of lysozyme concentration (ranging from 0 to 500 IU/ml) and 3 variables of EDTA concentration from (0 to 20 μM) were chosen. Bacterial inhibition by combination of different levels of different factors without antimicrobial films was evaluated using a liquid incubation method. The samples were assayed for turbidity at interval of 2, 4 and 24 h to check effectiveness of combined effects of antimicrobial agents which proved a transitory bactericidal effect for short incubation times. Zone of Inhibition was observed in the antimicrobial films prepared by agar diffusion method. Statistical analysis of experimental data for their antimicrobial spectrum was carried out by multi regression analysis and ANOVA using Design-Expert software to plot the final equation in terms of coded factors as antimicrobial agents. The experimental data indicated that the model was highly significant. Results were also evaluated graphically using response surface showing interactions between two factors, keeping other factor fixed at values at the center of domain. Synergy was also determined among antibacterial agents using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index which was observed to be 0.56 supporting the hypothesis that nisin and EDTA function as partial synergistically. The presented work aimed to screen in quick fashion the combinatorial effect of three antimicrobial agents and evaluating their efficacy in anti microbial film development. PMID:26028732

  12. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  13. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  14. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  15. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  16. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS HANDBOOK A GUIDE TO "PACKAGED" FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this handbook is to highlight information appropriate to small systems with an emphasis on filtration and disinfection technologies and how they can be "packaged" with remote monitoring and control technologies to provide a healthy and affordable solution for small ...

  17. Adaptice-step time integration package for stiff, nonstiff and multi-rate systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs)

    2014-06-01

    ARKode is part of a software family called SUNDIALS: SUite of Nonlinear and Differential/ALgebraic equation Solvers [1]. The ARKode solver library provides an adaptive-step time integration package for stiff, nonstiff and multi-rate systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using Runge Kutta methods [2].

  18. Ferulic acid-coupled chitosan: thermal stability and utilization as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film.

    PubMed

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-22

    The aim of the present research was to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after coupling onto chitosan, and the possibility of using ferulic acid-coupled chitosan (FA-CTS) as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film. FA-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperatures up to 150°C followed by blown film extrusion at temperatures up to 175°C. Although incorporation of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the biodegradable films possessed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of film containing FA-CTS were higher than those of film containing naked ferulic acid, by about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by the addition of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.08% (w/w). The above results suggested that FA-CTS could potentially be used as an antioxidant for active packaging film. PMID:25439957

  19. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  20. MODFLOW-2000 Ground-Water Model?User Guide to the Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction (SUB) Package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, Jorn; Leake, S.A.; Galloway, D.L.; Wilson, Alicia M.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents a computer program, the Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction (SUB) Package, to simulate aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. The SUB Package simulates elastic (recoverable) compaction and expansion, and inelastic (permanent) compaction of compressible fine-grained beds (interbeds) within the aquifers. The deformation of the interbeds is caused by head or pore-pressure changes, and thus by changes in effective stress, within the interbeds. If the stress is less than the preconsolidation stress of the sediments, the deformation is elastic; if the stress is greater than the preconsolidation stress, the deformation is inelastic. The propagation of head changes within the interbeds is defined by a transient, one-dimensional (vertical) diffusion equation. This equation accounts for delayed release of water from storage or uptake of water into storage in the interbeds. Properties that control the timing of the storage changes are vertical hydraulic diffusivity and interbed thickness. The SUB Package supersedes the Interbed Storage Package (IBS1) for MODFLOW, which assumes that water is released from or taken into storage with changes in head in the aquifer within a single model time step and, therefore, can be reasonably used to simulate only thin interbeds. The SUB Package relaxes this assumption and can be used to simulate time-dependent drainage and compaction of thick interbeds and confining units. The time-dependent drainage can be turned off, in which case the SUB Package gives results identical to those from IBS1. Three sample problems illustrate the usefulness of the SUB Package. One sample problem verifies that the package works correctly. This sample problem simulates the drainage of a thick interbed in response to a step change in head in the adjacent aquifer and closely matches the analytical solution. A second sample problem

  1. Circularly permuted viral pRNA active and specific in the packaging of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Trottier, M; Guo, P

    1995-03-10

    A viral-encoded 120-base pRNA has been shown to have an essential role in the packaging of bacteriophage phi 29 DNA. The finding that both the 5'- and 3'-termini of the pRNA are proximate and crucial for biological function (C. Zhang, C. Lee, and P. Guo, 1994, Virology, 201, 77-85) prompted investigation of the activity of circularly permuted pRNAs (cpRNA) and of the expandability and essentiality of bases extending from the termini. A 117-base pRNA with a deletion of three bases downstream of the proximal terminus was active in DNA packaging. Concatemeric DNAs containing two tandem pRNA genes separated by a short or a long loop sequence were constructed. The cpRNAs from these DNA templates were transcribed in vitro and shown to be active in phi 29 DNA packaging, with activity comparable to the parental (noncircularly permuted) pRNA, indicating that neither of the loops tested affected the activity and folding of the cpRNA. As few as four bases were sufficient to serve as a loop for the terminal 180 degree turn, and a loop as long as 27 bases did not affect the cpRNA structure and function. Eight cpRNAs were constructed to assess the effect of openings within the wild-type pRNA structure. Opening of the bulge at residue 38 did not affect cpRNA activity, but opening the bulge at residue 55 greatly reduced it. Although the sequence of the 5',3'-terminal loop was not important for the folding and activity of the cpRNA, the activities of cpRNAs with openings at individual bulges or hairpins were different, indicating that each region plays a different role in pRNA folding and function. Our results indicate that it is possible to generate active circularly permuted pRNA by assigning internal sites of the pRNA as new 3'- and 5'-termini. The creation of new variable ends makes the labeling of internal bases of the pRNA molecule possible and will facilitate the analysis of pRNA secondary and tertiary structure. PMID:7533964

  2. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  3. NRF TRIGA packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.

  4. A 60GHz-Band 3-Dimensional System-in-Package Transmitter Module with Integrated Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Noriharu; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Shoichi; Kameda, Suguru; Takagi, Tadashi; Tsubouchi, Kazuo

    A low cost, ultra small Radio Frequency (RF) transceiver module with integrated antenna is one of the key technologies for short range millimeter-wave wireless communication. This paper describes a 60GHz-band transmitter module with integrated dipole antenna. The module consists of three pieces of low-cost organic resin substrate. These substrates are vertically stacked by employing Cu ball bonding 3-dimensional (3-D) system-in-package (SiP) technology and the MMIC's are mounted on each organic substrates by using Au-stud bump bonding (SBB) technique. The planer dipole antenna is fabricated on the top of the stacked organic substrate to avoid the influence of the grounding metal on the base substrate. At 63GHz, maximum actual gain of 6.0dBi is obtained for fabricated planar dipole antenna. The measured radiation patterns are agreed with the electro-magnetic (EM) simulated result, therefore the other RF portion of the 3-D front-end module, such as flip chip mounted IC's on the top surface of the module, does not affect the antenna characteristics. The results show the feasibility of millimeter-wave low cost, ultra small antenna integrated module using stacked organic substrates.

  5. Development of the CRISP Package for Spallation Studies and Accelerator-Driven Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos, S.; Deppman, A.; Silva, Gilson da; Maiorino, J.R.; Santos, A. dos; Garcia, F.

    2005-09-15

    Power generation from nuclear reactors provides an almost inexhaustive power source due to the huge quantities of nuclear fuel existent in our planet, which guarantees its utilization for thousands of years. Interest has been shifted to the so-called hybrid reactors [accelerator-driven systems (ADS)] as an alternative technology for power generation and transmutation, thus requiring precise knowledge about nuclear structure and nuclear reaction characteristics. Research groups from Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo and Brazilian Center for Research in Physics made a joint effort to develop a computer program, CRISP, to calculate the intranuclear cascade proprieties and the nuclear evaporation process, present in all nuclear reactions with energies above a few tens of mega-electron-volts, using Monte Carlo techniques. Some reaction channels were included in these programs, resulting in a more realistic representation of the processes involved, aiming at reactor physics studies and academic studies about hadron and meson properties in nuclear matter. Some results obtained with this code and a comparison with experimental data are presented. Although all these results are preliminary, they are very consistent with the available experimental data. Since the applicability of the CRISP package has a wide range of options, especially in ADS, some results describing the effectiveness of the code were achieved.

  6. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  7. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An array deployment assembly, power regulation and control assembly, the necessary interface, and display and control equipment comprise the power extension package (PEP) which is designed to provide increased power and duration, as well as reduce fuel cell cryogen consumption during Spacelab missions. Compatible with all currently defined missions and payloads, PEP imposes minimal weight and volume penalties on sortie missions, and can be installed and removed as needed at the launch site within the normal Orbiter turnaround cycle. The technology on which it is based consists of a modified solar electric propulsion array, standard design regulator and control equipment, and a minimally modified Orbiter design. The requirements from which PEP was derived, and the system and its performance capabilities are described. Features of the recommended project are presented.

  8. System design package for SIMS prototype system 2, solar hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design and assembly of a solar hot water system is presented. A prototype system designed for use in a single family dwelling is investigated in terms of the following subsystems: collector, storage, energy transport, and control.

  9. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( < 0.05) a* values than VP/PAA and MAP/CO on d 6 of display. For U.S. beef, the MAP/CO had the reddest lean color ( < 0.05) compared with the other 3 packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( < 0.05) in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, MAP/CO in Uruguayan steaks also had the greatest a* values on d 6 of display, but no differences ( > 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( < 0.05) L* values. In both

  10. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  11. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  12. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. PMID:26607106

  13. A new version of Scilab software package for the study of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeianu, C. C.; Felea, D.; Beşliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Grossu, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    This work presents a new version of a software package for the study of chaotic flows, maps and fractals [1]. The codes were written using Scilab, a software package for numerical computations providing a powerful open computing environment for engineering and scientific applications. It was found that Scilab provides various functions for ordinary differential equation solving, Fast Fourier Transform, autocorrelation, and excellent 2D and 3D graphical capabilities. The chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamics systems were analyzed using phase-space maps, autocorrelation functions, power spectra, Lyapunov exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Various well-known examples are implemented, with the capability of the users inserting their own ODE or iterative equations. New version program summaryProgram title: Chaos v2.0 Catalogue identifier: AEAP_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAP_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1275 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7135 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Scilab 5.1.1. Scilab 5.1.1 should be installed before running the program. Information about the installation can be found at http://wiki.scilab.org/howto/install/windows. Computer: PC-compatible running Scilab on MS Windows

  14. Learning Activity Packages for the V-TECS Secretarial Catalog of Performance Objectives, Criterion-Referenced Measures and Performance Guides for Stenographic, Typing, and Related Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This booklet describes the thirteen sets of learning activity packages developed around the performance objectives specified in the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog. The thirteen sets provide information and learning activities for the following duties: (1) performing mail activities; (2)…

  15. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  16. Developmental Heterogeneity in DNA Packaging Patterns Influences T-Cell Activation and Transmigration

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Megha; R., Indulaxmi; Perumalsamy, Lakshmi R.; Sarin, Apurva; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular differentiation programs are accompanied by large-scale changes in nuclear organization and gene expression. In this context, accompanying transitions in chromatin assembly that facilitates changes in gene expression and cell behavior in a developmental system are poorly understood. Here, we address this gap and map structural changes in chromatin organization during murine T-cell development, to describe an unusual heterogeneity in chromatin organization and associated functional correlates in T-cell lineage. Confocal imaging of DNA assembly in cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus and spleen reveal the emergence of heterogeneous patterns in DNA organization in mature T-cells following their exit from the thymus. The central DNA pattern dominated in immature precursor cells in the thymus whereas both central and peripheral DNA patterns were observed in naïve and memory cells in circulation. Naïve T-cells with central DNA patterns exhibited higher mechanical pliability in response to compressive loads in vitro and transmigration assays in vivo, and demonstrated accelerated expression of activation-induced marker CD69. T-cell activation was characterized by marked redistribution of DNA assembly to a central DNA pattern and increased nuclear size. Notably, heterogeneity in DNA patterns recovered in cells induced into quiescence in culture, suggesting an internal regulatory mechanism for chromatin reorganization. Taken together, our results uncover an important component of plasticity in nuclear organization, reflected in chromatin assembly, during T-cell development, differentiation and transmigration. PMID:22957031

  17. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    PubMed

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had <2-log reductions for all packaging types. At 48 h, log reductions were similar (P. 0.05) for all types of jerky packaging, ranging from 1.26 to 1.72 log CFU/cm(2); however, at 72 h, mean L. monocytogenes reductions were >2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage. PMID:21333136

  18. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  19. An R package for the design, analysis and operation of reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We present a new R package - named "reservoir" - which has been designed for rapid and easy routing of runoff through storage. The package comprises well-established tools for capacity design (e.g., the sequent peak algorithm), performance analysis (storage-yield-reliability and reliability-resilience-vulnerability analysis) and release policy optimization (Stochastic Dynamic Programming). Operating rules can be optimized for water supply, flood control and amenity objectives, as well as for maximum hydropower production. Storage-depth-area relationships are in-built, allowing users to incorporate evaporation from the reservoir surface. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software for global studies using thousands of reservoirs from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database fed by historical monthly inflow time series from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. The package is freely available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

  20. Tabulation of thermodynamic data for chemical reactions involving 58 elements common to radioactive waste package systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, L.V.; Teague, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    The rate of release and migration of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository to the biosphere is dependent on chemical interactions between groundwater, the geologic host rock, and the radioactive waste package. For the purpose of this report, the waste package includes the wasteform, canister, overpack, and repository backfill. Chemical processes of interest include sorption (ion exchange), dissolution, complexation, and precipitation. Thermochemical data for complexation and precipitation calculations for 58 elements common to the radioactive waste package are presented. Standard free energies of formation of free ions, complexes, and solids are listed. Common logarithms of equilibrium constants (log K's) for speciation and precipitation reactions are listed. Unless noted otherwise, all data are for 298.15/sup 0/K and one atmosphere.

  1. Novel Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) Packaging for the Skin of the Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrin, M. Ann; Osiander, Robert; Lehtonen, John; Farrar, Dawnielle; Douglas, Donya; Swanson, Ted

    2004-01-01

    This paper includes a discussion of the novel packaging techniques that are needed to place MEMS based thermal control devices on the skin of various satellites, eliminating the concern associated with potential particulates &om integration and test or the launch environment. Protection of this MEMS based thermal device is achieved using a novel polymer that is both IR transmissive and electrically conductive. This polymer was originally developed and qualified for space flight application by NASA at the Langley Research Center. The polymer material, commercially known as CPI, is coated with a thin layer of ITO and sandwiched between two window-like frames. The packaging of the MEMS based radiator assembly offers the benefits of micro-scale devices in a chip on board fashion, with the level of protection generally found in packaged parts.

  2. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99%), Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (99.8%), mullite (2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SiO/sub 2/), vitreous silica (SiO/sub 2/), BaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiO/sub 3/, CaTiSiO/sub 5/, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, ZrSiO/sub 4/, Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO/sub 2/, ZrO/sub 2/, and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/.

  3. Prediction of water vapor transport rates across polyvinylchloride packaging systems using a novel radiotracer method

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.W.; Mulski, M.J.; Kuu, W.Y. )

    1990-09-01

    A radiotracer method is used to study the transport properties of water vapor in polyvinylchloride (PVC), a plastic commonly used in the packaging of parenteral solutions. Water vapor transport across a PVC film appears to be Fickian in nature. Using the steady-state solution of Fick's second law and the permeability coefficient of water vapor across the PVC film obtained using the described method, the predicted water vapor transport rate (WVTR) for a parenteral solution packaged in PVC is in reasonable agreement with actual WVTR as determined by weight loss under precisely controlled conditions.

  4. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. S.; Cashwell, J. W.; Apple, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials.

  5. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in

  6. Hydrophobization and antimicrobial activity of chitosan and paper-based packaging material.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, Nicolas; Grelier, Stephane; Coma, Veronique

    2010-01-11

    This study reports the elaboration of water-resistant, antimicrobial, chitosan and paper-based materials as environmentally friendly food packaging materials. Two types of papers were coated with chitosan-palmitic acid emulsions or with a blend of chitosan and O,O'-dipalmitoylchitosan (DPCT). Micromorphology studies showed that inclusion of hydrophobic compounds into the chitosan matrix was enhanced by grafting them onto chitosan and that this led to their penetration of the paper's core. Compared to chitosan-coated papers, the coating of chitosan-palmitic emulsion kept vapor-barrier properties unchanged (239 and 170 g.m(-2).d(-1) versus 241 and 161 g.m(-2).d(-1)), while the coating of chitosan-DPCT emulsion dramatically deteriorated them (441 and 442 g.m(-2).d(-1)). However, contact angle measurements (110-120 degrees after 1 min) and penetration dynamics analysis showed that both strategies improved liquid-water resistance of the materials. Kit-test showed that all hydrophobized chitosan-coated papers kept good grease barrier properties (degree of resistance 6-8/12). Finally, all chitosan-coated materials exhibited over 98% inhibition on Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes . PMID:19994882

  7. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  8. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  9. A Novel Gene Expression Control System and Its Use in Stable, High-Titer 293 Cell-Based Adeno-Associated Virus Packaging Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chunping; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Previous attempts to establish 293cell-based stable and high-titer adeno-associated virus (AAV) packaging cell lines were unsuccessful, primarily due to adenovirus E1-activated Rep gene expression, which exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on the host cells. Control of the two large AAV Rep proteins (Rep78/68) was insufficient to eliminate the adverse effects, because of the leaky expression of the two small Rep proteins (Rep52/40). However, it was unsuccessful to control Rep52/40 gene expression since its promoter is located within the coding sequence of Rep78/68. To tightly regulate all four Rep proteins by using their own promoters, we have developed a novel gene control paradigm termed “dual splicing switch,” which disrupts all four Rep genes by inserting into their shared coding region an intron that harbors transcription termination sequences flanked the LoxP sites. As a result, the structure and activities of the Rep gene promoters, both p5 and p19, are not affected; however, all of the Rep transcripts are prematurely terminated and the genes were inactivated. Removal of the terminator by Cre protein reactivates the transcription of all four Rep proteins derived from their own promoters. This switch system was initially tested in the lacZ gene and a 600-fold induction of β-galactosidase activity was observed. Using the dual splicing switch strategy, we have subsequently established a number of AAV packaging cell lines from 293 cells, which showed a normal growth rate, high stability, and more importantly, high yields of AAV vectors. Such a gene control paradigm is also useful for other viruses, e.g., autonomous parvoviruses. Finally, the high-titer 293-based AAV packaging cell lines should greatly reduce the risk of wild-type adenovirus contamination and provide a scalable AAV vector production method for both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:12438627

  10. Documentation and analysis for packaging for surface moisture measurement system 7A containers

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, D.K.

    1996-06-17

    This documentation and analysis for packaging documents that two, procured, carbon steel 5-gal drums meet all applicable U.S.Department of Transportation-7A requirements. One container will be used to transport a 0.009 Ci 252 Cf source and the other to transport a 1.7 Ci Am-Be source to and from various 200 Area tank farms.

  11. Packaging data products using data grid middleware for Deep Space Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Ramirez, Paul M.; Chrichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven

    2004-01-01

    We are investigating a distributed computing infrastructure for releasing science products out of the mission pipeline. We are creating a DSMS Product Service and DSMS Data Packaging Service based on the OODT middleware, a Data Grid middleware technology that has proven successful in providing access to heterogeneous, disparate data, and federating that data using a common data model.

  12. "Shovel-Ready" Data: The Stimulus Package and State Longitudinal Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, commonly referred to simply as "the stimulus package," is poised to pump over $100 billion into U.S. public education in the next few years. This allocation reflects the Obama administration's new commitment to education as a public good, which is embodied in President Obama's ambitious goal of 60…

  13. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  14. Ensuring the Quality of Data Packages in the LTER Network Provenance Aware Synthesis Tracking Architecture Data Management System and Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servilla, M. S.; O'Brien, M.; Costa, D.

    2013-12-01

    Considerable ecological research performed today occurs through the analysis of data downloaded from various repositories and archives, often resulting in derived or synthetic products generated by automated workflows. These data are only meaningful for research if they are well documented by metadata, lest semantic or data type errors may occur in interpretation or processing. The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network now screens all data packages entering its long-term archive to ensure that each package contains metadata that is complete, of high quality, and accurately describes the structure of its associated data entity and the data are structurally congruent to the metadata. Screening occurs prior to the upload of a data package into the Provenance Aware Synthesis Tracking Architecture (PASTA) data management system through a series of quality checks, thus preventing ambiguously or incorrectly documented data packages from entering the system. The quality checks within PASTA are designed to work specifically with the Ecological Metadata Language (EML), the metadata standard adopted by the LTER Network to describe data generated by their 26 research sites. Each quality check is codified in Java as part of the ecological community-supported Data Manager Library, which is a resource of the EML specification and used as a component of the PASTA software stack. Quality checks test for metadata quality, data integrity, or metadata-data congruence. Quality checks are further classified as either conditional or informational. Conditional checks issue a 'valid', 'warning' or 'error' response. Only an 'error' response blocks the data package from upload into PASTA. Informational checks only provide descriptive content pertaining to a particular facet of the data package. Quality checks are designed by a group of LTER information managers and reviewed by the LTER community before deploying into PASTA. A total of 32 quality checks have been deployed to date

  15. SAT Packages--An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1985-01-01

    Describes software packages used to help prepare for the Scholastic Aptitude Test, considering features that the packages have in common as well as unique features that each package has. Also lists and ranks the products and their features in a chart (indicating system requirements and current cost). (JN)

  16. UWV (Unmanned Water Vehicle) - Umbra Package v. 1.0

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model the mobility of systems moving in the water. This package currently models first order physics -basically a velocity integrator. This package depends on interface classes (typically base classes) that reside in the Mobility package.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of flavoured dehydrated soups packaged in different formats. Reducing the sodium content.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Murcia, M Antonia; Mariscal, Miguel; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Gómez-Murcia, V; Bibiloni, Mar; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of four dehydrated soups (vegetables, meat, chicken and fish) packaged in four formats - carton, plastic, and aluminium bags (the last with and without modified atmosphere) - were evaluated during 12 months' storage. The results showed that all four soups had a good or very good antioxidant capacity as tested by the lipid peroxidation, deoxyribose, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) tests. Of interest from a nutritional point of view was the finding that the lipid fraction of all the soups was below 1 %. The sodium content of the four soups and their ingredients was also analysed. By modifying some of the ingredients, a 25 % reduction in the sodium content of the soups was obtained, permitting them to be labelled as "sodium reduced". The monosodium glutamate (MSG) content of the reformulated soups (lower sodium content) was below levels permitted by European legislation. PMID:26604357

  18. Detection of bisphenol A in food packaging based on fluorescent conjugated polymer PPESO3 and enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yongxin; Liu, Jintong; Tong, Jin; Su, Xingguang

    2015-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of carcinogen, which can interfere with the body's endocrine system. In this paper, a new kind of fluorescent sensor for BPA detection was established based on the fluorescent conjugated polymer PPESO3. The oxidative product of BPA is able to quench PPESO3 in the presence of HRP and H2O2, and the quenched PL intensity of PPESO3 was proportionally to the concentration of BPA in the range of 1-100 μmol/L with a detection limit of 4 × 10(-7) mol/L. The proposed method has been applied to detect BPA in eight food packaging samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method has the potential for the assay of BPA in food or food packaging samples. PMID:25952863

  19. Portable active interrogation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Brener, M. W.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    The system consists of a pulsed DT neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 7} n/s) and a portable but high intrinsic efficiency, custom-designed, polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He neutron detector. A multichannel scaler card in a ruggedized laptop computer acquires the data. A user-friendly LabVIEW program analyzes and displays the data. The program displays a warning message when highly enriched uranium or any other fissionable materials is detected at a specified number of sigmas above background in the delayed region between pulses. This report describes the system and gives examples of the response of the system to highly enriched uranium and some other fissionable materials, at several distances and with various shielding materials.

  20. Iron chelating active packaging: Influence of competing ions and pH value on effectiveness of soluble and immobilized hydroxamate chelators.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Yoshiko; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-04-01

    Many packaged foods utilize synthetic chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) to inhibit iron-promoted oxidation or microbial growth which would result in quality loss. To address consumer demands for all natural products, we have previously developed a non-migratory iron chelating active packaging material by covalent immobilization of polyhydroxamate and demonstrated its efficacy in delaying lipid oxidation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of this hydroxamate-functionalized iron chelating active packaging to retain iron chelating capacity; even in the presence of competing ions common in food. Both immobilized and soluble hydroxamate chelators retained iron chelating capacity in the presence of calcium, magnesium, and sodium competing ions, although at pH 5.0 the presence of calcium reduced immobilized hydroxamate iron chelation. A strong correlation was found between colorimetric and mass spectral analysis of iron chelation by the chelating packaging material. Such chelating active packaging may support reducing additive use in product formulations, while retaining quality and shelf life. PMID:26593563

  1. Active packaging of fresh chicken breast, with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control the growth of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joongmin; Harte, Bruce; Ryser, Elliot; Selke, Susan

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium are major bacterial pathogens associated with poultry products. Ally isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural antimicrobial compound, is reportedly effective against these pathogenic organisms. A device was designed for the controlled release of AITC with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and then evaluated for its ability to control the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium on raw chicken breast during refrigerated storage. In order to obtain controlled release during the test period, a glass vial was filled with AITC and triglyceride. It was then sealed using high-density polyethylene film. The release of AITC was controlled by the concentration (mole fraction) of AITC in the triglyceride and by the AITC vapor permeability through the film. The fresh chicken samples were inoculated with one or the other of the pathogens at 10(4) CFU/g, and the packages (with and without AITC-controlled release device) were flushed with ambient air or 30% CO(2)/70% N(2) before sealing, and then stored at 4 degrees C for up to 21 d. The maximum reduction in MAP plus AITC (compared to MAP alone) was 0.77 log CFU/g for L. monocytogenes and 1.3 log CFU/g for S. typhimurium. The color of the chicken breast meat was affected by the concentration of AITC. Overall, a release rate of 0.6 microg/h of AITC was found to not affect the color, whereas at 1.2 microg/h of AITC the surface of the chicken was discolored. PMID:20492243

  2. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  3. Detection And Mapping (DAM) package. Volume 4A: Software System Manual, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    The package is an integrated set of manual procedures, computer programs, and graphic devices designed for efficient production of precisely registered and formatted maps from digital LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The software can be readily implemented on any Univac 1100 series computer with standard peripheral equipment. This version of the software includes predefined spectral limits for use in classifying and mapping surface water for LANDSAT-1, LANDSAT-2, and LANDSAT-3. Tape formats supported include X, AM, and PM.

  4. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  5. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display microbial population of beef strip loins from two different production systems.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging during storage of strip loins (to simulate export shipment) from steers fattened on intensive grazing systems (Uruguay; UR) or on a high-concentrate diet (United States; US) on retail display life microbial growth. Four or 3 different packaging treatments were applied to UR and US strip loin roasts or steaks during 35 d of storage; treatments were applied 7 d following slaughter. After 35 d of storage, the samples were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, the treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with N and CO (MAP/CO), low-oxygen MAP with N plus CO and CO, and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2, block 1, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl--lauroyl--arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2, block 2, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. For retail display, VP treatments were sliced and repackaged in PVC overwrap, and MAP treatments were actually PVC overwrap trays that were removed from a master bag with the prescribed gas treatment. Regardless of production system and packaging treatment, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts of 6.9 to 7.8 and 6.7 to 7.7 log10 CFU/cm, respectively, were obtained at the end of retail display, except for US samples in Exp. 2 (5.5 to 6.3 log CFU/cm). No differences ( > 0.05) were detected for spp. counts among packaging treatments in US steaks at the end of the display time in Exp.1, whereas, for UR steaks, both MAP treatments had lower ( < 0.05) spp. counts than VP treatments. spp. counts were lower ( < 0.05) in the MAP/CO treatment than in the other 3 treatments in US samples on d 6 of retail display for Exp. 2. At the end of display time and for Exp. 1, US steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts than samples in both VP treatments; no differences ( > 0

  6. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  7. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product. PMID

  8. Low-temperature hermetic packaging for microsystems using Au-Au surface-activated bonding at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Higurashi, Eiji; Suga, Tadatomo; Sawada, Renshi

    2012-05-01

    Low-temperature hermetic bonding based on surface activation is useful for optical microsystem packaging because high bonding temperatures may degrade microsystem performance and sensitivity. However, surface-activated bonding (SAB) is usually performed under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, and the bonding environment cannot be chosen freely. In this study, thin Au sealing rings (300-500 nm thick, and 100 μm wide) were used as bonding layers for SAB at atmospheric pressure. A sufficiently high die-shear strength was achieved via surface activation using an argon radio-frequency plasma treatment. On examination of the fracture surfaces of the broken seal after the die-shear test, we observed that the fractures typically occurred at the deposited interface or partially inside the bulk substrates. Hermeticity was evaluated by measuring the resonance characteristics of photothermally excited microcantilevers inside the cavities. The samples bonded at the low temperature of 150 °C under the application of a bonding pressure of 313 MPa for 30 s showed leakage rates of less than 5.0 × 10-9 Pa·m3 s-1, which is the rejection limit defined by the MIL-STD-883G specification.

  9. Development of novel nano-biocomposite antioxidant films based on poly (lactic acid) and thymol for active packaging.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Marina; Jiménez, Alfonso; Peltzer, Mercedes; Garrigós, María C

    2014-11-01

    Novel nano-biocomposite films based on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were prepared by incorporating thymol, as the active additive, and modified montmorillonite (D43B) at two different concentrations. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization of all nano-biocomposites was carried out. Thermal stability was not significantly affected by the addition of thymol, but the incorporation of D43B improved mechanical properties and reduced the oxygen transmission rate by the formation of intercalated structures, as suggested by wide angle X-ray scattering patterns and transmission electron microscopy images. The addition of thymol decreased the PLA glass transition temperature, as the result of the polymer plasticization, and led to modification of the elastic modulus and elongation at break. Finally, the amount of thymol remaining in these formulations was determined by liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH spectroscopic method, suggesting that the formulated nano-biocomposites could be considered a promising antioxidant active packaging material. PMID:24874370

  10. Measuring the antioxidative activities of Queso Fresco after post-packaging high-pressure processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some milk-associated proteins are known to be nutritionally valuable and form bioactive peptides that exhibit activity against hypertension and oxidative stress. Consumption of cheeses, such as the popular Hispanic-style cheese Queso Fresco (QF), may be a vehicle for delivery of these milk-associate...

  11. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  12. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  13. The use of buck and ram extenders and two packaging systems to cryopreserve aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, C C; Martin, L M; Mains, C R; Wright, R D; Dart, M G; Perkins, R M; Purdy, P H; Ericsson, S A

    2000-07-01

    Because the aoudad has been hunted to near extinction, cryopreservation of their semen would be useful for DNA conservation and for the possible re-establishment of captive bred animals to their former ranges. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of cryopreserving aoudad spermatozoa. Semen samples from four post-pubertal animals were collected using electro-ejaculation. Microscopic analysis was performed to assess the percentages of progressively and non-progressively motile spermatozoa as well as intact acrosomes in samples prior to freezing and post-thaw. Extended samples (0.2 mL) were frozen using 2 different extenders and packaging systems and stored in LN2 Post-thaw data were arcsine-transformed and analyzed using ANOVA, 2 x 2 factorial. Samples that were processed using the ram/straw method had a significantly higher percentage (P < 0.05) of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes than did any other system. In addition, samples that were processed with the buck/pellet system had significantly greater percentages (P < 0.05) of progressive and non-progressively motile spermatozoa than the samples processed using either extender and packaged in straws. This study illustrates that some aoudad spermatozoa may be cryopreserved using the extender/processing systems developed for the domestic buck and ram. PMID:10990348

  14. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  16. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  17. The Development and Evaluation of a Set of Multi-Media Self-Instructional Learning Activity Packages for Use in Remedial English at an Urban Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ellen Jean Baird

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects on achievement and attitude of a method of teaching using multi-media self-instructional learning activity packages, with the conventional method of teaching by lecture and discussion. The subjects were 126 community college students enrolled in remedial English classes. Two instructors…

  18. Development of polyvinyl alcohol and apple pomace bio-composite film with antioxidant properties for active food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Kirtiraj K; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-03-01

    Active antioxidant food packaging films were developed by incorporation of apple pomace (AP) with 1, 5, 10, and 30 % (w/w) into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization was carried out. The findings of this study showed that the incorporation of AP into PVA films enhanced the total phenolic content and antioxidant properties. As regards the physical properties, higher AP content incorporated into PVA films revealed significantly lower tensile strength, elongation at break and increase in thickness. PVA-AP films exhibited lower transparency value compared to control film. The thermal stability of PVA-AP films was improved and grew with the increasing concentration of AP. FTIR spectra indicated that protein-polyphenol interactions were involved in the PVA-AP films. Rough surface and compact-structure were observed in PVA-AP films. The storage study of soybean oil at 60 °C in PVA-AP pouch showed the antioxidant activity and the effectiveness for delaying its lipid oxidation. PMID:27570286

  19. Northwest Plume Groundwater System Green-sand Media Removal and Waste Packaging Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Troutman, M.T.; Richards, C.J.; Tarantino, J.J.

    2006-07-01

    The Northwest Plume Groundwater System (NWPGS) was temporarily shut down due to high differential pressures across the green-sand filters. Increased levels of suspended solids were introduced into the system from monitoring well development water, equipment decontamination water, and secondary containment water. These waters were treated for suspended solids through a groundwater pretreatment system but were suspected of causing the high differential pressures in the green-sand filters. Prior to the system being shutdown, the NWPGS had been experiencing increasingly shorter run times between filter backwashes indicating that the normal backwash cycle was not adequately removing the fines. This condition led to the removal and replacement of green-sand media from two filter vessels. Discussions include problems with the removal process, waste packaging specifications, requirements for the disposition of green-sand media, and lessons learned. (authors)

  20. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL DOE-STD-3013 Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2009-07-02

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  1. Over Batch Analysis for the LLNL Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D; Dodson, K

    2007-11-19

    This document addresses the concern raised in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Acceptance Criteria (Reference 1, Section 6.a.3) about receiving an item that is over batched by 1.0 kg of fissile materials. This document shows that the occurrence of this is incredible. Some of the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) requirements are described in Section 2.1. The SRS requirement is discussed in Section 2.2. Section 2.3 describes the way fissile materials are handled in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility (B332). Based on the material handling discussed in Section 2.3, there are only three errors that could result in a shipping container being over batched. These are: incorrect measurement of the item, selecting the wrong item to package, and packaging two items into a single shipping container. The analysis in Section 3 shows that the first two events are incredible because of the controls that exist at LLNL. The third event is physically impossible. Therefore, it is incredible for an item to be shipped to SRS that is more than 1.0 kg of fissile materials over batched.

  2. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Flux Balance Constraints.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Brett G; Bergmann, Frank T

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-based modeling is a well established modelling methodology used to analyze and study biological networks on both a medium and genome scale. Due to their large size, genome scale models are typically analysed using constraint-based optimization techniques. One widely used method is Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) which, for example, requires a modelling description to include: the definition of a stoichiometric matrix, an objective function and bounds on the values that fluxes can obtain at steady state. The Flux Balance Constraints (FBC) Package extends SBML Level 3 and provides a standardized format for the encoding, exchange and annotation of constraint-based models. It includes support for modelling concepts such as objective functions, flux bounds and model component annotation that facilitates reaction balancing. The FBC package establishes a base level for the unambiguous exchange of genome-scale, constraint-based models, that can be built upon by the community to meet future needs (e. g. by extending it to cover dynamic FBC models). PMID:26528567

  3. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-12-21

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites.

  4. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact. PMID:27375241

  5. Detailed design package for design of a video system providing optimal visual information for controlling payload and experiment operations with television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed description of a video system for controlling space shuttle payloads and experiments is presented in the preliminary design review and critical design review, first and second engineering design reports respectively, and in the final report submitted jointly with the design package. The material contained in the four subsequent sections of the package contains system descriptions, design data, and specifications for the recommended 2-view system. Section 2 contains diagrams relating to the simulation test configuration of the 2-view system. Section 3 contains descriptions and drawings of the deliverable breadboard equipment. A description of the recommended system is contained in Section 4 with equipment specifications in Section 5.

  6. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  7. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  8. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  9. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  10. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  11. Power Extension Package (PEP) system definition extension, orbital service module systems analysis study. Volume 4: PEP functional specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The functional, performance, design, and test requirements for the Orbiter power extension package and its associated ground support equipment are defined. Both government and nongovernment standards and specifications are cited for the following subsystems: electrical power, structural/mechanical, avionics, and thermal control. Quality control assurance provisions and preparation for delivery are also discussed.

  12. DNA conformational behavior and compaction in biomimetic systems: Toward better understanding of DNA packaging in cell.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Anatoly

    2016-06-01

    In a living cell, long genomic DNA is strongly compacted and exists in the environment characterized by a dense macromolecular crowding, high concentrations of mono- and divalent cations, and confinement of ca. 10μm size surrounded by a phospholipid membrane. Experimental modelling of such complex biological system is challenging but important to understand spatiotemporal dynamics and functions of the DNA in cell. The accumulated knowledge about DNA condensation/compaction in conditions resembling those in the real cell can be eventually used to design and construct partly functional "artificial cells" having potential applications in drug delivery systems, gene therapy, and production of synthetic cells. In this review, I would like to overview the past progress in our understanding of the DNA conformational behavior and, in particular, DNA condensation/compaction phenomenon and its relation to the DNA biological activity. This understanding was gained by designing relevant experimental models mimicking DNA behavior in the environment of living cell. Starting with a brief summary of classic experimental systems to study DNA condensation/compaction, in later parts, I highlight recent experimental methodologies to address the effects of macromolecular crowding and nanoscale and microscale confinements on DNA conformation dynamics. All the studies are discussed in the light of their relevance to DNA behavior in living cells, and future prospects of the field are outlined. PMID:26976700

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  14. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  15. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate) Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Li, Hongli; Jiang, Lin; Chuan, Yongming; Yuan, Minglong; Chen, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid)/poly(trimenthylene carbonate) films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO) were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that crystallinity of PLA phase decreased by the addition of OEO, but this did not affect the thermal stability of the films. Water vapor permeability of films slightly increased with increasing concentration of OEO. However, active PLA/PTMC/OEO composite films showed adequate barrier properties for food packaging application. The antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities were significantly improved with the incorporation of OEO (p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that an optimal balance between the mechanical, barrier, thermal, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of the films was achieved by the incorporation of 9 wt % OEO into PLA/PTMC blends. PMID:27240336

  16. Preparation and characterization of ZnO-deposited DBD plasma-treated PP packaging film with antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisoonsin, Sutida; Pornsunthorntawee, Orathai; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2013-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-deposited polypropylene (PP) packaging film was prepared with the aid of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment. The surface hydrophilicity of PP film was found to increase after the DBD plasma treatment due to the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the DBD plasma-treated PP surface. Although the surface roughness of the DBD plasma-treated PP film gradually increased with increasing plasma treatment time, the DBD plasma treatment insignificantly affected the mechanical properties of the PP film. The DBD plasma treatment time was found to be optimized at 10 s. The DBD plasma-treated PP film was further immersed in an aqueous zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) solution at different concentrations before being converted to ZnO particles with the use of a 2.5 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, followed by sonication. The highest amount of ZnO deposited on the DBD plasma-treated PP surface was about 0.26 wt.% at the optimum Zn(NO3)2 concentration of 0.5 M. The ZnO-deposited DBD plasma-treated PP film showed good antibacterial activities against gram-positive Staphylococcus auerus and gram-negative Escherichia coli.

  17. Efficient, trans-complementing packaging systems for chimeric, pseudoinfectious dengue 2/yellow fever viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, Alexandr V.

    2010-04-25

    In our previous studies, we have stated to build a new strategy for developing defective, pseudoinfectious flaviviruses (PIVs) and applying them as a new type of vaccine candidates. PIVs combined the efficiency of live vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. The results of the present work demonstrate further development of chimeric PIVs encoding dengue virus 2 (DEN2V) glycoproteins and yellow fever virus (YFV)-derived replicative machinery as potential vaccine candidates. The newly designed PIVs have synergistically functioning mutations in the prM and NS2A proteins, which abolish processing of the latter proteins and make the defective viruses capable of producing either only noninfectious, immature and/or subviral DEN2V particles. The PIV genomes can be packaged to high titers into infectious virions in vitro using the NS1-deficient YFV helper RNAs, and both PIVs and helpers can then be passaged as two-component genome viruses at an escalating scale.

  18. Ins and Outs of Multipartite Positive-Strand RNA Plant Viruses: Packaging versus Systemic Spread.

    PubMed

    Dall'Ara, Mattia; Ratti, Claudio; Bouzoubaa, Salah E; Gilmer, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses possessing a non-segmented genome require a specific recognition of their nucleic acid to ensure its protection in a capsid. A similar feature exists for viruses having a segmented genome, usually consisting of viral genomic segments joined together into one viral entity. While this appears as a rule for animal viruses, the majority of segmented plant viruses package their genomic segments individually. To ensure a productive infection, all viral particles and thereby all segments have to be present in the same cell. Progression of the virus within the plant requires as well a concerted genome preservation to avoid loss of function. In this review, we will discuss the "life aspects" of chosen phytoviruses and argue for the existence of RNA-RNA interactions that drive the preservation of viral genome integrity while the virus progresses in the plant. PMID:27548199

  19. Packaged silica microsphere-taper coupling system for robust thermal sensing application.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying-Zhan; Zou, Chang-Ling; Yan, Shu-Bin; Sun, Fang-Wen; Ji, Zhe; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu-Guang; Wang, Li; Xue, Chen-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Han, Zheng-Fu; Xiong, Ji-Jun

    2011-03-28

    We propose and realize a novel packaged microsphere-taper coupling structure (PMTCS) with a high quality factor (Q) up to 5×10(6) by using the low refractive index (RI) ultraviolet (UV) glue as the coating material. The optical loss of the PMTCS is analyzed experimentally and theoretically, which indicate that the Q is limited by the glue absorption and the radiation loss. Moreover, to verify the practicability of the PMTCS, thermal sensing experiments are carried out, showing the excellent convenience and anti-jamming ability of the PMTCS with a high temperature resolution of 1.1×10(-3) ◦C. The experiments also demonstrate that the PMTCS holds predominant advantages, such as the robustness, mobility, isolation, and the PMTCS can maintain the high Q for a long time. The above advantages make the PMTCS strikingly attractive and potential in the fiber-integrated sensors and laser. PMID:21451600

  20. Ins and Outs of Multipartite Positive-Strand RNA Plant Viruses: Packaging versus Systemic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Ara, Mattia; Ratti, Claudio; Bouzoubaa, Salah E.; Gilmer, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses possessing a non-segmented genome require a specific recognition of their nucleic acid to ensure its protection in a capsid. A similar feature exists for viruses having a segmented genome, usually consisting of viral genomic segments joined together into one viral entity. While this appears as a rule for animal viruses, the majority of segmented plant viruses package their genomic segments individually. To ensure a productive infection, all viral particles and thereby all segments have to be present in the same cell. Progression of the virus within the plant requires as well a concerted genome preservation to avoid loss of function. In this review, we will discuss the “life aspects” of chosen phytoviruses and argue for the existence of RNA-RNA interactions that drive the preservation of viral genome integrity while the virus progresses in the plant. PMID:27548199

  1. Essential oils and their principal constituents as antimicrobial agents for synthetic packaging films.

    PubMed

    Kuorwel, Kuorwel K; Cran, Marlene J; Sonneveld, Kees; Miltz, Joseph; Bigger, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Spices and herbal plant species have been recognized to possess a broad spectrum of active constituents that exhibit antimicrobial (AM) activity. These active compounds are produced as secondary metabolites associated with the volatile essential oil (EO) fraction of these plants. A wide range of AM agents derived from EOs have the potential to be used in AM packaging systems which is one of the promising forms of active packaging systems aimed at protecting food products from microbial contamination. Many studies have evaluated the AM activity of synthetic AM and/or natural AM agents incorporated into packaging materials and have demonstrated effective AM activity by controlling the growth of microorganisms. This review examines the more common synthetic and natural AM agents incorporated into or coated onto synthetic packaging films for AM packaging applications. The focus is on the widely studied herb varieties including basil, oregano, and thyme and their EOs. PMID:22416718

  2. Space Shuttle Main Engine Quantitative Risk Assessment: Illustrating Modeling of a Complex System with a New QRA Software Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Christian

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, a team from Hernandez Engineering, MSFC, Rocketdyne, Thiokol, Pratt & Whitney, and USBI completed the first phase of a two year Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of the Space Shuttle. The models for the Shuttle systems were entered and analyzed by a new QRA software package. This system, termed the Quantitative Risk Assessment System(QRAS), was designed by NASA and programmed by the University of Maryland. The software is a groundbreaking PC-based risk assessment package that allows the user to model complex systems in a hierarchical fashion. Features of the software include the ability to easily select quantifications of failure modes, draw Event Sequence Diagrams(ESDs) interactively, perform uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and document the modeling. This paper illustrates both the approach used in modeling and the particular features of the software package. The software is general and can be used in a QRA of any complex engineered system. The author is the project lead for the modeling of the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and this paper focuses on the modeling completed for the SSMEs during 1997. In particular, the groundrules for the study, the databases used, the way in which ESDs were used to model catastrophic failure of the SSMES, the methods used to quantify the failure rates, and how QRAS was used in the modeling effort are discussed. Groundrules were necessary to limit the scope of such a complex study, especially with regard to a liquid rocket engine such as the SSME, which can be shut down after ignition either on the pad or in flight. The SSME was divided into its constituent components and subsystems. These were ranked on the basis of the possibility of being upgraded and risk of catastrophic failure. Once this was done the Shuttle program Hazard Analysis and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) were used to create a list of potential failure modes to be modeled. The groundrules and other criteria were used to screen

  3. The JET Neutron Activation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquemore, A. L.; Bertalot, L.; Esposito, B.; Jarvis, O. N.; Loughlin, M. J.; Sadler, G.; van Belle, P.

    1997-11-01

    The JET activation system provides the absolute value of the neutron yields as well as a check on the linearity of other neutron detector systems. The total neutron yield is standardized to one irradiation end reentrant in the top of the vessel, while the results from the other seven irradiation ends are normalized to this standard end and provide redundancy as well as information on the plasma position. A pneumatic transfer system is used to transfer up to five capsules containing elemental foils for a single discharge on JET. Eleven different elemental foils have been utilized to determine the yields from both DD and DT plasmas. By placing several different foils with different activation energy thresholds in a single capsule for one DT discharge, neutron spectral information has been obtained by use of the SAND-II unfolding code. A description of the activation system hardware and calibration of the activation detector system will be presented along with the results from the DT neutron calibration campaign.

  4. Antioxidant activities of distiller dried grains with solubles as protein films containing tea extracts and their application in the packaging of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Won, Misun; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-04-01

    Distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein (DP) films were prepared. Additionally, to prepare anti-oxidant films, green tea extract (GTE), oolong tea extract (OTE), and black tea extract (BTE) were incorporated into the DP films. Consequently, the incorporation of the tea extracts did not alter the physical properties of the films much, whereas the antioxidant activities, such as ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were observed. To apply the DP films containing tea extracts to food packaging, pork meat was wrapped with the films and stored at 4 °C for 10 d. During storage, the pork meat wrapped with the DP films containing GTE, OTE, and BTE had less lipid oxidation than did the control. Among the tea extracts, the DP film containing GTE had the greatest antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the DP films containing green tea extracts can be utilized as an anti-oxidative packaging material for pork meat. PMID:26593480

  5. Modeling approaches for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Sven; Atzrodt, Heiko; Mayer, Dirk; Thomaier, Martin

    2006-03-01

    To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal conditioning electronics and the controller. For each individual part of the active system the simulation approaches can be different. To integrate the several modeling approaches into an active system simulation and to ensure a highly efficient and accurate calculation, all sub models must harmonize. For this purpose, structural models considered in this article are modal state-space formulations for the lower frequency range and transfer function based models for the higher frequency range. The modal state-space formulations are derived from finite element models and/or experimental modal analyses. Consequently, the structure models which are based on transfer functions are directly derived from measurements. The transfer functions are identified with the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method. To convert them from the z-domain to the s-domain a least squares solution is implemented. An analytical approach is used to derive models of active interfaces. These models are transferred into impedance formulations. To couple mechanical and electrical sub-systems with the active materials, the concept of impedance modeling was successfully tested. The impedance models are enhanced by adapting them to adequate measurements. The controller design strongly depends on the frequency range and the number of modes to be controlled. To control systems with a small number of modes, techniques such as active damping or independent modal space control may be used, whereas in the case of systems with a large number of modes or with modes that are not well separated, other control

  6. [About the treatment of battlefield injuries of the musculoskeletal system with the help of new "Rod field package"].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I B; Brizhan', L K; Astashov, V L; Davydov, D V; Kerimov, A A; Arbuzov, Iu V; Varfolomeev, D I

    2014-04-01

    Injuries of the musculoskeletal system are at 60% of all battlefield injures and take first place in modern military conflicts. The main antishock measures are: pain management, emergency bleeding control, bone fragment positioning and fracture fixation. Specialist of the centre of traumatology and orthopaedics of the Burdenko General Military Clinical Hospital in cooperation with specialists of department of battlefield surgery of Mandryka Clinical Research and Training Medical Centre analysed the most effective domestic and foreign external fixators and developed Rod field package (RFP). The above mentioned researched had two stages. On the first (analytical) stage specialists formulated requirements for idea rod field external fixator. On the second (experimental) stage tests with the help of plastic models of long bones were carried out. The performed analysis showed, that installation of the external fixator is easy and fast, the external fixator is light and has capabilities for 3D bone fragment positioning and fracture fixation, the external fixator is radiotransparent. Implementation of this package into the clinical practice of delivery of battlefield emergency surgical care may improve results of treatment. PMID:25051785

  7. PCG reference manual: A package for the iterative solution of large sparse linear systems on parallel computers. Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.D.; Carey, G.F.; Kohli, H.; Lorber, A.; McLay, R.T.; Shen, Y.; Berner, N.A. |; Kalhan, A. |

    1995-01-01

    PCG (Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient package) is a system for solving linear equations of the form Au = b, for A a given matrix and b and u vectors. PCG, employing various gradient-type iterative methods coupled with preconditioners, is designed for general linear systems, with emphasis on sparse systems such as these arising from discretization of partial differential equations arising from physical applications. It can be used to solve linear equations efficiently on parallel computer architectures. Much of the code is reusable across architectures and the package is portable across different systems; the machines that are currently supported is listed. This manual is intended to be the general-purpose reference describing all features of the package accessible to the user; suggestions are also given regarding which methods to use for a given problem.

  8. Intrinsic noise analyzer: a software package for the exploration of stochastic biochemical kinetics using the system size expansion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philipp; Matuschek, Hannes; Grima, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with

  9. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

  10. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosenmai, A K; Taxvig, C; Svingen, T; Trier, X; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Pedersen, M; Lesné, L; Jégou, B; Vinggaard, A M

    2016-07-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid, androgen, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activity, as well as steroidogenesis in vitro and ex vivo. In general, PAPs, FTOHs, TMs, and long-chain PFCAs showed estrogenic activity through receptor activation and/or increasing 17β-estradiol levels. Furthermore, short- and long-chain PFCAs activated PPARα and PPARγ. Collectively, this means that (i) PAPs, FTOHs, and PFCAs exhibit endocrine activity through distinct and sometimes different mechanisms, (ii) two out of three tested TMs exhibited estrogenic activity, and (iii) short-chain FTOHs showed estrogenic activity and short-chain PFCAs generally activate both PPARα and PPARγ with similar potency and efficacy as long-chain PFCAs. In conclusion, several new and divergent toxicological targets were identified for different groups of PFAS. PMID:27152447

  11. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  12. Decision-making support system based on LCA for aseptic packaging recycling.

    PubMed

    Varžinskas, Visvaldas; Staniškis, Jurgis K; Knašyte, Milda

    2012-09-01

    In Europe post-consumer beverage carton packages are treated in three ways: dumped in a landfill, incinerated for energy recovery, and recycled. In recent years new technologies for beverage carton recycling have been developed and tested. At the same time in Europe the collection of second-hand raw materials is becoming more efficient. In order to facilitate and justify the decision-making process, different possibilities of poly-aluminium handling were analysed. For this reason, the objective of this study was to compare carbon footprints in the whole life cycle of selected technologies and to provide decision-making with data for beverage carton recycling. The paper is based on some of the results of the project 'Sustainable Production through Innovations in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SPIN)'. The SPIN project is providing small- and medium-sized enterprises with a whole set of instruments that put entrepreneurs in a position to innovate their production processes and products leading to improved business and public benefits. PMID:22778144

  13. Neutron Activation Analysis PRognosis and Optimization Code System.

    2004-08-20

    Version 00 NAAPRO predicts the results and main characteristics (detection limits, determination limits, measurement limits and relative precision of the analysis) of neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical). Gamma-ray dose rates for different points of time after sample irradiation and input count rate of the spectrometry system are also predicted. The code uses standard Windows user interface and extensive graphical tools for the visualization of the spectrometer characteristics (efficiency, response and background) and simulated spectrum.more » Optimization part is not included in the current version of the code. This release is designated NAAPRO, Version 01.beta. The MCNP code was used for generating detector responses. PREPRO-2000 and FCONV programs were used at the preparation of the program nuclear databases. A special program was developed for viewing, editing and updating of the program databases (not included into the present program package). The MCNP, PREPRO-2000 and FCONV software packages are not included in the NAAPRO package.« less

  14. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  15. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  16. The activation system EASY-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.; Kopecky, J.

    2009-04-01

    Safety and waste management of materials for ITER, IFMIF and future power plants require knowledge of the activation caused by irradiation with neutrons, or in the case of IFMIF, deuterons. The European Activation System has been developed for such calculations and a new version was released earlier this year. This contains a large amount of nuclear data in the European Activation File covering neutron-, deuteron- and proton-induced cross sections. These data are input to the FISPACT code for activation calculations. EASY-2007 is being validated using integral and differential measurements. However, only a minority of reactions have experimental support and a statistical method is described that can test the complete library. Importance diagrams are useful in finding the dominant nuclides formed following irradiation and the reactions responsible for their production. These diagrams now cover energies above 20 MeV and examples of new dominant nuclides and reactions relevant to IFMIF are given.

  17. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

  19. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  20. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  1. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  2. Statement of work for the immobilized low-activity waste transportation system -- Project W-465

    SciTech Connect

    Mouette, P.

    1998-06-19

    The objective of this Statement of Work (SOW) is to present the scope, the deliverables, the organization, the technical and schedule expectations for the development of a Package Design Criteria (PDC), cost and schedule estimate for the acquisition of a transportation system for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW).

  3. Neutron Unfolding Code System for Calculating Neutron Flux Spectra from Activation Data of Dosimeter Foils.

    1982-04-30

    Version 00 As a part of the measurement and analysis plan for the Dosimetry Experiment at the "JOYO" experimental fast reactor, neutron flux spectral analysis is performed using the NEUPAC (Neutron Unfolding Code Package) code system. NEUPAC calculates the neutron flux spectra and other integral quantities from the activation data of the dosimeter foils.

  4. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational

  5. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  6. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  7. IFT Scientific Status Summary 2008: Innovative Food Packaging Solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food and beverage packaging comprises 55-65% of the $110 billion value of packaging in the United States. This review provides a summary of innovative technology developments in food packaging. The expanded role of food and beverage packaging is reviewed. Active and intelligent food packaging, ba...

  8. ANITA-2000 activation code package - updating of the decay data libraries and validation on the experimental data of the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    ANITA-2000 is a code package for the activation characterization of materials exposed to neutron irradiation released by ENEA to OECD-NEADB and ORNL-RSICC. The main component of the package is the activation code ANITA-4M that computes the radioactive inventory of a material exposed to neutron irradiation. The code requires the decay data library (file fl1) containing the quantities describing the decay properties of the unstable nuclides and the library (file fl2) containing the gamma ray spectra emitted by the radioactive nuclei. The fl1 and fl2 files of the ANITA-2000 code package, originally based on the evaluated nuclear data library FENDL/D-2.0, were recently updated on the basis of the JEFF-3.1.1 Radioactive Decay Data Library. This paper presents the results of the validation of the new fl1 decay data library through the comparison of the ANITA-4M calculated values with the measured electron and photon decay heats and activities of fusion material samples irradiated at the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) of the NEA-Frascati Research Centre. Twelve material samples were considered, namely: Mo, Cu, Hf, Mg, Ni, Cd, Sn, Re, Ti, W, Ag and Al. The ratios between calculated and experimental values (C/E) are shown and discussed in this paper.

  9. About the ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  10. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  11. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for a single family dwelling is described. Cost trade studies on the energy conservation and architectural features of the solar house are discussed. The present status of verification for the single family heating system, i.e., proof that the components and the system meet applicable physical and functional requirements, is reported. The system integration drawings, the major subsystems drawings, and the architect's specifications and plans are included.

  12. Lessons learned from reactive transport modeling of a low-activity waste glass disposal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Peter McGrail, B.

    2003-04-01

    A set of reactive chemical transport calculations were conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases (STORM) code to evaluate the long-term performance of a representative low-activity waste glass in a shallow subsurface disposal system located on the Hanford site. Two different trench designs were considered, one with four rows of small waste packages (old design), the other with three layers of larger waste packages (new design). One-dimensional (1D) simulations were carried out to 20,000 yr, whereas two-dimensional (2D) simulations could only be carried out for 10,000 yr due to constraints on computational time. Both the 1D and 2D simulations predicted that the technetium release rate from the waste packages would be lower for the new trench design at times greater than 1 yr. Having fewer, larger waste packages decreases the glass surface area exposed to reaction with pore water. In the 2D simulations, water can flow around the waste packages, which causes a decrease in the water flux through the waste packages and lower release rates than predicted in the 1D simulations. This result reinforces the importance of performing multi-dimensional waste form release simulations.

  13. Miniature stick-packaging--an industrial technology for pre-storage and release of reagents in lab-on-a-chip systems.

    PubMed

    van Oordt, Thomas; Barb, Yannick; Smetana, Jan; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2013-08-01

    Stick-packaging of goods in tubular-shaped composite-foil pouches has become a popular technology for food and drug packaging. We miniaturized stick-packaging for use in lab-on-a-chip (LOAC) systems to pre-store and on-demand release the liquid and dry reagents in a volume range of 80-500 μl. An integrated frangible seal enables the pressure-controlled release of reagents and simplifies the layout of LOAC systems, thereby making the package a functional microfluidic release unit. The frangible seal is adjusted to defined burst pressures ranging from 20 to 140 kPa. The applied ultrasonic welding process allows the packaging of temperature sensitive reagents. Stick-packs have been successfully tested applying recovery tests (where 99% (STDV = 1%) of 250 μl pre-stored liquid is released), long-term storage tests (where there is loss of only <0.5% for simulated 2 years) and air transport simulation tests. The developed technology enables the storage of a combination of liquid and dry reagents. It is a scalable technology suitable for rapid prototyping and low-cost mass production. PMID:23674222

  14. Hydrolytic charge-reversal of PEGylated polyplexes enhances intracellular un-packaging and activity of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas A; Swain, Corban; Nelson, Christopher E; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Evans, Brian C; Miteva, Martina; Duvall, Craig L

    2016-04-01

    Hydrolytically degrading nano-polyplexes (HDG-NPs) that reverse charge through conversion of tertiary amines to carboxylic acids were investigated to improve intracellular un-packaging of siRNA and target gene silencing compared to a non-degradable analog (non-HDG-NPs). Both NP types comprised reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) synthesized diblock copolymers of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) corona-forming block and a cationic block for nucleic acid packaging that incorporated butyl methacrylate (BMA) and either dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA, non-HDG-NPs) or dimethylaminoethyl acrylate (DMAEA, HDG-NPs). HDG-NPs decreased significantly in size and released significantly more siRNA (∼40%) than non-HDG-NPs after 24 h in aqueous solution. While both HDG-NPs and non-HDG-NPs had comparable uptake and cytotoxicity up to 150 nM siRNA doses, HDG-NPs achieved significantly higher target gene silencing of the model gene luciferase in vitro. High resolution FRET confocal microscopy was used to monitor the intracellular un-packaging of siRNA. Non-HDG-NPs had significantly higher FRET efficiency than HDG-NPs, indicating that siRNA delivered from HDG-NPs was more fully un-packaged and therefore had improved intracellular bioavailability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 917-927, 2016. PMID:26691570

  15. Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding Evaluation Activities on a Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F; Punshon, C; Dorsch, T; Fielding, P; Richard, D; Yang, N; Hill, M; DeWald, A; Rebak, R; Day, S; Wong, L; Torres, S; McGregor, M; Hackel, L; Chen, H-L; Rankin, J

    2003-09-11

    The current waste package design for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA, employs gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in fabricating the waste packages. While GTAW is widely used in industry for many applications, it requires multiple weld passes. By comparison, single-pass welding methods inherently use lower heat input than multi-pass welding methods which results in lower levels of weld distortion and also narrower regions of residual stresses at the weld TWI Ltd. has developed a Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) welding process which allows EB welding in a reduced pressure environment ({le} 1 mbar). As it is a single-pass welding technique, use of RPEB welding could (1) achieve a comparable or better materials performance and (2) lead to potential cost savings in the waste package manufacturing as compared to GTAW. Results will be presented on the initial evaluation of the RPEB welding on a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (a candidate alloy for the Yucca Mountain waste packages) in the areas of (a) design and manufacturing simplifications, (b) material performance and (c) weld reliability.

  16. The Physical Activity Specialist's Role. Implementing Title IX and Attaining Sex Equity: A Workshop Package for Elementary-Secondary Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Barbara

    This workshop package provides training session outlines and materials for a workshop sequence on Title IX and sex equity in physical education. Three of these sessions are designed to provide general information and experiences relevant to all participants attending the workshop. The other two sessions, called "Application Sessions," are designed…

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  19. A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

  20. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  1. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial 3D treatment planning system using the AAPM Task Group 23 test package.

    PubMed

    Casanova Borca, Valeria; Pasquino, Massimo; Bresciani, Sara; Catuzzo, Paola; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi

    2005-03-01

    The accuracy of the dose calculation algorithm is one of the most critical steps in assessing the radiotherapy treatment to achieve the 5% accuracy in dose delivery, which represents the suggested limit to increase the complication-free local control of tumor. We have used the AAPM Task Group 23 (TG-23) test package for clinical photon external beam therapy to evaluate the accuracy of the new version of the PLATO TPS algorithm. The comparison between tabulated values and calculated ones has been performed for 266 and 297 dose values for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. Dose deviations less than 2% were found in the 98.5%- and 90.6% analyzed dose points for the two considered energies, respectively. Larger deviations were obtained for both energies, in large dose gradients, such as the build-up region or near the field edges and blocks. As far as the radiological field width is concerned, 64 points were analyzed for both the energies: 53 points (83%) and 64 points (100%) were within +/-2 millimeters for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. The results show the good accuracy of the algorithm either in simple geometry beam conditions or in complex ones, in homogeneous medium, and in the presence of inhomogeneities, for low and high energy beams. Our results fit well the data reported by several authors related to the calculation accuracy of different treatment planning systems (TPSs) (within a mean value of 0.7% and 1.2% for 4 and 18 MV respectively). The TG-23 test package can be considered a powerful instrument to evaluate dose calculation accuracy, and as such may play an important role in a quality assurance program related to the commissioning of a new TPS. PMID:15839346

  3. Subsystem design package for Mod 2 site data acquisition system: Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Mod II Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS) is designed to collect data from sensors located on residential or commercial buildings using a solar heating and/or cooling system. The SDAS takes the data obtained from sensors located on the solar heating and/or cooling system, processes the data into a suitable format, stores the data for a period of time, and provides the capability for both telephone retrieval by the Central Data Processing System (CDPS) and manual retrieval of the data for transfer to the central site. The unit is designed so it will not degrade the operation of the solar heating/cooling system which it is monitoring.

  4. System design package for solar heating and cooling site data acquisition subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS) designed to collect data from sensors located on residential or commercial buildings using a solar heating and/or cooling system is described. It takes the data obtained from sensors located on the solar system, processes the data into suitable format, stores the data for a period of time, and provides the capability for either telephone retrieval by the central data processing system or manual retrieval of the data for transfer to a central site. The SDAS is also designed so that it will not degrade the operation of the solar heating/cooling system which it is monitoring.

  5. Hypertext-based computer vision teaching packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1994-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole INTERNET. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. At Cardiff we have developed a http hypertext based multimedia server, the Cardiff Information Server, using the widely available Mosaic system. The server provides a variety of information ranging from the provision of teaching modules, on- line documentation, timetables for departmental activities to more light hearted hobby interests. One important and novel development to the server has been the development of courseware facilities. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive teaching packages. A variety of disciplines have benefitted notably Computer Vision, and Image Processing but also C programming, X Windows, Computer Graphics and Parallel Computing. This paper will address the issues of the implementation of the Computer Vision and Image Processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system and also will relate practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed and integrated into courseware. The suite of tools developed facilitates a flexible and powerful courseware package that has proved popular in the classroom and over the Internet. The paper will also detail many future developments we see possible. One of the key points raised in the paper is that Mosaic's hypertext language (html) is extremely powerful and yet relatively straightforward to use. It is also possible to link in Unix calls so that programs and shells can be executed. This provides a powerful suite of utilities that can be exploited to develop many packages.

  6. The Graphics Terminal Display System; a Powerful General-Purpose CAI Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Frederick W., Brock, Lynn

    The Graphic Terminal Display System (GTDS) was created to support research and development in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The system uses an IBM 360/50 computer and interfaces with a large-screen graphics display terminal, a random-access slide projector, and a speech synthesizer. An authoring language, GRAIL, was developed for CAI, and…

  7. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  8. Intrinsic Noise Analyzer: A Software Package for the Exploration of Stochastic Biochemical Kinetics Using the System Size Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Grima, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen’s system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA’s performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with

  9. The Next Generation in Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction Modeling within the MODFLOW Software Family: A New Package for MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-OWHM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, S. E.; Leake, S. A.; Hanson, R. T.; Galloway, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction Packages, SUB and SUB-WT, for MODFLOW are two currently supported subsidence packages within the MODFLOW family of software. The SUB package allows the calculation of instantaneous and delayed releases of water from distributed interbeds (relatively more compressible fine-grained sediments) within a saturated aquifer system or discrete confining beds. The SUB-WT package does not include delayed releases, but does perform a more rigorous calculation of vertical stresses that can vary the effective stress that causes compaction. This calculation of instantaneous compaction can include the effect of water-table fluctuations for unconfined aquifers on effective stress, and can optionally adjust the elastic and inelastic storage properties based on the changes in effective stress. The next generation of subsidence modeling in MODFLOW is under development, and will merge and enhance the capabilities of the SUB and SUB-WT Packages for MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-OWHM. This new version will also provide some additional features such as stress dependent vertical hydraulic conductivity of interbeds, time-varying geostatic loads, and additional attributes related to aquifer-system compaction and subsidence that will broaden the class of problems that can be simulated. The new version will include a redesigned source code, a new user friendly input file structure, more output options, and new subsidence solution options. This presentation will discuss progress in developing the new package and the new features being implemented and their potential applications. By Stanley Leake, Scott E. Boyce, Randall T. Hanson, and Devin Galloway

  10. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  11. MEMS Packaging and Thermal Issues in Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Liwei

    The potential of MEMS/NEMS technologies has been viewed as a comparable or even bigger revolution than that of microelectronics. These scientific and engineering advancements in MEMS/NEMS could bring applications to reality previously unthinkable, from space systems, environmental instruments, to daily life appliances. As presented in previous chapters, the development of core MEMS/NEMS processes has already demonstrated a lot of commercial applications as well as future potentials with elaborated functionalities. However, a low cost and reliable package for the protection of these MEMS/NEMS products is still a very difficult task. Without addressing the packaging and reliability issues, no commercial products can be sold on the market. Packaging design and modeling, packaging material selection, packaging process integration, and packaging cost are main issues to be considered when developing a new MEMS packaging process. In this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of MEMS/NEMS packaging technology, including packaging processes, hermetic and vacuum encapsulations, thermal issues, packaging reliability, and future packaging trends. The future development of MEMS packaging will rely on the success of the implementation of several unique techniques, such as packaging design kits for system and circuit designer, low cost and high yield wafer level, chip-scale packaging techniques, effective testing techniques at the wafer-level to reduce overall testing costs; and reliable fabrication of an interposer [37.1] with vertical through-interconnects for device integrations.

  12. Micro- and nano-NDE systems for aircraft: great things in small packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malas, James C.; Kropas-Hughes, Claudia V.; Blackshire, James L.; Moran, Thomas; Peeler, Deborah; Frazier, W. G.; Parker, Danny

    2003-07-01

    Recent advancements in small, microscopic NDE sensor technologies will revolutionize how aircraft maintenance is done, and will significantly improve the reliability and airworthiness of current and future aircraft systems. A variety of micro/nano systems and concepts are being developed that will enable whole new capabilities for detecting and tracking structural integrity damage. For aging aircraft systems, the impact of micro-NDE sensor technologies will be felt immediately, with dramatic reductions in labor for maintenance, and extended useable life of critical components being two of the primary benefits. For the fleet management of future aircraft systems, a comprehensive evaluation and tracking of vehicle health throughout its entire life cycle will be needed. Indeed, micro/nano NDE systems will be instrumental in realizing this futuristic vision. Several major challenges will need to be addressed, however, before micro- and nano-NDE systems can effectively be implemented, and this will require interdisciplinary research approaches, and a systematic engineering integration of the new technologies into real systems. Future research will need to emphasize systems engineering approaches for designing materials and structures with in-situ inspection and prognostic capabilities. Recent advances in 1) embedded / add-on micro-sensors, 2) computer modeling of nondestructive evaluation responses, and 3) wireless communications are important steps toward this goal, and will ultimately provide previously unimagined opportunities for realizing whole new integrated vehicle health monitoring capabilities. The future use of micro/nano NDE technologies as vehicle health monitoring tools will have profound implications, and will provide a revolutionary way of doing NDE in the near and distant future.

  13. Preliminary design review package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Central Data Processing System (CDPS) is designed to transform the raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. Software requirements for the CDPS are described. The programming standards to be used in development, documentation, and maintenance of the software are discussed along with the CDPS operations approach in support of daily data collection and processing.

  14. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  15. Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

  16. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging conditions. 355.20 Section 355.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.20 Packaging conditions. (a) Package size limitation....

  17. Praxis I/O package

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, F.W.; Sherman, T.A.

    1988-04-07

    The Praxis language specification, like Algol and Ada, does not specify any I/O statements. The intent was to provide a standard I/O package as a companion to the compiler. This would allow the user to substitute, or supplement, the I/O package, as needed, for specialized applications. Like Algol, however, Praxis provided only limited (text) I/O for several years. Ada, in contrast, provided a comprehensive standard I/O package from its inception. Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC's) implementation of Ada, on their VAX family of computers, further supplemented this package with other packages which exploit the I/O facilities available under the VMS operating system. The Praxis I/O package described in this document has been modeled after DEC's implementation of Ada and provides a similar set of I/O facilities. Currently, the I/O package is supported only under VAX/VMS. The design of the package, however, is essentially independent of any operating system (with the exception of the module COMMAND IO). The VAX/VMS version of the I/O package fully exploits the vast I/O facilities which are provided under VAX/VMS and makes them directly available to the Praxis programmer. The design, prototype implementation, and draft documentation of the Praxis I/O Package was done by Tim Sherman as part of a University project in computer science. Subsequent work by both Tim and Fred Holloway lead to a more complete implementation, testing and development of example programs, and inclusion of the package into the Praxis compilers as their principal interface to RMS and VMS.

  18. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. PMID:27262203

  19. System installation package for the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College, Manchester, N. H.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A system installed in the residential solar laboratory located at the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College in Manchester, N. H. is described. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications, as well as instructions on operation and maintenance are provided.

  20. VERIFICATION TESTING OF PACKAGE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Systems (DWS) Center is one of several US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Centers dedicated to producing credible environmental performance data. The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) leads the ETV Program.

    On October 1, 2000,...