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Sample records for active parental consent

  1. Bias in Student Survey Findings from Active Parental Consent Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna; Thomas, Laura T.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are required to obtain active (explicit) parental consent prior to surveying children and adolescents in schools. This study assessed the potential bias present in a sample of actively consented students, and in the estimates of associations between variables obtained from this sample. Students (n = 3496) from 36…

  2. Active Parent Consent for Health Surveys with Urban Middle School Students: Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Widome, Rachel; Plowman, Shari; Vanden Berk, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background: To achieve high participation rates and a representative sample, active parent consent procedures require a significant investment of study resources. The purpose of this article is to describe processes and outcomes of utilizing active parent consent procedures with sixth-grade students from urban, ethnically diverse, economically…

  3. Parental consent to publicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R B

    1999-01-01

    The problems presented by the use of named child patients and their medical histories in television, radio and newspapers is discussed. It is suggested that it is not acceptable to regard this as comparable to their participation in non-therapeutic research, and that no one, not even the parent has the authority to give consent to such use. PMID:10536761

  4. 34 CFR 300.300 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parental consent. 300.300 Section 300.300 Education... Placements Parental Consent § 300.300 Parental consent. (a) Parental consent for initial evaluation. (1)(i... child with a disability under § 300.8 must, after providing notice consistent with §§ 300.503 and...

  5. 34 CFR 300.300 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parental consent. 300.300 Section 300.300 Education... Placements Parental Consent § 300.300 Parental consent. (a) Parental consent for initial evaluation. (1)(i... child with a disability under § 300.8 must, after providing notice consistent with §§ 300.503 and...

  6. 34 CFR 300.300 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Parental consent. 300.300 Section 300.300 Education... Placements Parental Consent § 300.300 Parental consent. (a) Parental consent for initial evaluation. (1)(i... child with a disability under § 300.8 must, after providing notice consistent with §§ 300.503 and...

  7. 34 CFR 300.300 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parental consent. 300.300 Section 300.300 Education... Placements Parental Consent § 300.300 Parental consent. (a) Parental consent for initial evaluation. (1)(i... child with a disability under § 300.8 must, after providing notice consistent with §§ 300.503 and...

  8. 34 CFR 300.300 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parental consent. 300.300 Section 300.300 Education... Placements Parental Consent § 300.300 Parental consent. (a) Parental consent for initial evaluation. (1)(i... child with a disability under § 300.8 must, after providing notice consistent with §§ 300.503 and...

  9. Evaluating Active Parental Consent Procedures for School Programming: Addressing the Sensitive Topic of Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totura, Christine M. Wienke; Kutash, Krista; Labouliere, Christa D.; Karver, Marc S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Whereas school-based prevention programs are effective, obtaining active consent for youth participation in public health programming concerning sensitive topics is challenging. We explored several active consent procedures for improving participation rates. Methods: Five…

  10. 16 CFR 312.5 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... uses public key technology; and using e-mail accompanied by a PIN or password obtained through one of.... (c) Exceptions to prior parental consent. Verifiable parental consent is required prior to any.... The exceptions to prior parental consent are as follows: (1) Where the operator collects the name...

  11. 34 CFR 303.404 - Parent consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parent consent. 303.404 Section 303.404 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.404 Parent consent. (a) Written parental consent must be... public agency shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that the parent— (1) Is fully aware of the...

  12. 34 CFR 303.404 - Parent consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parent consent. 303.404 Section 303.404 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.404 Parent consent. (a) Written parental consent must be... public agency shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that the parent— (1) Is fully aware of the...

  13. Does the requirement of getting active consent from parents in school-based research result in a biased sample? An empirical study.

    PubMed

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Burgess, Theresa; Henley, Lesley

    2012-12-01

    Active parental consent is a requirement that may threaten the validity of including minors in research. This study investigated possible sources of bias between the responses of children whose parents actively consented to their participation in a school-based survey and those of children whose parents were nonresponders. Due to a serious administrative error in a study to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL), all 514 eligible schoolchildren were tested, although only 177 parents signed consent. After deliberation, the relevant human research ethics committee gave permission to include all results in the analysis. The HRQoL was not different between the groups. Male children returned significantly fewer consent forms (p=.026). More of the nonresponding group reported that their parents "Never had enough time for them" (p=.023). The high nonresponse rate and associations between response and parental interest and gender indicate that some bias may be introduced through the need for active consent, but overall there were no differences in responses to the quality of life questionnaire.

  14. Parental consent in paediatric clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Chappuy, H; Doz, F; Blanche, S; Gentet, J‐C; Pons, G; Tréluyer, J‐M

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess parental understanding and memorisation of the information given when seeking for consent to their child's participation to clinical research, and to identify the factors of significant influence on parents' decision making process. Methods Sixty eight parents who had been approached for enrolling their child in a clinical oncology or HIV study were asked to complete an interview. Their understanding was measured by a score which included items required to obtain a valid consent according to French legislation. Results Items that were best understood by parents were the aims of the study (75%), the risks (70%), the potential benefits to their child (83%), the potential benefits to other children (70%), the right to withdraw (73%), and voluntariness (84%). Items that were least understood were the procedures (44%), the possibility of alternative treatments (53%), and the duration of participation (39%). Less than 10% of the parents had understood all these points. Ten parents (15%) did not remember that they had signed up for a research protocol. Thirty three parents (48%) reported no difficulty in making their decision. Twenty four parents (38%) declared that they made their decision together with the investigator; 26 (41%) let the physician decide. Fifty four parents (78%) felt that the level of information given was satisfactory. Conclusion There was an apparent discrepancy between parents' evaluation of the adequacy of the information delivered and evaluation of their understanding and memorisation. The majority of parents preferred that the physician take as much responsibility as possible in the decision making process. PMID:16246853

  15. No News is Bad News: Characteristics of Adolescents Who Provide Neither Parental Consent nor Refusal for Participation in School-Based Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Palmer, Paula H.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Cen, Steven; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    Schools offer a convenient setting for research on adolescents. However, obtaining active written parental consent is difficult. In a 6th-grade smoking study, students were recruited with two consent procedures: active consent (parents must provide written consent for their children to participate) and implied consent (children may participate…

  16. The Impact of Child Obesity on Active Parental Consent in School-Based Survey Research on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Jennifer M.; Rapoport, Ronald B.; Maliniak, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that active consent procedures result in sampling bias in surveys dealing with adolescent risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking and illicit drug use. To examine sampling bias from active consent procedures when the survey topic pertains to childhood obesity and associated health behaviors, the authors pair data…

  17. Revocation of Parental Consent: State Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to determine whether revocation of parental consent is currently posing a challenge for states and to describe how states are responding to this new provision. Although parental consent has always played a central role in Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the new provision allowing revocation of parental…

  18. 16 CFR 312.5 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... calculated, in light of available technology, to ensure that the person providing consent is the child's... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE... from children, including consent to any material change in the collection, use, and/or...

  19. 16 CFR 312.5 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... calculated, in light of available technology, to ensure that the person providing consent is the child's... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE... from children, including consent to any material change in the collection, use, and/or...

  20. Children, biobanks and the scope of parental consent

    PubMed Central

    Hens, Kristien; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Nys, Herman; Dierickx, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The use of stored tissue samples from children for genetic research raises specific ethical questions that are not all analogous to those raised when adult participants are concerned. These include issues with regard to consent, as it is typically a parent who consents to the use of samples from children. In this paper, we discuss the scope of parental consent. This scope has a temporal dimension and one related to the content of consent. It is not questioned that the temporal scope of parental consent is limited and that young adults have the right to decide on the fate of their samples when they reach the age of maturity. With regard to the content of consent, the question remains whether parents are allowed to give full broad consent to any possible future research on the samples of their children. We argue that they should not be allowed to do so, based on two premises. First, it is generally acknowledged that children have a right to express their own values and that they should be given the opportunity to develop their own autonomy as they grow older. Second, research and science are not completely value-free and some types of research may be more sensitive than other types. Children should be given the opportunity to express their values also in this respect. PMID:21386873

  1. [Parental Information and Consent in Neonatology].

    PubMed

    Ehlen, M; Budde, A

    2015-06-01

    Careful analysis of current adjudication reveals increasing demand of adequate record-keeping as well as meticulously documented informed consent forms regarding all aspects of medicine. Although standardized informed consent forms or explicit guidelines for obtaining procedural consent already exist in surgical disciplines there is strong evidence that, however, in neonatology (and paediatric intensive care) these processes are still incomplete and qualitatively insufficiently implemented. Therefore the author discussed all existing information prescriptions with the legal department and quality management of a large German clinic group especially in terms of relevant legislation, recent case law and specialist literature in order to obtain potential for improvement. Based on the results of this audit of expert opinions improved recommendations could be implemented in the daily practise of a department of neonatology and paediatric intensive care on a tertiary level.

  2. 16 CFR 312.5 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... online contact information is to: (i) Protect the security or integrity of its Web site or online service... notice to, and subsequently update the parent about, the child's participation in a Web site or online... identifier is used for the sole purpose of providing support for the internal operations of the Web site...

  3. Abortion under Greek law: parental consent for a minor's abortion.

    PubMed

    Mavroforou, Anna; Giannoukas, Athanasios; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    As medical abortion becomes more widely used and available in Greece, several issues are emerging and require clarification. Health care providers often face a dilemma when dealing with an adolescent requesting abortion. Parents' consent is mandatory before delivering any kind of treatment to minors. However, as it appears in the case presented here, the circumstances are not always straightforward. A critical review of the Greek legal framework in relation to the current social context is attempted through an interesting case aiming to elicit potential defects of the law that should be addressed by the legislator.

  4. Predictors of parental consent for adolescent participation in sexual health-related research.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Kristin L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the degree to which parents of adolescents were willing to grant consent for their teenagers' participation in sexually themed research, and to link the likelihood of consent to parents' demographics, personality traits, parenting, attitudes, and their children's characteristics. A total of 203 parents of adolescents ages 13 to 18 years anonymously responded to an internet survey (81.7% mothers; 87% European American). Approximately 40% of respondents were possibly willing and 36% were definitely willing to provide consent for a hypothetical study covering all included sexual health topics. Parents were more likely to give consent if they were highly extraverted, viewed science positively, were not highly conservative about sexuality, and if they thought their teenager was already sexually experienced. Overall, many parents appear to be quite open to adolescent survey participation.

  5. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental Consent, Minors' Right to Due Process, Equal Protection and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    In State v. Koome, the Washington Supreme Court has striken that state's statute regarding parental consent for a minor's abortion. Implications of the finding for a minor's right to due process, equal protection, and privacy are discussed. (LBH)

  6. Your Hands Are (Not) Tied: School-Based Ethics When Parents Revoke Special Education Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Rachel; Sharkey, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Parents currently have the unilateral ability to reject special education services. Yet, it is unclear how schools should support students with special education needs in this situation as schools may not challenge a parent's choice to revoke special education assessment consent or the provision of services. Guidelines for school…

  7. The informed consent in Southern Italy does not adequately inform parents about infant vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination centres in the Campania Region, southern Italy, vaccinate children with a hexavalent vaccine that contains the mandatory vaccines diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and viral Hepatitis B. This vaccine also includes two non-mandatory vaccines, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Information about these optional vaccines should be communicated to the parents, and informed consent should be obtained from parents before vaccination. We explored whether informed consent was delivered to the parents, whether they signed the consent form, and whether they read and acquired the information about the vaccination that their child would receive. Methods Childhood immunisations are provided at specific public health vaccination centres, "Unità Operative Materno-infantili’s" (UOMIs). We selected four UOMI from the Campania Region where we interviewed 1039 parents bringing their children for the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd doses of hexavalent vaccine. The consent forms were collected from the four vaccination centres and were analysed with respect to clarity and completeness. Results Most of the respondents (89.5%) were mothers between 20 and 39 years of age (80.4% vs 59.6% of the fathers), they were married (87.2% vs 93.5% of the fathers), and only one-half of them were employed (50.2% vs 92.6% of the fathers). The informed consent form was received from 58.1% of the parents and signed by 52.8%, but read by 35.0% of them. Only 1.5% of parents knew which vaccines were mandatory, and 25.0% of them believed that the entire hexavalent vaccine was mandatory. When we asked the parents which non-mandatory vaccinations were administered to their children, only 0.5% indicated the Haemophilus influenzae type B and none indicated the pertussis vaccine. Thirty-six per cent of the parents replied that their child had not received any non-mandatory vaccines. No parents were informed by the operators that their children would receive non-mandatory vaccines

  8. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies.

  9. 78 FR 77026 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Proposed Parental Consent Method; iVeriFly, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ..., in light of available technology, to ensure that the person providing consent is the child's parent... CFR Part 312 RIN 3084-AB20 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Proposed Parental Consent Method...'') under the Voluntary Commission Approval Processes provision of the Children's Online Privacy...

  10. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental and Spousal Consent Requirements, Right to Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Sharon L.; Ravenscraft, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    The constitutionality of the Missouri abortion statute was challenged by two physicians and Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri in the Danforth case. The Supreme Court reversed a district court decision in part, ruling that parental and spousal consent requirements are unconstitutional. For journal availability see HE 508 875. (LBH)

  11. Obtaining Consent from Both Parents for Pediatric Research: What Does “Reasonably Available” Mean?

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Debra; Guarda, Sonia; Choudhury, Summer; Sideris, John; Barnum, Leah; Ten Haagen, Kristy; Heyward, Quetrell; Bailey, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circumstances surrounding parental availability and decision-making were examined in the setting of a research protocol involving newborn screening (NBS) for fragile X syndrome, in which the institutional review board (IRB) had determined that consent (permission) was required from both parents. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 3001 families who were approached to participate in optional NBS. In addition to basic demographics, observational notes detailed the reasons why fathers were not present or deemed “not reasonably available” (per IRB regulations), and content analysis identified the factors for this lack of availability. Logistic regression models estimated the likelihood that both parents would agree to enroll their infant in the screening project. RESULTS: Fathers were not present in 589 cases, including 158 in which fathers were ultimately determined to be not reasonably available. Primary reasons for father’s unavailability were deployment with the military, incarceration, living out of state, or not involved in the mother’s life. In cases in which both parents were available, 64% agreed to enroll in the NBS study. Criteria to guide researchers in making required determinations were developed from consultations with IRB officials and legal counsel. CONCLUSIONS: In a large-scale population-based study, 19.6% of fathers were absent for the consent process. Scenarios encountered underscore the complexity of parental relations and their implications for obtaining consent for research involving children. The algorithm developed may serve as a useful tool for others in applying the regulatory requirements for dual parental permission. PMID:23266920

  12. Parental opinions regarding an opt-out consent process for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research in the US

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Danielle M; Roland, Allison P; Morris, Marilyn C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore parental opinions regarding opt-out consent for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research in the US. Study design A series of handouts describing hypothetical observational research studies with opt-out consent were reviewed by parents of hospitalized children. A verbal survey explored parental opinions about the proposed consent process. Results A total of 166 parents reviewed the handout and completed the survey. Only 2/166 parents (1.2%) objected to the study described and another 10 (6.0%) cited concern about the privacy of their child’s medical information. A total of 157 parents were asked “Is it okay to tell you about this kind of research using this handout?” – 116 (74%) responded positively, 19 (12%) responded negatively, and 21 (13%) made an indeterminate or neutral response. When parents were asked to recommend a specific consent approach for observational research, 86 (52%) chose an opt-in approach, 54 (33%) chose opt-out, and 25 (15%) chose “no consent needed”. There were no significant associations between parental preferences and whether the child was admitted to the intensive care unit vs. pediatric ward, and no significant difference found based on type of handout reviewed (generic vs. study-specific). Conclusion Few parents voiced objection to a hypothetical opt-out consent process for inpatient pediatric prospective observational research. When asked to recommend a specific consent approach, though, approximately half chose an opt-in approach. These data suggest that an opt-out consent process for observational inpatient research is likely to be acceptable to parents, but assessment of an opt-out consent process in a real-world setting is needed. PMID:28176926

  13. The consent process: Enabling or disabling patients' active participation?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Saunders, Mark Nk; Brown, Tracey

    2015-10-20

    Standards expected by doctors' regulatory bodies in respect of the process of consent to treatment have arguably sought to restructure the nature of the doctor-patient relationship from one of the paternalism to that of shared decision-making. Yet, few studies have explored empirically, from patients' perspectives, the extent to which the process of consent to treatment enables or disables patients' participation in medical decision-making. Our article examines patients' attitudes towards the consent process, exploring how and why these attitudes influence patients' active participation in decision-making and considering possible consequent medico-legal issues. Data were collected longitudinally using semi-structured interviews and field observations involving 35 patients and 19 of their caregivers, in an English hospital between February and November 2014. These indicate that generally patients defer to the doctor in respect of treatment decision-making. Although most patients and their caregivers wanted detailed information and discussion, they did not necessarily expect that this would be provided. Furthermore, patients perceived that signing the consent form was an obligatory routine principally to protect doctors from legal action should something go wrong. Our study suggests that patients' predominantly paternalistic perceptions of the consent process can not only undermine attempts by doctors to involve them in decision-making but, as patients are now considered in law as informed actors, their perceptions of the consent form as not being in their interests could be a self-fulfilling prophecy if signing is undertaken without due consideration to the content.

  14. Using media to improve the informed consent process for youth undergoing pediatric endoscopy and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Debra M.; Chun, Stanford; Terrones, Laura; Huang, Jeannie S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Youth undergoing pediatric endoscopic procedures and their parents demonstrate suboptimal comprehension of the informed consent (IC) process. We developed informational videos discussing key IC elements for pediatric endoscopy and evaluated their effects on youth and parental comprehension of the IC process. Patients and methods A randomized controlled trial of the video intervention was performed among youth undergoing endoscopy and their parents at an academic children’s hospital. Randomization occurred at the time of enrollment using permutated blocks. Following the IC process with the proceduralist, subjects underwent structured interviews to assess IC comprehension. An Informed Consent Overall Score (ICOS: range 0 – 4) for comprehension was calculated. Results Seventy-seven pairs of children and their parents participated. Intervention recipients (N = 37 pairs) demonstrated higher ICOS scores as compared to control counterparts (mean (standard deviation): 3.6 (0.7) v. 2.9 (0.9), intervention v. control parents, P < 0.0001 and 2.7 (1.1) v. 1.7 (1.1), intervention v. control youth, P < 0.0001). Conclusions A media intervention addressing key elements of the IC process for pediatric endoscopy was effective in improving comprehension of IC for youth undergoing endoscopic procedures and their parents. PMID:28191495

  15. The consent process: Enabling or disabling patients’ active participation?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Saunders, Mark NK; Brown, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    Standards expected by doctors’ regulatory bodies in respect of the process of consent to treatment have arguably sought to restructure the nature of the doctor–patient relationship from one of the paternalism to that of shared decision-making. Yet, few studies have explored empirically, from patients’ perspectives, the extent to which the process of consent to treatment enables or disables patients’ participation in medical decision-making. Our article examines patients’ attitudes towards the consent process, exploring how and why these attitudes influence patients’ active participation in decision-making and considering possible consequent medico-legal issues. Data were collected longitudinally using semi-structured interviews and field observations involving 35 patients and 19 of their caregivers, in an English hospital between February and November 2014. These indicate that generally patients defer to the doctor in respect of treatment decision-making. Although most patients and their caregivers wanted detailed information and discussion, they did not necessarily expect that this would be provided. Furthermore, patients perceived that signing the consent form was an obligatory routine principally to protect doctors from legal action should something go wrong. Our study suggests that patients’ predominantly paternalistic perceptions of the consent process can not only undermine attempts by doctors to involve them in decision-making but, as patients are now considered in law as informed actors, their perceptions of the consent form as not being in their interests could be a self-fulfilling prophecy if signing is undertaken without due consideration to the content. PMID:26487687

  16. Are Parents of Preschool Children Inclined to Give Consent for Participation in Nutritional Clinical Trials?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipen Vasudev; Phatak, Ajay Gajanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to anemia, growth restriction, and poor motor and cognitive development. A clinical trial was planned to assess the impact of nutritional supplementation on cognitive measures in preschool children. Conducting clinical trials in children is difficult due to underlying laws, hesitation of the research community, and difficult enrollment. We carried out a questionnaire-based feasibility survey to assess the interest of parents towards participation in such a nutrition-based study. Methods After approval from the Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee, the principals of four kindergarten schools at Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat, India consented to participate. Children at the participating schools were distributed a consent form and pre-tested questionnaire, to be taken home for parents to sign, fill and return. Results Out of a total of 1049 consent forms and questionnaires distributed, 602 (57.39%) signed and filled forms were returned. Despite fair awareness regarding the need of research, parents’ willingness to involve their children in a 6 month duration research study, not requiring invasive measures like blood pricks, was 180 (29.9%). Nearly half (250, 41.5%) did not respond and more than a quarter (172, 28.6%) declined participation on behalf of their children. Conclusion The interest level of a pre-school child's parents for participation of the child in a nutrition intervention study evaluating cognitive measures like memory is low. Understanding the study population’s motivating and inhibiting factors leading to decreased participation in clinical trials is necessary to facilitate the creation of a pertinent evidence base. PMID:27732680

  17. Does the use of passive or active consent affect consent or completion rates, or dietary data quality? Repeat cross-sectional survey among school children aged 11–12 years

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Suzanne; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J; Matthews, John N S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An expectation of research is that participants should give fully informed consent. However, there is also a need to maximise recruitment to ensure representativeness. We explored the impact of passive or active parental consent on consent, completion rates and on dietary data quality in a survey among children aged 11–12 years. Setting Six middle schools in North-East England. Participants All children aged 11–12 years attending the six middle schools were eligible to participate (n=1141). Main outcomes Primary outcomes: whether or not each eligible child's parent gave consent and provided a complete dietary diary; whether or not a child completed their dietary diary but only among children who agreed to participate, and whether or not children providing diaries were classified as an under-reporter or not. Results Parents were more likely to consent passively than actively. This difference was greater among the more deprived: OR 16.9 (95% CI 5.7 to 50.2) in the least and 129.6 (95% CI 39.9 to 420.6) in the most deprived quintile (test for interaction: method of consent by level of deprivation, p=0.02). For all children eligible, completion was more likely if passive consent was used (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2 to 3.7). When only children who gave consent are considered, completion was less likely when passive rather than active consent was used (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9). Completion rate decreased as level of deprivation increased; we found no evidence that the OR for the method of consent varied by level of deprivation. There was no evidence that the quality of dietary data, as measured by an assessment of under-reporting, differed by method of consent (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.2). Conclusions Passive consent led to a higher participation rate and a more representative sample without compromising data quality. PMID:25586368

  18. Arts Activities Bank for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    The guide presents instructions for art activities to be used by parents at home, particularly with handicapped children. The objective is to encourage parents to bring the arts into the lives of these children on a regular basis and also to help them develop basic learning skills, self-esteem, and an interest in the arts. The guide is divided…

  19. 78 FR 64423 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Applications for Approval of Proposed Parental Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Approval of Safe Harbor Program by kidSAFE Seal Program AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission... consent method and the proposed self-regulatory guidelines submitted by the kidSAFE Seal Program (``kid... instructions on the web-based form. For comments concerning kidSAFE, write ``kidSAFE Application for...

  20. Actividades Para Padres: A Parent Handbook (Activities for Parents: A Parent Handbook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca, Benjamin

    Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…

  1. The Impact of Active Consent Procedures on Nonresponse and Nonresponse Error in Youth Survey Data: Evidence from a New Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courser, Matthew W.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Lavrakas, Paul J.; Collins, David; Ditterline, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results from a student survey fielded using an experimental design with 14 Kentucky school districts. Seven of the 14 districts were randomly assigned to implement the survey with active consent procedures; the other seven districts implemented the survey with passive consent procedures. We used our experimental design to…

  2. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  3. Informed Consent

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask during informed consent? Can I change my mind after I’ve signed the consent? What if I don’t want the treatment that’s being offered? How is informed consent for a clinical trial or research study different from consent for standard treatment? How is ...

  4. [Informed consent in emergency medicine].

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Nermin; Ozcan Senses, Müesser; Aydin Er, Rahime

    2010-01-01

    Informed consent is a prerequisite for the ethical and legal validity of the emergency intervention in emergency medicine, since it protects the fiduciary relationship between the physician and patient; the principle of honesty that grounds this relationship; the principle of autonomy that necessitates right of self-determination; and the principle of respect for persons. Informed consent in emergency medicine, which is supposed to include the nature, benefits and risks of emergency medical intervention, differentiates with respect to definite groups of patients: (1) conscious patients, (2) unconscious patients, and (3) children and mature minors. In addition, informed consent differentiates between medical, psychological and even social circumstances of the patients, referred to as valid consent, expressed-explicit consent, blanket consent, presumed consent, tacit consent, proxy consent, and parental consent. There are a few exceptions in which emergency medical intervention is administered without informed consent. In addition to the exceptions of life-saving interventions, when a patient can not decide for herself/himself, intervention of the physician in the best interest of the patient or children is based on the "therapeutic privilege" of the physician. As an ethically defensible right, since therapeutic privilege may open a door to hard paternalistic approaches, in those situations, emergency physicians should be cautious not to violate a patient's autonomy.

  5. [Informed consent].

    PubMed

    Medina Castellano, Carmen Delia

    2009-10-01

    At present times, numerous complaints claiming defects produced at some point in the process of obtaining informed consent are filed in courts of justice; in these complaints there is an underlying comment element which is the roles that health professionals have in these processes. In obtaining this consent, one can see this more as a means to obtain judicial protection for professional practices rather than this process being a respectful exercise for the dignity and freedom which health service patients have. This article reflects on two basic rights related to informed consent: adequately obtaining this consent and the need to protect those people who lack, either partially or totally, the capacity to make this decision by themselves. Afterwards, the author makes some considerations about the necessity to obtain informed consent for nursing practices and treatment.

  6. Nest predation increases with parental activity: Separating nest site and parental activity effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.

  7. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection. PMID:11413645

  8. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  9. Consent--its medico legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Yadwad, B S; Gouda, H

    2005-10-01

    One of the duties of a doctor towards his patients is to obtain consent before any medical examination. Any such examination without prior consent amounts to an assault on the patient. Consent is defined under Indian Contract Act (because Doctor Patient relationship isa contract) as "two or more persons are said to consent when they agree to the same thing in the same sense." Consent may be implied, expressed or informed depending upon the circumstances. But the consent of the patient is not required in situations like medical emergency, for vaccination etc. If the patient is not medically or legally competent to give consent, the consent of the parents or guardians or any person present at the time with the patient can be taken. Any research on a potential subject, removal of organs for transplantation, publication of information obtained during medical examination also require consent of the concerned person.

  10. Do the Patients Read the Informed Consent?

    PubMed Central

    Özhan, Mehmet Özgür; Süzer, Mehmet Anıl; Çomak, İlker; Çaparlar, Ceyda Özhan; Aydın, Gözde Bumin; Eşkin, Mehmet Burak; Atik, Bülent; Ergin, Atilla; Çekmen, Nedim; Kurt, Ercan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Informed consent is a process which consists of informing the patient about the medical interventions planned to be applied to the patient’s body and making the patient active in the decision making process. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the patients read the informed consent document or not and if not, to determine why they did not read it. This was achieved via a questionnaire administered at the pre-anaesthetic visit to assess the perception of patients to the informed consent process. Study Design: Survey study. Methods: The patients were given a questionnaire after signing the informed consent document at the pre-anaesthetic visit. We studied whether the patients read the informed consent document or not and asked for their reasons if they did not. Results: A total of 522 patients were included during the two month study (mean age: 38.1 years; 63.8% male, 36.2% female). Overall, 54.8% of patients reported that they did not read the informed consent. Among them, 50.3% did not care about it because they thought they would have the operation anyway, 13.4% did not have enough time to read it, 11.9% found it difficult to understand, 5.9% could not read because they had no glasses with them, and 5.2% found it frightening and gave up reading. Inpatients, older patients and patients with co-morbidities were less likely to read the informed consent document than outpatients, and younger and healthy patients (p<0.05). Also, 57.9% of parents whose children would be operated on had read the document. Conclusion: This study shows that the majority of our patients did not understand the importance of the informed consent. It is therefore concluded that informed consent documents should be rearranged to be easily read and should be supported with visual elements such as illustrations or video presentations, as informed consent is a process rather than just simply signing a form. PMID:25207184

  11. Parent Stress and the Active Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Karen; Prom, Megan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to look at whether a child's activity level was correlated with the level of stress a mother experiences. Parents can describe their children as having distinct and recognizable patterns of behavior as young as in infancy (Paaren, Hewitt, Lemery, Bihun & Goldsmith, 2000). Even at birth, some children are much…

  12. Supporting Head Start Parents: Impact of a Text Message Intervention on Parent-Child Activity Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…

  13. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  14. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  15. Understanding affluent adolescent adjustment: The interplay of parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, and organized activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M; Travers, Lea V

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relations between affluent adolescent adjustment and culturally salient factors within parent-child relationship and extracurricular domain. Bootstrapping techniques evaluated mediated effects among parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, intensity of organized activity (OA) involvement, and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction) within a sample of 10th graders and their parents (n = 88 parent-child pairs) from four high schools in affluent communities. Findings indicated that adolescents with more perfectionistic parents perceived more parental pressure and experienced poorer adjustment. Results also demonstrated that affluent adolescents who perceived more parental pressure were more intensely involved in OAs, but that higher OA intensity was linked to better adjustment. Findings highlight the importance of considering parental perfectionism when understanding adolescent behaviors and psychological outcomes, confirm the negative direct effects of parental pressure on adjustment, and corroborate prior research dispelling that highly intense OA involvement is linked to adolescent maladjustment.

  16. The places parents go: understanding the breadth, scope, and experiences of activity spaces for parents.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Freisthler, Bridget; Kepple, Nancy Jo; Chávez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Neighborhood environments are related to parenting behaviors, which in turn have a life-long effect on children's health and well-being. Activity spaces, which measure individual routine patterns of movement, may be helpful in assessing how physical and social environments shape parenting. In this study we use qualitative data and GIS mapping from 4 California cities to examine parental activity spaces. Parents described a number of factors that shape their activity spaces including caregiving status, the age of their children, and income. Parental activity spaces also varied between times (weekends vs. weekdays) and places (adult-only vs. child-specific places). Knowing how to best capture and study parental activity spaces could identify mechanisms by which environmental factors influence parenting behaviors and child health.

  17. The places parents go: understanding the breadth, scope, and experiences of activity spaces for parents

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Freisthler, Bridget; Kepple, Nancy Jo; Chávez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood environments are related to parenting behaviors, which in turn have a life-long effect on children’s health and well-being. Activity spaces, which measure individual routine patterns of movement, may be helpful in assessing how physical and social environments shape parenting. In this study we use qualitative data and GIS mapping from 4 California cities to examine parental activity spaces. Parents described a number of factors that shape their activity spaces including caregiving status, the age of their children, and income. Parental activity spaces also varied between times (weekends vs. weekdays) and places (adult-only vs. child-specific places). Knowing how to best capture and study parental activity spaces could identify mechanisms by which environmental factors influence parenting behaviors and child health. PMID:28392621

  18. Personality as a factor in parental encouragement and parent-child TV and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relation of personality to parent TV watching, physical activity (PA), and encouragement for child PA as parental influences on child TV and PA. Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.7) was used to examine cross-sectional responses from 674 parents (63.0% female, 55...

  19. 75 FR 61251 - Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity: Comment Request... solicits comments on the information needed to establish a claimant's parents' dependency. DATES: Written... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Statement of Dependency of...

  20. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  1. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…

  2. Engaging parents to increase youth physical activity: A systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents are often involved in interventions to engage youth in physical activity, but it is not clear which methods for involving parents are effective. A systematic review was conducted of interventions with physical activity and parental components among healthy youth to identify how best to invol...

  3. Playtime Is Science: Implementing a Parent/Child Activity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprung, Barbara; And Others

    A program of science activities for children in the early childhood years and their parents is offered. The three different formats of the Playtime Is Science program are adaptable to a variety of settings and schedules. The Parent/Child Activity Program includes one parents-only session in which participants learn that routine chores involve…

  4. Fun and Learning for Parents and Children: An Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trans-Management Systems, Inc.

    Based on the assumption that the more parents enjoy playing with their children, the more children will learn from their parents, this booklet is a collection of fun activities for parents to do with their preschool children. The booklet is organized according to location for the activity, whether in a particular room in the house or outdoors.…

  5. 75 FR 77958 - Agency Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity Under OMB Review....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Statement of Dependency of Parent(s), VA Form 21-509. OMB Control Number: 2900... parent(s) for support complete VA Form 21-509 to report income and dependency information....

  6. Informed consent.

    PubMed

    Sacchini, D; Pennacchini, M

    2010-01-01

    Informed consent (IC) in clinical experimentation is a process by which a subject voluntarily and freely confirms his/her willingness to participate in a trial, after having been informed of all involved aspects. IC is a concept enough recent within medical tradition. Unquestionably, Nuremberg trials (1945-1947) influenced thought about consent in Medicine. When the idea of IC evolved, discussion for appropriate guidelines moved increasingly from a narrow focus on the physician's/researcher's obligation. IC shall be obtained in writing and documented before a subject is enrolled into clinical investigation. , Particularly in the case of medical devices, it is necessary an adequate information to the patient on possible incidents occurring following placing of devices.

  7. Exploring Healthy Eating: Activities for Parents and Children Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    This collection of learning units introduces parents to the role of nutrition in their young child's cognitive development. Designed to be easy to read and useful for families with limited resources, the materials help parents teach their young children good eating habits by offering information, feeding tips, creative activities for parents and…

  8. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  9. Explaining the erectile responses of rapists to rape stories: the contributions of sexual activity, non-consent, and violence with injury.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant T; Lalumière, Martin L; Seto, Michael C; Rice, Marnie E; Chaplin, Terry C

    2012-02-01

    In phallometric research, rapists have a unique pattern of erectile responses to stimuli depicting sexual activities involving coercion and violence. In this study, we attempted to determine the cues that control rapists' erectile responses to rape stories in the laboratory. A total of 12 rapists and 14 non-rapists were exposed to recorded audio scenarios that systematically varied with regard to the presence or absence of three orthogonally varied elements: sexual activity and nudity, violence and injury, and expression of non-consent. As expected from prior research, an index computed by subtracting participants' greatest mean responses to stories describing mutually consenting sexual activity from their greatest mean responses to stories describing rape was much higher among rapists than non-rapists. Both groups showed larger responses when stories involved sexual activity and nudity, but neither group exhibited a preference for cues of violence and serious injury, or for cues of non-consent. The element that produced the larger group difference, however, was the presence or absence of active consent. The results indicated that a sexual interest in (or indifference to) non-consent is at least as central to accounting for the unique sexual orientation of rapists as is sexual responding to violence and injury.

  10. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  11. Association of Parent and Peer Support with Adolescent Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Rodgers, Miki W.; Sallis, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between social support and adolescent physical activity when assessing physical activity using different methods and when separating social support into parent and peer support. Self-report and accelerometer data indicated that parent and peer support significantly correlated with physical activity. Perceived social…

  12. Parental Mediatory Role in Children's Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, P. Y. Peggy; Chow, Bik C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are important agents in the physical activity socializing process in children. The present study aims to examine the parental mediatory role in children's physical activity participation via a youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 872 Hong Kong Chinese children (aged ten to 13) in…

  13. A Case for Obtaining Informed Consent from Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa; Helling, Mary Kay

    A discussion of informed consent in research on children focuses on the history of informed consent and problems of obtaining informed consent from young children. It is argued that, in the past, researchers and research monitors have assumed that parents will act in the best interests of children participating in research and protect them from…

  14. Low-Income Parents' Warmth and Parent-Child Activities for Children with Disabilities, Suspected Delays and Biological Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…

  15. 78 FR 61002 - Agency Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Statement of Dependency of Parent(s)) Activity Under OMB Review... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0089.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Statement of Dependency of Parent(s...-connected injuries and depends on his or her parent(s) for support complete VA Form 21-509 to report...

  16. Parental Consent Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Paul, Ron [R-TX-14

    2011-08-01

    09/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Parental Consent Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Paul, Ron [R-TX-14

    2009-04-30

    06/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Informed consent.

    PubMed

    Steevenson, Grania

    2006-08-01

    Disclosure of information prior to consent is a very complex area of medical ethics. On the surface it would seem to be quite clear cut, but on closer inspection the scope for 'grey areas' is vast. In practice, however, it could be argued that the number of cases that result in complaint or litigation is comparatively small. However, this does not mean that wrong decisions or unethical scenarios do not occur. It would seem that in clinical practice these ethical grey areas concerning patients' full knowledge of their condition or treatment are quite common. One of the barometers for how much disclosure should be given prior to consent could be the feedback obtained from the patients. Are they asking relevant questions pertinent to their condition and do they show a good understanding of the options available? This should be seen as a positive trait and should be welcomed by the healthcare professionals. Ultimately it gives patients greater autonomy and the healthcare professional can expand and build on the patient's knowledge as well as allay fears perhaps based on wrongly held information. Greater communication with the patient would help the healthcare professional pitch their explanations at the right level. Every case and scenario is different and unique and deserves to be treated as such. Studies have shown that most patients can understand their medical condition and treatment provided communication has been thorough (Gillon 1996). It is in the patients' best interests to feel comfortable with the level of disclosure offered to them. It can only foster greater trust and respect between them and the healthcare profession which has to be mutually beneficial to both parties.

  19. Informed consent - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... state) What Should Occur During the Informed Consent Process? When asking for your informed consent, your doctor ... What is Your Role in the Informed Consent Process? You are an important member of your health ...

  20. An Examination of Parents' Preferred School Counselor Professional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…

  1. Handbook of Family Activities for Parents of Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Georgia

    Intended for parents, the handbook describes characteristics of learning disabled (LD) children and offers activities that the child can perform in the home to build skill proficiency. It is explained that the activities are designed to relieve the parent and child of constant awareness of the disability, to avoid use of special materials and…

  2. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  3. ACTIVITY IN GEMINID PARENT (3200) PHAETHON

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li Jing E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.ed

    2010-11-15

    The asteroid (3200) Phaethon is widely recognized as the parent of the Geminid meteoroid stream. However, it has never shown evidence for ongoing mass loss or for any form of comet-like activity that would indicate the continued replenishment of the stream. Following an alert by Battams and Watson, we used NASA's STEREO-A spacecraft to image Phaethon near perihelion, in the period UT 2009 June 17-22, when the heliocentric distance was near 0.14 AU. The resulting photometry shows an unexpected brightening, by a factor of two, starting UT 2009 June 20.2 {+-} 0.2, which we interpret as an impulsive release of dust particles from Phaethon. If the density is near 2500 kg m{sup -3}, then the emitted dust particles must have a combined mass of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 8} a{sub 1} kg, where a{sub 1} is the particle radius in millimeters. Assuming a{sub 1} = 1, this is approximately 10{sup -4} of the Geminid stream mass and to replenish the stream in steady state within its estimated {approx}10{sup 3} yr lifetime would require {approx}10 events like the one observed, per orbit. Alternatively, ongoing mass loss may be unrelated to the event which produced the Phaethon-Geminid complex. An impact origin of the dust is highly unlikely. Phaethon is too hot for water ice to survive, rendering the possibility that dust is ejected through gas drag from sublimated ice unlikely. Instead, we suggest that Phaethon is essentially a rock comet, in which the small perihelion distance leads both to the production of dust (through thermal fracture and decomposition cracking of hydrated minerals) and to its ejection into interplanetary space (through radiation pressure sweeping and other effects).

  4. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  5. Identifying Associations between Student Achievement and Parental Involvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddle, Ann R.

    2011-01-01

    The revision and renewal of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 will likely expand its parental involvement component to engage educators, parents, and community partners in supporting public education for children. This revisions call for best practices, but current literature fails to identify specific activities associated…

  6. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  7. Parental Activity as Influence on Children`s BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-09-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children's lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children's BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children's MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children's PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children's PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key pointsA higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents.Children's BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one physically

  8. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key points A higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents. Children’s BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one

  9. Pots and Pans: Activities for Parent and Child. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneburner, Robert L.; Dowdy, Lynne R.

    The booklet presents developmental and basic skills learning activities for parents to use at home with their handicapped preschool children to better prepare the children for school related experiences. Under each activity are provided a statement of what the activity seeks to accomplish, a list of materials necessary for the activity, suggested…

  10. Parents' perception of their influence on their child's physical activity.

    PubMed

    VanDerworp, Gwendolyn Kay; Ryan, Sarah-Jane

    2016-03-01

    Childhood physical activity (PA) has declined in the western world recently. To combat child inactivity, government programs have been organized to promote PA within families. It is important for physiotherapists to understand the influence parents perceive to have on their child's PA habits in order to better encourage a positive parental influence. The purpose of this study is to explore how parents perceive their influence on their child/children's PA through an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews conducted with five participants. The interviews were analyzed using elements of IPA. Master themes developed with their corresponding subthemes: creating an environment of opportunity--logistics, opportunities through encouragement and PA within the family, barriers to PA--barriers created by parents and barriers created by external factors, and parent and child interactions--children communicating interest and disinterest in PA and parent's attitudes toward children's disinterest. The findings suggest that parents perceive themselves to have a greater positive influence on their children rather than negative. The barriers that parents create are not perceived to prevent their child's PA but rather restrict it. Many participants reported enjoying doing PA with their children and used PA as an opportunity for family time, indicating a dual purpose for PA.

  11. Prevalence of Sufficient Physical Activity among Parents Attending a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Sharon; Irwin, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The benefits of regular physical activity are well documented. However, approximately half of all university students are insufficiently active, and no research to date exists on the activity behavior of university students who are also parents. Participants and Methods: Using an adapted version of the Godin Leisure Time Exercise…

  12. Child physical activity and parent-child attitude congruence of athletic competence and activity type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...

  13. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents' PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' experiences of being a part of their adolescents' empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents', but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  14. Informed Consent to Treatment in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients have a right to be informed and actively involved in their health care. Fundamental to a person’s dignity and autonomy is the right to make decisions about their psychiatric treatment, including their right to refuse unwanted treatments, providing that the refusal is a capable one. It is important that psychiatrists have an awareness of the ethical underpinnings of consent and the legislated requirements related to consent, including precedent cases. Consent may change over time and for different conditions and circumstances. Consent must be an ongoing process.

  15. Consent Procedures and Participation Rates in School-Based Intervention and Prevention Research: Using a Multi-Component, Partnership-Based Approach to Recruit Participants

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Franko, Debra L.; Weinstein, Elana; Beakley, Kelly; Power, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluations of school-based interventions and prevention programs typically require parental consent for students to participate. In school-based efforts, program evaluators may have limited access to parents and considerable effort is required to obtain signed consent. This issue is particularly salient when conducting research in under-resourced, urban schools, where parent involvement in the school setting may be somewhat limited. The aims of this article were to (a) examine the published school-based prevention and intervention literature to assess the state of the field in terms of consent procedures and participation rates; and (b) describe two examples of health promotion studies that used multi-component, partnership-based strategies in urban schools to encourage communication among children, their parents, and researchers. The purpose of the case studies was to generate hypotheses to advance the science related to school-based participant recruitment for research studies. Of nearly 500 studies reviewed, only 11.5% reported both consent procedures and participation rates. Studies using active consent procedures had a mean participation rate of 65.5% (range: 11–100%). This article highlights the need for researchers to report consent procedures and participation rates and describes partnership-based strategies used to enroll students into two urban, school-based health promotion studies. PMID:19834586

  16. Mothers' Prenatal Activities Predict Adjustment to Pregnancy and Early Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ronalda; Turner, Nita

    This study examined the activities of pregnant women and how these activities facilitated a positive adjustment to pregnancy and early parenting. Subjects were 49 expectant first-time mothers ranging in age from 20 to 41 and attending a childhood preparation class. Eighty-two percent of the women were married. Subjects completed two questionnaires…

  17. Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

  18. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Ninos Activos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children's PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, a...

  19. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents can influence their children's physical activity (PA) through parenting practices (PP). Correlates of PA-PP have not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) socio-demographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived-environmental, and (4) obje...

  20. Dutch children and parents' views on active and non-active video gaming.

    PubMed

    De Vet, Emely; Simons, Monique; Wesselman, Maarten

    2014-06-01

    Active video games that require whole body movement to play the game may be an innovative health promotion tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to children's health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active by active gaming, opinions about active and non-active video games are explored among 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents. Six qualitative, semi-structured focus groups were held with 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 46) and four with their parents (n = 19) at three different primary schools in The Netherlands. The focus groups with children discussed game preferences, gaming context and perceived game-related parenting. The focus groups with parents addressed considerations in purchasing video games, perceived positive and negative consequences of gaming, and game-related parenting. Both children and their parents were very positive about active video games and preferred active games over non-active games. Active video games were considered more social than non-active video games, and active games were played more often together with friends and family than non-active video games. Parenting practices did not differ for active and non-active video games, although some parents were less strict regarding active games. Two conditions for practical implementation were met: children enjoyed active video games, and parents were willing to buy active video games. Active video games were preferred to non-active video games, illustrating that using active video games is a promising health promotion tool to reduce sedentary pastime in youth.

  1. 12 CFR 980.6 - Finance Board consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finance Board consent. 980.6 Section 980.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.6 Finance Board consent. The Finance Board may at any time provide consent for a Bank...

  2. 12 CFR 980.6 - Finance Board consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board consent. 980.6 Section 980.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.6 Finance Board consent. The Finance Board may at any time provide consent for a Bank...

  3. 10 CFR 820.23 - Consent order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consent order. 820.23 Section 820.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.23 Consent order. (a... consistent with the objectives of the Act and the DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements. The Director and a...

  4. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870

  5. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  6. 34 CFR 300.9 - Consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE... parent revokes consent in writing for their child's receipt of special education services after the child is initially provided special education and related services, the public agency is not required...

  7. 34 CFR 300.9 - Consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES... parent revokes consent in writing for their child's receipt of special education services after the child... amend the child's education records to remove any references to the child's receipt of special...

  8. Informed consent in gerontology.

    PubMed

    Glock, Rosana Soibelmann; Goldim, Jose Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use and adequacy of informed consent in research involving the elderly in Brazil. Using a reading index, we observed that in 83% of informed consent forms, the text was considered difficult, and demanded a higher schooling level than that presented by the subjects. Whereas 100% of the investigators considered the text in informed consent forms accessible, 75% of the subjects considered it hard to understand. This difference was statistically significant. 94% percent of the elderly participating in research protocols made the decision to participate in the study before reading the term of consent. More attention should be given both to the writing of informed consent forms and to the entire informed consent process, which in gerontology research, should be reviewed at each encounter with study participants.

  9. e-Consent: The design and implementation of consumer consent mechanisms in an electronic environment.

    PubMed

    Coiera, Enrico; Clarke, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The effective coordination of health care relies on communication of confidential information about consumers between different health and community care services. However, consumers must be able to give or withhold "e-Consent" to those who wish to access their electronic health information. There are several possible forms for e-Consent. In the general consent model, a patient provides blanket consent for access to his or her information by an organization for all future information requests. Conversely, general denial explicitly denies consent for information to be used in future circumstances, and in each new episode of care, a new consent would be needed to obtain information. In the general consent with specific denial model, a patient attaches specific exclusion conditions to his or her general approval to future accesses. In contrast, in the general denial with explicit consent model, a patient issues a blanket block on all future accesses but allows the inclusion of future use under specified conditions. There also are several alternative functions for an e-Consent system. Consent could be captured as a matter of legal record. E-Consent systems could be more active by prompting clinicians to indicate that they have noted consent conditions before they access a record. Finally, the record of patient consent could be fully active and used as a gatekeeper in a distributed information environment. There probably will need to be some form of data object that is associated with patient information. This e-Consent object (or e-Co) will contain the specific conditions under which the data to which it is attached can be retrieved. Given the complexity of clinical work and the substantial variation we can expect in an individual's desire to make his or her personal medical details available, it is unlikely a "one size fits all" approach to e-Consent will work. Consequently, with a well-chosen consent design, it should be possible to balance the specific need for

  10. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions of consent, native language, and personally... Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information. As used in this subpart— (a... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The...

  11. 34 CFR 303.401 - Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions of consent, native language, and personally... Definitions of consent, native language, and personally identifiable information. As used in this subpart— (a... which consent is sought, in the parent's native language or other mode of communication; (2) The...

  12. Parental Perceptions of Physical Activity Benefits for Youth with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, E. Andrew; Siebert, Erin; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity promotion is of need for youth with developmental disabilities. Parental perceptions of physical activity benefits may influence youth behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between parental beliefs on the importance of physical activity and physical activity levels among youth with disabilities. Parents and…

  13. Post-weaning living with parents during juvenile period alters locomotor activity, social and parental behaviors in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Lu; Kong, Lingzhe; Wang, Jianli

    2013-09-01

    Neonatal parental care plays an important role in the development of offspring behavior, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning contact between offspring and parents on locomotory, social and parental behavior. Here, we explore this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Voles were assigned to live with parents and siblings from the same litter until 45d (natural dispersal time in the field) or to live with siblings from the same litter after weaning at 21d (normally weaned time, the control). At 70d of age, behaviors were recorded in open field and social interaction tests, and parental care toward their own offspring was measured. Results show that voles that live with parents post-weaning engaged in less locomotory activity and rearing behavior in the open field test, less sniffing of novel individuals and displayed more parental care, compared to voles that did not continue to live with their parents. These findings demonstrate that parent-offspring interaction post-weaning alters locomotory activity, social behavior and parental behavior of offspring at adulthood.

  14. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  15. Is Parenting Style Related to Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Latino Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…

  16. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  17. Beyond informed consent.

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively recent phenomenon, the role of informed consent in human research is central to its ethical regulation and conduct. However, guidelines often recommend procedures for obtaining informed consent (usually written consent) that are difficult to implement in developing countries. This paper reviews the guidelines for obtaining informed consent and also discusses prevailing views on current controversies, ambiguities and problems with these guidelines and suggests potential solutions. The emphasis in most externally sponsored research projects in developing countries is on laborious documentation of several mechanical aspects of the research process rather than on assuring true comprehension and voluntary participation. The onus for the oversight of this process is often left to overworked and ill-equipped local ethics review committees. Current guidelines and processes for obtaining informed consent should be reviewed with the specific aim of developing culturally appropriate methods of sharing information about the research project and obtaining and documenting consent that is truly informed. Further research is needed to examine the validity and user friendliness of innovations in information sharing procedures for obtaining consent in different cultural settings. PMID:15643799

  18. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Informed consent in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Pick, Andrew; Berry, Shelley; Gilbert, Kayleigh; McCaul, James

    Since increasing numbers of patients are asked to take part in clinical trials, nurses need to be aware of the principles of valid, informed consent. This article explores consent, which aims to protect the rights, safety and wellbeing of patients. In particular, the history of consent in research and the elements involved in obtaining informed consent from potential participants in research studies are discussed.

  20. Playing "The Ladybug Game": Parent Guidance of Young Children's Numeracy Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Ferretti, Larissa; Loving, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Parent guidance for numeracy activities and preschoolers' numeracy performance were examined in the context of playing a board game in three sessions over a two-week period. Twenty-eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a numeracy awareness group in which parents were provided with suggested numeracy activities to incorporate into the…

  1. Parent Education and Consultation Activities of School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.; Partin, Ronald L.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed extent and nature of involvement of school counselors in parenting skills training and parent consultation. Findings from 213 elementary and secondary school counselors revealed that school counselors on all levels recognized importance of working with parents for benefit of students, yet many had little contact with parents. Many…

  2. Involving parents from the start: Formative evaluation for a large RCT with Botswana Junior Secondary School students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kim S.; Chirwa-Motswere, Catherine; Winskell, Kate; Stallcup, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While HIV prevention research conducted among adolescent populations may encounter parental resistance, the active engagement of parents from inception to trial completion may alleviate opposition. In preparation for implementing a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of a behavioural intervention targeting adolescent sexual risk behaviours, a formative evaluation was undertaken to assess parental reactions to the proposed trial. Six focus groups were conducted with parents of adolescents (aged 13–17) from rural, peri-urban, and urban Botswana junior secondary schools. Focus groups explored comprehension and acceptability among parents of the forthcoming trial including HSV-2 testing, the return of results to the adolescent (not the parent), trial information materials and the parental consent process. Parents welcomed the study and understood and accepted its moral and ethical considerations. Their reactions regarding return of HSV-2 results only to adolescents (not the parent) were mixed. Parents understood the consent process and most agreed to consent, while indicating their desire to remain informed and involved throughout the RCT. The FGDs provided valuable information and insights that helped strengthen the study. As a result of parents’ feedback, counselling procedures were strengthened and direct linkages to local services and care were made. Informational materials were revised to increase clarity, and materials and procedures were developed to encourage and support parental involvement and parent-child dialogue. Ultimately, parental feedback led to a decision by the Government of Botswana to allow parents to access their child’s HSV-2 test results. PMID:27002354

  3. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946…

  4. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Consent to Psychiatric Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Anthony James; Kjervik, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a small-scale study in which the decision-making process of adolescents who consent to psychiatric mental health treatment was examined. Sixteen (16) adolescents were interviewed about their decisions related to initial and continued treatment, along with their understanding of minor consent laws. Interviews were audio-recorded, and transcripts were analyzed through concept analysis. Findings are presented in the context of the decision-making steps and research questions. Most adolescents did not recognize consequences related to psychiatric mental health treatment and did not assimilate and integrate information provided to them about treatment choices. Adolescents disagreed with current minor consent laws that allow minors to consent to certain healthcare treatments without the required consent of the parent. Further, adolescents reported that a collaborative approach in making decisions about the adolescent's psychiatric mental health treatment was most facilitative of achieving the goals of treatment. PMID:22474581

  5. Do specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy associate with physical activity and screen time among primary schoolchildren? A cross-sectional study in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's physical activity (PA) and screen time. Parental body mass index (BMI), family socioeconomic status (SES), and child's age and gender were examined as possible influencing factors. Design Cross-sectional. Setting January 2014, Flanders (Belgium). Participants 207 parents (87.4% mothers) of children aged 6–12 years. Outcome measures Specific parenting practices, related parental self-efficacy, and children's PA and screen time. Results The majority of investigated parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were not significantly associated with children's PA or screen time. However, children were more physically active if sports equipment was available at home (p<0.10) and if parents did not find it difficult to motivate their child to be physically active (p<0.05). Children had a lower screen time if parents limited their own gaming (p<0.01). The associations between parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's PA or screen time were significant for parents with a normal BMI, for medium-high SES families and for parents of younger children. Furthermore, the association between the parenting relating factors and children's PA and screen time differed for boys and girls. Conclusions In contrast to what we expected, the findings of the current study show that only a very few specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were associated with children's PA and screen time. It was expected that parental self-efficacy would play a more important role. This can be due to the fact that parental self-efficacy was already high in this group of parents. Therefore, it is possible that parents do not realise how difficult it is to perform certain parenting practices until they are faced with it in an intervention. Trial registration number EC/2012/317. PMID:26346871

  6. Report on the remedial action to isolate DDT from people and the environment in the Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek System, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama: Review panel activities, (United States v. Olin Corporation consent decree), May 31, 1983-June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Consent Decree requires the Olin Corporation to develop and implement a remedial plan that will meet a performance standard of 5 parts per million (ppM) of DDT in fillets of channel catfish, largemouth bass, and smallmouth buffalo in specified reaches of the HSB-IC System. This performance standard is to be achieved by a remedy that is consistent with the goals and objectives of the Consent Decree. A Review Panel, consisting of members from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Department of the Army (DA), the State of Alabama (ADEM), and nonvoting participants from the town of Triana, Alabama (Triana), and the Olin Corporation (Olin), was established by the Consent Decree. Review Panel responsibilities include technical overview and approval of Olin's proposals to achieve the requirements of the Consent Decree. This report summarizes the activities of the Review Panel associated with implementation of Consent Decree requirements from May 31, 1983 through June 30, 1986.

  7. Changing Factors associated with Parent Activation after Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Bingen, Kristin; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Patel, Sunita K.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Guinan, Eva C.; Kupst, Mary Jo; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors associated with parent activation in parents of children undergoing pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the 6 months following HSCT, and to address if their association with parent activation changes over time. Methods Measures for this analysis, including the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), were completed by parents (N=198) prior to their child’s HSCT preparative regimen and again at 6 months post-HSCT. Clinical data were also collected. A repeated measures model was built to estimate the association between clinical and demographic factors and parent well-being on Parent-PAM scores. Interactions with time were considered to test for changing effects over time. Results Throughout the HSCT course, older parent age was associated with lower Parent-PAM scores (β=−0.29, p=0.02) and never being married was associated with higher scores (versus married, β=12.27, p=0.03). While higher parent emotional functioning scores were not associated with activation at baseline, they were important at 6 months (baseline: β=−0.002, p=0.96; interaction: β=0.14, p=0.03). At baseline longer duration of illness was associated with increased activation, but this effect diminished with time (baseline: β=3.29, p=0.0002; interaction: β=−2.40, p=0.02). Activation levels dropped for parents of children who went from private to public insurance (baseline: β=2.95, p=0.53; interaction: β=−13.82, p=0.004). Clinical events did not affect Parent-PAM scores. Conclusions Our findings reveal important changes in the factors associated with parent activation in the first 6 months after pediatric HSCT. These findings may reflect the emotional and financial toll of pediatric HSCT on parent activation. PMID:25519755

  8. Pots and Pans Activities for Parent and Child: Activities for Preschool Multiple Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tassel, Jean

    Intended for parents and teachers of multiply handicapped preschool children, the booklet provides lesson plans in three major areas--basic concepts, motor activities, and language activities. Each lesson plan is broken down into four parts: purpose (a descriptive statement of what the lesson hopes to accomplish), materials (list of materials…

  9. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...

  10. Parental Influence on the Physical Activity of Chinese Children: Do Gender Differences Occur?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijuan, Wang; Jiancui, Sun; Suzhe, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association among parental moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), parental support, and the MVPA of children by gender. Participants comprised of 172 boys and 151 girls aged seven to 11 years old from three primary schools in Shanghai. Their parents were also included as research respondents. Accelerometers…

  11. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  12. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  13. Informed consent and research

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Informed consent is the central doctrine to any research based on the principles of autonomy and self-determination. For it to be genuine and effective, it should be in simple regional language catering to the cultural and psychological and social requisites of the participant. The information entailed in the consent form must be true, should cover all the relevant aspects, and no fact should be hidden however seemingly important or unimportant. Every research volunteer puts his or her health and life at risk for the sake of science, and this must be respected at all times during the research. PMID:25250226

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  15. Critical Race Parenting: Understanding Scholarship/Activism in Parenting Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePouw, Christin; Matias, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Parenting is often discussed in the field of education, but frequently in terms of family or community deficiency, rather than strengths (Bonilla Silva, 2006; Few, 2007), particularly when communities of color are being examined. In this conceptual article, we advocate for the use of critical race theory (CRT) in discussions of parenting and…

  16. Are Parental Health Habits Transmitted to Their Children? An Eight Year Longitudinal Study of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Norman; Wold, Bente; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2006-01-01

    Parents are believed to play a role in influencing their children's health behaviours. This longitudinal study of two generations (parents and their children) examined associations between parents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity changes and the self-reported physical activity changes of their offspring in a sample of 557 adolescents…

  17. 16 CFR 312.5 - Parental consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to protect the safety of a child participant on the website or online service, and the operator uses... other purpose; (iii) Not disclosed on the website or online service; and (5) Where the operator collects..., to the extent reasonably necessary: (i) To protect the security or integrity of its website or...

  18. A qualitative study of parental modeling and social support for physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marcie S; Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed and coded by independent raters. Inter-rater reliabilities indicated adequate agreement [inter-rater reliability (r) = 0.84]. Themes were identified for parental role modeling and parental social support. Regarding parental role modeling, adolescents reported that parents engaged in a variety of different types of physical activities with their children such as walking, cycling and playing basketball; however, activity was infrequent. Sex differences were noted in parental social support indicating that female adolescents reported receiving more emotional and negative support for physical activity (being required to play outside with a sibling), while boys reported receiving more tangible types of support for physical activity. Adolescents also generated ideas on how to increase parental social support and in particular tangible support was highlighted as important by both males and females. This study suggests that future interventions should focus on improving parental engagement and tangible support that involve direct participation from parents in physical activities with their adolescents.

  19. Family ecological predictors of physical activity parenting in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Lawson, Hal A; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA parenting. Low-income parents (N = 145) of preschool-aged children (aged 2 to 5 years) were recruited from five Head Start centers in upstate New York. Guided by the family ecological model (FEM), parents completed surveys assessing PA parenting and relevant family and community factors. Hierarchical regression analysis identified independent predictors of PA parenting. Parent depressive symptoms, life pressures that interfere with PA and perceived empowerment to access PA resources were associated with PA parenting. Community factors, including neighborhood play safety and social capital, were not independently associated with PA parenting in the multivariate model. Together, family ecological factors accounted for a large proportion of the variance in PA parenting (R (2) = .37). Findings highlight the need to look beyond cognitive predictors of PA parenting in low-income families and to examine the impact of their broader life circumstances including indicators of stress.

  20. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  1. On the Ottoman consent documents for medical interventions and the modern concept of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Kara, Mahmut A; Aksoy, Sahin

    2006-09-01

    Information for patients prior to medical intervention is one of the principles of modern medical practice. In this study, we looked at an earlier practice of this principle. Ottoman judges had record books called sicil. One of the categories in sicils was the consent documents called riza senedi, which was a patient-physician contract approved by the courts. These contracts were especially for the protection of physicians from punishment if the patient dies. It is not clear whether patients were informed properly or not. Consent for minors was obtained from parents. However, a situation where an adult does not have the capacity to consent, was not clear in these documents. Any sign of free withdrawal of consent was not found in these records. Due to the legal system of Ottoman State, these contracts were related to Islamic law rather than modern civil law. We aim, in this paper, to present a legal practice, which is possible to consider as an early example of the informed consent practice.

  2. Understanding the accuracy of parental perceptions of child physical activity: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kesten, Joanna M.; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Pool, Laura; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA) have achieved limited success. This may be attributed to inaccurate parental perceptions of their children’s PA and a lack of recognition of a need to change activity levels. Methods Fifty-three parents participated in semi-structured interviews to determine perceptions of child PA. Perceptions were compared to children’s measured MVPA (classified as meeting or not meeting UK guidelines) to produce three categories: “accurate”, “over-estimate”, “under-estimate”. Deductive content analysis was performed to understand the accuracy of parental perceptions. Results All parents of children meeting the PA guidelines accurately perceived their child’s PA; whilst the majority of parents whose child did not meet the guidelines overestimated their PA. Most parents were unconcerned about their child’s PA level, viewing them as naturally active and willing to be active. Qualitative explanations for perceptions of insufficient activity included children having health problems and preferences for inactive pursuits, and parents having difficulty facilitating PA in poor weather and not always observing their child’s PA level. Social comparisons also influenced parental perceptions. Conclusions Strategies to improve parental awareness of child PA are needed. Perceptions of child PA may be informed by child “busyness”, being unaware of activity levels, and social comparisons. PMID:25872227

  3. Discordance in informed consent response on the basis of demographic factors: brief report.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Wallace, Karen R; Gill, Chandler E; Harrison, Courtney H; Taylor, Henry M; Charles, P David

    2010-06-01

    During an outcomes study of spasticity treatment at a developmental center for 62 residents with profound intellectual disabilities, either botulinum toxin A (BTX-A), intrathecal baclofen (ITB), or both were recommended with physical and occupational therapy. Conservators consented to BTX-A more than ITB (p = .021). Court-appointed conservators were more likely to provide consent for treatment than family members (p = .026). Nonparents consented more than parents (p = .009). Finally, Caucasian conservators were more likely to consent to treatment than African American conservators (p = .036), but ethnicity of the resident did not influence consent. Gender of resident or conservator did not influence rate of consent. This report highlights disparities in surrogate consent giving for individuals with intellectual disabilities and indicates a need for more research to ensure that this vulnerable population has access to appropriate treatments.

  4. Informed Consent for Braces

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Rathore, Nidhi; Rathee, Pooja; Agarwal, Deepesh; Mathur, Nikunj

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of law on the orthodontic profession has greatly increased in the last few decades. Dental law has emerged today as a full-fedged specialty dealing with a variety of areas, like professional negligence, doctor-patient contracts, consumer protection laws, ethics, general and special health legislations and practice regulatory mechanisms. This article highlights the concept of informed consent which is based on the premise that each individual has a right to make decisions concerning his health, disease and treatment. How to cite this article: Jharwal V, Trehan M, Rathore N, Rathee P, Agarwal D, Mathur N. Informed Consent for Braces. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):105-108. PMID:25356009

  5. Some limits of informed consent.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, O

    2003-02-01

    Many accounts of informed consent in medical ethics claim that it is valuable because it supports individual autonomy. Unfortunately there are many distinct conceptions of individual autonomy, and their ethical importance varies. A better reason for taking informed consent seriously is that it provides assurance that patients and others are neither deceived nor coerced. Present debates about the relative importance of generic and specific consent (particularly in the use of human tissues for research and in secondary studies) do not address this issue squarely. Consent is a propositional attitude, so intransitive: complete, wholly specific consent is an illusion. Since the point of consent procedures is to limit deception and coercion, they should be designed to give patients and others control over the amount of information they receive and opportunity to rescind consent already given.

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  7. The Role of Parents in Adolescents' Reading Motivation and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Parent support for reading is one of the many elements that may play a role in the development and sustainment of children's reading motivation; to date, however, research has focused much more on the role that parents play in their preschool and primary-grade children's reading than in their older children's reading. Thus, this paper examines the…

  8. Consent in escrow

    PubMed Central

    Van der Loos, Kiah I.; Longstaff, Holly; Virani, Alice; Illes, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Disasters such as flash flooding, mass shootings, and train and airplane accidents involving large numbers of victims produce significant opportunity for research in the biosciences. This opportunity exists in the extreme tails of life events, however, during which decisions about life and death, valuing and foregoing, speed and patience, trust and distrust, are tested simultaneously and abundantly. The press and urgency of these scenarios may also challenge the ability of researchers to comprehensively deliver information about the purposes of a study, risks, benefits, and alternatives. Under these circumstances, we argue that acquiring consent for the immediate use of data that are not time sensitive represents a gap in the protection of human study participants. In response, we offer a two-tiered model of consent that allows for data collected in real-time to be held in escrow until the acute post-disaster window has closed. Such a model not only respects the fundamental tenet of consent in research, but also enables such research to take place in an ethically defensible manner. PMID:27774181

  9. Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity for Their Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…

  10. Political Activism of Palestinian Youth: Exploring Individual, Parental, and Ecological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…

  11. Association between Hypothesized Parental Influences and Preschool Children's Physical Activity Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…

  12. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  13. Middle-Class Parental Involvement in the Summer Activities of Four Elementary Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Iva B.; Chappell, Manya; Johnson, Susan; Ngassam, Marlise DePaul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explore middle-class parental involvement in summer activities of four elementary students. Many researchers discuss summer programs initiated by institutions, but fail to explain how parents' availability, experiences, and related criteria affect student summer activities. From our interviews, observations, and artifacts, we…

  14. PAKS: Parents-and-Kids Science. 24 Activities for Kids and Adults To Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny L.

    This activity book designed for grades 1-3 provides teachers with ready-to-use materials designed to get parents and children excited about science, help establish a home-school connection, and provide interesting learning activities for children to share with adults. This program gets parents involved in developing their children's science…

  15. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  16. Pizzas, Pennies and Pumpkin Seeds: Mathematical Activities for Parents and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelman, Maja; King, Julie

    Children have many natural opportunities to learn about the basic aspects of quantity. This booklet is addressed to parents who want to support their children's mathematical growth. The activities presented suggest many ways in which parents and children can use mathematics in their environment. The activities are organized around common…

  17. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    PubMed Central

    Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends' activity norms,” and physical activity (r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p < 0.001) and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r = 0.460, p < 0.001). Obtaining information relating to parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors. PMID:28348605

  18. How Parents Perceive and Feel about Participation in Community Activities: The Comparison between Parents of Preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-Fong; Wong, Bernard P.H.; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared how parents of preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) perceived and felt about participation in community activities. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 380 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers with ASD and 214 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers without ASD. The two groups were not different in…

  19. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  20. Improving Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Learning Activities for Parents and Adolescents. Leader Manual and Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Darrell J.

    This leader manual and participant workbook present a 15 session program on parent-adolescent relationships. Three main topic areas are covered: perceiving each other (social perception); communicating effectively; and recognizing behavior as a function of its consequence. The leader manual presents an overview of the program which discusses its…

  1. Factors Associated With Parental Activation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Davies, Stella M.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Patel, Sunita; Bingen, Kristin; Kupst, Mary Jo; Schwartz, Lisa; Guinan, Eva C.; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation, the extension of self-efficacy into self-management, is an essential component of effective chronic care. In pediatric populations, caregiver activation is also needed for proper disease management. This study investigates the relationships between parental activation and other characteristics of parent–child dyads (N = 198) presenting for pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Parental activation concerning their child’s health was assessed using the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), a modified version of the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Using hierarchical linear regression and following the Belsky process model for determining parenting behaviors, a multivariate model was created for parental activation on behalf of their child that showed that the parent’s age, rating of their own general health, self-activation, and duration of the child’s illness were significantly related to Parent-PAM score. Our findings characterize a potentially distinct form of activation in a parent–child cohort preparing for a demanding clinical course. PMID:22203645

  2. 12 CFR 347.119 - Specific consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... control such organization as a result of a foreign investment; or (ii) A bank would be establishing a... processing procedure. (d) Specific consent. Direct or indirect investments in or activities of foreign... foreign country. (1) Applicable law or practice in the foreign country where the foreign organization...

  3. Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent for Minors for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melvin S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.

  4. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions.

  5. The changing nature of consent.

    PubMed

    Trathen, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Consent is a foundational principle of medical and dental ethics. The importance of the concept has changed over time and it is now viewed as more important than it has ever been, both within the profession and by wider society. This article looks at the nature of consent historically, the changes it has undergone, and some of the contemporary challenges in this area. The philosophical basis of consent is considered, looking at two lines of thought relating to autonomy and prevention of harm. The difficulty and appropriateness of providing 'fully-informed' consent is then considered along with some of the modern problems relating to consumerist culture, and the social changes that have caused them. By looking at consent from a social and philosophical standpoint, we can broaden our thinking to give context to the day-to-day practicalities of obtaining consent in practice. These practicalities are addressed in subsequent articles within this issue of the Primary Dental Journal.

  6. Informed consent in medical research.

    PubMed

    Evans, John Grimley; Beck, Peter

    2002-01-01

    That people should only be enrolled in medical research if they have given free and informed consent is now an unquestioned principle of research ethics. It is however a recent innovation. Prior to the prominence given to consent to participation in research in the condemnation of German doctors arraigned at Nuremberg in 1945, informed consent had appeared in American litigation, but only as an issue in clinical malpractice suits. Informed consent as an ethical requirement in medical research had arisen in some earlier European contexts. Despite the Nuremberg judgement, informed consent by participants in research was not widely recognised as ethically mandatory until the early 1970s. This delay seems to have been due in part to scepticism about the practicability of truly informed consent, but medical paternalism and the circumstances surrounding military research during the Cold War period may have contributed.

  7. Getting consent into perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    This article continues a debate with Gareth Jones about the ethics of anatomy. The article discusses the distinction between direct and indirect reasons to require the deceased's consent prior to anatomical use. Getting this distinction wrong has potentially radical and unwelcome implications for the ethics of many uses of dead bodies. The article then exposes an ambiguity in asking what anatomical uses are ethical: we must distinguish between, on the one hand, who ought to have the power to make decisions and, on the other, how those with power ought to exercise it. It then applies this distinction to the ethics of the public display of bodies for entertainment.

  8. Informed consent for clinical photography.

    PubMed

    Johns, Martin K

    2002-06-01

    The question of (informed) consent to medical photography has long been a vexed one. This paper briefly considers key landmarks in the debate, and examines in detail the evolution of the Addenbrooke's NHS Trust policy Photography and Video Recordings of Patients: Confidentiality and Consent, Copyright and Storage. The impact of the 1998 Data Protection Act, the Department of Health's Model Policy on Consent, and the implications of wider access to digital photography are discussed together with their integration into the Addenbrooke's policy.

  9. Monitoring Project CANAL Training Activities: Parent Day Workshops for 70 Project CANAL Schools (April 18 through July 3, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    An evaluation was done to assess the participation of parents from the 70 Creating a New Approach to Learning Project (Project CANAL) schools in Project CANAL training activities. Project CANAL offered workshops for parents during the months of April and July 1991. The parent day workshops were to provide parents of participating schools with data…

  10. Do informed consent documents matter?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-03-01

    This commentary argues that, despite extensive critiques of informed consent documents, there are several ethical and legal reasons for investigators and IRB members to take these documents seriously.

  11. Mandatory versus voluntary consent for newborn screening?

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2010-12-01

    Virtually every infant in the United States undergoes a heel stick within the first week of life to test for a variety of metabolic, endocrine, and hematological conditions as part of state-run universal newborn screening (NBS) programs. The history of this mandatory public health program is examined, as well as whether the policy was morally justifiable. Three changes in NBS practice necessitate a re-evaluation of the mandatory nature of NBS. First is the adoption of NBS for hemoglobinopathies in the 1980s that led to the identification of many sickle cell carriers and carriers of other hemoglobin variants. In all other contexts, carrier testing requires consent, and there is no moral rationale why NBS ought to be exceptional. Second is the application of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to NBS in the 1990s that led to the identification of many metabolic conditions and variants, some of which were not treatable and others of which had unknown clinical relevance. To the extent that the conditions do not need emergent diagnosis and treatment, there is less justification for mandatory screening. Third, there is great interest in using residual blood spots for research, and the cornerstone of research ethics is the voluntary consent of the participant (or his or her proxy). These three changes support revising mandatory NBS with a tiered consent process to best balance respect for parental autonomy and the promotion of children's health.

  12. Are Adolescents Talking with Their Parents about Sex before Becoming Sexually Active? Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuschner, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines parent-child discussions of sexual behavior. It finds consistency in the timing and content of such discussions; however, many parents and children do not discuss key topics, such as birth control, before adolescents become sexually active. [This fact sheet is based on Megan K. Beckett, Marc N. Elliott, Steven Martino, David E.…

  13. SNAC: San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum. "Swing Into Nutrition" (Parent/Community In-Service Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.

    This inservice guide for elementary school teachers provides a competency based nutrition course to be used to increase parent/community participation in nutrition education activities and to lead parents toward providing better nutrition for themselves and their children. The curriculum is presented in six lessons which cover the following…

  14. It's About Time: Parental Activities To Help Middle Grade Students Begin To Think About Career Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Suzanne; Gahris, Cynthia; Reeder, Marcia; Tizzano, Anthony

    This document, which is intended for parents of Ohio students in grade 8, explains the purpose and content of the Individual Career Plan (ICP) and provides activities through which parents can help their children begin to think about career choice. The document begins with an overview of the ICP, which is a scrapbook-like document that Ohio…

  15. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  16. Parent Perceptions of Factors Influencing After-School Physical Activity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Miccinello, Dannielle L.

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model.…

  17. Home Learning Activities Designed to Provide Educational Experiences for Children and Parents. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Shirley H.; Brown, Brenda

    This manual, Part 1 of a two-volume series, is a compilation of instructional tasks designed to be used in the home by parents with their children. These home learning activities are one component of the Florida Model of Follow Through Programs. Each instructional task is designed for use in the home by a Parent Educator (P.E.) who has already…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  19. Latino Parents Utilizing Home-Based Activities to Support Algebra-Readiness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinar, Soledad Marie

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation involved a series of training sessions where parents from a Title I middle school participated in the learning and practice of Algebra Readiness skills. The project was based on a series of six weekly trainings for parents to learn home-based activities to increase their child's Algebra Readiness. I administered an initial…

  20. Parents' and Children's Perceptions of the Keep It Moving! After-School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Wegner, Rebekah L.; Miller, Daniel J.; Liebert, Mina L.; Smith, Jennifer Howard

    2015-01-01

    After-school PA programs have been used as an outlet to help children increase PA levels. To attract children and their parents, it is important to understand perceptions about programs. With child and parent input, researchers and practitioners will better be able to increase PA with activities the children enjoy and encourage increased PA. A…

  1. Parental Youth Assets and Sexual Activity: Differences by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Fluhr, Janene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how the relationship between parental-related youth assets and youth sexual activity differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: A random sample of 976 youth and their parents living in a Midwestern city participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 3 major ethnic groups controlling for the…

  2. Dibasic Esters; Final Enforceable Consent Agreement and Testing Consent Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA has issued a testing consent order (Order) that incorporates an enforceable consent agreement (ECA) with the Aceto Corporation, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, and Solutia Inc.

  3. Parents' perceptions of health and physical activity needs of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sayers Menear, Kristi

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome typically have low fitness levels and obesity despite data that indicate physiological gains from physical activity and exercise interventions. Low fitness levels and obesity in individuals with Down syndrome may be related to sedentary lifestyles, social and recreational opportunities, or low motivation to be physically active. These causal influences on the overall health of individuals with Down syndrome may be related to parental or caregiver support. Through this study, parents of children with Down syndrome from preschool to adolescent ages were interviewed about their perceptions of the health and physical activity needs of their children. Data from four focus groups indicated the following most salient themes: (1) all parents believed participation in physical activity has immediate and long-term positive health impacts on their child with Down syndrome, and most of the parents thought their child would benefit from being more physically active, (2) most parents observed that their child participated in physical activities primarily for social reasons, most notably to be with their peers with or without Down syndrome or to be with their sibling(s), and that without such motivation their child would choose sedentary activities, (3) parents of teenagers identified a need for their child to learn an individual sport to have sporting opportunities that do not require ability-matched teammates and opponents, and (4) parents recognised their need for help from physical activity specialists through either parent education regarding home-based physical activity programmes or an increase in appropriate community-based physical activity programmes for their child with Down syndrome. The interview data suggest future research should evaluate the outcomes of long-term individualised home-based physical activity interventions for children with Down syndrome. Additionally, educators, recreation specialists, and therapists should assist

  4. Parental History of Myopia, Sports and Outdoor Activities, and Future Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lisa A.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, Gladys L.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify whether parental history of myopia and/or parent-reported children’s visual activity levels can predict juvenile-onset myopia. METHODS Survey-based data from Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia subjects from 1989 to 2001 were used to predict future myopia. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Differences among the areas under the ROC curves were compared using the method of multiple comparison with the best. RESULTS Of the 514 children eligible for this analysis, 111 (21.6%) became myopic. Differences in the third grade between eventual myopes and nonmyopes were seen for the number of myopic parents (P < 0.001) and for the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week (11.65 ± 6.97 hours for nonmyopes vs. 7.98 ± 6.54 hours for future myopes, P < 0.001). Analysis of the areas under the ROC curves showed three variables with a predictive value better than chance: the number of myopic parents, the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week, and the number of reading hours per week. After controlling for sports and outdoor hours per week and parental myopia history, reading hours per week was no longer a statistically significant factor. The area under the curve for the parental myopia history and sports and outdoor activities model was 0.73. A significant interaction in the logistic model showed a differential effect of sport and outdoor activity hours per week based on a child’s number of myopic parents. CONCLUSIONS Parental history of myopia was an important predictor in univariate and multivariate models, with a differential effect of sports and outdoor activity hours per week based on the number of myopic parents. Lower amounts of sports and outdoor activity increased the odds of becoming myopic in those children with two myopic parents more than in those children with either zero or one myopic parent. The chance of becoming

  5. Measuring Parental Support for Children’s Physical Activity in White and African American Parents: The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG)

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Li, Kaigang; Baskin, Monica L.; Cox, Tiffany; Affuso, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The Activity Support Scale (ACTS) was expanded for use with African American families. Its factorial invariance and internal reliability were examined for non-Hispanic white and African American parents. Methods The ACTS was modified to improve its applicability to African American families based on information from five focus groups with 27 African American parents of elementary school-aged children. Between 2006 and 2008, the revised scale was administered to 119 African American and 117 non-Hispanic white parents in northeastern NY and Alabama. Its factorial invariance across race/ethnicity and internal consistency were examined. Results Factor analysis of the revised scale, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), identified four parenting factors in white and African American parents including logistic support, modeling, use of community resources to promote physical activity (PA), and restriction of sedentary behaviors. Results supported the scale’s internal reliability and factorial invariance across race/ethnicity. Conclusion The ACTS-MG is appropriate for use with non-Hispanic white and African American families and will enable the extension of current research with white families to the examination of strategies supporting PA in African American families. Additional psychometric work with the ACTS-MG is encouraged. PMID:21111755

  6. Developing Active Readers: Ideas for Parents, Teachers, and Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Dianne L., Ed.; McClenathan, DayAnn K., Ed.

    Developed by the International Reading Association Library Resources and Reading Committee, this book is designed to help parents, teachers, and librarians provide children with books and reading experiences that will make reading a lifetime habit. Part One, "The Right Book for Each Child: Book Selection and Library Use," contains the following…

  7. Parenting Stress After Deployment in Navy Active Duty Fathers.

    PubMed

    Yablonsky, Abigail M; Yan, Guofen; Bullock, Linda

    2016-08-01

    Military fathers are being deployed, and leaving their families, for greater lengths of time and more frequently than ever before. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of recent deployment on parenting stress in U.S. Navy fathers with young children. Of the 111 participants who completed the one-time study questionnaire at a large military outpatient clinic on the Eastern seaboard, 67.6% had returned from a ship-based deployment. Regression analyses were performed, using the Parenting Stress Index as the outcome variable, deployment elements (such as time away from home in the past 5 years) as predictors, and adjusting for other factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Higher perceived threat and greater warfare exposure were both associated with increased parenting stress (p < 0.05) in the unadjusted model. These associations were greatly attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for depression. In addition, rates of positive screens for PTSD and depression (17.1%) in this sample were higher than in other recent studies. In summary, these data indicate that various deployment factors are associated with increased parenting stress in Navy fathers back from deployment within the past year; these relationships are largely explained by depressive symptoms. Clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children's Sport Activity.

    PubMed

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-03-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes' acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children's sportive activity and adolescents' acceptance of their parents' socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire - 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents' socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents' willingness to accept their parents' sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.

  9. Informed Consent: Reality or Illusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janik, Carol J.; And Others

    The goal of this study was to produce an improved medical consent form. This form was designed to record the informed consent discussion between doctor and patient which should include an explanation of what procedure will be performed, by whom, why, the risks, and the alternatives. Patients, doctors, and hospitals may all benefit from the use of…

  10. Human Subjects and Informed Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur A.

    1988-01-01

    The doctrine of informed consent has been enumerated to protect the rights of human subjects involved in biomedical research. The elements of informed consent are summarized along with the changes of emphasis that have evolved. The issue of liability and means for minimizing its impact are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  11. The family rule: a framework for obtaining ethical consent for medical interventions from children.

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, D M

    1999-01-01

    Children's consent to treatment remains a contentious topic, with confusing legal precepts and advice. This paper proposes that informed consent in children should be regarded as shared between children and their families, the balance being determined by implicit, developmentally based negotiations between child and parent--a "family rule" for consent. Consistent, operationalized procedures for ethically obtaining consent can be derived from its application to both routine and contentious situations. Therefore, use of the "family Rule" concept can consistently define negligent procedure in obtaining consent from children, and could be used as a unifying framework in the development of new professional guidelines. A "guideline"-based approach to children's consent to treatment may offer greater individuality than a "rights"-based approach, though careful training and oversight will be needed for it to be effective. PMID:10635505

  12. Informed consent: what does it mean?

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, M D

    1983-01-01

    The editorial in the September 1982 issue of this journal and many articles before and since have addressed the problem of informed consent. Is it possible? Is it a useful concept? Is there anything new to be said about it? In this article the basic rationale of the rule (patient autonomy) is explained and the extent of the rule explored. Various exceptions have been offered by the law and an attempt is made to catalogue the chief of these. A number of specially vulnerable groups are then identified, the most important, and vexed, being children. How can informed consent be secured in the case of young patients? Finally, a few problems are mentioned in an attempt to get this subject back to reality. The appeal to the principle primum non nocere may be medical paternalism in disguise. Informed consent is the competing principle that reminds us of the primacy of human autonomy. A pointer is given to the future: even the use of sound recordings to explain medical procedures and to activate informed consent so that it may become a reality and not just a lawyer's myth, should be considered. PMID:6876100

  13. 38 CFR 1.475 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consent is subject to revocation at any time except to the extent that the facility which is to make the... abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, HIV, or sickle cell anemia program or activity. Where a person...

  14. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls’ physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the

  15. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters

  16. Associations among social capital, parenting for active lifestyles, and youth physical activity in rural families living in upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.

  17. [The origin of informed consent].

    PubMed

    Mallardi, V

    2005-10-01

    The principle of informed consent, aimed at the lawfulness of health assistance, tends to reflect the concept of autonomy and of decisional autodetermination of the person requiring and requesting medical and/or surgical interventions. This legal formula, over the last few years, has gained not only considerable space but also importance in the doctrinal elaboration and approaches, as well as juridical interpretations, thereby influencing the everyday activities of the medical profession. Informed consent is still the object of continuous explorations, not only asfar as concerns the already confirmed theoretical profile but, instead, the ambiguous practical and consequential aspect. Analysing how the concept and role of consensus was born and developed with the more adequate and reasonable excursions to make it valid and obtain it, it is impossible not to take into consideration, on the one hand, the very ancient philosophical origins and, on the other, the fact that it was conditioned by religion with the moral aspects and the accelerated deontological evolution with pathways parallel to the needs and the progress offered by new forms of treatment and novel biotechnological applications. The principle of consent is a relatively new condition. In fact, already in the times of not only the Egyptian civilisation, but also the Greek and Roman, documents have been found which show how the doctor's intervention had, in some way, first to be approved by the patient. Plato (law IV) had already foreseen the problems, the procedures and the modes of information which are, in synthesis, at the root of the principles of the present formula of informed consent and correlated the practice of the information and consensus with the quality and social position of the patient. The only guarantee that the patient might have, derived from a fundamental principle of medicine of all times: "in disease, focus on two aims, to improve and not to cause damage". A figure can be recognised

  18. Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents' Attitudes toward Children's Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…

  19. Parents' beliefs and intentions toward supporting physical activity participation for their children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mihye; Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Eunkyung; Lee, Euikyung

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine validity and reliability evidence of a questionnaire regarding parents' beliefs and intentions toward supporting physical activity (PA) participation of their children with disabilities (CWD). A total of 220 parents of CWD in South Korea completed a questionnaire that was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that behavioral, control, and normative beliefs accounted for 31.13%, 20.45%, and 19.63% of the total variance of the intention, respectively. Reliability of entire scale was .85 using Cronbach's alpha. Reliabilities of the 3 beliefs were .86, .82, and .87, respectively. Standard multiple-regression analysis indicated that behavioral and normative beliefs significantly predicted parents' intention, p < .01. Intention was a significant predictor of parents' behavior, p < .01. The results of this study indicated that the TPB can be useful to examine parental support for PA participation of their CWD.

  20. Nuclear fear and children: the impact of parental nuclear activism, responsivity, and fear

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which parental nuclear fear, parental activism, and parental responsivity is associated with children's (age 10) nuclear fear. Other associated variables investigated include: nuclear denial, general anxiety and fear, and the personal characteristics of sex, socio-economic status, and academic aptitude. Findings indicate that children attend to nuclear issues when their parents attend to a significant degree. Children's hopelessness about the arms race is increased as parents' worry about nuclear war increases. Children's fear about not surviving a nuclear war increases as parents' worry about survivability decreases. Children who have more general fears also indicated that they have a high level of hopelessness, pervasive worry, and much concern about being able to survive a nuclear war. Children with a high degree of general anxiety did not indicate high degrees of nuclear fears. Children with high academic aptitude were more knowledgeable about nuclear issues and expressed more fears about the nuclear threat. Boys demonstrated more knowledge about nuclear issues than girls, and girls expressed much more frequent fear and worry about the nuclear threat than boys. Parents of lower socio-economic statues (SES) expressed more denial about the nuclear threat and were more pro-military than the higher SES parents.

  1. Child dopamine active transporter 1 genotype and parenting: evidence for evocative gene-environment correlations.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Elizabeth P; Hanna, Brigitte; Sheikh, Haroon I; Laptook, Rebecca S; Kim, Jiyon; Singh, Shiva M; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-02-01

    The dopamine active transporter 1 (DAT1) gene is implicated in psychopathology risk. Although the processes by which this gene exerts its effects on risk are poorly understood, a small body of research suggests that the DAT1 gene influences early emerging negative emotionality, a marker of children's psychopathology risk. As child negative emotionality evokes negative parenting practices, the DAT1 gene may also play a role in gene-environment correlations. To test this model, children (N = 365) were genotyped for the DAT1 gene and participated in standardized parent-child interaction tasks with their primary caregiver. The DAT1 gene 9-repeat variant was associated with child negative affect expressed toward the parent during parent-child interactions, and parents of children with a 9-repeat allele exhibited more hostility and lower guidance/engagement than parents of children without a 9-repeat allele. These gene-environment associations were partially mediated by child negative affect toward the parent. The findings implicate a specific polymorphism in eliciting negative parenting, suggesting that evocative associations play a role in elevating children's risk for emotional trajectories toward psychopathology risk.

  2. Proposing modesty for informed consent.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Michael M

    2007-12-01

    The extension of informed consent into social science research has met with considerable opposition. The history and concept of informed consent, however, is based on a substantive ethical notion of the research relationship as informed and voluntary that is appropriate for social science research relationships. Yet social science research might sometimes be different from health research in ways that justify a different approach to informed consent and research relationships. Social science research tends to have a lower magnitude of risk, usually does not need to disrupt the therapeutic assumption common in health research contexts or when researchers are health professionals, and recruitment is sometimes incremental and reflects a building of trust and development of the research participant's role. These differences may sometimes justify novel approaches to the research relationship and require case-by-case evaluation to determine their relevance to establishing the informed and voluntary nature of the relationship through the use of informed consent procedures. Ultimately, respect for research participants requires social research into practices that can support or replace informed consent. The institutional role of informed consent and the goal of informed and voluntary research participation serve modest but important roles in health and social research. Their proper role in health and social research requires flexibility and experimentation, but does not justify abdication of informed consent or the notion of informed and voluntary participation.

  3. Consent procedures in pediatric biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Giesbertz, Noor AA; Bredenoord, Annelien L; van Delden, Johannes JM

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of children's samples in biobanks brings forward specific ethical issues. Guidelines indicate that children should be involved in the consent procedure. It is, however, unclear how to allocate an appropriate role for children. Knowledge of current practice will be helpful in addressing this issue. Therefore, we conducted an international multiple-case study on the child's role in consent procedures in pediatric biobanks. Four biobanks were included: (1) LifeLines, (2) Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA), (3) Young-HUNT3 and (4) the Oxford Radcliffe Biobank contribution to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group tissue bank (ORB/CCLG). Four themes linked to the child's role in the consent procedure emerged from the multiple-case study: (1) motives to involve the child, (2) informing the child, (3) the role of dissent, assent and consent and (4) voluntariness of children to participate. We conclude that biobank characteristics influence the biobank's motives to include children in the consent procedure. Moreover, the motives to include children influence how the children are involved in the consent procedure, and the extent to which children are able to make voluntary decisions as part of the consent procedure. This insight is valuable when designing pediatric biobank governance. PMID:25537361

  4. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  5. A Calendar of Activities for Parents of Handicapped Students, 1983-1984. Early Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.

    Developed by the Washington, D.C. public schools, these activities for handicapped infants and toddlers can be used by all parents interested in establishing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format outlines daily activities ranging from 10-minute exercises to longer excursions. Each month's activities focus on…

  6. A Calendar of Activities for Parents of Handicapped Students, 1983-1984. Developmentally Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.

    These activities for handicapped preschool children in the Washington, D.C. school district can be used by all parents interested in developing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format offers daily activities ranging from brief discussions and exercises to day-long family excursions. Each month's activities cover…

  7. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  8. Living with the Active Alert Child: Groundbreaking Strategies for Parents. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Linda S.

    Bright, controlling, fearful, and highly energetic, active alert children are frequently misdiagnosed as hyperactive or learning disabled. This book offers guidance for the special challenge of parenting the active alert infant, child, and adolescent. Part 1 of the book profiles the active alert child and examines 11 traits that characterize…

  9. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Niños Activos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children’s PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, and (4) objectively measured environmental factors, to PA parenting practices. Methods A cross-sectional sample of Latino parents (n = 240) from Harris County, TX in 2011–2012 completed validated questionnaires to assess PA parenting practices, acculturation, familism, perception of their neighborhood environment, and demographics. Home addresses were mapped and linked to Census block-level crime and traffic data. Distance to the closest park was mapped by GIS. Regression models were built in a hierarchical step-wise fashion. Results Combined models showed R2 of 6.8% to 38.9% for different parenting practices. Significant correlations included sociodemographic variables with having outdoor toys available, psychological control, and promotion of inactivity. Cultural factors correlated with PA safety concern practices. Perceived environmental attributes correlated with five of seven parenting practices, while objectively-measured environmental attributes did not significantly correlate with PA parenting practices. Conclusion Interventions promoting PA among Latino preschoolers may need to address the social-ecological context in which families live to effectively promote PA parenting, especially parents’ perceptions of neighborhoods. PMID:25011669

  10. [Informed consent in valvular diseases].

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiaki

    2014-09-01

    Informed consent has two aspects. First, we must give patients sufficient, precise information on the nature of their disease, natural history, possible choices of treatment, and risks of the treatment to help them make their own decisions. The estimated risks should be based on a database, not on personal impressions or limited experience. In choosing the type of prosthetic valve in young or middle-aged patients, unbiased information based on guidelines should be presented. The second aspect of informed consent is its role as a contract for providing medical service. Estimated in-hospital mortality and major morbidities should be clarified in percentages on the consent form as confirmation of understanding.

  11. Daily physical activity in young children and their parents: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Cantell, Marja; Crawford, Susan G; Dewey, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in young children and about the relationship between their PA and that of their parents. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the present study (Y-Be-Active) was to examine the daily PA levels of young children and their parents, and to explore the relationship between children’s and parents’ PA. METHOD: Fifty-four children (mean age 4.3 years) and their parents (54 mothers, mean age 35.8 years; 50 fathers, mean age 38.2 years) wore accelerometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. Parents also completed questionnaires on family sociodemographics and PA habits. RESULTS: Children spent most of their time in light PA. Almost all children attained 30 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and most boys and girls attained 60 min of daily MVPA on weekdays. Only 60% of fathers and approximately one-half of mothers attained 30 min of daily MVPA on weekdays and weekend days. Children’s and fathers’ PA were correlated on weekends. Few parents (20% to 30%) participated regularly in organised PA with their child. Fathers’ involvement in PA with their children was associated with higher MVPA in children. CONCLUSIONS: Many young children and parents did not meet current Canadian recommendations for daily PA. Parental involvement in PA with their young children, particularly the involvement of fathers, appeared to promote higher levels of MVPA in young children. PMID:23450045

  12. Hope and Persuasion by Physicians During Informed Consent

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Victoria A.; Cousino, Melissa; Leek, Angela C.; Kodish, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe hopeful and persuasive messages communicated by physicians during informed consent for phase I trials and examine whether such communication is associated with physician and parent ratings of the likelihood of benefit, physician and parent ratings of the strength of the physician's recommendation to enroll, parent ratings of control, and parent ratings of perceived pressure. Patients and Methods Participants were children with cancer (n = 85) who were offered a phase I trial along with their parents and physicians. Informed consent conferences (ICCs) were audiotaped and coded for physician communication of hope and persuasion. Parents completed an interview (n = 60), and physicians completed a case-specific questionnaire. Results The most frequent hopeful statements related to expectations of positive outcomes and provision of options. Physicians failed to mention no treatment and/or palliative care as options in 68% of ICCs and that the disease was incurable in 85% of ICCs. When physicians mentioned no treatment and/or palliative care as options, both physicians and parents rated the physician's strength of recommendation to enroll in the trial lower. Conclusion Hopes and goals other than cure or longer life were infrequently mentioned, and a minority of physicians communicated that the disease was incurable and that no treatment and/or palliative care were options. These findings are of concern, given the low likelihood of medical benefit from phase I trials. Physicians have an important role to play in helping families develop alternative goals when no curative options remain. PMID:25199753

  13. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  14. Interactive Informed Consent: Randomized Comparison with Paper Consents

    PubMed Central

    Rowbotham, Michael C.; Astin, John; Greene, Kaitlin; Cummings, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Informed consent is the cornerstone of human research subject protection. Many subjects sign consent documents without understanding the study purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and their rights. Proof of comprehension is not required and rarely obtained. Understanding might improve by using an interactive system with multiple options for hearing, viewing and reading about the study and the consent form at the subject’s own pace with testing and immediate feedback. This prospective randomized study compared the IRB-approved paper ICF for an actual clinical research study with an interactive presentation of the same study and its associated consent form using an iPad device in two populations: clinical research professionals, and patients drawn from a variety of outpatient practice settings. Of the 90 participants, 69 completed the online test and survey questions the day after the session (maximum 36 hours post-session). Among research professionals (n = 14), there was a trend (p  = .07) in the direction of iPad subjects testing better on the online test (mean correct  =  77%) compared with paper subjects (mean correct  =  57%). Among patients (n = 55), iPad subjects had significantly higher test scores than standard paper consent subjects (mean correct  =  75% vs 58%, p < .001). For all subjects, the total time spent reviewing the paper consent was 13.2 minutes, significantly less than the average of 22.7 minutes total on the three components to be reviewed using the iPad (introductory video, consent form, interactive quiz). Overall satisfaction and overall enjoyment slightly favored the interactive iPad presentation. This study demonstrates that combining an introductory video, standard consent language, and an interactive quiz on a tablet-based system improves comprehension of research study procedures and risks. PMID:23484041

  15. Normative consent and presumed consent for organ donation: a critique.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2010-08-01

    Ben Saunders claims that actual consent is not necessary for organ donation due to 'normative consent', a concept he borrows from David Estlund. Combining normative consent with Peter Singer's 'greater moral evil principle', Saunders argues that it is immoral for an individual to refuse consent to donate his or her organs. If a presumed consent policy were thus adopted, it would be morally legitimate to remove organs from individuals whose wishes concerning donation are not known. This paper disputes Saunders' arguments. First, if death caused by the absence of organ transplant is the operational premise, then, there is nothing of comparable moral precedence under which a person is not obligated to donate. Saunders' use of Singer's principle produces a duty to donate in almost all circumstances. However, this premise is based on a flawed interpretation of cause and effect between organ availability and death. Second, given growing moral and scientific agreement that the organ donors in heart-beating and non-heart-beating procurement protocols are not dead when their organs are surgically removed, it is not at all clear that people have a duty to consent to their lives being taken for their organs. Third, Saunders' claim that there can be good reasons for refusing consent clashes with his claim that there is a moral obligation for everyone to donate their organs. Saunders' argument is more consistent with a conclusion of 'mandatory consent'. Finally, it is argued that Saunders' policy, if put into place, would be totalitarian in scope and would therefore be inconsistent with the freedom required for a democratic society.

  16. Correlates of Parental Misperception of Their Child’s Weight Status: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, Teun; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Broeren, Suzanne M. L.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study reported on correlates of parental perception of their child’s weight status. Associations between parental misperception (i.e., underestimation of the child’s weight) and parental intention to improve their child’s overweight-related health behaviors and their child meeting guidelines regarding these behaviors were also investigated. Methods Baseline data from the population-based ‘Be active, eat right study’ were used. The population for analysis consisted of 630 overweight and 153 obese five year-old children and their parents. Questionnaires were used to measure parental perception of the child’s weight status, correlates of misperception (i.e., child age, child gender, child BMI, parental age, parental gender, parental country of birth, parental educational level and parental weight status), overweight-related health behaviors (i.e., child playing outside, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, and watching TV), and parental intention to improve these behaviors. Height and weight were measured using standardized protocols. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results In total, 44.40% of the parents misperceived their child’s weight status. Parental misperception was associated with lower child BMI, the parent being the father, a foreign parental country of birth, and a lower parental education level (p<0.05). Parental misperception was not associated with parental intention to improve child overweight-related health behavior, nor with child meeting the guidelines of these behaviors. Discussion This study showed that almost half of the parents with an overweight or obese child misperceived their child’s weight status. A correct parental perception may be a small stepping-stone in improving the health of overweight and obese children. PMID:24551191

  17. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  18. Effect of parental age and developmental rate on the production of active form of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Sano-Fujii, I

    1979-05-01

    Three similar experiments were conducted to see the effect of parental age and parental developmental speed on the production of "active-form" (i.e., capable of flight) offspring in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). In experiment I, using the adults which emerged on three different days (as fast, intermediate, and slow in development), eggs were collected on three different days (at young, middle, and old age) during the adult life span. The results showed that the older parents produced more active-form offspring irrespective of the parents' own rate of development. In experiment II, the parental rate of development was investigated in more detail by using the adults that emerged over the entire span of their emergence period. In experiment III, the effect of parental age was investigated in more detail by collecting the eggs daily during the female adult's entire life span. Both experiments confirmed the trend observed in experiment I. From these results it can be concluded that the older the parents, the higher the percentage of the active form in their offspring. However, there was no significant systematic trend due to the length of the developmental period of the parents as seen in the parental age. This trend, that more active forms emerge from older parents, seems to be related to the decreased viability of older parents. It is thought that the less viable eggs produced by older parents are more susceptible to stimuli which induce the active form.

  19. Testing Consent Order for Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing consent order with six manufacturers of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS; CAS No. 556-67—2, who have agreed to perform certain chemical fate and environmental effects tests with OMCTS.

  20. Informed consent for medical photographs

    PubMed Central

    Cunniff, Christopher; Byrne, Janice L.B.; Hudgins, Louanne M.; Moeschler, John B.; Olney, Ann Haskins; Pauli, Richard M.; Seaver, Lauri H.; Stevens, Cathy A.; Figone, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Patient images are used for many purposes in medical practice. They are placed in the medical record as an adjunct to clinical care, displayed to colleagues, students and other audiences in educational settings, and published in medical journals or other media as part of medical research. In each case it is not only prudent, but necessary for the patients’ protection and interest that appropriate consent be obtained. While medical journals invariably require written consent for photographs that may identify the patient, the format of the photograph consent form is usually not specified, nor is it always clear which images require consent. With the proliferation of published images on the Internet it has become particularly important to obtain permission for all uses that will be made of medical images, including worldwide distribution through various electronic media. PMID:11339658

  1. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish

  2. 40 CFR 57.403 - Written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Written consent. 57.403 Section 57.403... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.403 Written consent. (a) The consent. The NSO shall include a written consent, signed by a corporate official empowered to do so, in...

  3. 40 CFR 57.403 - Written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Written consent. 57.403 Section 57.403... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.403 Written consent. (a) The consent. The NSO shall include a written consent, signed by a corporate official empowered to do so, in...

  4. 40 CFR 57.403 - Written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written consent. 57.403 Section 57.403... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.403 Written consent. (a) The consent. The NSO shall include a written consent, signed by a corporate official empowered to do so, in...

  5. 40 CFR 57.403 - Written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Written consent. 57.403 Section 57.403... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.403 Written consent. (a) The consent. The NSO shall include a written consent, signed by a corporate official empowered to do so, in...

  6. 40 CFR 57.403 - Written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Written consent. 57.403 Section 57.403... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.403 Written consent. (a) The consent. The NSO shall include a written consent, signed by a corporate official empowered to do so, in...

  7. Ensuring Subjects' Understanding of Informed Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A discussion of informed consent by human subjects in experimentation presents background on the consent issue, including federal requirements; lists factors that may affect a subject's ability to understand the consent document; and offers suggestions for preparing consent forms to ensure the subject's better comprehension. (Author/MSE)

  8. Clinical research before informed consent.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2014-06-01

    Clinical research with patient-subjects was routinely conducted without informed consent for research participation prior to 1966. The aim of this article is to illuminate the moral climate of clinical research at this time, with particular attention to placebo-controlled trials in which patient-subjects often were not informed that they were participating in research or that they might receive a placebo intervention rather than standard medical treatment or an experimental treatment for their condition. An especially valuable window into the thinking of clinical investigators about their relationship with patient-subjects in the era before informed consent is afforded by reflection on two articles published by psychiatric researchers in 1966 and 1967, at the point of transition between clinical research conducted under the guise of medical care and clinical research based on consent following an invitation to participate and disclosure of material information about the study. Historical inquiry relating to the practice of clinical research without informed consent helps to put into perspective the moral progress associated with soliciting consent following disclosure of pertinent information; it also helps to shed light on an important issue in contemporary research ethics: the conditions under which it is ethical to conduct clinical research without informed consent.

  9. Adherence to active play and electronic media guidelines in preschool children: gender and parental education considerations.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.

  10. Human genetic banking: altruism, benefit and consent.

    PubMed

    Williams, Garrath; Schroeder, Doris

    2004-04-01

    This article considers how we should frame the ethical issues raised by current proposals for large-scale genebanks with on-going links to medical and lifestyle data, such as the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council's 'UK Biobank'. As recent scandals such as Alder Hey have emphasised, there are complex issues concerning the informed consent of donors that need to be carefully considered. However, we believe that a preoccupation with informed consent obscures important questions about the purposes to which such collections are put, not least that they may be only haphazardly used for research (especially that of commercial interest)--an end that would not fairly reflect the original altruistic motivation of donors, and the trust they must invest. We therefore argue that custodians of such databases take on a weighty pro-active duty, to encourage public debate about the ends of such collections and to sponsor research that reflects publicly agreed priorities and provides public benefits.

  11. Parental Influences and the Relationship to their Children’s Physical Activity Levels

    PubMed Central

    CHIARLITTI, NATHAN A.; KOLEN, ANGELA M.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging in a physically active lifestyle relates positively to current health and reduces chances of chronic diseases in the future. Given escalating health care costs, it is paramount to reduce illnesses associated with a lack of physical activity and thus critical to identify factors that influence physical activity - especially in children, with the opportunity for a lifetime impact. One of these influencing factors may be parents/guardians. The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between children’s physical activity levels and parental factors including parental physical activity, support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and self-reported participation. Data was collected from 15 child-parent pairs with children ranging in age from 7 to 10 years. Daily physical activity levels were determined from pedometer data using a Piezo SC-Step Pedometer. Number of steps and moderate and vigorous physical activity were extracted from the pedometers and levels of support/encouragement, restrictiveness, and participation were quantified from parents’ self-reported responses to a questionnaire created for this study. Pearson Product correlation analyses were carried out between: the children’s and parent steps (r = −0.069; p = 0.597); children’s steps and parent’s self-reported encouragement/support (r = 0.045, p = 0.563); children’s steps and parents’ self-reported restrictiveness (r = −.0254, p = 0.820); and children’s steps and parents’ self-reported participation (r = −0.002, p = 0.503). The lack of significant relationships among these variables implies that more complex interactions occur between children and their parents regarding physical activity with children’s participation influenced by other factors. PMID:28344735

  12. Children′s physical activity and screen time: qualitative comparison of views of parents of infants and preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use) were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age <12 months) and eight groups of parents with preschool-aged (3–5 year old) children (n=36) in Melbourne, Australia. Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains. PMID:23270548

  13. Female Adolescents' Delinquent Activity: The Intersection of Bonds to Parents and Reputation Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2005-01-01

    According to the reputation enhancement theory, social bonds influence adolescents' delinquent activity indirectly through the reputations they select. Findings from the current study of a school-based sample of female adolescents indicate that bonds to parents affect reputation enhancement beliefs, which, in turn, predict delinquent activity.…

  14. Parent Perspectives of Participation in Home and Community Activities when Receiving Part C Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetani, Mary A.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Law, Mary C.; Coster, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which parent expectations, perceptions about resource availability and supports, and strategies used to promote participation in home and community activities varied by setting and activity type. Sixteen 90-min semistructured interviews were completed with families receiving Part C early intervention services in…

  15. Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increas...

  16. Elementary School Recess: Selected Readings, Games, and Activities for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Rhonda L., Ed.

    Based upon the principle that all children have a right to play and to experience the benefits of recess, this book assists elementary school teachers and parents in offering children in preschool through Grade 6 appropriate recess games and activities and provides a variety of readings that support the need for recess activities. The book is…

  17. Educational Activities and the Role of the Parent in Homeschool Families with High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dan; Gann, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study approach, this study looked at the educational activities that constitute a typical day in a homeschool family and the role that the parent has within those activities. Three homeschooling families with high school students in a single community in a southern state in the United States participated in the case study.…

  18. It's PTA Showtime, Baby! Promoting Physical Activity among Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy; Berg, Kim; Martin, Amanda Shoe; Martin, Gary; Lux, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors state, that to help children value and participate in regular physical activity, it is important that significant adults in their lives do the same. Furthermore, research has consistently shown that adults, particularly parents, influence children's participation in physical activity (e.g., Brustad, 1996; Freedson &…

  19. Workjobs...for Parents: Activity-Centered Learning in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta-Lorton, Mary

    This booklet contains 43 "workjobs," (experiences in manipulating common objects) adapted from classroom activities, that are appropriate and easy for parents to make and use with children in the home. These manipulative activities are designed to help children develop language and number skills and hand-eye coordination, and give children…

  20. Daily Parental Knowledge of Youth Activities Is Linked to Youth Physical Symptoms and HPA functioning

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  1. Life satisfaction and activity preferences in parents of Down's syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Bränholm, I B; Degerman, E A

    1992-03-01

    The impact of parenting a child with Down's syndrome on life satisfaction and non-work activities was investigated in 37 couples using mailed checklists. The results were compared with those found in all 89 parents from a randomly selected population. Only for 7 of the 41 non-work activities were there differences between the two groups of parents. The vast majority of both groups were satisfied or very satisfied with life as a whole and with partnership relations, sexual life and family life. The 8 domains of life satisfaction formed 3 factors. In congruence with previous findings in a non-selected sample these factors were significant classifiers for satisfaction with life as a whole, an expressive (emotion related) factor being the major classifier. The close similarities in non-work activities and life satisfaction are interpreted as a result of adequate adaptive resources within the majority of families of children with Down's syndrome.

  2. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be

  3. Abnormal Neural Activation to Faces in the Parents of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Yucel, G H; Belger, A; Bizzell, J; Parlier, M; Adolphs, R; Piven, J

    2015-12-01

    Parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show subtle deficits in aspects of social behavior and face processing, which resemble those seen in ASD, referred to as the "Broad Autism Phenotype " (BAP). While abnormal activation in ASD has been reported in several brain structures linked to social cognition, little is known regarding patterns in the BAP. We compared autism parents with control parents with no family history of ASD using 2 well-validated face-processing tasks. Results indicated increased activation in the autism parents to faces in the amygdala (AMY) and the fusiform gyrus (FG), 2 core face-processing regions. Exploratory analyses revealed hyper-activation of lateral occipital cortex (LOC) bilaterally in autism parents with aloof personality ("BAP+"). Findings suggest that abnormalities of the AMY and FG are related to underlying genetic liability for ASD, whereas abnormalities in the LOC and right FG are more specific to behavioral features of the BAP. Results extend our knowledge of neural circuitry underlying abnormal face processing beyond those previously reported in ASD to individuals with shared genetic liability for autism and a subset of genetically related individuals with the BAP.

  4. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children’s Sport Activity

    PubMed Central

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed. PMID:28344676

  5. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Informed consent in the nuclear medicine setting.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Sara

    2011-03-01

    In the nuclear medicine setting, the task of obtaining informed consent for procedures that require it is frequently left to the nuclear medicine technologist. Unfortunately, a patient's signature on a consent form does not mean the patient has given informed consent, or what legal scholars call valid consent. On completion of this scholarly bioethics article, the reader will understand the troubled history that led to informed consent as social and regulatory policy. Additionally, the reader will discover the meaning of "informed consent," which includes 3 critical components: disclosure, decision-making capacity, and voluntariness. Finally, this article will discuss which nuclear medicine procedures require informed consent, how to assess whether patients have given informed consent, what to do when the patient refuses a procedure, and what to do when informed consent is unachievable.

  7. Seeking consent to tissue banking: a survey of health professionals in childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C; Dixon-Woods, M; Tobin, M; Young, B; Heney, D; Pritchard-Jones, K

    2009-07-01

    To identify the views of health professionals working in childhood cancer on seeking consent to tissue banking from potential donors. Self-completion questionnaires sent to 553 UK paediatric oncology health professionals. The response rate was 60%. Respondents (100%) were in favour of using tissue samples from children with cancer for research. A substantial minority (30%) had concerns about the impact of the law on their professional role in relation to tissue banking. Almost all (90%) reported that both the parent(s) and the child, if able, should be asked for consent, though the UK Human Tissue Act provides that a competent child's consent is sufficient. Most (94%) supported 'generic' rather than 'specific' consent. Barriers to obtaining consent included: (1) timing of the approach to families; (2) availability of suitable staff; (3) sensitivity of the issues; (4) difficulties of managing the process; and (5) problems of maintaining a paper trail. Many would welcome training on seeking consent. Personal knowledge and relationships with families are often seen as important in guiding the proper approach to consent rather than formalized rules. There is widespread support among health professionals for tissue banking in childhood cancer. In sensitive situations, disciplined exercise of professional discretion might better deliver on aspirations for regulation than rigid procedures.

  8. Informed consent and moral integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, G R

    1989-01-01

    Informed consent is required for any medical procedure although the situations in which it is given are beset by uncertainties and indeterminacies. These make medicolegal scrutiny of such situations very difficult. Although some people find the decision in the Sidaway case incomprehensible because of its continuing regard for a 'professional practice standard' in informed consent, I will argue that an important fact in many cases is the moral integrity of the doctor concerned and the pattern of his practice. This may provide the only morally principled and legally accessible evidence enabling a correct decision to be made in a difficult case. Although the epistemological significance of a professional practice standard is thereby defended the 'prudent patient standard' for what counts as consent is left intact. PMID:2795625

  9. Parental Perceptions of the Social Environment Are Inversely Related to Constraint of Adolescents’ Neighborhood Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kepper, Maura; Broyles, Stephanie; Scribner, Richard; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Griffiths, Lauren; Sothern, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study examined relationships between the neighborhood social environment (parental perceived collective efficacy (PCE)), constrained behaviors (e.g., avoidance or defensive behaviors) and adolescent offspring neighborhood physical activity in low- versus high-incivility neighborhoods. Methods: Adolescents (n = 71; 11–18 years (14.2, SD ± 1.6); male = 37 (52%); non-white = 24 (33.8%); low-income = 20 (29%); overweight/obese = 40 (56%)) and their parents/guardians enrolled in the Molecular and Social Determinants of Obesity in Developing Youth study were included in the current study. Questionnaires measured parents’/guardians’ PCE, constrained outdoor play practices and offspring neighborhood physical activity. Systematic social observation performed at the parcel-level using Google Street View assessed neighborhood incivilities. t-tests and chi-square tests determined differences by incivilities. Multilevel regression models examined relationships between PCE and: (1) constrained behaviors; and (2) neighborhood physical activity. The Hayes (2013) macro determined the mediating role of constrained behaviors. Results: Parents who had higher PCE reported lower levels of avoidance (p = 0.04) and defensive (p = 0.05) behaviors. However, demographic variables (i.e., gender, race and annual household income) limited these results. The direct relationship between PCE and parent-reported neighborhood physical activity was statistically significant in high-incivility neighborhoods only. Neither avoidance nor defensive behavior mediated the relationship between PCE and neighborhood physical activity. Conclusions: PCE influences parenting behaviors related to youth physical activity. Community-based programs that seek to facilitate social cohesion and control may be needed to increase adolescents’ physical activity. PMID:28009839

  10. The influence of parental nativity, neighborhood disadvantage and the built environment on physical activity behaviors in Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Yedidia, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Little evidence exists examining if parental nativity, neighborhood disadvantage and built environment features are associated with physical activity behaviors in Latino youth. We used a representative sample of Latino youth (n = 616) living in New Jersey to examine parental nativity associations with active transport to school, active use of sidewalks, use of local neighborhood parks, and use of neighborhood physical activity facilities. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) that accounted for the complex survey design. Latino youth with foreign-born parents were generally more active than their US-born peers, and those with parents in the US 10 years or less were more likely to engage in active transport to school (PR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.04-2.21), after adjusting for census-based neighborhood disadvantage, self-reported neighborhood measures, and geocoded distance to school. Parental nativity status should be considered in policies or interventions designed to increase physical activity among Latino youth.

  11. The Influence of Parental Nativity, Neighborhood Disadvantage and the Built Environment on Physical Activity Behaviors in Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Yedidia, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Little evidence exists examining if parental nativity, neighborhood disadvantage and built environment features are associated with physical activity behaviors in Latino youth. We used a representative sample of Latino youth (n = 616) living in New Jersey to examine parental nativity associations with active transport to school, active use of sidewalks, use of local neighborhood parks, and use of neighborhood physical activity facilities. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) that accounted for the complex survey design. Latino youth with foreign-born parents were generally more active than their US-born peers, and those with parents in the US 10 years or less were more likely to engage in active transport to school (PR = 1.51, 95 % CI 1.04–2.21), after adjusting for census-based neighborhood disadvantage, self-reported neighborhood measures, and geocoded distance to school. Parental nativity status should be considered in policies or interventions designed to increase physical activity among Latino youth. PMID:24162884

  12. Adolescent consent for vaccination: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    English, Abigail; Ford, Carol A; Kahn, Jessica A; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Middleman, Amy B

    2013-10-01

    Vaccines currently recommended for adolescents by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices have the potential to improve the health of youth by preventing conditions such as: tetanus, pertussis, meningococcal disease, influenza, and genital warts, as well as later adult outcomes such as cervical and other human papillomavirus-related cancers. Adolescent vaccine coverage lags behind that for younger age groups. A requirement to obtain parental consent for vaccination can present a significant barrier to improving adolescent vaccine uptake across all health care settings in which adolescents access care. The ability of minors to consent to vaccination can influence whether adolescents receive indicated vaccines during adolescent health care visits when parents are absent and when adolescents are seen for confidential services. State laws govern consent for the delivery of health care to minors. All states have some laws that allow minors to consent to health care based either on their status or on the services they are seeking. Some of these laws would allow them to consent to vaccination. It is the Position of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine that, within ethical and legal guidelines, it will be important to develop strategies that maximize opportunities for minors to receive vaccinations when parents are not physically present, including opportunities for them to give their own consent.

  13. Consent - a new era begins.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, L; Kaney, H

    2015-07-24

    The law in relation to consent has changed following the handing down of the Supreme Court judgement in Montgomery vs Lanarkshire in March this year. Legally, clinicians, including dentists, must now take reasonable care to ensure that patients are aware of any material risks involved in a proposed treatment and of reasonable alternatives. This case now brings the law in relation to the disclosure of risks when obtaining consent to treatment in line with the guidance issued by regulatory bodies such as the GMC and GDC.

  14. Physical Activity and Sport Participation in Youth with Congenital Heart Disease: Perceptions of Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Kirsh, Joel A.; Kilburn, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study explored perceptions toward physical activity and sport in the lives of youth with congenital heart disease. Thirteen cardiac participants were interviewed in the presence of their parents, and a process of inductive analysis was conducted. Sport was not considered a valued pursuit despite the belief that it is essential for the…

  15. Role of Parent Literacy and Numeracy Expectations and Activities in Predicting Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than the home "numeracy" environment, the…

  16. Physical Activity in Young Children: A Systematic Review of Parental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jessica; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dwyer, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the strength of associations of the key parental factors measured in studies examining early childhood physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature, using databases PsychINFO, Medline, Academic Search Complete, PSYCHinfo, and CINHAL, published between January 1986 and…

  17. Physical Activity and Childhood Obesity: Strategies and Solutions for Schools and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gregory; Riley, Clarence; Hargrove, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons American children and adolescents gain weight over the generations is that children expend significantly less energy on a daily basis than their parents and grandparents did at their age. Today's youth spend many hours participating in sedentary activities. Additionally, we eat more fast food and vending machine food than we…

  18. For Parents Particularly: Saving with Dough and Other Inexpensive Activities for the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Encourages parents to be aware of how natural exploration and play can facilitate learning in their children. Gives activities, adjustable in difficulty depending on developmental age of child, such as cooking that can be used to develop readiness for reading, writing, and math. Includes suggestions for inexpensive materials. (ET)

  19. Young Children at Home and in School: 212 Educational Activities for Their Parents, Teachers, and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.

    This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…

  20. Physical Activity Engagement in Young People with Down Syndrome: Investigating Parental Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesi, Marianna; Pepi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the wide documentation of the physical/psychological benefits derived from regular physical activity (PA), high levels of inactivity are reported among people with Down syndrome. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 parents of young people with Down syndrome. Results Three facilitation themes were…

  1. Parental and Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety Related to Adolescents' Physical Activity in Their Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…

  2. The Parent's Manual: A Manual of Supplementary Activities for Homebound Children with Severely Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrensky, Joan; And Others

    Designed for parents of homebound severely handicapped children, the manual presents games and activities for teaching preliminary skills (including body awareness), self help skills (such as washing hands, eating with a spoon, and brushing teeth), visual skills, language skills, and mathmatics skills. An introduction to each series of activities…

  3. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun

    2012-01-01

    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  4. Is Consent Based on Trust Morally Inferior to Consent Based on Information?

    PubMed

    Kongsholm, Nana Cecilie Halmsted; Kappel, Klemens

    2017-02-27

    Informed consent is considered by many to be a moral imperative in medical research. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that in many actual instances of consent to participation in medical research, participants do not employ the provided information in their decision to consent, but rather consent based on the trust they hold in the researcher or research enterprise. In this article we explore whether trust-based consent is morally inferior to information-based consent. We analyse the moral values essential to valid consent - autonomy, voluntariness, non-manipulation, and non-exploitation - and assess whether these values are less protected and promoted by consent based on trust than they are by consent based on information. We find that this is not the case, and thus conclude that trust-based consent if not morally inferior to information-based consent.

  5. Cell phones and the measurement of child neglect: the validity of the parent-child activities interview.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Howard, Kimberly S; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Borkowski, John G; Atwater, Jane; Guest, Kristi Carter; Ramey, Sharon L; Hughes, Kere

    2008-11-01

    Two multisite studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using cell phone interviews (the Parent-Child Activities Interview) to learn more about the quality of daily parenting among high-risk mothers, including child neglect. In Study 1, 45 primiparous teenage mothers with 3- to 9-month-old infants were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups: one received frequent cell phone interviews and the other group less frequent interviews over their home telephone. Relationships among paper-and-pencil surveys of parenting (gathered in person) and a Parenting Essentials score (coded from the phone interviews) were significantly correlated. In Study 2, adolescent and adult mothers and their first-born children ( n = 544) completed 2 observations of parenting in their home as well as a series of 3 PCA calls at ages 4 and 8 months. Parenting Essentials coded from the interviews were significantly related to observed measures of parenting at both time points. The Parent-Child Activities Interview shows promise as a reliable and valid measure of parenting, capturing frequent and detailed information about daily parenting practices. Cell phones may prove useful in intervening with mothers at risk of suboptimal parenting and child neglect.

  6. Parent Health Literacy and “Obesogenic” Feeding and Physical Activity-related Infant Care Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Rothman, Russell L.; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E.; Cruzatte, Evelyn F.; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and “obesogenic” infant care behaviors. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based, early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English and Spanish-speaking parents of 2 month old children enrolled (n=844). The primary predictor variable was a parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); adequate>=23; low<23). Primary outcome variables involving self-reported obesogenic behaviors: (1) feeding content (more formula than breastmilk, sweet drinks, early solid food introduction) and feeding style-related behaviors (pressuring to finish, laissez-faire bottle propping/television [TV] watching while feeding, non-responsiveness in letting child decide amount to eat); and (2) physical activity (tummy time, TV). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (binary, proportional odds models) performed adjusting for child sex, out of home care, WIC status, parent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Results 11.0% of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk (AOR=2.0 [95%CI:1.2–3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (AOR=1.8[1.1–2.8]), bottle prop (AOR=1.8 [1.002–3.1]), any infant TV watching (AOR=1.8 [1.1–3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (<30 minutes/day) (AOR=3.0[1.5–5.8]). Conclusions Low parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. PMID:24370343

  7. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  8. Models of Traumatic Experiences and Children's Psychological Adjustment: The Roles of Perceived Parenting and the Children's Own Resources and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; El Sarraj, Eyad

    1997-01-01

    Used path analysis to examine relations between trauma, perceived parenting, resources, political activity, and adjustment in Palestinian 11- and 12-year olds. Found that the more trauma experienced, the more negative parenting the children experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more they suffered from adjustment problems.…

  9. Parent perceptions of factors influencing after-school physical activity of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Miccinello, Dannielle L

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorder in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model. Parents provided 225 responses that were coded as advantages, 106 as disadvantages, 225 as facilitators, and 250 as barriers of PA. The most frequently reported advantages were physical, followed by psychosocial, and cognitive. Disadvantages were psychosocial and physical. The most frequently reported barriers were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, community, and institutional. Facilitators were intrapersonal, followed by physical, interpersonal, community, and institutional. Public policy factors were elicited in the interviews.

  10. A question of balance: Explaining differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on preschoolers' feeding and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A.; Nowicka, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Although one quarter of US and UK families rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare, grandparental perspectives on the feeding and physical activity of young children remain understudied. Objective The study's aim was to elucidate parents' and grandparents' perspectives on young children's feeding and physical activity, and identify how they negotiate potential differences between these perspectives. Methods We interviewed 22 parents and 27 grandparents from 16 families of children aged 3–5 years in the Pacific Northwest, US. Using familial homeostasis as a novel theoretical framework, the interviews were analyzed to assess differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on feeding and physical activity. Results The analysis yielded six thematic categories: (1) disagreements about feeding stem from parents' and grandparents' differing definitions of healthy feeding; (2) differences between parents' and grandparents' feeding practices reflect differences in perceived caretaking roles; (3) parents and grandparents negotiate differences in feeding practices through grandparental compliance and parental compromise; (4) differences in preschoolers' physical activity are influenced by parents' and grandparents' own access to and engagement in physical activity; (5) parents and grandparents express few disagreements about preschoolers' screen-time; (6) parents and grandparents rarely discuss preschoolers' physical activity. The findings suggest that parental and grandparental decision-making about feeding and exercise is informed by ideas of what constitutes familial balance and a balanced lifestyle for a preschool aged child, rather than by the child's weight status. Conclusions Parents and grandparents appear to engage in practices designed to preserve familial homeostasis, which may provide a compelling explanation for the persistent difficulties in implementing family-based childhood obesity interventions. PMID:26943011

  11. Carbonates and sulfates in CI chondrites - Formation by aqueous activity on the parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredriksson, Kurt; Kerridge, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Compositions and morphologies of dolomites, breunnerites, Ca-carbonates, Ca-sulfates and Mg, Ni, Na-sulfates, and their petrologic interrelations, in four CI chondrites are consistent with their having been formed by aqueous activity on the CI parent body. Radiochronometric data indicate that this activity took place very early in solar-system history. No evidence for original ('primitive') condensates seems to be present. However, alteration apparently took place without change in bulk meteorite composition.

  12. Development and Validation of a Parental Monitoring Instrument: Measuring How Parents Monitor Adolescents' Activities and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Scott A.; Branstetter, Steven; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole V.; Rishel, Carrie; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development and validation of the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI). The PMI was administered to a sample of 518 parent-adolescent (aged 12 to 17 years) dyads. Initial findings provide evidence of instrument reliability and validity. The exploratory factor analysis results suggested a seven-factor…

  13. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future

  14. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 57 - Parent and Student Rights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parent and Student Rights F Appendix F to Part 57 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND..., App. F Appendix F to Part 57—Parent and Student Rights A. Parental Consent (1) The consent of a...

  15. On Taylor's justification of medical informed consent.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2012-05-01

    In contemporary Western biomedical ethics, informed consent practices are commonly justified in terms of the intrinsic value of patient autonomy. James Stacey Taylor maintains that this conception of the moral grounding of medical informed consent is mistaken. On the basis of his reasoning to that effect, Taylor argues that medical informed consent is justified by the instrumental value of personal autonomy. In this article, I examine whether Taylor's justification of medical informed consent is plausible.

  16. Management by Consent. Occasional Paper 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, C.

    The concept of management by consent is examined in an assessment of management techniques within academe. Issues that are analyzed include what is involved in an organization of consent and factors heralding the organizations of consent, such as (1) the view of management as a semi-profession, and (2) the spread of "matrism," which is…

  17. 12 CFR 347.117 - General consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General consent. 347.117 Section 347.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.117 General consent. (a) General consent to establish or relocate a foreign...

  18. 12 CFR 347.117 - General consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General consent. 347.117 Section 347.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.117 General consent. (a) General consent to establish or relocate a foreign...

  19. 10 CFR 706.11 - Consent elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consent elections. 706.11 Section 706.11 Energy DEPARTMENT... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.11 Consent elections. In accordance... determine bargaining units and representatives by agreement and consent elections in preference to...

  20. Adolescent Substance Use with Friends: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Parental Monitoring and Peer Activity Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, François; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of using substances with friends on future individual use was examined in the context of parental monitoring rules and the ecology of peer activities. A one-year longitudinal study design included a combined sample of North Italian and French Canadian adolescents (N = 285, 53% girls, M = 14.25 years). Data analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and multiple regression analyses. As expected, the covariation between parental monitoring and adolescent substance use was mediated by “co-use” with friends. Moreover, the relation between substance use with friends and individual substance use was moderated by parental monitoring rules and the peer activity context. Specifically, the relation between substance co-use with friends and individual substance use was stronger when the level of parental monitoring rules was low and when friends spent their time together primarily in unstructured contexts such as on the street or in park settings. These findings underline the importance of adults’ use of rules to monitor adolescents prone to substance use, and the role of context in facilitating or reducing peer influence. PMID:21165170

  1. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  2. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1) Parental influence on physical activity; 2) Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3) Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7) internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity. Conclusion Three scales that

  3. Parental perception on the efficacy of a physical activity program for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Laura; Silvernail, Sara; Caldwell, Lisa; Bryant, Angela; Kennedy, Cathy; Davies, Patricia; Anderson, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Childhood obesity is among the leading health concerns in the United States. The relationship between unmet physical activity needs in young children is of particular interest as the trend in childhood obesity continues to rise and unmet physical activity needs are identified. The preschool years are an influential time in promoting healthful lifestyle habits and early childhood interventions may help establish lifelong healthful behaviors which could help prevent obesity later in life. The Food Friends®: Get Movin' with Mighty Moves® is a preschool physical activity program which aims to improve children's gross motor skills and physical activity levels. The home environment and parental modeling are critical factors related to child physical activity in this population. The parent component, Mighty Moves®: Fun Ways to Keep Families Active and Healthy, was designed to address barriers in the home environment that lead to unmet physical activity needs in preschoolers and their families. The program and materials were designed based on Social Marketing tenets and Social Learning Theory principles. Four Colorado Head Start centers were assigned to an experimental group as part of the Mighty Moves® group randomized trial. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods were used to determine what messages and materials reached and motivated the target audience to increase physical activity levels. Results of the study indicated the program's materials helped families and children to be more physically active. Additionally, materials and material dissemination were revised to enhance program goals.

  4. Disclosure, consent, and the exercise of patient autonomy in surgical innovation: a systematic content analysis of the conceptual literature.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Karpowicz, Lila; Racine, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The classification of surgical innovation as clinical care, research, or as third distinct type of activity creates ambiguity which impacts standards for disclosure and informed consent. We conducted a systematic review of the conceptual literature to identify positions expressed about consent and disclosure, as well as major tension points associated with this issue. Literature overwhelmingly favors special consent and disclosure. Four major tension points were identified: the use of biasing/biased terminology to characterize innovation; patient vulnerability; the relationship between surgeon-innovator and patient; and practices and associated gaps related to consent and disclosure. Recommendations often focused on the informed consent process.

  5. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  6. Identity change and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Witt, Karsten

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, I focus on a kind of medical intervention that is at the same time fascinating and disturbing: identity-changing interventions. My guiding question is how such interventions can be ethically justified within the bounds of contemporary bioethical mainstream that places great weight on the patient's informed consent. The answer that is standardly given today is that patients should be informed about the identity effects, thus suggesting that changes in identity can be treated like 'normal' side effects. In the paper, I argue that this approach is seriously lacking because it misses important complexities going along with decisions involving identity changes and consequently runs into mistakes. As a remedy I propose a new approach, the 'perspective-sensitive account', which avoids these mistakes and thus provides the conceptual resources to systematically reflect on and give a valid consent to identity-changing interventions.

  7. [Informed consent in clinical practice and medical research].

    PubMed

    Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Cabral-Castañeda, Antonio; Soto-Ramírez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the basic aspects, influences and elements that constitute Informed Consent seeing it as a process and not only as an administrative format. Both the patient-physician relationship, as well as the research subject-investigator relationship, should be seen in the same manner, in spite of recognizing specific objectives for each one. For this reason, Informed Consent should not be different regarding both clinical as well as research activities. The patient-physician relationship presents a disbalance of power within the relationship in favor of the physician; this adds to the moral considerations that take place within both participants. Informed Consent should be defined in a broad sense as all those actions that promote a process of communication and dialogue which facilitates a person in order to make decisions with respect of an action, practice or product that have an impact on his/her body, intimacy or other vital spaces. Informed Consent has influences that originate in basic bioethical principles (autonomy, beneficience, non-maleficence, justice), professional and international declarations (Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Helsinki), as well as legal considerations pertinent to each country. In our country legality emmanates from the General Health Law which, unfortunately, only contemplates Informed Consent as part of the relation established in clinical research. However, the Official Medican Norm on the Clinical Record establishes the conditions where Informed Consent must be obtained during clinical as well as research activities. Primary components of Informed Consent (revelation, capacity to understand and voluntariness), can be better understood when divided into several elements: information, voluntariness, risks and benefits, confidentiality, return of information, utility of the process and management of fragility. Informed Consent should be legally instrumented in an explicit written manner (administrative formats

  8. Aspects of vulnerable patients and informed consent in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kuthning, Maria; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    Scope: To discuss the rationale behind informed consent in clinical trials focusing on vulnerable patients from a European and German viewpoint. Methods: Scientific literature search via PubMed, Medline, Google. Results: Voluntary informed consent is the cornerstone of policies regulating clinical trials. To enroll a patient into a clinical trial without having obtained written and signed consent is to be considered as a serious issue in the conduct of a clinical trial. Development of ethical guidance for physicians started before Christ Era with the Hippocratic Oath. Main function of consent, as articulated in all guidelines developed for clinical research, is to facilitate an individual’s freedom of choice, respect autonomy, and thus to ensure welfare of the participants in clinical trials. Minors are unable to provide legally binding informed consent, this issue is addressed through a combination of parental permission and minor’s assent. Illiteracy is a critical problem that affects all corners of our earth; it has no boundaries and exists among every race and ethnicity, age group, and economic class. New strategies to improve communication with patients including the use of videotapes or animated cartoon illustrations could be taught. Finally the time with the potential participant seems to be the best way to improve understanding. Conclusion: Discovery of life saving and life enhancing new treatments requires partnership that is based on good communication and trust between patients and researchers, sponsors, ethics committees, authorities, lawyers and politicians so that vulnerable patients can benefit from the results of well controlled clinical trials. PMID:23346043

  9. Parent-child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The gendered effects of education and social class.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life.

  10. Asymmetric frontal brain activity and parental rejection predict altruistic behavior: moderation of oxytocin effects.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tops, Mattie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-06-01

    Asymmetric frontal brain activity has been widely implicated in reactions to emotional stimuli and is thought to reflect individual differences in approach-withdrawal motivation. Here, we investigate whether asymmetric frontal activity, as a measure of approach-withdrawal motivation, also predicts charitable donations after a charity's (emotion-eliciting) promotional video showing a child in need is viewed, in a sample of 47 young adult women. In addition, we explore possibilities for mediation and moderation, by asymmetric frontal activity, of the effects of intranasally administered oxytocin and parental love withdrawal on charitable donations. Greater relative left frontal activity was related to larger donations. In addition, we found evidence of moderation: Low levels of parental love withdrawal predicted larger donations in the oxytocin condition for participants showing greater relative right frontal activity. We suggest that when approach motivation is high (reflected in greater relative left frontal activity), individuals are generally inclined to take action upon seeing someone in need and, thus, to donate money to actively help out. Only when approach motivation is low (reflected in less relative left/greater relative right activity) do empathic concerns affected by oxytocin and experiences of love withdrawal play an important part in deciding about donations.

  11. Expanding the Partnership of Researchers, Teachers and Parents Through Science Museum Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, K.; Hoette, V.

    2008-06-01

    The Science Museum of Tokyo brings science and the general public together through an international collaboration of institutes, universities, and K-12 projects. These include the live science show ``UNIVERSE'', a ``live observing'' program with Hands-On Universe (HOU), Internet telescopes and the constellation cameras i-CAN. We are expanding these activities into formal education in an after-school program. We model partnerships between educators, researchers, university students, teachers and parents to create informal and formal education programs.

  12. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  13. Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Home Activities with Their Children: Psychosocial Factors and the Role of Parental Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…

  14. Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Adjustment Moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Activity: Within- and between-Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA…

  15. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans…

  16. BMI and Attitudes and Beliefs about Physical Activity and Nutrition of Parents of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, V. A.; Shacter, S. D.; Johnson, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was: (1) to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with nutrition and physical activity of parents with adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID); (2) to determine if these variables related to the body mass index (BMI) of the adolescents and the parents' BMI; and (3) to investigate if…

  17. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  18. Changing constructions of informed consent: qualitative research and complex social worlds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tina; Boulton, Mary

    2007-12-01

    Informed consent is a concept which attempts to capture and convey what is regarded as the appropriate relationship between researcher and research participant. Definitions have traditionally emphasised respect for autonomy and the right to self-determination of the individual. However, the meaning of informed consent and the values on which it is based are grounded in society and the practicalities of social relationships. As society changes, so too do the meaning and practice of informed consent. In this paper, we trace the ways in which the meaning and practice of informed consent has changed over the last 35 years with reference to four qualitative studies of parenting and children in the UK which we have undertaken at different points in our research careers. We focus in particular on the shifting boundaries between the professional and personal, and changing expressions of agency and power in a context of heightened perceptions of risk in everyday life. We also discuss developments in information and communication technologies as a factor in changing both the formal requirements for and the situated practicalities of obtaining informed consent. We conclude by considering the implications for informed consent of both increasing bureaucratic regulation and increasingly sophisticated information and communication technologies and suggest strategies for rethinking and managing 'consent' in qualitative research practice.

  19. Female sexual subjectivity and verbal consent to receiving oral sex.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2015-01-01

    Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p <.01) in the fourth step, while entitlement to pleasure dropped out of the model (p >.05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors.

  20. Czech lesbian activism: gay and lesbian parental rights as a challenge to patriarchal marriage.

    PubMed

    Fojtová, Simona

    2011-01-01

    In their advocacy for the legal recognition of same-sex relationships during the 1990s, prominent Czech gay rights activists focused only on issues of sexuality and did not question the essentialist understanding of gender, especially in parenting. Consequently, even though the Czech Republic legalized registered partnerships for gays and lesbians in 2006, legal barriers now exist regarding parental rights for same-sex couples, who are prohibited from adopting children and accessing reproductive technology once they register with the state. This article examines a rising, new wave of Czech lesbian activism that has focused on gaining legal parental rights for registered same-sex couples. While lesbian activists were disempowered in terms of their public visibility as well as political involvement during the 1990s, the recent growing prominence of lesbian groups has been enabled by their stronger political focus and organizational coherence. Analyzing the lesbian activists' strategies, I show not only how lesbian activism can advance the public debate about traditional gender roles, but also how lesbian activism can strengthen the critique of the ideology of marriage.

  1. Community perspectives on research consent involving vulnerable children in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

    2012-10-01

    Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent.

  2. Child consent in South African law: implications for researchers, service providers and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Strode, Ann; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-30

    Children under 18 are legal minors who, in South African law, are not fully capable of acting independently without assistance from parents/legal guardians. However, in recognition of the evolving capacity of children, there are exceptional circumstances where the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently. We describe legal norms for child consent to health-related interventions in South Africa, and argue that the South African parliament has taken an inconsistent approach to: the capacity of children to consent; the persons able to consent when children do not have capacity; and restrictions on the autonomy of children or their proxies to consent. In addition, the rationale for the differing age limitations, capacity requirements and public policy restrictions has not been specified. These inconsistencies make it difficult for stakeholders interacting with children to ensure that they act lawfully.

  3. 75 FR 1413 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decrees Under The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site in northern Idaho. The proposed... future mining activities. For thirty (30) days after the date of this publication, the Department of... of Justice Web site: http://www.usdoj.gov/enrd/Consent_Decrees.html . A copy of the Consent...

  4. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING INFORMED CONSENT (SOP-1.13)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP informed consent procedures are described in the SOP. After an eligible subject provides verbal consent, staff schedule a visit to meet with the subject in person to explain study activities and answer questions about the study. During the visit, staff demonstrate how...

  5. Social Influences and the Physical Activity Intentions of Parents of Young-Children Families: An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence within Australia and internationally suggests parenthood as a risk factor for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity is scarce. Given that active parents can create active families and social factors are important for parents' decision making, the authors investigated a range of social influences on…

  6. Enhancing HIV Vaccine Trial Consent Preparedness Among Street Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2011-01-01

    This research used open-ended and true-false questions to assess the preparedness of 96 ethnically diverse, economically and socially marginalized adult street drug users to consent to participate in HIV vaccine trials (HVT). Specific areas of consent vulnerability included misconceptions about: (1) the recuperative value and risk of vaccines in general; (2) the presence of the HIV virus within the vaccine and the possibility of contracting or transmitting HIV as a consequence of participation; (3) inclusion criteria and experimental blinds; and (4) distrust in the medical and research establishments. A brief HVT lesson administered to 30 participants was effective in correcting specific HVT knowledge misperceptions and increasing certain, but not all areas of HVT trust. Assessment of post-lesson responses to ethics-relevant questions provides information on respondents' attitudes toward AIDS safe behavior, research risks and benefits, monetary compensation, and willingness to participate. Implications for enhancing informed consent for HVT involving active drug users are discussed. PMID:20569151

  7. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2015-06-01

    Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn-53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn-53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn-53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs.

  8. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite

    DOE PAGES

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; ...

    2015-06-23

    Here, chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn–53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as 2.4 +1.8-1.3 Myr after calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition,more » measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and 4.2+0.8-0.7 Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8–2.5 Myr after CAIs.« less

  9. Parents' and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.

  10. Early aqueous activity on the ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies recorded by fayalite

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2015-06-23

    Here, chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn–53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as 2.4 +1.8-1.3 Myr after calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and 4.2+0.8-0.7 Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8–2.5 Myr after CAIs.

  11. DNA paternity tests in Spain without the mother's consent: the legal responsibility of the laboratories.

    PubMed

    Barrot, C; Sánchez, C; Ortega, M; De Alcaraz-Fossoul, J; Carreras, C; Medallo, J; Bono, N; Royes, A; Gené, M

    2014-01-01

    It is technically feasible to perform paternity diagnosis testing solely involving an alleged father and his descendent. However, there are serious legal and ethical problems for forensic genetics laboratories when it comes to paternity testing cases for investigating the alleged father-child relationship if the biological mother has not given consent to access her genetic information. Based on the Spanish Constitution, the new Code of Ethics of the Spanish Medical Association includes several articles on studies about genetic information and their acceptance by all the individuals involved. This problem is greater when the child is a minor, mentally incapacitated or psychologically incapable, because current Spanish law requires informed consent from legal representatives, but the law does not typify what happens when one parent gives consent (the putative father) and the other parent (the mother) does not agree. The aim of this study is to put forward legal solutions to avoid potential legal problems.

  12. Perceptions of Equine Assisted Activities and Therapies by Parents and Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Danielle; Rothwell, Erin; Newcomb, Tara M.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the physical and psychosocial effects of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) from the perspective of the child and their parents. Methods The families of all eligible children with SMA, who reported participation in EAAT, from a western metropolitan academic center were contacted and invited to participate. This study implemented qualitative, semi-structured interviews of children with SMA and their parents. Results Three themes emerged from the qualitative content analysis: physical/psychosocial benefits; relationship development with the horses, instructors, and children; and barriers to continued EAAT engagement. Conclusions The data suggest the overall EAAT experience was a source of enjoyment, self-confidence, and normalcy for the children with SMA. The results of this study provide preliminary support for the use of EAAT among children with SMA. PMID:24675128

  13. Establishing and adhering to sexual consent: the association between reading magazines and college students' sexual consent negotiation.

    PubMed

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Ren, Chunbo; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica F; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Norman, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    Content analyses have cataloged the sexual scripts present in magazines largely because of their perceived value to readers and their potential role as sex educators. Although it is generally agreed that magazines have the potential to influence sexual attitudes and behavioral intentions, the effects of this medium are not as frequently researched as are other forms of media. The current study tested whether exposure to magazines was associated with intentions related to sexual consent negotiation. A survey of 313 college students indicated that exposure to men's magazines was significantly associated with lower intentions to seek sexual consent and lower intentions to adhere to decisions about sexual consent. In contrast, exposure to women's magazines was significantly associated with greater intentions to refuse unwanted sexual activity. Overall, the findings of this study further reinforce the critical need for responsible and realistic portrayals of sex in entertainment media, specifically magazines.

  14. The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG): Child-reported Physical Activity Parenting in African American and Non-Hispanic White Families.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Nishi, Akihiro; Baskin, Monica L; Carson, Tiffany L; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a child-report, multidimensional measure of physical activity (PA) parenting, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), in African American and non-Hispanic white families. The ACTS-MG was administered to children aged 5 to 12 years. A three factor model of PA parenting (Modeling of PA, Logistic Support, and Restricting Access to Screen-based Activities) was tested separately for mother's and fathers' PA parenting. The proposed three-factor structure was supported in both racial groups for mothers' PA parenting and in the African American sample for fathers' PA parenting. Factorial invariance between racial groups was demonstrated for mother's PA parenting. Building on a previous study examining the ACTS-MG parent-report, this study supports the use of the ACTS-MG child-report for mothers' PA parenting. However, further research is required to investigate the measurement of fathers' PA parenting across racial groups.

  15. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p < .01) and mothers' control (p < .001) were significantly associated with child weight status. Fathers' reinforcement (p < .01) was significantly associated with child physical activity. For screen-time, mothers' monitoring (p < .001) and child characteristics [age (p = .01), sex (p = .01), BMI z-score (p = .03)] were significant predictors. Mothers' parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors.

  16. Exploring eating and activity behaviors with parent-child dyads using event history calendars.

    PubMed

    Danford, Cynthia A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in science, the prevalence of childhood obesity persists and outcomes remain inconsistent. An event history calendar (EHC) is a tool to facilitate understanding of family life dynamics influencing eating and activity choices. This tool uses reflection to assess temporally linked behavior in the context of life events so that choices related to eating and activity are more explicit. Fourteen parent-child (6-14 years) dyads completed an EHC and interview 2 months following a healthy eating/activity intervention. Phenomenological analysis revealed themes including "awareness" of activity/eating behaviors, "healthy lessons," "family time," and "barriers" to change. The EHC facilitated participant communication and understanding by making connections between behaviors, habits, and events in family context, so that eating and activity behaviors could be realistically reviewed. This tool has potential to guide development of individualized interventions through barrier identification and goal establishment in research and clinical settings to help counteract childhood obesity over time.

  17. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  18. The Parent Care Pavilion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Morris; Green, Janice G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes operation of the Parent Care Pavilion of the J. W. Riley Children's Hospital in Indianapolis, which encourages active parent involvement in care of hospitalized children on a 24-hour basis. Benefits to children, parents and staff are described. (BF)

  19. Use of a simplified consent form to facilitate patient understanding of informed consent for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borello, Alessandro; Passera, Roberto; Surace, Alessandra; Marola, Silvia; Buccelli, Claudio; Niola, Massimo; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Amato, Maurizio; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Surgical informed consent forms can be complicated for patients to read and understand. We created a consent form with key information presented in bulleted texts and diagrams combined in a graphical format to facilitate the understanding of information during the verbal consent discussion. Methods This prospective, randomized study involved 70 adult patients awaiting cholecystectomy for gallstones. Consent was obtained after standard verbal explanation using either a graphically formatted (study group, n=33) or a standard text document (control group, n=37). Comprehension was evaluated with a 9-item multiple-choice questionnaire administered before surgery and factors affecting comprehension were analyzed. Results Comparison of questionnaire scores showed no effect of age, sex, time between consent and surgery, or document format on understanding of informed consent. Educational level was the only predictor of comprehension. Conclusions Simplified surgical consent documents meet the goals of health literacy and informed consent. Educational level appears to be a strong predictor of understanding. PMID:28352847

  20. Some popular versions of uninformed consent.

    PubMed

    Hutton, J L; Ashcroft, R E

    2000-01-01

    A patient's informed consent is required by the Nuremberg code, and its successors, before she can be entered into a clinical trial. However, concern has been expressed by both patients and professionals about the beneficial or detrimental effect on the patient of asking for her consent. We examine advantages and drawbacks of popular variations on consent, which might reduce the stress on patients at the point of illness. Both informed and uninformed responses to particular trials, and trials in general, are discussed. The selection by doctors of patients, to whom entry to trials will be offered, is explored. Alternative forms of consent require restrictions on patients' knowledge, personal responsibility and freedom of choice.

  1. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions.

  2. The battering of informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Kottow, M

    2004-01-01

    Autonomy has been hailed as the foremost principle of bioethics, and yet patients' decisions and research subjects' voluntary participation are being subjected to frequent restrictions. It has been argued that patient care is best served by a limited form of paternalism because the doctor is better qualified to take critical decisions than the patient, who is distracted by illness. The revival of paternalism is unwarranted on two grounds: firstly, because prejudging that the sick are not fully autonomous is a biased and unsubstantial view; secondly, because the technical knowledge of healthcare professionals does not include the ethical qualifications and prerogative to decide for others. Clinical research settings are even more prone to erode subjects' autonomy than clinical settings because of the tendency and temptation to resort to such practices as shading the truth when consent to participation is sought, or waiving consent altogether when research is done in emergency settings. Instead of supporting such dubious practices with unconvincing arguments, it would seem to be the task of bioethics to insist on reinforcing autonomy. PMID:15574446

  3. Does community type moderate the relationship between parent perceptions of the neighborhood and physical activity in children?

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether residing in a community designed to promote physical activity moderates the relationship between parent perceptions of the neighborhood and general physical activity or active commuting to school in their children. Design Cross-sectional Setting San Bernardino County, California. Subjects 365 families (one parent and one child in grades 4th-8th). 85 reside in a smart growth community designed to be more conducive to physical activity. Measures Parent perceptions assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. General child physical activity measured using accelerometers, and active commuting was self-reported by children. Analysis Two sets of regressions were performed: one for general physical activity, and one for active commuting. Separate models were run in the two sets for each of the 14 NEWS factors, while controlling for demographics. Results For general physical activity, walking infrastructure, lack of cul-de-sacs and social interaction had significant main effect associations (p≤0.05). No factors were moderated by community. The relationships between active commuting to school and perceived crime, traffic hazards, hilliness, physical barriers, cul-de-sac connectivity, aesthetics, and walking infrastructure were significant for those in the smart growth community only (p≤0.05). Conclusions Living in an activity friendly environment is associated with positive relationships between parent perceptions and active commuting behaviors in children. Future interventions should account for both the perceived neighborhood environment and available physical activity infrastructure. PMID:22747320

  4. Advertisements for children’s entertainment products in a popular parenting magazine: sedentary or active?

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Cadorett, Valerie; Basch, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements of children’s entertainment products in a popular magazine, Parents, and to determine if they illustrated behavior that was physically active or sedentary. Methods: The sample was comprised of Parents magazines (January 2010 to December 2015). Coding involved determining if the advertisement was promoting sedentary or active behavior. Results: Nearly all of the 169 advertisements in the sample (n = 166; 97.6%) were for products that depicted sedentary behavior. The most common types of entertainment products advertised were DVDs (n = 72), plastic stacking products (n = 18), books (n=14), and electronic devices (n = 13). The most popular theme that appeared in the advertisements was the entertainment product would enhance intelligence (n = 85; 50.3%, 95% CI: 0.43-0.58). The overwhelming majority (n = 136; 80.5%. 95% CI: 0.76-0.87) of the advertisements involved the presence of a character. Conclusion: This type of advertising does not contribute to the nation’s goals of increasing physical activity among youth. PMID:28058242

  5. Advertisements for children's entertainment products in a popular parenting magazine: sedentary or active?

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Cadorett, Valerie; Basch, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements of children's entertainment products in a popular magazine, Parents, and to determine if they illustrated behavior that was physically active or sedentary. Methods: The sample was comprised of Parents magazines (January 2010 to December 2015). Coding involved determining if the advertisement was promoting sedentary or active behavior. Results: Nearly all of the 169 advertisements in the sample (n = 166; 97.6%) were for products that depicted sedentary behavior. The most common types of entertainment products advertised were DVDs (n = 72), plastic stacking products (n = 18), books (n=14), and electronic devices (n = 13). The most popular theme that appeared in the advertisements was the entertainment product would enhance intelligence (n = 85; 50.3%, 95% CI: 0.43-0.58). The overwhelming majority (n = 136; 80.5%. 95% CI: 0.76-0.87) of the advertisements involved the presence of a character. Conclusion: This type of advertising does not contribute to the nation's goals of increasing physical activity among youth.

  6. Mister Rogers' Plan & Play Book: Activities from Mister Rogers' Neighborhood for Parents & Child Care Providers. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Communications, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Intended for both childcare professionals and parents, this book lists activities from episodes of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood television program, and can be used with or without watching the program. Each activity is assigned a number which corresponds to the television episode in which the activity is featured, and a national PBS Broadcast…

  7. The Promotion of Gross and Fine Motor Development for Infants and Toddlers: Developmentally Appropriate Activities for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debra S.

    In recognition of the close relationship between motor skill and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life, this guide presents 78 developmentally appropriate activities that parents and teachers can use to enhance infant and toddler motor development. Activities are categorized by age group as follows: (1) 16 activities for newborn to…

  8. Let Nature Be the Teacher: Seasonal Natural History Activities for Parents and Other Educators To Share with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertz, Lucille N.

    This book is designed to provide parents and other adult companions with activities to do with children on outdoor walks. The activities offer adults and children a shared learning experience and have been adapted from the children's education program at Habitat Institute for the Environment (Massachusetts). The activities are arranged seasonally,…

  9. Marketing active transportation to school to improve children's health: Utilizing parental perspectives from an inner-city environment.

    PubMed

    Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.

  10. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  11. 32 CFR 634.8 - Implied consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.8 Implied consent. (a) Implied consent to blood, breath, or urine tests. Persons who drive on the installation shall be deemed to have given... when lawfully stopped, apprehended, or cited for any offense allegedly committed while driving or...

  12. Dynamic axes of informed consent in Japan.

    PubMed

    Specker Sullivan, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks. It expands professional perspectives to include nurses, medical social workers, clinical psychologists, and ethicists and it addresses informed consent for a broad range of conditions in addition to cancer. The results suggest that division of affective labor is an under-theorized dimension of informed consent that is perceived as at odds with principled demands for universal informed consent. These practical tensions are conceptualized as cultural differences, with Japan identified in terms of omakase as practical and supportive and the United States identified in terms of jiko kettei as principled and self-determining. These results have implications for the methodology of cross-cultural bioethics as well as for theories and practices of informed consent in both Japan and the United States. I conclude that responsible cross-cultural work in bioethics must begin from the ground up, incorporating all relevant stakeholder perspectives, attitudes, and experiences.

  13. 21 CFR 640.61 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informed consent. 640.61 Section 640.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.61 Informed consent. The...

  14. 21 CFR 640.61 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Informed consent. 640.61 Section 640.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.61 Informed consent. The...

  15. 21 CFR 640.61 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Informed consent. 640.61 Section 640.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.61 Informed consent. The...

  16. 21 CFR 640.61 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Informed consent. 640.61 Section 640.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.61 Informed consent. The...

  17. 21 CFR 640.61 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Informed consent. 640.61 Section 640.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.61 Informed consent. The...

  18. 28 CFR 512.16 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Informed consent. 512.16 Section 512.16 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.16 Informed consent. (a) Before commencing a research project...

  19. Reinforcing Consent as a "Private Facts" Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, David A.

    To delineate the ideas of newsworthiness and consent as they apply to journalism and private facts lawsuits (those in which plaintiffs seek to stop publication of facts about themselves), this paper covers key areas of dispute. Various sections of the paper discuss (1) the definition of newsworthiness, (2) consent as a legal defense, (3) the…

  20. 28 CFR 549.52 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Informed consent. 549.52 Section 549.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.52 Informed consent. Approved plastic surgery procedures may not be...

  1. 28 CFR 549.52 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informed consent. 549.52 Section 549.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.52 Informed consent. Approved plastic surgery procedures may not be...

  2. 28 CFR 549.52 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Informed consent. 549.52 Section 549.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.52 Informed consent. Approved plastic surgery procedures may not be...

  3. 28 CFR 549.52 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Informed consent. 549.52 Section 549.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.52 Informed consent. Approved plastic surgery procedures may not be...

  4. 28 CFR 549.52 - Informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Informed consent. 549.52 Section 549.52 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Plastic Surgery § 549.52 Informed consent. Approved plastic surgery procedures may not be...

  5. Use of informed consent with therapeutic paradox.

    PubMed

    Farkas, M M

    1992-01-01

    Debate persists in the literature and among clinicians about the ethical appropriateness of paradoxical interventions. It has been suggested that informed consent with therapeutic paradox would alleviate ethical concerns of deception, manipulation, harm to the client, and withholding of information from the client in therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore health care consumer reactions to the benefits and risks of therapeutic paradox as stated in a consent for treatment form. The study explored the responses of 32 medical patients to a hypothetical consent for treatment form for therapeutic paradox. Data were collected in a brief semistructured interview after subjects read the hypothetical consent form. Utilizing a case study, the investigator then offered an example of a successful paradoxical intervention and additional subject comments were solicited. Content analysis of the responses was made. Health care consumers had mixed responses to the consent form. While the consent form served as an obstacle for some consumers, many were willing to sign the consent form and accept treatment even though they had internal reservations and questions. Appropriateness of the consent form format is discussed.

  6. Under-age girls and contraception: the parent's right to be informed.

    PubMed

    Brahams, Diana

    1983-08-06

    A British barrister considers the issue of whether the giving of advice or the prescribing of contraceptives to girls younger than 16 without parental consent constitutes criminal conduct by the physician. Brahams examines relevant criminal and family law, common law, recent court decisions, and Department of Health and Human Services policy concerning the minor's right to consent, parental interests, and physician responsibilities.

  7. Using improvement science methods to increase accuracy of surgical consents.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Patti; Shaffer Ellis, Andrea; Schoettker, Pamela J; Stone, Raymond; Lenk, Mary Anne; Ryckman, Frederick C

    2014-07-01

    The surgical consent serves as a key link in preventing breakdowns in communication that could lead to wrong-patient, wrong-site, or wrong-procedure events. We conducted a quality improvement initiative at a large, urban pediatric academic medical center to reliably increase the percentage of informed consents for surgical and medical procedures with accurate safety data information at the first point of perioperative contact. Improvement activities focused on awareness, education, standardization, real-time feedback and failure identification, and transparency. A total of 54,082 consent forms from 13 surgical divisions were reviewed between May 18, 2011, and November 30, 2012. Between May 2011 and June 2012, the percentage of consents without safety errors increased from a median of 95.4% to 99.7%. Since July 2012, the median has decreased slightly but has remained stable at 99.4%. Our results suggest that effective safety checks allow discovery and prevention of errors.

  8. On the readability of surgical consent forms.

    PubMed

    Grundner, T M

    1980-04-17

    A great deal of attention has been paid to ensuring that surgical consent forms have valid content, but little effort has been made to ensure that the average patient can read and understand them. Five representative surgical consent forms were analyzed with two standardized readability tests. The readability of all five was approximately equivalent to that of material intended for upper-division undergraduates or graduate students. Four of the five forms were written at the level of a scientific journal, and the fifth at the level of a specialized academic magazine. I suggest that few consent forms currently in use could pass readability tests. The implication of these findings is that thousands of persons may be undergoing surgery each year on the basis of inadequate consent. The problem has a reasonably simple solution: analysis of all consent forms for readability, and rewriting of those found excessively difficult.

  9. The limits of informed consent.

    PubMed

    1975-09-01

    The patient, a 59-year-old man, was referred to a psychiatric hospital with what appeared initially to be the signs and symptoms of mental disorder. In hospital a lesion of the brain was diagnosed and surgery was proposed to relieve the condition. The patient, however, during this and subsequent admissions to hospital, refused operation. His refusal to consent was regarded as valid as he seemed to have good insight into his condition. Finally, under section 26 of the Mental Health Act, he was treated surgically. Unfortunately the patient died six weeks later of intracranial haemorrhage. Three comments are made on this case - two by psychiatrists, Dr K Davison and Dr Ashley Robin, the other by a professor of Christian ethics, Professor F C Blackie. Both psychiatrists argue that when a patient's mind is affected by mental or organic illness to the degree that 'he cannot bring a rational and conscious mind' to the question of his treatment then the doctor, in consultation with the relatives, making clear to them the likely course of events if an operation is not performed, must take whatever is the proper course of action, in this case surgery. In this view, such an operation performed immediately the diagnosis was confirmed might not have been so complicated. Professor Blackie, commending 'the attempt to regard the patient as a responsible human being' with a 'moral right to be consulted on all aspects of treatment', questions in this patient the limits to which the appeal to reason was carried. He concludes that 'in this situation the advice and consent of the family must weigh more heavily than the statements of the patient'.

  10. Obtaining informed consent for genomics research in Africa: analysis of H3Africa consent documents

    PubMed Central

    Munung, Nchangwi Syntia; Marshall, Patricia; Campbell, Megan; Littler, Katherine; Masiye, Francis; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Stein, D J; Tindana, Paulina; de Vries, Jantina

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in genomic and biobanking research worldwide has led to the development of different informed consent models for use in such research. This study analyses consent documents used by investigators in the H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) Consortium. Methods A qualitative method for text analysis was used to analyse consent documents used in the collection of samples and data in H3Africa projects. Thematic domains included type of consent model, explanations of genetics/genomics, data sharing and feedback of test results. Results Informed consent documents for 13 of the 19 H3Africa projects were analysed. Seven projects used broad consent, five projects used tiered consent and one used specific consent. Genetics was mostly explained in terms of inherited characteristics, heredity and health, genes and disease causation, or disease susceptibility. Only one project made provisions for the feedback of individual genetic results. Conclusion H3Africa research makes use of three consent models—specific, tiered and broad consent. We outlined different strategies used by H3Africa investigators to explain concepts in genomics to potential research participants. To further ensure that the decision to participate in genomic research is informed and meaningful, we recommend that innovative approaches to the informed consent process be developed, preferably in consultation with research participants, research ethics committees and researchers in Africa. PMID:26644426

  11. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents’ PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children’s PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Methods Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. Results There were no significant differences in children’s averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children’s peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001). Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children’s PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05). Conclusion PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children’s PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings. PMID:27078684

  12. An Alternative to Residential Neighborhoods: An Exploratory Study of How Activity Spaces and Perception of Neighborhood Social Processes Relate to Maladaptive Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…

  13. Consequences of HIV testing without consent.

    PubMed

    Obi, Samuel N; Ifebunandu, Ngozi A

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the HIV-infected individuals' experience with HIV testing, counselling, disclosure of diagnosis and subsequent life events following diagnosis. The method used is a questionnaire survey of 340 consecutive HIV-positive victims, seen in two health institutions in southeast Nigeria within a one-year-period, November 2003 to October 2004. Three hundred and twenty respondents answered the questionnaire, 121 were men and 199 women, with 79% in the age range 20-39 years. Most respondents had known their HIV status for 3.2 (+/-1.1) years and the majority are in the lower social class. About 80% reported that their consent for HIV test was not asked for, resulting in feelings of fear, disbelief, shock and embarrassment on learning about their HIV status. Despite the initial reaction to the diagnosis, majority (81.9%) expressed satisfaction with the pattern of disclosure of diagnosis. There was some reluctance to inform spouse/partner of the diagnosis especially among asymptomatic, unmarried, childless or divorced victims. A serodiscordant couple resulted in mistrust and increased incidence of abandonment. Apart from spouse/partner the respondents are more likely to inform their siblings of the diagnosis than parents, children or friends. Despite being supportive, the respondents are more likely to suffer more neglect from siblings than their spouse (P<0.05) but the risk of being abandoned was more with the spouse than with siblings (P<0.05). Only 32.6% of the 129 respondents on antiretroviral therapy are regular with it mainly because of cost and non-availability of drugs. Default in treatment was more evident among the unmarried, those with low educational status and treatment with antiretroviral drugs for more than two years. Proper pre- and post-test counselling, promotion of behavioural change among the society about HIV/AIDS and provision of support and cost-effective care for HIV victims is advocated.

  14. Perceived Parental Social Support and Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Children at Risk of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Tremblay, Angelo; Barnett, Tracie A.; Lambert, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of factors that relate to physical activity behavior in children at higher risk for weight problems--namely, children with obese parents--is key to informing the development of effective interventions to promote physical activity and reduce obesity. The purpose of our study was to examine children's perceptions of parental…

  15. Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankovich, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents Individuals with autism often lack the necessary motivation to engage in physical activity. In addition, due to the characteristics defining autism, such as deficits in social skills, motor coordination, and behavior,…

  16. Open Your Cupboards to Learning Center Games: Activities for Reinforcing Math and Reading Skills for Teacher and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Martha A.; Peterson, Nancy M.

    This book has been developed to furnish teachers and parents with ideas for activities and games which aid children in the transition from oral language to printed language for reading and math. These games are designed to provide children with activities and experiences that increase vocabularies and make them useful in communication, language…

  17. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with…

  18. Rewards for Kids! Ready-to-Use Charts and Activities for Positive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiller, Viriginia M.; Schneider, Meg F.

    Finding ways to encourage preschoolers and elementary school children to behave well without resorting to scolding, threats, or bribery is a challenge for parents. This book advocates the positive parenting technique of rewards as the key to good behavior and shows parents how to use a variety of child-friendly sticker charts and other tools to…

  19. Time-Resolved Records of Magnetic Activity on the Pallasite Parent Body and Psyche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Kasama, T.; Alimadadi, H.; van der Laan, G.; Nimmo, F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although many small bodies apparently generated dynamo fields in the early solar system, the nature and temporal evolution of these fields has remained enigmatic. Time-resolved records of the Earth's planetary field have been essential in understanding the dynamic history of our planet, and equivalent information from asteroids could provide a unique insight into the development of the solar system. Here we present time-resolved records of magnetic activity on the main-group pallasite parent body and (16) Psyche, obtained using newly-developed nanomagnetic imaging techniques. For the pallasite parent body, the inferred field direction remained relatively constant and the intensity was initially stable at ~100 μT before it decreased in two discrete steps down to 0 μT. We interpret this behaviour as due to vigorous dynamo activity driven by compositional convection in the core, ultimately transitioning from a dipolar to multipolar field as the inner core grew from the bottom-up. For Psyche (measured from IVA iron meteorites), the inferred field direction reversed, while the intensity remained stable at >50 μT. Psyche cooled rapidly as an unmantled core, although the resulting thermal convection alone cannot explain these observations. Instead, this behaviour required top-down core solidification, and is attributed either to compositional convection (if the core also solidified from the bottom-up) or convection generated directly by top-down solidification (e.g. Fe-snow). The mechanism governing convection in small body cores is an open question (due partly to uncertainties in the direction of core solidification), and these observations suggest that unconventional (i.e. not thermal) mechanisms acted in the early solar system. These mechanisms are very efficient at generating convection, implying a long-lasting and widespread epoch of dynamo activity among small bodies in the early solar system.

  20. Informed consent in rheumatology care practice.

    PubMed

    Marques Filho, José

    2011-01-01

    Informed consent is a mandatory document in human subject research protocols. Its principles have been recently established in the history of Medicine, and the first official document to establish the need for an informed consent from the research subject was the Nuremberg Code (1947). All following documents confirmed that the informed consent is mandatory in human subject research. However, the informed consent, which represents patients' autonomy or self-determination regarding their relationship with their physicians, took a while to be included in medical care practice and medical deontology codes. The convenience of using the informed consent in medical practice is widely discussed today, especially in rheumatology. Our opinion is that the obligation of a signed informed consent provided by the patient for every medical procedure is neither reasonable nor practical. It should be used for more invasive or risky therapeutic procedures. We understand that the informed consent does not guarantee that the patient has been fully informed, which is an essential condition for the current rheumatological practice. Its adoption in routine medical care practice would make medical intervention bureaucratic, and, thus, quite different from the Hippocratic view, which considered the trustful physician-patient relationship fundamental for an adequate medical care practice.

  1. Improving the Informed Consent Conversation: A Standardized Checklist that Is Patient Centered, Quality Driven, and Legally Sound.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Beth A; Tiffany, David; Lehmann, Lisa S; Silverman, Stuart G

    2015-11-01

    The informed consent conversation is a key component of patient-centered medicine, a concept that emphasizes the importance of patients actively participating in their care. Studies reveal that many informed consent conversations throughout medical practice lack essential elements and leave patients' needs unmet. This review addresses these deficiencies, discusses solutions, and introduces a standardized checklist that values the patient's role in shared decision making during the informed consent conversation. The checklist could be particularly helpful to interventional radiologists and other consulting physicians who usually obtain informed consent early in their encounters with patients.

  2. Parental Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Anxious Children: Parents' In-Session and Out-Session Activities and Their Relationship with Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Mendonça, Denisa; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Ana Rita; Marques, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The present study explored the role of parents' in-session and out-session involvement in CBT for anxious children. Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV anxiety disorder participated in a group CBT program. Parental involvement in the therapy was assessed by the clinician and the children and parents completed a standardized anxiety scale as the main therapy outcome measure, at pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the parents completed questionnaires to evaluate a number of possible correlates of parental involvement, namely, child's anxiety symptoms intensity and interference, parental beliefs about anxiety, expectancies regarding the efficacy of the intervention, and parental anxiety. The results indicated that the parents were moderately involved in the therapy and that socio-economic status and parental beliefs about anxiety were significant correlates of parental involvement. Finally, partial support was found for the idea that parents' involvement in the therapy might have a positive impact on therapy outcome.

  3. Social Physique Anxiety and Intention to Be Physically Active: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social physique anxiety and intention to be physically active, while taking into account the mediating effects of the basic psychological needs and behavioral regulations in exercise. Method: Having obtained parents' prior consent, 390…

  4. Informed Consent for Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pakeeza; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2016-03-01

    Informed consent is the process in which a patient makes a decision about a surgical procedure or medical intervention after adequate information is relayed by the physician and understood by the patient. This process is critical for reconstructive pelvic surgeries, particularly with the advent of vaginal mesh procedures. In this article, we review the principles of informed consent, the pros and cons of different approaches in reconstructive pelvic surgery, the current legal issues surrounding mesh use for vaginal surgery, and tips on how to incorporate this information when consenting patients for pelvic floor surgery.

  5. Medical ghostwriting and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Almassi, Ben

    2014-11-01

    Ghostwriting in its various forms has received critical scrutiny from medical ethicists, journal editors, and science studies scholars trying to explain where ghostwriting goes wrong and ascertain how to counter it. Recent analyses have characterized ghostwriting as plagiarism or fraud, and have urged that it be deterred through stricter compliance with journal submission requirements, conflict of interest disclosures, author-institutional censure, legal remedies, and journals' refusal to publish commercially sponsored articles. As a supplement to such efforts, this paper offers a critical assessment of medical ghostwriting as contrary to good patient care, on the grounds that it contradicts established general principles guiding clinical ethics. Specifically, I argue that ghostwriting undermines trust relationships between authors and their readers, and between these readers and their trusting patients, and in so doing contradicts the duty of respect for patient autonomy by obstructing informed consent. For this reason, complicity in ghostwriting practices should be understood as a violation of the professional ethical duties of physicians and other healthcare workers.

  6. Parent perceptions of neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity: evidence from a national longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2013-05-15

    We examined the relationship between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, body mass, and obesity status using 9 years of longitudinal data (1999-2007) on a cohort of approximately 19,000 US kindergartners from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Children's height and weight measurements and parent perceptions of neighborhood safety were available in kindergarten and in the first, third, fifth, and eighth grades. Dependent variables included age- and gender-specific body mass index percentile, obesity status, and parent- or child-reported weekly physical activity and television-watching. Pooled cross-sectional and within-child longitudinal regression models that controlled for child, family, and school characteristics were fitted. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal models indicated that children whose parents perceived their neighborhoods as unsafe watched more television and participated in less physical activity, although the magnitude of this association was much weaker in longitudinal models. However, there was no significant association between parent-perceived neighborhood safety and children's body mass index.

  7. Testing an Online, Dynamic Consent Portal for Large Population Biobank Research

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Daniel B.; Platt, Jodyn; Platt, Tevah; King, Susan B.; Fisher, Nicole; Shelton, Robert; Kardia, Sharon L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Michigan's BioTrust for Health, a public health research biobank comprised of residual dried bloodspot (DBS) cards from newborn screening contains over 4 million samples collected without written consent. Participant-centric initiatives (PCI) are IT tools that hold great promise to address the consent challenges in biobank research. Methods Working with Private Access Inc., a pioneer in patient-centric web solutions, we created and pilot tested a dynamic informed consent simulation, paired with an educational website, focusing on consent for research utilizing the DBS in Michigan's BioTrust for Health. Results Out of 187 pilot testers recruited in two groups, 137 completed the consent simulation and exit survey. Over 50% indicated willingness to set up an account if the simulation went live and willingness to recommend it to others. Participants raised concerns about the process of ID verification and appeared to have little experience with sharing health information online. Conclusions Applying online, dynamic approaches to address the consent challenges raised by biobanks with legacy sample collections should be explored given the positive reaction to our pilot and the strong preference for active consent. Balancing security and privacy with accessibility and ease of use will continue to be a challenge. PMID:25359560

  8. Parental Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains seven articles about meaningful participation by parents, particularly Hispanic and other minority parents, in the education of their children. "Parents Reclaiming Their Schools: New Initiative Brings Parents Together for Better Schools" (Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes objectives and activities of a Texas-based…

  9. Development of the parents' perception of their involvement in their child's tennis activity questionnaire (Q-PPICTA).

    PubMed

    Hurtel, V; Lacassagne, M-F

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for assessing parents' perception of their involvement in their children's tennis activity (Q-PPICTA). The validation required four successive studies. In study 1, a preliminary version of the questionnaire was formulated after selecting and adapting items taken from existing questionnaires and interviews conducted with the parents of 36 young tennis players. Three factors for measuring parental involvement in sport were identified and retained: emotional, logistic, and informational supports. In study 2, exploratory factor analyses were performed on data collected from 214 parents of tennis players. Results attested the questionnaire's three-factor structure and ascertained its internal consistency. In study 3, a confirmatory factor analysis as well as tests on convergent and discriminant validity were carried out on data gathered from a different sample of 220 parents of tennis players. Statistics confirmed the questionnaire's three-factor structure and reliability. In study 4, the questionnaire's external construct validity was compared with another sample consisting of 192 parents and their children. Overall, results underlined satisfactory psychometric properties for the Q-PPICTA. Nevertheless, further studies are required to confirm the questionnaire's accuracy, reliability, and temporal validity.

  10. Measuring and validating physical activity and sedentary behavior comparing a parental questionnaire to accelerometer data and diaries.

    PubMed

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Kriemler, Susi; Grize, Leticia; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2012-05-01

    Accurately measuring children's physical activity and their sedentary behavior is challenging. The present study compared 189 parental responses to a questionnaire surveying physical activity and sedentary behavior of children aged 6-14 years, to accelerometer outputs and time activity diaries for the same group. Responses were analyzed taking age, sex and maternal education into account. Correlation coefficients between questionnaire reports and accelerometer-based physical activity across all age groups were acceptable (up to r = .55). Yet, adjustment for age markedly attenuated these associations, suggesting concomitant influences of biological and behavioral processes linked to age. The comparisons of general time indications in the questionnaire with 24h-diary records suggested that parents tended to under- and over-report single activities, possibly due to social desirability. We conclude that physical activity questionnaires need to be designed for specific age groups and be administered in combination with objective measurements.

  11. A linguistic model of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Marta, J

    1996-02-01

    The current disclosure model of informed consent ignores the linguistic complexity of any act of communication, and the increased risk of difficulties in the special circumstances of informed consent. This article explores, through linguistic analysis, the specificity of informed consent as a speech act, a communication act, and a form of dialogue, following on the theories of J.L. Austin, Roman Jakobson, and Mikhail Bakhtin, respectively. In the proposed model, informed consent is a performative speech act resulting from a series of communication acts which together constitute a dialogic, polyphonic, heteroglossial discourse. It is an act of speech that results in action being taken after a conversation has happened where distinct individuals, multiple voices, and multiple perspectives have been respected, and convention observed and recognized. It is more meaningful and more ethical for both patient and physician, in all their human facets including their interconnectedness.

  12. Consent Decree for City of Hammond, Indiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Consent Decree in this matter was entered by the District Court, put the Hammond Sanitary District (HSD) on an enforceable schedule to, among other things, undertake remedial measures by 2010 to address to address its combine sewer overflows

  13. Testing Consent Order for Sodium Cyanide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing Consent Order with E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), FMC Corporation (FMC), Degussa Corporation (Degussa), ICI Americas Incorporated (ICI), and Cyanco Company (Cyanco).

  14. Testing Consent Order on Alkyl Phthalates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing Consent Order with Aristech Chemical Corporation (Aristech), BASF Corporation (BASF), Exxon Chemical Company (Exxon), Eastman Kodak Company (Kodak), and Witco Corporation, Humko Chemical.

  15. Testing Consent Order On 4 Nonylphenol, Branched

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing Consent Order with GAF Chemicals Corporation, GE Specialty Chemicals Incorporated, Kalama Chemicals Incorporated, Monsanto Company, Rohm & Haas Company, Schenectady Chemicals Incorporated.

  16. Testing Consent Agreement for N-methylpyrrolidone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has signed an Enforceable Consent Agreement (ECA) pursuant to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., with Arco Chemical Company, BASF Corporation, and International Specialty Products Company.

  17. Testing Consent Order on Mesityl Oxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing Consent Order with four of the manufacturers of mesityl oxide (MO; CAS No, 141—79—7), who have agreed to perform certain health effects tests with MO.

  18. Testing Consent Order on Dilsodecyl Phenyl Phosphite

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule announces that EPA has signed an enforceable Testing Consent Order with three manufacturers of dilsodecyl phenyl phosphite (PDDP CAS No, 25550-98-5), who have agreed to perform certain neurotoxicity tests PDDP.

  19. Testing Consent Order on Refractory Ceramic Fibers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice announces that EPA has signed signed an enforceable testing consent order under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. section 2601 at seq., with three of the primary producers of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF).

  20. Testing Consent Order for Acrylic Acid

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing Consent Order with BASF Corporation, Dow Chemical U.S.A., Hoechst Celanese Chemical Group, Rohm and Haas Company, and Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics, Inc.

  1. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  2. Puerto Rican adolescents' disclosure and lying to parents about peer and risky activities: associations with teens' perceptions of Latino values.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G

    2012-08-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.

  3. Pathways of Risk and Resilience: Impact of a Family Resilience Program on Active-Duty Military Parents.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, William R; Lester, Patricia; Milburn, Norweeta; Woodward, Kirsten; Stein, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, studies into the impact of wartime deployment and related adversities on service members and their families have offered empirical support for systemic models of family functioning and a more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms by which stress and trauma reverberate across family and partner relationships. They have also advanced our understanding of the ways in which families may contribute to the resilience of children and parents contending with the stressors of serial deployments and parental physical and psychological injuries. This study is the latest in a series designed to further clarify the systemic functioning of military families and to explicate the role of resilient family processes in reducing symptoms of distress and poor adaptation among family members. Drawing upon the implementation of the Families Overcoming Under Stress (FOCUS) Family Resilience Program at 14 active-duty military installations across the United States, structural equation modeling was conducted with data from 434 marine and navy active-duty families who participated in the FOCUS program. The goal was to better understand the ways in which parental distress reverberates across military family systems and, through longitudinal path analytic modeling, determine the pathways of program impact on parental distress. The findings indicated significant cross-influence of distress between the military and civilian parents within families, families with more distressed military parents were more likely to sustain participation in the program, and reductions in distress among both military and civilian parents were significantly mediated by improvements in resilient family processes. These results are consistent with family systemic and resilient models that support preventive interventions designed to enhance family resilient processes as an important part of comprehensive services for distressed military families.

  4. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents

    SciTech Connect

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Karakitsios, Spyros; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-15

    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n=382) in Cyprus [41 children (<18y) and 341 adults (≥18y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (r{sub S}=−0.59, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g{sup −1}) of children and matched-mothers (r{sub S}=0.52, p=0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (r{sub S}=0.39, p=0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (r{sub S}=0.56, p=0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p<0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such activities could be

  5. Patient Involvement in Informed Consent for Pediatric Phase I Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Victoria A.; Baker, Justin N.; Leek, Angela C.; Drotar, Dennis; Kodish, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine children’s and adolescents’ involvement in the informed consent conference for phase I cancer trials and test associations with patient age, ease of understanding, and pressure to participate. Procedure Participants included 61 patients ages 7 through 21 years who were offered participation in a phase I trial. Consent conferences were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for communication between patients and physicians and between patients and parents. Results Based on word counts, the mean proportion of the consent conference in which the physician was talking to the patient was 36%; the vast majority (73%) of this communication consisted of giving information. Physician-patient communication increased with age, but overall levels of patient-to-physician communication were low (3%). After controlling for patient age, greater physician-to-patient communication was associated with greater ease of understanding. Conclusions The focus on providing information in the context of informed consent may come at the expense of other communication exchanges that are important to patients, especially in the context of end of life decisions. Children and adolescents may benefit from the assent process when physicians direct more of their communication to them. Future research should identify the reasons for low patient communication during the consent conference and strategies to enhance their participation in decision making about phase I trial enrollment. PMID:24487916

  6. 42 CFR 2.31 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Form of written consent. 2.31 Section 2.31 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.31 Form of written consent. (a) Required elements. A written consent to a disclosure under these regulations must include:...

  7. 30 CFR 877.11 - Written consent for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Written consent for entry. 877.11 Section 877... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.11 Written consent for entry. Written consent from the... police power will be undertaken only after reasonable efforts have been made to obtain written consent....

  8. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written consents. 230.437a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.437a Written consents. (a) This section applies... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or...

  9. 30 CFR 877.11 - Written consent for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Written consent for entry. 877.11 Section 877... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.11 Written consent for entry. Written consent from the... police power will be undertaken only after reasonable efforts have been made to obtain written consent....

  10. 30 CFR 877.11 - Written consent for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Written consent for entry. 877.11 Section 877... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.11 Written consent for entry. Written consent from the... police power will be undertaken only after reasonable efforts have been made to obtain written consent....

  11. 38 CFR 1.475 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form of written consent... PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.475 Form of written consent. (a) Required elements. A written consent to a disclosure under §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part must include: (1) The name...

  12. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written consents. 230.437a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.437a Written consents. (a) This section applies... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or...

  13. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written consents. 230.437a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.437a Written consents. (a) This section applies... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or...

  14. 38 CFR 1.475 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form of written consent... PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.475 Form of written consent. (a) Required elements. A written consent to a disclosure under §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part must include: (1) The name...

  15. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written consents. 230.437a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.437a Written consents. (a) This section applies... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or...

  16. 38 CFR 1.475 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Form of written consent... PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.475 Form of written consent. (a) Required elements. A written consent to a disclosure under §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part must include: (1) The name...

  17. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written consents. 230.437a... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.437a Written consents. (a) This section applies... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or...

  18. 38 CFR 1.475 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Form of written consent... PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.475 Form of written consent. (a) Required elements. A written consent to a disclosure under §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part must include: (1) The name...

  19. 17 CFR 230.436 - Consents required in special cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.436 Consents required in... as such in the registration statement or in a prospectus, the written consent of the expert or... as experts, the written consents of such persons shall be filed as exhibits to the...

  20. 17 CFR 230.436 - Consents required in special cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Written Consents § 230.436 Consents required in... as such in the registration statement or in a prospectus, the written consent of the expert or... as experts, the written consents of such persons shall be filed as exhibits to the...

  1. 42 CFR 2.31 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.31 Form of written... of the patient. (7) The date on which the consent is signed. (8) A statement that the consent is... lieu of the patient (where required) 10. This consent is subject to revocation at any time except...

  2. 42 CFR 2.33 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.33 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disclosures permitted with written consent....

  3. 42 CFR 2.33 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.33 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disclosures permitted with written consent....

  4. 42 CFR 2.33 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.33 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disclosures permitted with written consent....

  5. 38 CFR 1.477 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with written consent. 1.477 Section 1.477 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.477 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her records under § 1.475 of this part,...

  6. 42 CFR 2.31 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.31 Form of written... of the patient. (7) The date on which the consent is signed. (8) A statement that the consent is... lieu of the patient (where required) 10. This consent is subject to revocation at any time except...

  7. 38 CFR 1.477 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with written consent. 1.477 Section 1.477 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.477 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her records under § 1.475 of this part,...

  8. 42 CFR 2.31 - Form of written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.31 Form of written... of the patient. (7) The date on which the consent is signed. (8) A statement that the consent is... lieu of the patient (where required) 10. This consent is subject to revocation at any time except...

  9. 38 CFR 1.477 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with written consent. 1.477 Section 1.477 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.477 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her records under § 1.475 of this part,...

  10. 38 CFR 1.477 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with written consent. 1.477 Section 1.477 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.477 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her records under § 1.475 of this part,...

  11. 38 CFR 1.477 - Disclosures permitted with written consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with written consent. 1.477 Section 1.477 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Disclosures with Patient's Consent § 1.477 Disclosures permitted with written consent. If a patient consents to a disclosure of his or her records under § 1.475 of this part,...

  12. Advancing adolescent capacity to consent to transgender-related health care in Colombia and the USA.

    PubMed

    Romero, Katherine; Reingold, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    Many sexual and reproductive health care services, including gender reassignment treatment, facilitate reproductive autonomy and self-determination of gender identity. Individuals who are unable to refuse or consent to these services on their own behalf, such as adolescents, are at risk of violations of their rights to privacy and self-determination. This paper explores the issue of adolescent capacity to consent to transgender-related health care in Colombia and the United States (USA), focusing on the two countries' struggles to balance the rights of adolescents to make autonomous and confidential decisions with the rights of their parents. Unfortunately, many countries, including Colombia and the USA, have been slow to develop jurisprudence and legislation that explicitly protect transgender adolescents' capacity to consent to gender assignment treatment. Courts in Colombia, however, have developed jurisprudence that restricts parents' ability to make medical decisions on behalf of their infant intersex children, which lays a strong normative foundation for advancing adolescent capacity to consent to transgender-related health care. It is a strategy that may prove effective in other countries in the Americas, even those with different frameworks for adolescent medical decision-making capacity, such as the USA.

  13. Informed consent in the NICU setting: an ethically optimal model for research solicitation.

    PubMed

    Golec, Lisa; Gibbins, Sharyn; Dunn, Michael S; Hebert, Philip

    2004-12-01

    Recruiting patients for studies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is a complex endeavour. Much discussion has occurred regarding the optimal recruitment "model" for this environment. This paper discusses current and suggested recruitment models for the NICU setting and presents a systematic approach to the consent process that focuses on the protection and promotion of parental autonomy. The proposed model incorporates several key considerations for an ethically optimal approach to the inclusion of neonates in research: informing parents about research and their rights prior to any solicitation, asking parents if they wish to be approached for research, approaching for one study at a time, assuring the study is relevant to the infants' current clinical status, minimising information overload, allowing parents appropriate time (which will vary from study to study) to consider their choice, and providing a waiting period between subsequent approaches. It is argued that parental ability to make a truly informed choice may be improved when following the proposed model.

  14. Informed consent: information or knowledge?

    PubMed

    Berger, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A fiduciary relationship should be nurtured between patient and physician. This requires effective communication throughout all aspects of care - especially pertaining to treatment decisions. In the context of illness as experienced by the patient a unique set of circumstances is presented. However, communication in an illness context is fraught with problems. The patient is vulnerable and the situation may be overwhelming. Voluminous amounts of information are available to patients from a host of health care providers, family members, support groups, advocacy centers, books, journals, and the internet. Often conflicting and confusion, frequently complex, this information may be of greater burden than benefit. Some information is of high validity and reliability while other information is of dubious reliability. The emotional freight of bad news may further inhibit understanding. An overload of information may pose an obstacle in decision-making. To facilitate the transformation of information into knowledge, the health care provider must act on some occasions as a filter, on other occasions as a conduit, and on still other occasions simply as a reservoir. The evolution of patient rights to receive or refuse treatment, the right to know or not to know calls for a change in processing of overwhelming information in our modem era. In this paper we will discuss the difference between information and knowledge. How can health care providers ensure they have given their patients all necessary and sufficient information to make an autonomous decision? How can they facilitate the transformation of information into knowledge? The effect of knowledge to consent allows a more focused, relevant and modern approach to choice in health care.

  15. Parent-Child Participation in Planning Children's Activities Outside of School in European American and Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal research used a sociocultural perspective to examine planning competence in the everyday experiences of European American and Latino children from 7 to 9 years of age. Data on children's participation in planning their activities outside of school, parental expectations about children's planning competence, and children's…

  16. Parental Involvement in School Activities and Reading Literacy: Findings and Implications from PIRLS 2011 Data. Policy Brief No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Klemencic, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief presents evidence demonstrating a positive association between parental involvement in school activities and student performance in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011. This association, which was evident in most of the 54 education systems analyzed, indicates that students enrolled in schools with…

  17. Longitudinal effects of parental child and neighborhood factors on moderate vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) confers beneficial effects on child musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular fitness, and psychosocial well-being; in contrast, sedentary time (%SED) is emerging as a risk factor for health. This study aimed to identify parental, child and neighborhood facto...

  18. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  19. Playing Smart: A Parent's Guide to Enriching, Offbeat Learning Activities for Ages 4-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan K.; Espeland, Pamela, Ed.

    Recognizing that children need enrichment at home, this book offers hundreds of unusual ways for kids and parents to spend time together. It also demonstrates the fun people can have while learning, and the learning that goes on while having fun. Using this book as a guide, parents and children can survey new subjects ranging from cultural…

  20. Using Active Listening to Improve Collaboration with Parents: The LAFF Don't CRY Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, David; Vostal, Brooks R.

    2010-01-01

    Effective parent-teacher communication builds working relationships that can support strong home-school collaboration and improved educational outcomes. Even though many teachers value the participation of parents, it can be challenging to communicate this positive intent. Effective communication is central to authentic collaboration and relies on…

  1. Ethical Parenting of Sexually Active Youth: Ensuring Safety While Enabling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2013-01-01

    The protection of children from harm is commonly accepted as the cardinal duty of parents. In the USA, where young people's sexuality is often regarded with anxiety, attempts to restrict adolescent sexual behaviour are seen as ethically justified and even required of "good" parents. Running counter to popular anxiety surrounding young…

  2. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: A qualitative study using nominal group technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...

  3. Energetic proton irradiation history of the HED parent body regolith and implications for ancient solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Palma, R. L.; Bogard, D. D.

    1997-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Kapoeta howardite, as well as several other meteorites, contain excess concentrations of cosmogenic neon in the darkened, solar-irradiated phase compared to the light, non-irradiated phase. The two explanations offered for the nuclear production of these Ne excesses in the parent body regolith are either from galactic particle (GCR) irradiation or from a greatly enhanced flux of energetic solar protons (SCR), as compared to the recent solar flux. Combining new isotopic data we obtained on acid-etched, separated feldspar from Kapoeta light and dark phases with literature data, we show that the cosmogenic 21Ne /22Ne ratio of light phase feldspar (0.80) is consistent with only GCR irradiation in space for ~3 Myr. However, the 21Ne/22Ne ratio (0.68) derived for irradiation of dark phase feldspar in the Kapoeta regolith indicates that cosmogenic Ne was produced in roughly equal proportions from galactic and solar protons. Considering a simple model of an immature Kapoeta parent body regolith, the duration of this early galactic exposure was only ~3-6 Myr, which would be an upper limit to the solar exposure time of individual grains. Concentrations of cosmogenic 21Ne in pyroxene separates and of cosmogenic 126Xe in both feldspar and pyroxene are consistent with this interpretation. The near-surface irradiation time of individual grains in the Kapoeta regolith probably varied considerably due to regolith mixing to an average GCR irradiation depth of ~10 cm. Because of the very different depth scales for production of solar ~Fe tracks, SCR Ne, and GCR Ne, the actual regolith exposure times for average grains probably differed correspondingly. However, both the SCR 21Ne and solar track ages appear to be longer because of enhanced production by early solar activity. The SCR/GCR production ratio of 21Ne inferred from the Kapoeta data is larger by a at least a factor of 10 and possibly as much as a factor of ~50 compared to recent solar

  4. Written Informed Consent: Closing the Door to Clinical Research. and Another Look at Informed Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Mary Anne; Oberst, Marilyn T.

    1985-01-01

    Two viewpoints on written informed consent are presented: Written informed consent should not be required unless research goes beyond the bounds of normal practice and poses danger or discomfort to the patient; and the principles of autonomy and individual rights must be applied at least as stringently to research as to practice. (CT)

  5. 75 FR 62913 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-3053, Statement of Consent or Special...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...: Issuance of a Passport to a Minor Under Age 16, OMB Control Number 1405-0129 ACTION: Notice of request for... Collection: Statement of Consent or Special Circumstances: Issuance of a Passport to a Minor Under Age 16... age of 16. The primary purpose of soliciting the information is to ensure that both parents and/or...

  6. [Informed consent in clinical practice: persistent doubts].

    PubMed

    Kottow, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Informed consent is the core aspect of the patient-physician relationship. Since its beginnings, clinical bioethics was opposed to the authoritarian paternalism characteristic of medicine since the 19th century. The informed consent was developed to provide patients with sufficient information to allow autonomous decisions when faced with medical diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives. In spite of bioethics’ effort to perfect informed consent, the discipline has been unable to avoid informed consent from becoming an impersonal and administrative procedure. Even though the major goal of this procedure is to provide sufficient information to allow patients an objective weighting of benefits and risks of medical practice, the uncertainties of medicine make full disclosure unattainable. Collecting more information finally leads to indecision and ultimate trust in medical advice. The clinical encounter is fundamentally a fiduciary relationship, and bioethics ought to accept that its main objective is to strengthen the trust bond that is essential to the clinical encounter. This goal may become incompatible with the quest for unlimited autonomy. Patients often will only require information as long as they distrust that medical institutions and their professionals are considering their interests and needs. The main proposal of this article is to temper bioethics’ insistence on autonomy, and accept that patients essentially seek to be protected and cared for. Informed consent ought to relent its efforts at full autonomy to the benefit of trustworthiness in medicine, and trust in clinical practice.

  7. [Consent to transfusion of blood and hemoderivatives].

    PubMed

    Massaro, A L; Alba, E; Ragonesi, G; Colla, F; Barbini, V; Corvetto, L; D'Addato, F

    2002-04-01

    The transfusion of blood or hemoderivatives is a medical procedure that necessarily involves the possibility of danger or damage, given that, even with maximum prudence, diligence and expertise, it is impossible to avoid severe risks of infections, transfusional reactions, alloimmunisation, undesired immunomodulating effects, etc. Article 19 of Ministerial Decree 15/01/1991 makes it obligatory to obtain informed consent , understood as the free expression of the acceptance of treatment provided after being fully informed of the nature, possibility, risks and collateral effects of the procedure. Consent to blood transfusion can only be given by a person with full mental faculties, whereas transfusion treatment can be proposed for a minor, for a prisoner or for a person who is temporarily incapacitated by their physical conditions. The authors examine a number of problems regarding the following questions: what happens if consent is withheld? What can happen if consent is not requested or if the transfusion is performed when consent has been denied? In conclusion, it is difficult to offer operating schemes that are easy to apply: much depends on the patient's conditions, his reactions, his concerns, his trust in the doctor and the latter's communication skills.

  8. Helping Parents Say No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  9. Tacitly consenting to donate one's organs.

    PubMed

    den Hartogh, Govert

    2011-06-01

    The common objection to opt-out systems of postmortal organ procurement is that they allow removal of a deceased person's organs without their actual consent. However, under certain conditions it is possible for 'silence'--failure to register any objection--conventionally and/or legally to count as genuine consent. Prominent conditions are that the consenter should be fully informed about the meaning of his or her silence and that the costs of registering dissent should be insignificant. This paper explicates this thesis and discusses some possible objections to it: (1) it cannot possibly be guaranteed that each citizen is aware of the meaning of silence; and (2) the system is slightly manipulative because it exploits a common defect in autonomous decision-making.

  10. Limning the Semantic Frontier of Informed Consent.

    PubMed

    Washington, Harriet A

    2016-09-01

    It is the researcher's responsibility to provide accurate, complete, and unbiased verbal and written information yet, as this essay discusses, challenges to meaningful research consent abound in the communication between researcher and subject. This discussion of these challenges is far from exhaustive, but it will flag some of the potholes that researchers must anticipate on the sometimes rocky road to eliciting meaningful consent. These include, but are not limited to, inadequate scientific literacy, poorly written consent forms, and even the deployment of scientific terms and seductive acronyms like CURE and MIRACL. Studies with acronyms, for example, enroll five times as many patients as those without, are more likely to be published by prestigious journals, and have higher Jadad methodologic quality scores although they are no more likely to conclude with positive findings. Other barriers to researcher-subject communication include: widely differing beliefs and customs, semiotics, socioeconomic status, iatrophobia, and dramatically different histories of treatment in the medical-research arena.

  11. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  12. Patients' consent preferences for research uses of information in electronic medical records: interview and survey data

    PubMed Central

    Willison, Donald J; Keshavjee, Karim; Nair, Kalpana; Goldsmith, Charlie; Holbrook, Anne M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To assess patients' preferred method of consent for the use of information from electronic medical records for research. Design Interviews and a structured survey of patients in practices with electronic medical records. Setting Family practices in southern Ontario, Canada. Participants 123 patients: 17 were interviewed and 106 completed a survey. Main outcome measures Patients' opinions and concerns on use of information from their medical records for research and their preferences for method of consent. Results Most interviewees were willing to allow the use of their information for research purposes, although the majority preferred that consent was sought first. The seeking of consent was considered an important element of respect for the individual. Most interviewees made little distinction between identifiable and anonymised data. Research sponsored by private insurance firms generated the greatest concern, and research sponsored by foundation the least. Sponsorship by drug companies evoked negative responses during interview and positive responses in the survey. Conclusions Patients are willing to allow information from their medical records to be used for research, but most prefer to be asked for consent either verbally or in writing. What is already known on this topicLegislation is being introduced worldwide to restrict the circumstances under which personal information may be used for secondary purposes without consentLittle empirical information exists about patients' concerns over privacy and preferences for consent for use of such information for researchWhat this study addsPatients are willing to allow personal information to be used for research purposes but want to be actively consulted firstPatients make little distinction between identifiable and non-identifiable informationMost patients prefer a time limit for their consent PMID:12586673

  13. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Karakitsios, Spyros; Sarigiannis, Denis A; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n = 382) in Cyprus [41 children (< 18 y) and 341 adults (≥ 18 y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (rS = -0.59, p < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g(-1)) of children and matched-mothers (rS = 0.52, p = 0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (rS = 0.39, p = 0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (rS = 0.56, p = 0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such activities could be further

  14. Recent Temporal Trends in Parent-Reported Physical Activity in Children in the United States, 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Davis, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide recent temporal trends in parent-reported physical activity in children (6-11 years) between 2009 and 2014. Data from the 2009 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The analytic sample included 3946 children. Parent proxy of child physical activity at each of the 3 2-year cycles was assessed. For the entire sample, there was a quadratic trend, with the number of days children engaged in at least 60 min/d of physical activity increasing in the period 2011 to 2012 (6.12 days) when compared with the period 2009 to 2010 (5.96 days) and then decreasing in the period 2013 to 2014 (5.83 days). A similar quadratic trend was evident for boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites (particularly boys), and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age percentile based on sex. A negative linear trend was observed for those above the poverty level and non-Hispanic whites (particularly girls). In conclusion, these findings provide suggestive evidence that over the past 6 years (1999-2014), parents report that children's physical activity has slightly decreased in the latest years, with this observation being most pronounced in boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites, and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age and sex percentile. Encouragingly, however, across all evaluated subpopulations, most children (55%-82%), as determined by their parents, engaged in 60 min/d of physical activity (consistent with government recommendations).

  15. Autonomy, consent and responsibility. Part II. Informed consent in medical care and in the law.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility.

  16. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  17. Stakeholders’ opinions on the implementation of pediatric whole exome sequencing: Implications for informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Levenseller, Brooke L.; Soucier, Danielle J.; Miller, Victoria A.; Harris, Diana; Conway, Laura; Bernhardt, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in whole genome and whole exome sequencing (WGS/WES) technologies have led to increased availability in clinical settings. Currently, there are few guidelines relating to the process and content of informed consent for WGS/WES, nor to which results should be returned to families. To address this gap, we conducted focus groups to assess the views of professionals, parents, and adolescents for the future implementation of WES. The discussions assessed understanding of the risks and benefits of WES, preferences for the informed consent discussion, process for return of results, and the decision-making role of the pediatric patient. Professional focus group participants included bioethicists, physicians, laboratory directors, and genetic counselors. Parent focus groups included individuals with children who could be offered sequencing due to a potential genetic cause of the child’s condition. On-line discussion groups were conducted with adolescents aged 13-17 who had a possible genetic disorder. We identified discrepancies between professionals and patient groups regarding the process and content of informed consent, preference for return of results, and the role of the child in decision-making. Professional groups were concerned with the uncertainty regarding professional obligations, changing interpretation in genomic medicine, and practical concerns of returning results over time. Parent and adolescent groups focused on patient choice and personal utility of sequencing results. Each group expressed different views on the role of the child in decision-making and return of results. These discrepancies represent potential barriers to informed consent and a challenge for genetic counselors regarding the involvement of pediatric patients in decision-making and return of results discussions. PMID:23846343

  18. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  19. Newspapers Are for Kids, Too! A Newspaper in Education Handbook for Parents [and] Eddy Torial Brings Big News for Small People (Fun Activities with the Newspaper for Kids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Polly

    Focusing on the theory that the newspaper can play an active role in children's education, this handbook shows parents how to use the newspaper to help their children learn and review the many skills needed in today's complex world. It suggests that parents (1) share the responsibility for teaching their children, (2) keep in mind children's…

  20. 7 CFR 1.420 - Consent recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.420 Consent recommendation. Any time... Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), 36 CFR 223.190, 36 CFR 223.191(e) and...

  1. 7 CFR 1.420 - Consent recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.420 Consent recommendation. Any time... Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), 36 CFR 223.190, 36 CFR 223.191(e) and...

  2. 7 CFR 1.420 - Consent recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.420 Consent recommendation. Any time... Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), 36 CFR 223.190, 36 CFR 223.191(e) and...

  3. 7 CFR 1.420 - Consent recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.420 Consent recommendation. Any time... Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), 36 CFR 223.190, 36 CFR 223.191(e) and...

  4. 7 CFR 1.420 - Consent recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.420 Consent recommendation. Any time... Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), 36 CFR 223.190, 36 CFR 223.191(e) and...

  5. 77 FR 38060 - Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed...); by email to oei.docket@epa.gov ; by mail to EPA Docket Center, Environmental Protection...

  6. Consent in escrow: opting to opt in

    PubMed Central

    Van der Loos, Kiah I.; Longstaff, Holly; Virani, Alice; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we reply to Taylor's (2015) peer commentary on consent-in-escrow. Specifically, we clarify the utility of this novel approach, the way in which it minimizes risks to participants, and how it differs from existing opt-out methods. We further explore its potential use in fields beyond disaster research. PMID:27774229

  7. Informed consent to HIV cure research.

    PubMed

    Bromwich, Danielle; Millum, Joseph R

    2017-02-01

    Trials with highly unfavourable risk-benefit ratios for participants, like HIV cure trials, raise questions about the quality of the consent of research participants. Why, it may be asked, would a person with HIV who is doing well on antiretroviral therapy be willing to jeopardise his health by enrolling in such a trial? We distinguish three concerns: first, how information is communicated to potential participants; second, participants' motivations for enrolling in potentially high risk research with no prospect of direct benefit; and third, participants' understanding of the details of the trials in which they enrol. We argue that the communication concern is relevant to the validity of informed consent and the quality of decision making, that the motivation concern does not identify a genuine problem with either the validity of consent or the quality of decision making and that the understanding concern may not be relevant to the validity of consent but is relevant to the quality of decision making. In doing so, we derive guidance points for researchers recruiting and enrolling participants into their HIV cure trials, as well as the research ethics committees reviewing proposed studies.

  8. 7 CFR 1.138 - Consent decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consent decision. 1.138 Section 1.138 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Formal... same force and effect as a decision issued after full hearing, and shall become final upon issuance...

  9. Obtaining consent for the immunization of adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Effective immunization in adults is a desired health outcome, however it is not mandatory. Immunization of adults must be undertaken in accordance with a patient's real and informed consent. This paper discusses requirements for the lawful administration of an immunization to both capable and incapable adults. PMID:26619268

  10. 10 CFR 850.36 - Medical consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.36 Medical consent. (a) The responsible employer must provide each beryllium-associated worker with a summary of the... will be protected. (b) Responsible employers must also provide each beryllium-associated worker...

  11. 10 CFR 850.36 - Medical consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.36 Medical consent. (a) The responsible employer must provide each beryllium-associated worker with a summary of the... will be protected. (b) Responsible employers must also provide each beryllium-associated worker...

  12. 10 CFR 850.36 - Medical consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.36 Medical consent. (a) The responsible employer must provide each beryllium-associated worker with a summary of the... will be protected. (b) Responsible employers must also provide each beryllium-associated worker...

  13. 10 CFR 850.36 - Medical consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.36 Medical consent. (a) The responsible employer must provide each beryllium-associated worker with a summary of the... will be protected. (b) Responsible employers must also provide each beryllium-associated worker...

  14. 10 CFR 850.36 - Medical consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.36 Medical consent. (a) The responsible employer must provide each beryllium-associated worker with a summary of the... will be protected. (b) Responsible employers must also provide each beryllium-associated worker...

  15. 47 CFR 76.64 - Retransmission consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... service (a service that does not involve the individual processing of specific broadcast signals) shall... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.64 Retransmission consent. (a... signal of any commercial broadcasting station without the express authority of the originating...

  16. Xenotransplantation: consent, public health and charter issues.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, T A; Robertson, G B

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature and commentary analyzing the ethical and public policy concerns associated with xenotransplantation. While this technology holds great promise to provide an almost limitless supply of organs for transplantation, there remains grave concern about possible public health ramifications. As a result, it has been recommended that patients who undergo xenotransplantations will need to agree, inter alia, to a lifetime of close health monitoring, participation in an international database and autopsy upon death. It has been suggested that this agreement would transform the nature of informed consent into a "binding contract." Though such draconian measures are understandable given the magnitude of the risks involved, would existing common law and legislation allow their implementation? This paper analyzes relevant Canadian consent and public health law in the context of the xenotransplantation. Canada is a country with a particularly rich body of informed consent jurisprudence--jurisprudence firmly rooted (rightly or not) in the ethical principle of autonomy. In this climate, many of the suggested monitoring strategies would find little support from Canadian law. Before xenotransplantations proceed, policy makers must be sensitive to the legal barriers which exist to the implementation [of] effective public health measures. Effective surveillance programs will require novel approaches to consent and the enactment of specific public health laws.

  17. [Free will and patient consent during care].

    PubMed

    Bréhaux, Karine

    2016-09-01

    Raising the question of a person's free will means questioning their freedom and capacity to make choices. Therefore, being free, means being able to judge between the possibilities which are offered to us, and deciding of our own accord what is acceptable to us. The concept of free will is associated with the notion of consent, in particular during care.

  18. Learning Ethics through Everyday Problems: Informed Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdu, Fernando; Frances, Francesc; Castello, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of bioethics and its importance in clinical relationships is to a certain extent complicated when we address students of medicine, young people who are more used to dealing with and solving strictly clinical problems. Informed Consent is one of the aspects of professional practice that is generally and widely accepted in Western…

  19. 34 CFR 300.9 - Consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consent. 300.9 Section 300.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  20. 34 CFR 300.9 - Consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Consent. 300.9 Section 300.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  1. 48 CFR 2944.203 - Consent limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consent limitations. 2944.203 Section 2944.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... rationale), signed by the contracting officer, and included in the contract file....

  2. The Impact of the Felix Consent Decree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wataoka, Phuong

    This paper reviews the literature on the background, legal process, and implications of the Felix consent decree, a legal settlement in which the State of Hawaii agreed to improve its special education program and to develop a self-sustaining system of care for delivering special education services. The paper begins by reviewing federal laws (the…

  3. Wyatt v. Stickney: A Consent Decree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Allen G.

    1987-01-01

    The September, 1986, consent decree in the case of Wyatt v. Stickney ended 14 years of court supervision of the Alabama state mental health system. The state agreed to adhere to Wyatt standards, maintain accreditation, continue deinstitutionalization efforts, and develop an internal advocacy and quality assurance program. (Author/DB)

  4. Participants Assess the Louisiana Consent Decree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Rick; Carter, Marie

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of 602 administrators, faculty, and students from Louisiana's public universities revealed attitudes about the Louisiana Consent Decree (LCD) to preserve Black institutions, including the following: (1) Blacks are more positive than Whites about the LCD; (2) LCD has caused more cooperation among Black and White schools; and (3) many are…

  5. Informed Consent and the "Medical Student Psychiatrist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Daniel L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Responses to a 1986 questionnaire by 91 departments of clinical psychiatry in U.S. medical schools revealed that a substantial proportion (29.3 percent) were not fully compliant with established guidelines requiring informed consent from patients before allowing students to participate in their psychiatric assessment and care. (Author/DB)

  6. Informed consent: protection or obstacle? Some emerging issues.

    PubMed

    Ellenberg, S S

    1997-12-01

    There is widespread consensus on the need for informed consent procedures in medical research. Nevertheless, aspects of the informed consent process remain controversial, and innovative approaches to research may raise new issues and concerns. The randomized consent design for clinical trials, proposed by Zelen (N Engl J Med 1979; 300:1242-1245), permitted physicians to randomize patients without consent, then obtain informed consent from only those patients randomized to the experimental (as opposed to the standard treatment) arm. More recently, the proposal has been made to allow waiver of informed consent for study of patients in emergency circumstances who may be temporarily incapable of providing such consent, and for whom no family member is immediately available to give a "proxy" consent (Biros M.H. et al. JAMA 1995; 273:1283-1287). The medical community and federal regulatory policy have responded differently to these proposals.

  7. Testing Consent Order For Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has issued a Testing Consent Order that incorporates an Enforceable Consent Agreement (ECA) pursuant to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), with the Dow Chemical Company, Shell Oil Company, and Ciba-Geigy Corporation.

  8. Changes in the Concept of Informed Consent in Medical Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Rachelle D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent changes in the conceptualization of informed consent in medical encounters are reviewed to help provide a better understanding of the concept itself and of some difficulties in philosophical justifications for the requirement of informed consent. (Author/MLW)

  9. Waiving informed consent in newborn screening research: balancing social value and respect.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A; Burke, Wylie; Scott, C Ronald; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2008-02-15

    While newborn screening (NBS) programs have historically relied on presumptive benefit in deciding when to implement new tests, experience has demonstrated that this approach can lead to screening tests that lack efficacy or, worse yet, cause harm. Population-based NBS research provides an opportunity to evaluate safety and effectiveness of potential tests prior to widespread implementation. Using the example of Pompe disease, we argue that waiving the requirement for informed consent is appropriate for research evaluating the screening phase of potential NBS tests when data support the potential health benefits of testing and when other research safeguards are present. The regulatory requirement for informed consent can be waived if a research study meets criteria of minimal risk, protecting rights and welfare, and practicability. In population-based NBS research, the main risks are related to false positive results and results with ambiguous implications for treatment-risks that are comparable to those posed by many tests newly added to NBS programs without prior population-based NBS research. Waiving the informed consent requirement facilitates the development of flexible strategies for informing and educating parents about NBS research that reflect the logistics of population-based NBS screening. A strict interpretation of the regulatory requirement of informed consent may create significant logistical and financial barriers to adequate evaluation of NBS tests. Without a broader interpretation of this regulatory requirement in NBS research for which there is evidence of a clinically meaningful benefit from treatment, we may create incentives for the implementation of inadequately evaluated NBS tests.

  10. Methodological Overview of the Parents Matter! Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Joanna; Pelton, Jennifer; Forehand, Rex; Long, Nicholas; Wallace, Scyatta A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of the methodology employed in the Parents Matter! Program. Information on the following aspects of the program is presented: participant eligibility and recruitment; consenting procedures and administration of assessments; development and utilization of measures in the assessments; study design; intervention procedures;…

  11. 1,2-Ethylene Dichloride; Final Enforceable Consent Agreement and Testing Consent Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable testing Consent Order with the Dow Chemical Co, Vulcan Materials Co, Occidental Chemical Corp, Oxy Vinyls, LP, Georgia Gulf Corp, Westlake Chemical Corp, PPG Industries, Inc., and Formosa Plastics.

  12. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane (TCE); Final Enforceable Consent Agreement and Testing Consent Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has issued an enforceable consent agreement (ECA) with The Dow Chemical Company; Vulcan Materials Company; Occidental Chemical Corp; Oxy Vinyls, LP; Georgia Gulf Corp; Westlake Chemical Corp; PPG, Borden Chemicals & Plastics, and Formosa Plastics.

  13. Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children.

    PubMed

    Soto, Sandra C; Arredondo, Elva M; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7-13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings <.40 and/or cross-loading (>.32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale "limit-setting" was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS

  14. Legal issues surrounding consent and capacity: the key to autonomy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-12-01

    With campaigns from the RCN, Nursing Times and Patients' Association promoting dignity and choice in healthcare district nurses need to be aware of the legal principle that lie at the heart of autonomy, consent. In the first of a series of articles on the principles of patient consent Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outline the elements of a valid consent and how important obtaining consent is to the propriety of a district nurse's practice.

  15. Parenting behaviors in parents with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Samuel M; Beidel, Deborah C; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Tervo, Kari

    2003-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are familial, and although considerable evidence supports the role of genetic/biological parameters in their development, these alone do not entirely explain their etiology. In this study, the role of parenting behavior as a possible factor in the transmission of anxiety from parent to child was examined. Using interview, self-report, and direct behavioral observation, behaviors of parents with an anxiety disorder were compared to those of parents without an anxiety disorder on a number of dimensions, but particularly with respect to whether anxious parents actively inhibited their children from engaging in normal age appropriate activities. These behaviors were assessed during routine activities and in a structured non-conflictual play task. Although anxious parents did not overtly restrict their child's behavior in either type of activity, they reported higher levels of distress when their children were engaged in these activities. Similarly, the "emotional climate" in families with an anxious parent differed significantly from families without an anxious parent. The results are discussed in terms of how parenting behaviors might influence the development of maladaptive anxiety via social learning and information transfer, and their heuristic implications.

  16. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102... § 2102.14 Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. (a) The Commission shall review applications scheduled on its Meeting Agenda, Consent Calendar, or Appendices (Old Georgetown Act and Shipstead-Luce...

  17. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102... § 2102.14 Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. (a) The Commission shall review applications scheduled on its Meeting Agenda, Consent Calendar, or Appendices (Old Georgetown Act and Shipstead-Luce...

  18. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102... § 2102.14 Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. (a) The Commission shall review applications scheduled on its Meeting Agenda, Consent Calendar, or Appendices (Old Georgetown Act and Shipstead-Luce...

  19. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102... § 2102.14 Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. (a) The Commission shall review applications scheduled on its Meeting Agenda, Consent Calendar, or Appendices (Old Georgetown Act and Shipstead-Luce...

  20. 45 CFR 2102.14 - Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. 2102... § 2102.14 Consent Calendar and Appendices procedures. (a) The Commission shall review applications scheduled on its Meeting Agenda, Consent Calendar, or Appendices (Old Georgetown Act and Shipstead-Luce...

  1. 49 CFR 11.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 11.117 Section 11.117 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.117... following: (1) A written consent document that embodies the elements of informed consent required by §...

  2. 10 CFR 745.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 745.117 Section 745.117 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.117 Documentation of informed consent. (a... embodies the elements of informed consent required by § 745.116. This form may be read to the subject...

  3. 38 CFR 16.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consent. 16.117 Section 16.117 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.117 Documentation of informed consent. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... elements of informed consent required by § 16.116. This form may be read to the subject or the...

  4. 10 CFR 745.117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 745.117 Section 745.117 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.117 Documentation of informed consent. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, informed consent shall be documented by the use of...

  5. 26 CFR 25.2513-3 - Revocation of consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of consent. 25.2513-3 Section 25... GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2513-3 Revocation of consent. (a... consent by filing in duplicate a signed statement of revocation, but only if the statement is filed on...

  6. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CDL is considered to have consented to such testing...

  7. 48 CFR 2944.201-1 - Consent requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consent requirements. 2944.201-1 Section 2944.201-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Consent To Subcontract 2944.201-1 Consent requirements....

  8. Legal issues in blood banking. Elements of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Sherman, L A

    1996-12-01

    In the past, informed consent in pathology was confined chiefly to autopsies. Changes in both consent law and pathology practice led to consent being important in a broader sense in the laboratory. Areas discussed in this article include blood transfusion, tissue specimens, fine needle aspiration, and phlebotomy.

  9. 77 FR 2760 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed consent decree in United States v. Triad Mining, Inc., Civil Action No. 1:12... January 11, 2012. This proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by the United States against...

  10. 78 FR 57415 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Stonybrook Land, LLC, Civil Action No. 1... New York on September 10, 2013. This proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by the...

  11. 76 FR 63326 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Doc No: 2011-26313] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States of... District Court for the Western District of Washington on September 28, 2011. This proposed Consent...

  12. 78 FR 2283 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR Sec. 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. DMH Partners North, LLC, et al... of Minnesota on January 2, 2013. This proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by...

  13. 76 FR 40393 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decrees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decrees Notice is hereby given that on July 1, 2011, two proposed Consent Decrees were lodged with the United States District Court for the Central District of California. The Consent Decrees were lodged in the case United States et al. v. Seachrome Corporation, Civil Action No....

  14. 78 FR 5837 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Porter, Civil Action No. 4:09-cv-170-SEB... Division, on January 18, 2013. This proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by the United...

  15. 77 FR 30324 - Notice of Lodging of Two Consent Decrees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... of Lodging of Two Consent Decrees Notice is hereby given that on May 15, 2012, two proposed Consent Decrees were lodged with the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Both Consent Decrees were lodged in the case United States et al. v. Seachrome Corp. et al, Civil Action No....

  16. 76 FR 63954 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree regarding the United States' claims against Defendants in... District Court for the Western District of Washington on October 6, 2011. This proposed Consent...

  17. 75 FR 26275 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America et al. v. The Boeing Company... District of Washington on May 4, 2010. The proposed Consent Decree settles claims for natural...

  18. 78 FR 11681 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Smith Farm Enterprises, L.L.C., Civil... District of Virginia on January 16, 2013. This proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by...

  19. 75 FR 2888 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to Section 122(d)(2) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9622(d)(2), notice is hereby given that on January 8, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in U.S. v. The City and County... District of Colorado. The proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by the United States...

  20. 78 FR 21629 - Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Russ Huseby, Civil Action No. 09-3737..., 2013. This proposed Consent Decree concerns a complaint filed by the United States against Russ...