Science.gov

Sample records for active pcb congeners

  1. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m−3 to 5500 pg m−3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

  2. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5−8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  3. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W. . Patuxent Environmental Science Center); Tillitt, D.E. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-11-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated mono-oxygenates and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r[sup 2] often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the AH receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  4. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black- crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85- fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r super(2) often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah- active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  5. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

  7. Differential toxicity of three PCB congeners in developing sea urchin embryos and implication of TEQ approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, L.; Suffet, I.; Hose, J.; Bay, S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between body burden and toxicity of three individual PCB congeners in developing sea urchin embryos was investigated to evaluate the validity of current predictive models of PCB toxicity in an invertebrate system. The uptake and accumulation of radiolabeled PCB congeners from sea water was measured in the sea urchin embryo tissues and the relative toxicity determined. According to the toxic equivalents (TEQ) approach of assessing risk to mammals, congener 77, a nonortho-substituted congener, is predicted to be more toxic than the diortho-substituted congeners 47 and 153. Using a 72 hour embryo development assay, congener 47 was found to be at least four times as toxic as congener 77, with EC50s of 15.7 and > 72.5 mmol/kg, respectively. Congener 153, a hexachlorobiphenyl, was virtually nontoxic even at the highest dose used. Cytologic and cytogenetic anomalies were studied to find a possibly more sensitive endpoint and to suggest a mechanism of toxicity. The cytogenetic analysis revealed that the PCBs inhibited mitosis. At the highest doses, complete mitotic arrest was observed. Congener 77 was found to be at least two times more toxic than congener 153 but not as toxic as congener 47 using mitotic activity as the endpoint. Thus, the two endpoints of toxicity did not change the order in which the congeners are toxic, but established different EC50s. The relative toxicities of these congeners in this study contradict the structure-activity prediction of the mammalian-based TEQ approach.

  8. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  9. Differential retention of PCB congeners in cockroaches Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Gandini, Carlo; Sabuneti, Andrew; Fasola, Mauro; Lambiase, Simonetta; Grigolo, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    Organisms differ widely in their ability to metabolize and eliminate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We evaluated the retention of PCB congeners, reference standard mixture, experimentally injected into cockroach Blattella germanica, in relation to sex and time, and its elimination through the feces, exuviae and oothecae. The nymphs that died prematurely had a higher average PCB retention than those with a longer lifetime, 88% of the injected dose for those that died within 1 to 10 days, and 76% for those within 11-20 days. Diverse PCB congeners showed differential retention, and particularly the more volatile, low weight congeners were recovered in lower concentrations, the medium-weight ones were intermediate, while the high-weight congeners attained the highest concentration. PCBs were also detected in the excrements and in exuviae, which may therefore act as detoxification paths, and in the oothecae, thus showing that PCBs can be transferred from mother to progeny.

  10. PCB congener accumulation by periphyton, herbivores, and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hill, W R; Napolitano, G E

    1997-05-01

    The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in stonerollers and shiners than in periphyton. Normalizing PCB concentrations by lipid mass reduced concentration differences between periphyton and stonerollers, but PCBs per unit lipid in stonerollers were still 50-350% higher than those in periphyton. Shiners had significantly higher lipid-specific PCB concentrations than did stonerollers, so a trophic hierarchy of primary producer < herbivore < omnivore was evident in lipid-specific PCB concentrations. Differences in lipid type, exposure duration, and exposure sources may account for the trophic-level differences in total PCBs. Congener profiles were roughly similar in periphyton, stonerollers, and shiners: five congeners (IUPAC numbers 101, 110, 138, 153, and 180) constituted >60% of the total mass of PCBs analyzed in all three trophic levels. However, stoneroller and shiner tissue was enriched in congeners 153, 118, and 187 relative to periphyton; congeners 153 and 187 are resistant to metabolic breakdown by monooxygenases found in fish liver. Principal component analysis of congener percentages separated periphyton from fish and distinguished between sampling locations.

  11. Development of toxic equivalency factors for PCB congeners and the assessment of TCDD and PCB mixtures in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Giesy, John P.; Crawford, Robert A.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gooch, Jay W.; Denison, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between mammalian and piscine 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, based on induction of CYP1A enzyme activity, catalytic protein, and mRNA. Rainbow trout administered a single i.p. injection of TCDD had an average (±SD) ED50 of 0.91 ± 0.14 μg TCDD/kg for induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Ortho-substituted PCB congeners 2,3,3′,4,4′-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 2,3,3′4,4′5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB !56), and 2,2′3,4,4′,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 138) did not induce CYP1A activity in rainbow trout. Only three non-ortho-substituted PCBs, i.e., 3,3′4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 3,3′4,4′5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) induced CYP1A enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA. The ED50s for induction of EROD activity were calculated as 134, 5.82, and 93.7 μg/kg for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. The TCDD-TEFs based on EROD activity were 0.0006, 0.0014, and 0.0003 for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. Binary mixtures of TCDD and three PCBs were also evaluated. Based on EROD activity and CYP1A protein, mixtures of TCDD and PCB 77 were slightly greater than additive. Mixtures of TCDD-PCB 156 and TCDD-PCB 126 were slightly less than additive. Results from these studies indicate that mammal-derived TEFs will underestimate the potency of planar chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures to induce the CYP1A catalytic activity in rainbow trout. Also, while interactions among PCB congeners and TCDD were somewhat equivocal, they did not greatly differ from predicted additive responses.

  12. [Occurrence and health aspects of PCB congeners in freshwater fish].

    PubMed

    Kruse, R

    1990-07-01

    6 PCB-Congeners, being ruled by the regulatory limits from 23. 3. 1988, are considered to be representative under analytical aspects. The additional consideration of the two further congeners 77 and 118 is recommended under toxicological aspects. A widespread survey is given over the pollution status of marine fish, freshwater fish, and belonging to products. In the years between 1986 to 1988 2229 specimens were analysed for their contents of 8 PCB-Congeners and 6 important chlorinated hydrocarbons. Contents in marine fish were at least 10 times, mostly 100 times lower than regulatory limits. In this area contamination is more influenced by species than by catching grounds. Regulatory limits can however be exceeded in freshwater fish from severely polluted main rivers, where contents are more influenced by catching grounds than by species.

  13. PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. )

    1994-10-01

    Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  15. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  16. Influence of cadmium on PCB congener accumulation in quail

    SciTech Connect

    Leonzio, C.; Marsili, L.; Focardi, S. )

    1992-11-01

    Technological development this century has led to an environmental input of synthetic chemical compounds totally extraneous to natural ecosystems such as Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), extensively used in agriculture and industry. These xenobiotics have a high fat/water repartition coefficient, making them easily accumulated by living organisms. Their persistence and low degradability means that they are now present throughout the global ecosystem. Ubiquitous environmental contaminants also include heavy metals like Hg, As, Pb, Cd and Cr, of which Cd, an element causing functional damage to the kidney and liver in which it preferentially accumulates, is of special ecotoxicological importance. The WHO has defined an accumulation of 60 mg/kg (fresh weight), beyond which damage occurs. Cd occurs [open quotes]naturally[close quotes] in high concentrations in certain animal species including molluscs. Birds and marine mammals feeding largely on cephalopods show high levels of this metal. Many monitoring studies have also revealed high concentrations of PCBs in the same animals. The vast majority of studies on contaminants in experimental animals consider the short-, medium- and long-term effects of a single pollutant. However, the presence of synergisms and antagonisms between compounds makes it necessary to adopt a more holistic approach to the problem of environmental pollution. In order to understand if the effect of xenobiotic compounds like PCBs may be potentiated by the natural presence of cadmium in bird population, we sought preliminary information on how the presence of cadmium in the diet may influence the accumulation and metabolization of PCB congeners. The influence of Cd on PCB accumulation was investigated in Japanese quail treated experimentally with Cd and PCBs. Particular attention was paid to final congener accumulation and qualitative differences in congener composition between controls and treated birds. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Disposition of toxic PCB congeners in snapping turtle eggs: expressed as toxic equivalents of TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, A.M.; Stone, W.B.; Olafsson, P.G.

    1987-11-01

    Studies of snapping turtles, taken from the region of the Upper Hudson River, in New York State, revealed exceedingly high levels of PCBs in the adipose tissue. There is evidence to suggest that large reserves of fat provide protection against chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity. Such storage may protect snapping turtle eggs from disposition of toxic PCB congeners and account for the apparent absence of reports regarding detrimental effects on the hatchability of eggs from turtles living in the vicinity of the upper Hudson River. The present study was undertaken to determine if indeed these eggs are protected against disposition of toxic PCB congeners by the presence of large reserves of fat. Although tissue volumes play an important role in determining the initial site of disposition, the major factor controlling the elimination of these compounds involves metabolism. For simple halogenated benzenes as well as for more complex halogenated biphenyls, oxidative metabolism catalyzed by P-448, occurs primarily at the site of two adjacent unsubstituted carbon atoms via arene oxide formation leading to the formation of water soluble metabolites. Toxicological studies have demonstrated that the most toxic PCB congeners, isosteriomers of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), require no metabolic activation. These compounds have chlorine atoms in the meta and para positions of both rings. It may be concluded that the structures of PCB congeners and isomers which favor induction of cytochrome P-448 are also those which are toxic and resist metabolism. It is the objective of the present study to determine if the heavy fat bodies of the female turtle provide a sufficiently large sink to retain the toxic congeners and prevent their incorporation into the eggs.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener effects on the longevity of the housefly

    SciTech Connect

    Tehseen, W.M.; Hansen, L.G.; Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The microsomal monooxygenase system in the housefly is well-characterized, active, inducible and inhibited by the same types of compounds as in vertebrate systems. Flies metabolize PCBs to polar products and retain congeners from a commercial mixture in proportions consistent with PCB biotransformation and elimination in vertebrates. Although TCDD has been shown to have a high affinity for, and be an effective agonist of the juvenile hormone receptor in insects, toxic manifestations in adult insects may differ from those in certain highly sensitive vertebrate species. This study was undertaken to determine if the housefly bioassay could effectively compare the net adverse biological activity of a group of PCB congeners independent of Ah receptor effects.

  19. Stepping backward to improve assessment of PCB congener toxicities.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L G

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous global contaminants that have been intensively investigated for three decades. They are broad-acting toxicants occurring in complex mixtures and accurate risk assessment has proven to be elusive. Focusing on a limited set of end points and emphasizing a fixed set of congeners have led to more streamlined data sets that are meant to expedite hazard characterization and risk assessment for the most potent congeners--aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Unfortunately, this has made it impossible to confirm or deny significant contributions from the more prevalent components of the mixtures. PCBs may be only coincidentally present, rather than causal, in some diseases. Still, attempts to determine associations with incomplete residue data may lead to erroneous conclusions and make accurate risk assessment even more elusive. Responses not mediated through the AhR are presented and emphasize large data gaps. Dissimilar analytical reports emphasize that selection of analytes is not consistent. Collectively, these data confirm that AhR-focused objectives unintentionally created the impression that nonplanar PCBs have little if any potential for hazards to humans and wildlife. Near steady-state exposure of healthy adults are probably of minor consequence except for emerging correlations with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, pulses of exposure to more labile mixtures may contribute to developmental effects without leaving a residue record. More broadly based criteria are suggested and harmonization of data collection and presentation are desirable. A more comprehensive list of PCB congeners is proposed that would provide more adequate data upon which to base associations with adverse outcomes. PMID:9539012

  20. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Polly P; Mills, Marc A; Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M

    2017-03-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by PCBs. Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here, we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any 2 sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from 2 different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209 PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include 1) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and 2) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:227-232. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  2. Detailed PCB congener characterization of influent and effluent at New York and New Jersey WPCPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durell, G.S.; Lizotte, R.D. Jr.; Solomon, M.H.; Green, J.W.; Spadone, J.; Pires, L.

    1995-12-31

    The waste streams at 26 New York City and New Jersey water pollution control plants (WPCP) were characterized for PCB. Time-integrated influent and effluent samples were collected during normal and high (storm) flow conditions; high flow influent simulated what may by-pass the plant and be discharged through combined sewer overflows. State-of-the-art congener-specific analytical methods were used to achieve detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng/L. Concentrations of 71 individual PCB congeners that constitute approximately 95% of the total PCB in Aroclors and environmental samples were determined. The PCB concentrations and congener distributions varied notably among plants. Individual congener concentrations were typically well below 1 ng/L in the effluent, with a few congeners being detected at 5 to 10 ng/L levels in some samples. The concentrations were under 1 ng/L in most influent samples, with occasional determinations above 10 ng/L. The average total PCB concentration, defined as the sum of the 71 individual congener concentrations, at the 26 WPCPs were 27, 110, and 160 ng/L for normal flow effluent, normal flow influent, and high flow influent, respectively. The results indicate that PCB levels in New York City and New Jersey WPCP discharges are generally low, with most effluent having total PCB concentrations below 0.05 {micro}g/L. The PCB levels in the influent were commonly under 0.1 {micro}g/L and became slightly elevated at most plants during storms while at some plants the increase in flow appeared to dilute the PCB in the influent. The WPCPs remove, on average, approximately 75% of the PCB received in the influent.

  3. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  4. Metabolism of hydroxylated PCB congeners by cloned laccase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujihiro, Satoru; Higuchi, Ryusuke; Hisamatsu, Shin; Sonoki, Shigenori

    2009-04-01

    The white-rot fungus T. versicolor UAMH 8272 produced two groups of laccases, each of which included several isoforms showing different isoelectric points (pI). Group 1 and group 2 laccases, respectively, displayed higher pI 5-6 and lower pI 3-4. Of the four cloned full-length laccase cDNAs, Lac 1 and Lac 4 were expressed in the heterologous protein expression system using Aspergillus oryzae. The measured pI of each Lac 1 and Lac 4 expressed in A. oryzae was lower than that of pI predicted from the amino acid composition. With this regard, isoelectric focusing of Lac 1 showed the presence of multiple protein bands in the 3.0-4.0 pI range, although the predicted pI value of Lac 1 was 4.7. Similarly, Lac 4 exhibited a pI value which was lower than that predicted (3.6 vs. 4.3, respectively). In all tested hydroxyPCBs, higher chlorinated hydroxyPCBs were less susceptible to in vitro degradation by laccase than lower chlorinated hydroxyPCBs. Although Lac 4 showed a generally higher activity than Lac 1, the two laccases were characterized by quite different substrate specificity toward two hydroxy-tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners. Two metabolites were obtained from the metabolism of hydroxy-pentachlorobiphenyl: a ten chlorine-substituted dimer with a C-O bond, and one with a C-C bond.

  5. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in fish in relation to PCB congener distributions in weathered sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, R.; Orr, J.; Knorr, D. ||; Wagner, R.

    1995-12-31

    PCBs in the sediments and fish of Lake Hartwell (SC) have been associated with the former operations of a manufacturing facility in Pickens, SC, and have been detected downstream in Twelvemile Creek, and the Twelvemile Creek Arm of Lake Hartwell. Recent efforts have focused on identifying appropriate methods to reduce the long-term health risks due to eating these fish. The present analysis examines the relationship between PCB congener distributions in largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass, and congener distributions in both deep and surficial sediments in the lake. Initial analyses established that penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorine congeners had undergone dechlorination in deep sediments to mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners, probably by anaerobic pathways identified by others. Further, surficial sediments showed the further dechlorination and degradation of these less-chlorinated congeners, and the presence of chlorobenzoate breakdown products of aerobic pathways. The resulting differences in congener distributions in the two sediment strata indicated the sources of PCBs that bioaccumulated in the two fish species. After correcting for lipid partitioning using the octanol-water partition coefficients for 24 major PCB congener peaks, ratios were formed between fish fillet concentrations and concentrations in each of the two sediment strata.

  6. Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination. PMID:25226430

  7. Laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiencies of PCB congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination.

  8. Cytochrome P450 responses and PCB congeners in pipping heron embryos from Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillett, D.E.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1992-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) embryos were collected from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge VA; CNWR) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI and San Francisco Bay, CA; SFB) locations. Hepatic monooxygenases (AHH, EROD, BROD, ECOD) were induced up to 100-fold, and were correlated (r=0.50 to 0.72) with total PCB burdens (N =61 embryos). A subset of 30 embryos have now been analyzed by GC/MS for 12 AHH-active PCB congeners and by Western blot for cytochromes P450lA and P450llB. At Cat Island, concentrations of 8 congeners were greater (P <0.05) than at CNWR. P450lA and P450llB were detected in 44% and 100% of the Cat Island embryos compared to 8% and 33% of the CNWR + SFB embryos. Cytochrome P450 parameters were correlated with the total PCBs (r =0.44 to 0.67) and with at least 9 PCB congeners (r =0.39 to 0.77). Since P450 responses might be affected by other contaminants, sample extract potency in the H411E rat hepatoma bioassay is being determined to study relationships among dioxin equivalents and cytochrome P450 parameters.

  9. Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilek, M.; Bjoerk, M.; Broman, D.; Kautsky, N.; Naef, C.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at three different enrichments of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas sp., 0.10, 0.16, and 0.32 mg particulate organic carbon (POC)/L. Tissue and water concentrations were determined for seven PCB congeners and 21-d bioaccumulation factors were calculated against total water concentrations. Contrary to what would be expected, an increase in algae enrichment from 0.10 to 0.32 mg POC/L resulted in an enhanced PCB accumulation by a factor of approx. 2. This increase in PCB accumulation was more pronounced for PCB congeners with lower hydrophobicity. These observations have implications for the design of laboratory accumulation studies and potentially for PCB accumulation and cycling in field populations of suspension-feeding mussels in response to changes in eutrophication status.

  10. Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.R.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, T.L. . Environmental and Resource Studies)

    1993-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-zooplankton PCB concentration (lipid), or BAS, ratios were calculated as markers of the transport of PCBs through food webs. The lakes ranged from a shallow, well-mixed lake with a historic input of Aroclor technical mixtures to deeper, oligotrophic systems in which atmospheric deposition was the only known source. BSF ratios ranged from approximately one in cyprinids and zooplankton in all lakes to 30 in yellow perch in one lake. A significant correlation between lake maximum depth and combined BSF ratios for all biota indicated that PCBs were generally more available for accumulation in the shallower lakes, regardless of the PCB source. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the biota in the shallower lakes had higher ratios of higher chlorinated congeners, suggesting that predictions of equal concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants on a lipid basis in sediment and lower trophic levels may significantly underestimate the accumulation of very hydrophobic compounds in the organisms of some lake systems. BAF ratios ranged from approximately one in the lower trophic levels to approximately 10 in lake trout.

  11. Determination of PCB congeners in sediments: Solutions to an old problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Shane, L. |

    1995-12-31

    Sonication has been evaluated and compared with Soxhlet extraction and solvent steam distillation for extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediments and soil. A gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni-63 electron-capture detector using a 5% phenyl methyl silicone fused silica capillary column was used to determine 68 PCB congeners. The influence loss of PCB during drying was found to be considerable. Recoveries of PCBs from three river sediments, a soil and a standard US EPA sediment have been determined for different solvent systems with the sonication procedure. PCB recovery as a function of sonication time was evaluated 3 minutes was the optimum sonication time. The higher recovery and precision were obtained with wet samples and using hexane-acetone (1:1) as solvent, and a 3 min. sonication period. The average MDL was 1 ng/g dry weight. Results utilizing GC/EC were compared with those obtained by GC/MS with one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality control sediment the sand, silt and clay fractions from a river sediments from Fort Miller, NY. Effects of aging on PCB congener extraction efficiency were investigated, less chlorinated PCB were more difficult to extract than more chlorinated PCB, mechanisms accounting for this phenomenon will be discussed.

  12. PCB loading from sediment in the Hudson River: congener signature analysis of pathways.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Jonathan B; Garvey, Edward A

    2004-06-15

    The upper Hudson River (NY) was subjected to massive PCB contamination over a period of three decades. A large inventory of PCBs remains in contaminated sediments of the river, most notably in the Thompson Island Pool. During the summer, flow crossing the Thompson Island Pool exhibits a large and consistent PCB load gain. This load gain is not associated with scouring flows and is not accompanied by an increase in suspended solids. A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain this load gain, including flux of contaminated porewater and dissolution of unverified reservoirs of pure PCBs. A wealth of congener-specific PCB data is available for the site throughout the 1990s. Interpretation of the Thompson Island Pool load gain is facilitated by examination of the PCB congener signature of the gain and comparison to the signature of potential sources. This examination suggests that neither the flux of porewater nor the dissolution of unaltered Aroclors are the predominant source of the load gain. Instead, the congener signature is consistent with a mixed source consisting of porewater flux and non-scour flux of contaminated sediments. The non-scour sediment flux, which reaches a maximum in the beginning of the summer growing season, is likely driven by a variety of biological and anthropogenic processes, including bioturbation by benthic organisms, bioturbation by demersal fish, scour by propwash, mechanical scour by boats and floating debris in nearshore areas, and uprooting of macrophytes.

  13. Blood Pressure in Relation to Concentrations of PCB Congeners and Chlorinated Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Pavuk, Marian; Foushee, Herman R.; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Residents of Anniston, Alabama, live near a Monsanto plant that manufactured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from 1929 to 1971 and are relatively heavily exposed. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine the relationship, if any, between blood pressure and levels of total serum PCBs, several PCB groups with common actions or structure, 35 individual PCB congeners, and nine chlorinated pesticides. Methods Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between blood pressure and serum levels of the various contaminants after adjustment for age, body mass index, sex, race, smoking, and exercise in 394 Anniston residents who were not taking antihypertensive medication. Results Other than age, total serum PCB concentration was the strongest determinant of blood pressure of the covariates studied. We found the strongest associations for those PCB congeners that had multiple ortho chlorines. We found the associations over the full range of blood pressure as well as in those subjects whose blood pressure was in the normal range. The chlorinated pesticides showed no consistent relationship to blood pressure. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, serum concentrations of PCBs, especially those congeners with multiple ortho chlorines, were strongly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:21362590

  14. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  15. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Echols, Kathy R; Tillitt, Donald E; Nichols, John W; Secord, Anne L; McCarty, John P

    2004-12-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25,000 ng/g and accumulated to 32,000 and 96,000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d(-1) based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  16. Congener-based analysis of the weathering of PCB Aroclor 1242 in paper mill sludge.

    PubMed

    Saba, Tarek; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-02-01

    Aroclor 1242 contains a high percentage of lightly chlorinated congeners, which makes it susceptible to congener profile alterations as a result of physical-chemical environmental weathering by water washing, evaporation, and volatilization. The analysis of the variability of congener profiles in paper sludge samples using PCA, mixing models, and correlation (R(2)) analysis, provided an integrated description of the behavior of Aroclor 1242 after its release in the environment. The results showed that the total PCB concentration decreased as the sample experienced weathering, with the congener profile of Aroclor 1242 shifting towards resembling heavier Aroclors as lighter congeners were lost. Mixing model analysis confirmed that a sample containing weathered Aroclor 1242 could easily be misidentified by laboratories as containing a mix of heavier Aroclors. The R(2) analysis showed that the profile of the congeners within a homologue group remained the same after weathering. This analysis showed that congeners that belong to the same level of chlorination behave similarly in such a manner that retains their overall profile when exposed to physical weathering.

  17. Coculture degradation of selected PCB congeners by two Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been introduced in the environment for nearly six decades and are considered to be refractile to microbial attack, since PCBs have to be degraded via cometabolic processes, which occur in the obligate presence of an alternative growth substrate. However, cometabolism of PCBs has been demonstrated to accumulate chlorobenzoates as the main intermediates. Therefore, the complete mineralization of PCBs can only be obtained by coculturing at least a PCB cometabolizing and a chlorobenzoate utilizing microorganism, or by constructing a recombinant strain harboring the complementary pathways of both strains. Therefore, coculture mineralization of PCBs in suspended culture was obtained by providing biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl as the growth substrate for Acinetobacter sp. strain P6, a PCB cometabolizer, while the chlorobenzoates were used as growth substrates by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1, which was isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate. 4-Chlorobenzoate (4-CB) was metabolized after hydrolytic dehalogenation to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB) via the protocatechuate pathway. Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 has the metabolic ability to carry out the degradation of 3,4-DCB. Although this strain does not grow on this compound, it cometabolizes 3,4-DCB to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which is used as a growth substrate and further metabolized via 4-carboxy-1,2-benzoquinone. This degradation process was termed cryptic cometabolism. 3,4-DCB has shown to be a substrate inhibitor (Ki = 1,840 {mu}M) and an uncompetitive inhibitor for 4-CB metabolism. Additionally, 3-C-4-OHB was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 12 {mu}M) for the 4-HB monooxygenase, while the quinone uncompetitively inhibited 4-CB metabolism (Ki = 50 {mu}M).

  18. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  19. Geographic variation of PCB congeners in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard east to the Chukchi Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, M.; Lie, E.; Derocher, A.E.; Belikov, S.E.; Bernhoft, A.; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, G.W.; Skaare, J.U.; Wiig, Øystein

    2001-01-01

    We present data on geographic variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard eastward to the Chukchi Sea. Blood samples from 90 free-living polar bears were collected in 1987–1995. Six PCB congeners, penta to octa chlorinated (PCB-99, -118, -153, -156, -180, -194), were selected for this study. Differences between areas were found in PCB levels and congener patterns. Bears from Franz Josef Land (11,194 ng/g lipid weight) and the Kara Sea (9,412 ng/g lw) had similar ΣPCB levels and were higher than all other populations (Svalbard 5,043 ng/g lw, East Siberian Sea 3,564 ng/g lw, Chukchi Sea 2,465 ng/g lw). Svalbard PCB levels were higher than those from the Chukchi Sea. Our results, combined with earlier findings, indicate that polar bears from Franz Josef Land and the Kara Sea have the highest PCB levels in the Arctic. Decreasing trends were seen eastwards and westwards from this region. Of the congeners investigated in the present study, the lower chlorinated PCBs are increasing and the high chlorinated PCBs are decreasing from Svalbard eastward to the Chukchi Sea. Different pollution sources, compound transport patterns and regional prey differences could explain the variation in PCB congener levels and patterns between regions.

  20. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  1. Temporal and spatial trends in total PCB and PCB congeners in biota in a river-reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, R.J.; McNair, J.N.; Hermanson, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1984, biennial studies of PCBs have been conducted in fishes, crayfish and insects in the Housatonic River, CT., and additional data are available from earlier studies. PCB data quantitated from presumptive Aroclor concentrations overestimated total PCB concentrations ([TPCB]) by about 13%, although the estimates by the 2 methods were very highly correlated. Ages of all fish specimens were determined. Spatial and temporal trends in [TPCB] were analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for relationships between [TPCB] and age, lipid content, location and sex. Adjusted [TPCB] consistently decreased in the downstream direction. [TPCB] decreased within the years after cessation of direct inputs (around 1978). However, in the 1984--1992 period [TPCB] trends were weak and variable. Concentrations in 1994 were lower than previous years (statistical comparisons showing 1994 to be the lowest year or among a group of years with the lowest concentrations). Between year differences were probably related to temperature, storm flows and other factors affecting availability and accumulation. These variations were greater in riverine sites than in reservoirs. In brown trout, [TPCB] increased rapidly within 1--2 months after stocking. Over longer periods, [TPCB] were more closely related to seasonal cycles in lipid content rather than to time in river. Increases in [TPCB] with age were most evident for long-lived species in reservoirs. Several congeners which are abundant in Aroclors 1254 and 1260 predominated the samples. However, spatial and temporal differences in accumulation of different congeners were evident. Spatial differences in the concentration of some marker congeners reflected enrichment of these congeners from original Aroclor 1254 and 1260 sources, as well as supplemental inputs of Aroclor 1242.

  2. Foodchain bioaccumulation patterns of pesticides, PCB isomers and dioxin/furan congeners in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, D.M.; Kiriluk, R.M.; Carswell, A.; Keir, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lake Ontario is one of the most contaminated Great Lakes. A detailed analysis of whole body concentrations of organic contaminants was conducted on a simple 4 compartment coldwater foodchain consisting of 7 species including several invertebrate diet items, prey fish species and the top predator lake trout. Sediment samples from the same site were analyzed for a similar suite of contaminants. Analyses were performed using a combination of HRMS/MS and GC/MS. All concentrations were reported on a whole animal wet weight basis and lipid weight concentrations. Total Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFS) were calculated for both dioxin and furan isomers and coplanar PCBs. PCB 110 (pentachlorobiphenyl) was the dominant congener in sediment samples as well as samples of benthic invertebrates. On the other hand, PCB 138 and 153 (hexachlorobiphenyls) were found at the highest concentration in the top predator lake trout and a prey species that feeds primarily in the water column. Mysis relicta, a zooplankton species that migrates diurnally through the water column, had similar levels of both PCB 110 and PCB 138/153. PCB 77 was consistently the highest coplanar PCB found in all samples. In all biological samples analyzed 2,3,7,8 substituted tetrachlorodioxin and furan isomers were consistently found at the highest levels. Lipid normalization of all whole body data did not significantly change the bioaccumulation factors calculated using wet weight concentrations.

  3. PCB congeners in human milk in Germany from 1984/85 and 1990/91

    SciTech Connect

    Georgii, S.; Bachour, G.; Brunn, H.; Elmadfa, I.

    1995-04-01

    Studies of so-called bioindicators clearly show the impact of environmental legislation on PCB contamination of the environment and of the food chain in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is evident from the results of studies performed in our laboratory on samples of muscle tissue from foxes that were submitted for post-mortem examination in the years 1983, 1987 and 1991. Whereas the concentration of low-chlorinated congeners of high-chlorinated biphenyls, with the exception of PCB no. 101, decreased. This trend may also be responsible for changes in the otherwise stable PCB concentrations in human milk. Consequently, in the study describe here, milk samples from 1990/91, from women in Middle-Hesse, Germany, were examined and the results compared to samples stemming from 1984/85. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. PCB congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing Great Lakes salmon: Analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Feeley, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199, occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.

  5. A new player in environmentally induced oxidative stress: polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yueming; Mapuskar, Kranti A; Marek, Rachel F; Xu, Wenjin; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Spitz, Douglas R; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2013-11-01

    Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O₂•⁻), as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol-conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells.

  6. A New Player in Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener, 3,3′-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11)

    PubMed Central

    Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O2 •−, as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol–conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells. PMID:23997111

  7. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  8. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    PubMed

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure.

  9. Record of PCB congeners, sorbents and potential toxicity in core samples in Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-10-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) is an active navigational system that serves a heavily industrial area of southern Lake Michigan. We have determined the amount of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), congener distributions, sorbent types and potential for dioxin-like PCB toxicity from two IHSC sediment cores. Vertical distributions of ΣPCBs (sum of 161 individual or coeluting congeners) ranged from 410 to 91000 and 1800 to 41000 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) for cores 1 and 2, respectively. Core 1 showed its highest accumulation rate for the year ∼1979 and exhibits a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in sediments accumulating over the last 60 years. It appears that from the late 1930s until the beginning of the 1980s there was a large and constant input of PCBs into this system. This pattern differs from lake cores from the Great Lakes region which commonly exhibit a rapid increase, a peak, followed by a sharp decrease in the PCB accumulation rates. Core 2 also has a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in the top layers, but deeper layers show evidence of mixtures of Aroclors and/or weathering processes. High levels of black carbon as a fraction of total organic carbon were found in both cores (median ∼30%), which reflect the long history of local combustion sources. No strong relationship was found between ΣPCB concentration and sorbents. Both cores contain dioxin-like PCBs that are highest in concentration below the surface. The high levels of PCBs in the deep sediments are of concern because of plans to dredge this system.

  10. Modeling trapping mechanism for PCB adsorption on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Oterhals, A.˚ge

    2012-12-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) in fishmeal and fish oil produced for use in feed for salmon is above present European legislation levels in some regions of the world and different decontamination approaches have been proposed [1]. One of these is adsorption on activated carbon. This approach appears to be efficient for adsorption of PCDD/F but less efficient for DL-PCB [2]. Activated carbon consists of slit pores with average sizes of 20 - 50 Ångstroms. One hypothesis [2] for the mechanism of trapping DL-PCB is reduced ability for intramolecular movements of the PCB molecules inside the slit pores. In order to investigate this hypothesis we have used quantum mechanics [3] to characterize two DL-PCB congeners, respectively congener 77 (3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) and Triolein (18:1) [4] as a major constituent of the solvent fish oil. A model for activated carbon was constructed using a crystal structure of graphite from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database [5]. The crystal structure used was originally from Wyckoff [6]. A small program had to be written to generate the desired graphite structure as it contains no less than 31232 Carbon atoms. Partial atomic charges were estimated using QM with DFT/B3LYP/6-311+g** and SM6 [7].

  11. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELLING OF PCB CONGENERS IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING THE LAKE MICHIGAN (LM3) CONTAMINANT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3) Model is a numerical model of Lake Michigan used to predict the fate and transport of 54 PCB congeners. The LM3 model segments Lake Michigan horizontally with a 5 x 5 km grid and vertically with 19 sigma layers for a total of 44,042 water column se...

  12. GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS IN BLOOD OF THE HARBOR SEAL PHOCA VITULINA FROM SAN FRANCISCO BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we report a validated technique for quantifying up to 20 specific PCB congeners in 1-2 g samples of whole blood with a detection limit below 1 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Specimens were analyzed from 14 harbor seals sampled in south San Francisco Bay, California during 1991-1992....

  13. Response to Ecological Risk Assessment Forum Request for Information on the Benefits of PCB Congener-Specific Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August, 2001, the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) submitted a formal question to the Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) on the benefits of evaluating PCB congeners in environmental samples. This question was developed by ERAF members Bruce Duncan and Cla...

  14. Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (<0.39-2.80) pg m-3 and 6.29 (2.48-24.16) pg m-3, respectively, and of PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  15. High accumulation of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners in marine mammals from Brazil: a serious PCB problem.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Sanz, Paloma; Eppe, Gauthier; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Martínez, María A; Secchi, Eduardo R; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Cremer, Marta; Alonso, Mariana B; Torres, João P M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Das, Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Blubber samples from three delphinid species (false killer whale, Guiana and rough-toothed dolphin), as well as liver samples from franciscana dolphins were analyzed for dioxins and related compounds (DRCs). Samples were collected from 35 cetaceans stranded or incidentally captured in a highly industrialized and urbanized area (Southeast and Southern Brazilian regions). Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 83% of the total TEQ for all cetaceans. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs, for franciscanas (82%), and mono-ortho PCBs (up to 80%), for delphinids, constituted the groups of highest contribution to total TEQ. Regarding franciscana dolphins, significant negative correlations were found between total length (TL) and three variables, ΣTEQ-DRCs, ΣTEQ-PCDF and ΣTEQ non-ortho PCB. An increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal may be a plausible explanation for these findings. This hypothesis is reinforced by the significant negative correlation found between TL and PCB126/PCB169 concentration ratio. DRC concentrations (ng/g lipids) varied from 36 to 3006, for franciscana dolphins, as well as from 356 to 30,776, for delphinids. The sum of dioxin-like and indicator PCBs varied from 34,662 to 279,407 ng/g lipids, for Guiana dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state, which are among the highest PCB concentrations ever reported for cetaceans. The high concentrations found in our study raise concern not only on the conservation of Brazilian coastal cetaceans, but also on the possibility of human health problem due to consumption of fish from Brazilian estuaries.

  16. In vitro toxicity profiling of ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and their relative toxic contribution to PCB mixtures in humans.

    PubMed

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; Cenijn, Peter H; Pencikova, Katerina; Palkova, Lenka; Simeckova, Pavlina; Vondracek, Jan; Andersson, Patrik L; Stenberg, Mia; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-05-01

    The toxic equivalency concept used for the risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of coplanar dioxin-like (DL) PCBs. Most PCBs in the environment, however, are non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs that cannot adopt a coplanar structure required for AhR activation. For NDL-PCBs, no generally accepted risk concept is available because their toxicity is insufficiently characterized. Here, we systematically determined in vitro toxicity profiles for 24 PCBs regarding 10 different mechanisms of action. Prior to testing, NDL-PCB standards were purified to remove traces of DL compounds. All NDL-PCBs antagonized androgen receptor activation and inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Lower chlorinated NDL-PCBs were weak estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, whereas higher chlorinated NDL-PCBs were weak ER antagonists. Several NDL-PCBs inhibited estradiol-sulfotransferase activity and bound to transthyretin (TTR) but with much weaker potencies than reported for hydroxylated PCB metabolites. AhR-mediated expression of uridine-glucuronyl transferase isozyme UGT1A6 was induced by DL-PCBs only. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the toxicity profiles yielded three separate clusters of NDL-PCBs and a fourth cluster of reference DL-PCBs. Due to small differences in relative potency among congeners, the highly abundant indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 also contributed most to the antiandrogenic, (anti)estrogenic, antithyroidal, tumor-promoting, and neurotoxic potencies calculated for PCB mixtures reported in human samples, whereas the most potent AhR-activating DL-PCB-126 contributed at maximum 0.2% to any of these calculated potencies. PCB-168 is recommended as an additional indicator congener, given its relatively high abundance and antiandrogenic, TTR-binding, and GJIC-inhibiting potencies.

  17. Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Analysis on the Effects of Sediment Ageing and Organic Carbon on the Fate of a PCB Congener Spiked to Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the full cycle transport and fate of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener spiked to sediment to empirically and spectroscopically investigate the effects of sediment ageing and organic carbon on the adsorption, desorption, and reaction of the PCB. Caesar ...

  18. A long-term study of anaerobic dechlorination of PCB congeners by sediment microorganisms pathways and mass balance

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, G.Y.; Sokol, R.C.; Bush, B. . Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research); Bethoney, C.M. . School of Public Health, New York State Dept. of Health)

    1993-10-01

    Reductive dechlorination of PCBs by Hudson River sediment microorganisms was investigated using individual congeners, 2,3,4,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-, 2,4,5,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-, 2,3,4,5,6-, 2,4,2[prime],4[prime]-, and 3,4,3[prime],4[prime]-chlorobiphenyls (CBPs) in long-term studies lasting 15 to 20 months. The dechlorination of 2,3,4,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-CBP yielded 2,4,5,2[prime],4[prime]-, 2,4,2[prime],4[prime]-, 2,4,2[prime],5[prime]-, and 2,4,2[prime],5[prime]-, and 2,4,2[prime]-CBPs; notably absent was 2,2[prime]-CBP. Yet, the total molar concentration of all congeners decreased with time and at 15 months accounted for only 25% of the initial concentration of the parent compound. 2,3,4,5,6-CBP produced 2,3,5,6-, 2,4,6-, and 2,6-CBPs. At 15 months the sum of all congeners accounted for only about 50% of the initial amount of the parent congener. On the other hand, 2,4,5,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-CBP yielded six daughter products, including 2,2[prime]-CBP, and did not show any decrease in total molar concentration even at 20 months. 2,4,2[prime],4[prime]-CBP did not show any change at 15 months. These results indicate that anaerobic PCB biotransformation may include mechanisms other than dechlorination and that the mechanisms are congener dependent. Biphenyl was detected with 3,4,3[prime],4[prime]-CBP, indicating complete dechlorination; however, it accounted for <10% of the total molar loss. [sup 14]C-labeled tracer of this congener showed that all radioactivity was in the hexane fraction, suggesting that transformation products were hydrophobic.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in aquatic birds. Case study: Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Livers from 108 birds found prostrate or dead in Ilha Grande Bay between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180). The species analyzed were Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus 1758), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758), Egretta thula (Molina 1782), and Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus 1766). The analysis were performed using Origin software (7.5, 2004) with a significant level of p<0.05. Data were checked for adherence to the standard assumptions of parametric tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. This has revealed differences in concentration for some congeners. Results indicate relatively low PCBs contamination in aquatic birds, but it is implied the close relationship of environmental contamination, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  20. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Nishitani, Shota; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nagai, Tomoko; Kakeyama, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM) at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  1. Prenatal Exposure to a Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congener Influences Fixation Duration on Biological Motion at 4-Months-Old: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hirokazu; Nishitani, Shota; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Nagai, Tomoko; Kakeyama, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM) at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development. PMID:23555630

  2. Ratio of cord to maternal serum PCB concentrations in relation to their congener-specific physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, L’ubica; Patayová, Henrieta; Drobná, Beata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Šovčíková, Eva; Kováč, Ján; Farkašová, Dana; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to characterize placental transfer of some congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to relate human in utero exposure to these pollutants to their physicochemical properties. We included into the study 1134 births during the period 2002–2003 from two highly PCB contaminated districts in eastern Slovakia. Concentrations of 15 PCB congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 105, 138+163, 167, 156+171, 157, 180, 170, and 189) in umbilical cord (C) and maternal serum (M) were determined. The C/M ratios were significantly related, either positively or inversely depending on parameter, to the logarithm of partition coefficient octanol-water (KOW), to fusion enthalpy at the melting point, molecular weight, water solubility, total surface area of the molecule, solvent accessible surface area, melting point, molar volume, and molecular electronegativity distance vector. We found an inverse association between log KOW and lipid adjusted log C/M (const= 1.078, b1 = −0.179, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.039). Parameters evaluated were interrelated except fusion enthalpy at the melting point and electron affinity vs. solubility. We discuss the possible role of cholesterol as a transplacental transporter of PCBs. PMID:25277764

  3. Transfer rates and pattern of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE from mother to egg in Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Surbramanian, A.; Hidaka, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1986-03-01

    Mother to egg transfer of PCB isomers and congeners and p,p'-DDE was examined in Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Antarctica. Transfer rate to a clutch of two eggs was estimated to be small, accounting to about 4.0% for both PCBs and p,p-DDE to the burden in mother. No significant difference was found in the concentration ratios of individual PCB isomers and congeners between mother and egg, which apparently differed from those between mother and fetus of striped dolphin previously reported.

  4. Toxicokinetics of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB congeners in Baikal seals, Pusa sibirica: age-related accumulation, maternal transfer, and hepatic sequestration.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Okajima, Yuka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Amano, Masao; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Petrov, Evgeny A

    2004-07-01

    To assess the toxicokinetic behavior and potential toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Baikal seals, congener-specific levels and tissue distribution were evaluated in the liver and blubber, and the effects of biological factors including sex and growth were assessed. Total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) were in the range of 210-920 pgTEQ/g fat wt (180-800 pgTEQ/g wet wt) in the blubber and 290-7800 pgTEQ/g fat wt (10-570 pgTEQ/wet wt) in the liver. Non-ortho coplanar PCB126 was the most TEQ-contributed congener accounting for 37-59% of the total TEQs in the liver. From the unique congener profiles, weak metabolic properties of Baikal seals for 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-P5CDF are suggested. Concentrations of most congeners linearly increased with age in male seals, whereas in adult females the levels revealed an age-related decline. The increasing and declining rates were congener-specific. Maternal transfer rates of 5 representative congeners from adult female to pup through lactation, which was estimated from male-female differences in the body burden, was 1.1 ngTEQ/kg/day for the first pup and decreased with every lactational epoch. The liver-blubber distribution of 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-H6CDD, PCB81, PCB126, and PCB169 was dependent on the hepatic total TEQ, indicating hepatic sequestration by induced cytochrome P450 (CYP). These results indicate that congener profile in Baikal seals is governed by complex factors including sex, tissue concentration, binding to CYP, and rates of absorption and metabolism/excretion.

  5. Effect of nonionic surfactant on the degradation of glass-sorbed PCB congeners by integrated chemical-biological treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Aronstein, B.N.; Paterek, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of a nonionic surfactant on the efficiency of the integrated chemical-biological treatment (ICBT) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sorbed to the glass walls of the experimental vessels. The addition of surfactant associated with the chemical oxidation was proposed to overcome two limitations of biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds: adsorption to surfaces,a nd lack of solubility and thus availability to the microorganisms. Two {sup 14}C-labeled PCB congeners, 2-chlorobiphenyl and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl, were used as the test compounds. The integrated chemical-biological treatment consisted of sequential applications of Fenton`s reagent (5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 1 mM FeSO{sub 4}) at pH 4.0 (with and without non-ionic surfactant Novel 2 1412-60) and the inoculation with a mixed culture of Pseudomonas sp., strain LB400, and Alcaligenes eutrophus, strain H850, at pH 8.0. The chemical treatment in the presence of surfactant affected the removal of the congeners bound to the glass surfaces of the experimental test systems. As indicated by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis, these PCBs were converted to unidentified soluble products that are hypothesized to be partial oxidation products. No parent test compounds were detectable in the system after chemical treatment with or without surfactant. The addition of the mixed culture of PCB-degrading bacteria after completion of chemical treatment in the presence of surfactant resulted in the removal of approximately 45% of 2-chlorobiphenyl and 32% of 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. This compared to 29% and 23% without the addition of surfactant, respectively. The authors suggest that the combination of surfactant-induced desorption and chemical oxidation would increase the availability of hydrophobic pollutants for microbial degradation.

  6. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, PK; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants with carcinogenic, immune- and developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiate to granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to the PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were down-regulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT were upregulated in granulocytes, TRF2 was up- and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs reduced telomerase activity in undifferentiated cells and further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Long term treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153 the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days exposure. With each PCB no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell type and PCB congener specific effects on telomeres/telomerase-related genes and, although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they could influence the longevity of stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health. PMID:26330309

  7. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health.

  8. Reprint of: Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (<0.39-2.80) pg m-3 and 6.29 (2.48-24.16) pg m-3, respectively, and of PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  9. Bioenergetics-based modeling of individual PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows from two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, John W.; Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    A bioenergetics-based model was used to simulate the accumulation of total PCBs and 20 PCB congeners by nestling tree swallows at two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York. PCB concentrations in birds were calculated as the sum of inherited residues and those acquired through consumption of contaminated insects. Close agreement between simulations and measured residues in 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings was obtained when PCB concentrations in the diet were set equal to those in food boli taken from adult birds. These simulations were further optimized by fitting the value of a dietary assimilation efficiency constant. Fitted constants for both sites were similar and averaged about 0.7. An evaluation of model performance for individual congeners provided no evidence of metabolic biotransformation. The results of this study are consistent with a companion effort in which principal components analysis was used to compare PCB congener patterns in insects and in tree swallow eggs, nestlings, and adults. Together, these studies establish a quantitative linkage between nestling tree swallows and the insects that they consume and provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment.

  10. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  11. Diabetes Prevalence in Relation to Serum Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congener Groups and Three Chlorinated Pesticides in a Native American Population

    PubMed Central

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Rej, Robert; Schymura, Maria J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; DeCaprio, Anthony; Carpenter, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is known to increase risk of diabetes. Objective: To determine which POPs are most associated with prevalence of diabetes in 601 Akwesasne Native Americans. Methods: Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between quartiles of concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners, congener groups and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex] with diabetes. In Model 1, the relationship between quartiles of exposure and diabetes were adjusted only for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and total serum lipids. Model 2 included additional adjustment for either total PCBs or total pesticides. Results: Total serum PCB and pesticide concentrations were each significantly associated with prevalence of diabetes when adjusted only for covariates (Model 1), but neither showed a significant OR for highest to lowest quartiles after additional adjustment for the other (Model 2). When applying Model 2 to PCB congener groups and individual pesticides, there were significant omnibus differences between the four quartiles (all ps < 0.042) for most groups, with the exception of penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls, DDE and mirex. However, when comparing highest to lowest quartiles only non- and mono-ortho PCBs [OR = 4.55 (95% CI: 1.48, 13.95)], tri- and tetrachloro PCBs [OR = 3.66 (95% CI: 1.37, –9.78)] and HCB [OR = 2.64 (95% CI: 1.05, 6.61)] showed significant associations with diabetes. Among the non- and mono-ortho congeners, highest to lowest quartile of dioxin TEQs was not significant [OR = 1.82 (95% CI: 0.61, 5.40)] but the OR for the non-dioxin-like congeners was [OR = 5.01 (95% CI: 1.76, 14.24)]. Conclusion: The associations with diabetes after adjustment for other POPs were strongest with the more volatile, non-dioxin-like, low-chlorinated PCB congeners and HCB. Because low-chlorinated congeners are more volatile

  12. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners measured shortly after giving birth and subsequent risk of maternal breast cancer before age 50.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth; Plumb, Marj; Cirillo, Piera M

    2012-11-01

    Discrete windows of susceptibility to toxicants have been identified for the breast, including in utero, puberty, pregnancy, and postpartum. We tested the hypothesis that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured during the early postpartum predict increased risk of maternal breast cancer diagnosed before age 50. We analyzed archived early postpartum serum samples collected from 1959 to 1967, an average of 17 years before diagnosis (mean diagnosis age 43 years) for 16 PCB congeners in a nested case-control study in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort (N = 112 cases matched to controls on birth year). We used conditional logistic regression to adjust for lipids, race, year, lactation, and body mass. We observed strong breast cancer associations with three congeners. PCB 167 was associated with a lower risk (odds ratio (OR), 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.2, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.1, 0.8) as was PCB 187 (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1, 1.1). In contrast, PCB 203 was associated with a sixfold increased risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 6.3, 95 % CI 1.9, 21.7). The net association of PCB exposure, estimated by a post-hoc score, was nearly a threefold increase in risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1, 7.1) among women with a higher proportion of PCB 203 in relation to the sum of PCBs 167 and 187. Postpartum PCB exposure likely also represents pregnancy exposure, and may predict increased risk for early breast cancer depending on the mixture that represents internal dose. It remains unclear whether individual differences in exposure, response to exposure, or both explain risk patterns observed.

  13. Bioaccumulation of six PCB indicator congeners in a heavily polluted water reservoir in Eastern Slovakia: tissue-specific distribution in fish and their parasites.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of six indicator PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in several organs and adipose tissue of a freshwater predatory fishes (European perch, northern pike, pike perch, wels catfish) as well as in nonpredators (common carp, freshwater bream, goldfish, white bream) and in acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii from the water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Eastern Slovakia), which is considered to be one of the most PCB-contaminated places in Europe. Concentration of PCBs was determined by capillary gas chromatography in samples from May to September 2009. The two-way main-effect ANOVA confirmed that feeding habits of fish (P < 0.00001) and peculiarity of individual fish organs (P < 0.01) affect PCB bioaccumulation. The total amount of PCBs was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in predators compared to nonpredators. Tissue-specific differences were found in PCB accumulation in both fish groups. PCBs were predominantly accumulated in the liver and hard roe. Individual congeners were not distributed homogeneously within the investigated organs and adipose tissue. PCB 153 was present in higher concentrations than the other congeners in all fish organs as well as in adipose tissue comprising an average 31 and 34 % of ΣPCB in predators and nonpredators, respectively. Acanthocephalans, attached to the intestine of perch, absorbed significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (P < 0.001) than the muscles, liver, kidney, brain, and adipose tissue of their host. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Data on PCB accumulation in perch infected with acanthocephalans demonstrated a decline of PCB values in all organs as well as in adipose tissue compared to noninfected fish. About 20 times lower amount of PCBs was detected in the liver and almost 3 times in muscles of infected perch. Present results could indicate that some parasitic organisms may

  14. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.

  15. Patterns of contamination by organochlorines and mercury in the eggs of two river passerines in Britain and Ireland with reference to individual PCB congeners.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, S J; Tyler, S J

    1992-01-01

    Unhatched eggs were collected in 1988 and 1990 from nests of the Eurasian Dipper Cinclus cinclus and the Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea in Wales, eastern Scotland and south-western Ireland. Mercury concentrations in Dipper eggs (geometric means 0.45-0.91 ppm (microg g(-1)) dry mass) were significantly lower in eastern Scotland than in either south-western Ireland or Wales, where the incidence of detectable residues increased markedly between 1988 (2% of eggs) and 1990 (69%). By contrast, DDE (geometric means 0.63-3.54 ppm in lipid), TDE (<0.01-1.80 ppm), DDT (<0.01-0.65 ppm), total PCBs (3.99-10.47 ppm), HEOD (0.39-0.61 ppm) and HCB (0.02-0.13 ppm) were all significantly higher in Scottish eggs than others. Around 33-46% of the total PCB burden in Dipper and Grey Wagtail eggs could be accounted for by six congeners (IUPAC numbers 118, 180, 101, 153, 138 and 170). Amongst these attributable PCBs, Dipper eggs from eastern Scotland were dominated by congener 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), whilst Welsh and Irish eggs were dominated by congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). With the latter exception, all the individual congeners were found at significantly higher concentrations in Scottish eggs than others. Grey Wagtail eggs were dominated by congeners 118 and 101 (2,2,4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, these congeners are common, widespread, and dominant components in the eggs of other wild birds for which data are available. Consistent with the low to medium levels of contaminants found in Dipper eggs, there was only slight evidence of any toxic effects. These included moderate shell thinning in relation to increasing DDE, and some evidence that contaminants had contributed to egg failure.

  16. A Model Using Local Weather Data to Determine the Effective Sampling Volume for PCB Congeners Collected on Passive Air Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a mathematical model to determine the effective sampling volumes (Veff) of PCBs and similar compounds captured using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF–PAS). We account for the variability in wind speed, air temperature, and equilibrium partitioning over the course of the deployment of the samplers. The model, provided as an annotated Matlab script, predicts the Veff as a function of physical-chemical properties of each compound and meteorology from the closest Integrated Surface Database (ISD) data set obtained through NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The model was developed to be user-friendly, only requiring basic Matlab knowledge. To illustrate the effectiveness of the model, we evaluated three independent data sets of airborne PCBs simultaneously collected using passive and active samplers: at sites in Chicago, Lancaster, UK, and Toronto, Canada. The model provides Veff values comparable to those using depuration compounds and calibration against active samplers, yielding an average congener specific concentration method ratio (active/passive) of 1.1 ± 1.2. We applied the model to PUF–PAS samples collected in Chicago and show that previous methods can underestimate concentrations of PCBs by up to 40%, especially for long deployments, deployments conducted under warming conditions, and compounds with log Koa values less than 8. PMID:26963482

  17. Structure-activity relationship for noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners toward the ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ channel complex type 1 (RyR1).

    PubMed

    Pessah, Isaac N; Hansen, Larry G; Albertson, Timothy E; Garner, C Edwin; Ta, Tram Anh; Do, Zung; Kim, Kyung Ho; Wong, Patty W

    2006-01-01

    Ryanodine receptor isoforms are expressed in both excitable and nonexcitable tissues where they form microsomal Ca2+ release channels broadly involved in shaping cellular signaling. In this report, we provide a detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and metabolites necessary for enhancing ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) activity using [3H]ryanodine ([3H]Ry) binding analysis. The 2,3,6-Cl PCB configuration is most important for optimal recognition by the RyR1 complex and/or critical for sensitizing its activation. Para substitution(s) diminishes the activity with para-chloro having a higher potency than the corresponding para-hydroxy derivative. The addition of a more bulky para-methyl-sulfonyl group eliminates the activity toward RyR1, supporting the importance of the para positions in binding RyR1. The requirement for an intact major T cell immunophilin FKBP12-RyR1 complex was observed with each of 12 active PCB congeners indicating a common mechanism requiring an immunophilin-regulated Ca2+ release channel. An excellent correlation between the relative potencies for doubling [3H]Ry binding and the corresponding initial rates of PCB-induced Ca2+ efflux indicates that [3H]Ry binding analysis provides a measure of dysregulation of microsomal Ca2+ transport. The SAR for activating RyR1 is consistent with those previously reported in several in vivo and in vitro studies, suggesting that a common mechanism may contribute to the toxicity of noncoplanar PCBs. A practical application of the receptor-based screen developed here with RyR1 is that it provides a quantitative SAR that may be useful in predicting biological activity and risk of mixtures containing noncoplanar PCB congeners that have low or a lack of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity.

  18. Site-specific microbial communities in three PCB-impacted sediments are associated with different in situ dechlorinating activities.

    PubMed

    Kjellerup, Birthe V; Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal; May, Harold D; Sowers, Kevin R

    2008-05-01

    Competitive PCR and denaturing HPLC analyses together with an assay detecting potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinating activities were combined with physical-chemical site characterizations to identify factors affecting the reductive dechlorination of PCBs in the three historically impacted sediments: Grasse and Buffalo Rivers, NY and Anacostia River, DC. In Grasse River sediment an in situ enriched population of Dehalococcoides phylotypes was abundant in high numbers together with a relatively high dechlorination activity and a high concentration of congeners containing unflanked chlorine substitutions. In contrast microbial communities in Anacostia and Buffalo Rivers sediments consisted of similar total numbers of putative dechlorinating bacteria, but the populations consisted of more diverse putative dechlorinating phylotypes and were associated with lower dechlorination activities and higher concentrations of flanked congeners. Differences observed in the PCB dechlorination activity were not influenced by the chemical PCB availability in spiked sediment or physical sediment characteristics, but were consistent with the concentration of PCBs and total organic carbon in the native sediment. Application of molecular methods for selective detection of indigenous microbial dechlorinating communities combined with assessment of the dechlorinating activity and analysis of the in situ congener profiles provided a comprehensive approach for characterization and identification of sites that are amenable to bioremediation, which is essential for the development of in situ treatment strategies.

  19. Notifications for Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents of any company or person storing, transporting or disposing of PCBs or conducting PCB research and development that notified the EPA and received an identification number using Form 7710-53.

  20. Partitioning and removal of dioxin-like congeners in flue gases treated with activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Huang, Chia Hua; Huang, Hung Chi; Chang, Moo Been

    2006-08-01

    Activated carbon adsorption is commonly used to control dioxin-like congener (PCDD/Fs and PCBs) emissions. Partitioning of PCDD/Fs and PCBs between vapor and solid phases and their removal efficiencies achieved with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) at a large-scale municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and an industrial waste incinerator (IWI) are evaluated via intensive stack sampling and analysis. Those two facilities investigated are equipped with activated carbon injection (ACI) with bag filter (BF) and fixed activated carbon bed (FACB) as major PCDD/F control devices, respectively. Average PCDD/F and PCB concentrations of stack gas with ACI+BF as APCDs are 0.031 and 0.006ng-TEQ/Nm(3), and that achieved with FACB are 1.74 and 0.19ng-TEQ/Nm(3) in MWI and IWI, respectively. The results show that FACB could reduce vapor-phase PCDD/Fs and PCBs concentrations in flue gas, while the ACI+BF can effectively adsorb the vapor-phase dioxin-like congener and collect the solid-phase PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the meantime. Additionally, the results of the pilot-scale adsorption system (PAS) experimentation indicate that each gram activated carbon adsorbs 105-115ng-PCDD/Fs and each surface area (m(2)) of activated carbon adsorbs 10-25ng-PCDD/Fs. Based on the results of PAS experimentation, this study confirms that the surface area of mesopore+macropore (20-200A) of the activated carbon is a critical factor affecting PCDD/F adsorption capacity.

  1. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  2. Deposition history of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Lomonosovfonna Glacier, Svalbard: a 209 congener analysis.

    PubMed

    Garmash, Olga; Hermanson, Mark H; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schwikowski, Margit; Divine, Dmitry; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G

    2013-01-01

    A 37 m deep ice core representing 1957-2009 and snow from 2009 to 2010 were collected on the Lomonosovfonna glacier, Svalbard (78.82° N; 17.43° E) and analyzed for 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Congener profiles in all samples showed the prevalence of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls, dominated in all samples by PCB-44, PCB-52, PCB-70 + PCB-74, PCB-87 + PCB-97, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, and PCB-110. The ∑PCB flux varied over time, but the peak flux, ∼19 pg cm(-2) year(-1) from 1957 to 1966, recurred in 1974-1983, 1998-2009, and 2009-2010. The minimum was 5.75 pg cm(-2) year(-1) in 1989-1998, following a 15 year decline. Peak ∑PCB fluxes here are lower than measured in the Canadian Arctic. The analysis of all 209 congeners revealed that PCB-11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl) was present in all samples, representing 0.9-4.5% of ∑PCB. PCB-11 was not produced in a commercial PCB product, and its source to the Arctic has not been well-characterized; however, our results confirm that the sources to Lomonosovfonna have been active since 1957. The higher fluxes of ∑PCB correspond to periods when average 5 day air mass back trajectories have a frequency of 8-10% and reach 60° N or beyond over northern Europe and western Russia or the North Sea into the U.K.

  3. Antinociceptive activity of CC44, a biotinylated improgan congener

    PubMed Central

    Hoerbelt, Paul; Nalwalk, Julia W.; Phillips, James G.; Wentland, Mark P.; Shan, Zhixing; Hough, Lindsay B.

    2013-01-01

    Improgan, a non-opioid, antinociceptive drug, activates descending analgesic circuits following brain administration, but the improgan receptor remains unidentified. Since biotinylation of drugs can enhance drug potency or facilitate discovery of new drug targets, a biotinylated congener of improgan (CC44) and several related compounds were synthesized and tested for antinociceptive activity. In rats and mice, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CC44 produced dose-dependent reductions in thermal nociceptive (tail flick and hot plate) responses, with 5-fold greater potency than improgan. CC44 also robustly attenuated mechanical (tail pinch) nociception in normal rats and mechanical allodynia in a spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. Similar to the effects of improgan, CC44 antinociception was reversed by the GABAA agonist muscimol (consistent with activation of analgesic circuits), and was resistant to the opioid antagonist naltrexone (implying a non-opioid mechanism). Also like improgan, CC44 produced thermal antinociception when microinjected into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Unlike improgan, CC44 (i.c.v.) produced antinociception which was resistant to antagonism by the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant. CC44 was inactive in mice following systemic administration, indicating that CC44 does not penetrate the brain. Preliminary findings with other CC44 congeners suggest that the heteroaromatic nucleus (imidazole), but not the biotin moiety, is required for CC44’s antinociceptive activity. These findings demonstrate that CC44 is a potent analgesic compound with many improgan-like characteristics. Since powerful techniques are available to characterize and identify the binding partners for biotin-containing ligands, CC44 may be useful in searching for new receptors for analgesic drugs. PMID:23834775

  4. PCB congeners and hexachlorobenzene biota sediment accumulation factors for Macoma nasuta exposed to sediments with different total organic carbon contents

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Randall, R. . Pacific Ecosystems Branch); Winsor, M.; Echols, S.; Pelletier, J. . Hatfield Marine Science Center)

    1995-02-01

    Deposit-feeding marine clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 119 d to three sediment types that varied in total organic carbon (TOC) from 0.8 to 2.5%. Sediments were spiked with equal concentrations of 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and hexachlorobenzene. Tissue residues were measured, and steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), the corresponding lipid, and TOC-normalized biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined. The BSAFs were less variable than were the BAFs with the exception of compounds with log K[sub ow] > 7. Many of the BSAFs exceeded 1.7, which is a calculated maximum value based on partitioning alone. Although BSAFs varied with sediment type and compound, the use of a BSAF of 4 as a screening level for neutral organic compounds in assessing dredge materials is supported by the present study.

  5. PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB in the ambient air of a tropical Andean city: passive and active sampling measurements near industrial and vehicular pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Cortés, J; González, C M; Morales, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E; Aristizábal, B H

    2014-09-01

    Concentration gradients were observed in gas and particulate phases of PCDD/F originating from industrial and vehicular sources in the densely populated tropical Andean city of Manizales, using passive and active air samplers. Preliminary results suggest greater concentrations of dl-PCB in the mostly gaseous fraction (using quarterly passive samplers) and greater concentrations of PCDD/F in the mostly particle fraction (using daily active samplers). Dioxin-like PCB predominance was associated with the semi-volatility property, which depends on ambient temperature. Slight variations of ambient temperature in Manizales during the sampling period (15°C-27°C) may have triggered higher concentrations in all passive samples. This was the first passive air sampling monitoring of PCDD/F conducted in an urban area of Colombia. Passive sampling revealed that PCDD/F in combination with dioxin-like PCB ranged from 16 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near industrial sources to 7 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in an intermediate zone-a reduction of 56% over 2.8 km. Active sampling of particulate phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB were analyzed in PM10 samples. PCDD/F combined with dl-PCB ranged from 46 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) near vehicular sources to 8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3) in the same intermediate zone, a reduction of 83% over 2.6 km. Toxic equivalent quantities in both PCDD/F and dl-PCB decreased toward an intermediate zone of the city. Variations in congener profiles were consistent with variations expected from nearby sources, such as a secondary metallurgy plant, areas of concentrated vehicular emissions and a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). These variations in congener profile measurements of dioxins and dl-PCBs in passive and active samples can be partly explained by congener variations expected from the various sources.

  6. Morphological alterations of Vero cell exposed to coplanar PCB 126 and noncoplanar PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kaili; Shen, Chaofeng; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xincai; Chen, Yingxu

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, persistent environmental contaminants that display a complex spectrum of toxicological properties. Exposure to PCBs has been associated with morphological anomalies in cell cultures. However, most mechanistic studies of PCBs' toxic activity have been focused on coplanar congeners. It is of importance to determine whether PCB treatment would influence cell configuration and whether these changes would depend on the structural characteristics of PCBs. In this study, we investigated cell morphological alteration in Vero cell cultures after exposure to coplanar PCB 126 and noncoplanar PCB 153. The survival of Vero cells was measured through the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test. Cytotoxicity results suggested that PCB congeners had a toxic, antiproliferative effect on Vero cells. Morphological studies described structural modifications and provided evidence that apoptosis might be the main cell death pathway in PCB 153-treated cells. The comparison between PCB 126 and PCB 153 indicated that the cell death mechanisms involved in coplanar or noncoplanar PCB congener exposure were different in Vero cells.

  7. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  8. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4’-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7 derived cells at 100 μM – 1 pM concentrations. Only 4’-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4’-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100 fold different concentrations, i.e. 1 μM and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2’PCB 3, 4’PCB 3, 4PCB 39, 4PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3’PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4’PCB 3 sulfate (para-para’ substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3’PCB 3, 4PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4’HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2’PCB 3 and 3’PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen at

  9. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

  10. Field-scale reduction of PCB bioavailability with activated carbon amendment to river sediments.

    PubMed

    Beckingham, Barbara; Ghosh, Upal

    2011-12-15

    Remediation of contaminated sediments remains a technological challenge because traditional approaches do not always achieve risk reduction goals for human health and ecosystem protection and can even be destructive for natural resources. Recent work has shown that uptake of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food web is strongly influenced by the nature of contaminant binding, especially to black carbon surfaces in sediments. We demonstrate for the first time in a contaminated river that application of activated carbon to sediments in the field reduces biouptake of PCBs in benthic organisms. After treatment with activated carbon applied at a dose similar to the native organic carbon of sediment, bioaccumulation in freshwater oligochaete worms was reduced compared to preamendment conditions by 69 to 99%, and concentrations of PCBs in water at equilibrium with the sediment were reduced by greater than 93% at all treatment sites for up to three years of monitoring. By comparing measured reductions in bioaccumulation of tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCB congeners resulting from field application of activated carbon to a laboratory study where PCBs were preloaded onto activated carbon, it is evident that equilibrium sorption had not been achieved in the field. Although other remedies may be appropriate for some highly contaminated sites, we show through this pilot study that PCB exposure from moderately contaminated river sediments may be managed effectively through activated carbon amendment in sediments.

  11. Assessment of experimental data on PCB-induced reproduction inhibition in mink, based on an isomer- and congener-specific approach using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency

    SciTech Connect

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Vries, T.H. de; Minnaard, W.; Stuijfzand, S.; Cofino, W.P.; Straalen, N.M. van; Hattum, B. van; Voogt, P. de

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an attempt to derive a median effect level (EC50) of PCBs for reproduction of mink based on experimental literature data. Unfortunately, the conditions of the mink studies carried out during the last two decades vary widely, which makes it difficult to establish unequivocal dose-effect relationships. This study describes an attempt to correct for the differences in exposure time using a one-compartment bioaccumulation model. This model estimates the whole-body concentration of PCBs in mink. Two approaches are tested. First, the whole-body concentration of 10 isomer groups of PCBs in mink were estimated and compared with reproduction data to calculate an EC50 value. Alternatively, estimates for the whole-body concentration in mink of 11 individual biologically active PCB congeners were made. With these, the toxic equivalent concentration (TEC) in mink was estimated using the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent factor (TEF) approach. Whole-body dose-effect relationships were estimated and EC50 values for litter size and kit survival were calculated. The application of the one-compartment bioaccumulation model of the first approach resulted in a significant improvement in the dose-effect relationship in comparison to the raw data set. A further improvement in this relationship was achieved using the congener-specific bioaccumulation model in combination with the TEF approach. This study proposes a critical body residue (EC50) for mink litter size of 1.2 {mu}g/g (total PCBs/wet weight). From the second approach a critical body residue (EC50) expressed in TCDD equivalency for litter size of 160 pg/g (TCDD equivalence/wet weight) and 200 ng/g (TCDD equivalence/wet weight) for kit survival is proposed.

  12. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  13. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  14. EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

  15. Biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kristine L; Schlenk, Daniel

    2011-05-16

    The rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A substrate PCB, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. Sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), a meta-para unsubstituted rodent P450 family 2 substrate PCB, at rates ranging from less than 0.5 to 53 pmol/min/mg protein. The P450 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited hydroxylation of PCB 52, supporting the role of P450 catalysis. Sea turtle PCB 52 hydroxlyation rates strongly correlated with immunodetected P450 family 2-like and less so with P450 family 3-like hepatic proteins. Testosterone 6β-, 16α-, 16β-hydroxylase activities were also significantly correlated with the expression of these enzymes, indicating that P450 family 2 or P450 family 3 proteins are responsible for PCB hydroxylation in sea turtles. This study indicated species-specific PCB biotransformation in sea turtles and preferential elimination of meta-para unsubstituted PCB congeners over ortho-meta unsubstituted PCB congeners consistent with PCB accumulation patterns observed in tissues of sea turtles.

  16. Behavioral effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Holene, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Engen, P.; Nafstad, I. |; Skaare, J.U. |; Sagvolden, T.

    1995-06-01

    Rats were exposed in utero and through mother`s milk either to the coplanar PCB congener 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-CB (IUPAC no. 126) or to the mono-ortho-substituted PCB congener 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-CB (IUPAC no. 118). The different groups of mothers were exposed to 1 and 5 mg/kg body weight of PCB 118, and 2 {mu}g/kg b.w. of PCB 126 every second day from day 10 to day 20 of gestation. The exposure did not affect the body weight of the dams or the size, weight, sex ratio, or physical development of the offspring. Operant behavioral testing revealed that the PCB-exposed offspring showed both poorer visual discrimination and higher activity level than did the controls. The coplanar PCB 126 congener was the most potent treatment. These results show that both PCB 118 and PCB 126 produced significant neurotoxic effects in the offspring of exposed females in absence of clinical maternotoxic and fetotoxic effects.

  17. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. For sedimenttreated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 microm size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 microm size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners that increase the glucuronidation and biliary excretion of thyroxine are distinct from the congeners that enhance the serum disappearance of thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Martin, L A; Wilson, D T; Reuhl, K R; Gallo, M A; Klaassen, C D

    2012-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners differentially reduce serum thyroxine (T(4)) in rats, but little is known about their ability to affect biliary excretion of T(4). Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered Aroclor-1254, Aroclor-1242 (32 mg/kg per day), PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-118 (16 mg/kg per day), PCB-126 (40 μg/kg per day), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (3.9 μg/kg per day), or corn oil for 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, [(125)I]T(4) was administered intravenously, and blood, bile, and urine samples were collected for quantifying [(125)I]T(4) and in bile [(125)I]T(4) metabolites. Serum T(4) concentrations were reduced by all treatments, but dramatic reductions occurred in response to Aroclor-1254, PCB-99 [phenobarbital (PB)-type congener], and PCB-118 (mixed-type congener). None of the treatments increased urinary excretion of [(125)I]T(4). Aroclor-1254, PCB-118, TCDD, and PCB-126 (TCDD-type congener) increased biliary excretion of T(4)-glucuronide by 850, 756, 710, and 573%, respectively, corresponding to marked induction of hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity toward T(4). PCB-95 and PCB-99 did not induce UGT activity; therefore, the increased biliary excretion of T(4)-glucuronide was related to the affinity of congeners for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The disappearance of [(125)I]T(4) from serum was rapid (within 15-min) and was increased by Aroclor-1254, PCB-99 and PCB-118. Thus, reductions in serum T(4) in response to PCBs did not always correspond with UGT activity toward T(4) or with increased biliary excretion of T(4)-glucuronide. The rapid disappearance of [(125)I]T(4) from the serum of rats treated with PB-like PCBs suggests that increased tissue uptake of T(4) is an additional mechanism by which PCBs may reduce serum T(4).

  20. PCB concentrations and dioxin-like activity in blood samples from Danish school children and their mothers living in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Flemming; Siersma, Volkert D; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still occurs due to the persistent nature of the chemicals. The concentrations of the dioxin-like PCB congeners 105, 118 and 156 and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, HCB and β-HCH as well as the dioxin-like activity using the AhR transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were significantly higher in schoolchildren living in the urban area compared with the rural, and for AhR-TEQ, a strong correlation between the mothers and children was observed. We found a significant negative correlation between BMI and PCB concentrations in the children. Finally, in the mothers, there was a positive association between age and PCB concentration. These results show that both PCBs and dioxin-like activity can be measured as biomarkers of exposure and effects in blood samples from children and women. The results indicate that people living in urban areas may be exposed to higher concentrations of PCBs, dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, which may lead to a greater risk of adverse effects for urban populations.

  1. PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Transactivation activity of human, zebrafish, and rainbow trout aryl hydrocarbon receptors expressed in COS-7 cells: greater insight into species differences in toxic potency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners.

    PubMed

    Abnet, C C; Tanguay, R L; Heideman, W; Peterson, R E

    1999-08-15

    Transactivation assays were used to compare the potency and efficacy of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and biphenyl (PCB) congeners in activating aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) from rainbow trout (rtAhR2alpha and rtAhR2beta), zebrafish (zfAhR2), and human (huAhR), respectively. All AhRs were expressed with their species-specific AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) in COS-7 cells. Transactivation activity was determined for two PCDD, two PCDF, and seven PCB congeners with each of the four AhR/ARNT pairs using prt1Aluc, a luciferase reporter driven by two dioxin-responsive enhancer elements (DREs) from the rainbow trout cyp1A gene. Maximal-fold induction, EC50, and relative potency values were calculated for congeners that exhibited dose-related activity in the assay. Of the four AhR/ARNT pairs tested with PCDD, PCDF, and non-ortho PCB congeners, three exhibited high activity (rainbow trout AhR2alpha, zebrafish AhR2, and human AhR), while rainbow trout AhR2beta had very weak or no activity. Comparisons between these AhRs showed that while mono-ortho PCBs were able to activate the human AhR, they were generally ineffective in activating rainbow trout and zebrafish AhR2s. This supports the hypothesis that structural differences between mammalian and fish AhRs may account for differences in relative potencies of the mono-ortho PCBs between mammals and fish. Another important finding was a significant difference in transactivation activity between the two rainbow trout AhR2 isoforms despite the fact that they are 95% identical at the amino acid level. For all PCDD, PCDF, and PCB agonists tested, rainbow trout AhR2alpha was significantly more active than AhR2beta. However, rainbow trout AhR2beta is active as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-activated transcription factor, with enhancer elements from the mouse cyp1A gene. This suggests that AhR2beta may have evolved to serve a different physiological function than AhR2alpha in

  3. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program: Preliminary Recommendations for a Congener-Specific PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) Analysis in Regulatory Evaluation of Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Principal Investigator was Mr. Victor A. McFarland, leader of the Aquatic Bioaccumulation /Toxicology Team, CMRCG. The study was conducted under the general...eliminate foreign organic compounds or endogenous waste products may also be affected. Steroid biosynthesis and degradation, and biotransfor - mation of...sediments. The other Group 4 congeners apparenitly do not occur frequently in nature and are probably not bioaccumulated to aly great extent. 39. The

  4. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  5. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  6. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  7. Differential toxicity of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in developing sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, L.E.; Suffet, I.H.; Hose, J.E.; Bay, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    The relationship between body burden and toxicity of three individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in developing sea urchin embryos was investigated to evaluate the validity of current predictive models of PCB toxicity in an invertebrate system. Body burdens of radiolabeled PCB congeners (IUPAC-47, 77, and 153) accumulated from a seawater were used to determine median effective concentrations (EC50s) for developmental and cytogenetic effects following a 72-h exposure. Congener 47, a di-ortho-substituted tetrachlorobiphenyl, was found to be at least four times more toxic than congener 77, a non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) tetrachlorobiphenyl, with EC50s of 47 and >218 mmol/kg, respectively, using an embryo development assay. This result contradicts the structure-activity prediction of the mammalian-based toxic equivalents (TEQs) approach, demonstrating the need for an ecotoxicologic model. Congener 153, a di-ortho-substituted hexachlorobiphenyl, was virtually nontoxic in terms of developmental effects at the highest dose achievable at its limit of water solubility. Cytogenetic analysis was a more sensitive method for assessing toxicity than the embryo development assay. Dose-response relationships were established with mitotic activity being the most sensitive endpoint because the PCBs appeared to inhibit mitosis. At the highest doses, complete mitotic arrest was observed. Congener 77 was found to be at least two times more toxic than congener 153 but not as toxic as congener 47 using mitotic activity as the endpoint for toxicity. Thus, the developmental and cytogenetic endpoints ranked the toxicity of the congeners similarly, but established different EC50s.

  8. Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

  9. Levels and distribution pattern of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in razor clams Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Galicia (north-west Spain) in relation to biometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2006-11-01

    To establish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and distribution as well as their relationship to biometric parameters in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758), 15 individual samples collected from two points sited in the Islas Cies, Ría de Vigo in Galicia, Spain, collected monthly between February 2003 and April 2004, were analysed. PCBs (IUPAC No. 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180) were isolated by Soxhlet extraction. Identification and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography (electron capture detector), respectively. The isomer concentrations in E. siliqua were in the order hexachlorobiphenyls > pentachlorobiphenyls > heptachlorobiphenyls > trichlorobiphenyls > tetrachlorbiphenyls. No correlation was observed between the E. siliqua shell length and PCBs levels. The PCBs 31, 101, 105 and 153 levels were statistically related with some biometric parameters (p < 0.05). Multivariate techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) show clear seasonal differences between samples.

  10. Planar PCB Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Belisle, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment are reviewed with emphasis on biologically active congeners and fish and wildlife. Subtopics include sources and uses, chemical and biochemical properties, concentrations in field collections, lethal and sublethal effects, and recommendations for the protection of sensitive resources. All production of PCBs in the United States ceased in 1977. Of the 1.2 million tons of PCBs manufactured to date, about 65% are still in use in electrical equipment and 31% in various environmental compartments, and 4% were degraded or incinerated. The 209 PCB congeners and their metabolites show wide differences in biological effects. A significant part of the toxicity associated with commercial PCB mixtures is related to the presence of about 20 planar congeners, i.e., congeners without chlorine substitution in the ortho position. Toxic planar congeners, like other PCB congeners, have been detected in virtually all analyzed samples, regardless of collection locale. Planar PCB concentrations were usually highest in samples from near urban areas and in fat and liver tissues, filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, fish-eating birds, and carnivorous marine mammals. Adverse effects of planar PCBs on growth, survival, and reproduction are highly variable because of numerous biotic and abiotic modifiers, including interaction with other chemicals. In general, embryos and juveniles were the most sensitive stages tested to planar PCBs, and the chinook salmon, domestic chicken, mink, rhesus macaque, and laboratory white rat were among the most sensitive species. for protection of natural resources, most authorities now recommend (1) analyzation of environmental samples for planar and other potentially hazardous congeners; (2) exposure studies with representative species and specific congeners, alone and in combination with other environmental contaminants; (3) clarification of existing structure

  11. PCB 136 Atropselectively Alters Morphometric and Functional Parameters of Neuronal Connectivity in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca2+-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (−)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (−)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca2+-sensitive dye demonstrates that (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations. Similarly, (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure. PMID:24385416

  12. PCB 136 atropselectively alters morphometric and functional parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via ryanodine receptor-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D; Pessah, Isaac N; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca²⁺-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (-)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (-)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca²⁺-sensitive dye demonstrates that (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ oscillations. Similarly, (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure.

  13. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  14. New nemadectin congeners with acaricidal and nematocidal activity from Streptomyces microflavus neau3 Y-3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Ji; Xue, Chang-Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2013-10-15

    Two nemadectin congeners 1 and 2 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a mutant strain (Y-3) of Streptomyces microflavus neau3. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with data from the literature. Compound 2 possessed a 5-membered ring lactone that is unprecedented among known milbemycins and avermectins. Both compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent acaricidal activity and nematocidal activity. Especially, compound 2 demonstrated impressive acaricidal activity against adult mites with an IC50 of 2.3±0.9 μg/mL and mite eggs with an IC50 of 17.5±2.1 μg/mL and nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans with an IC50 of 0.7±0.2 μg/mL, which are higher than those of nemadectin and the known commercial acaricide and nematocide milbemycin A3/A4.

  15. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Integrated Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Active Cooling With Piezoelectric Actuator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    or nichrome (NiCr) resistors which are fabricated on the surface of a PCB substrate. The heater coil has an area of 0.25 centimeters squared and a...control the heater, a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal (generated by the DAQ board) controls a constant current source to a transistor between the...Cycle Heater Voltage Heater Lowpass Filter Current Source 9 There are three RTDs embedded in the unit under test. To make a measurement, constant

  17. Reduced cytotoxicity in PCB-exposed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells pretreated with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Murati, Teuta; Šimić, Branimir; Pleadin, Jelka; Vukmirović, Maja; Miletić, Marina; Durgo, Ksenija; Kniewald, Jasna; Kmetič, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of vitamin E (50 -150 μM) in ovary cells upon cytotoxic effects induced by two structurally distinct PCB congeners - planar "dioxin-like" PCB 77 and non-planar di-ortho-substituted PCB 153 with an emphasis on identifying differences in the mechanism of vitamin E action depending on the structure of congeners. Application of three bioassays confirmed that PCBs decrease ovarian cell proliferation with slightly profound effects of PCB 77. PCB - induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation were significant for both congeners with also more noticeable effect for PCB 77. Vitamin E pre-incubation has improved viability of cells, reduced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation induced by PCBs' treatment. Preincubation with vitamin E was more effective when cells where treated with non-planar PCB 153. Altogether, vitamin E action was protective, congener specific and more effective when ovary cells were exposed to ortho-substituted PCB congener.

  18. 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (non-Aroclor PCB-11) as a marker of non-legacy PCB contamination in marine species: comparison between Antarctic and Mediterranean bivalves.

    PubMed

    Pizzini, Sarah; Sbicego, Chiara; Corami, Fabiana; Grotti, Marco; Magi, Emanuele; Bonato, Tiziano; Cozzi, Giulio; Barbante, Carlo; Piazza, Rossano

    2017-02-06

    In this study the accumulation of the 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) in monitoring organisms from the Antarctic and Mediterranean coastal environments has been investigated. This lesser-known PCB congener, unrelated to the industrial use of commercial mixtures, continues to be generated and released into the environment mainly as an unintentional by-product of pigment manufacturing. Specimens of the filter-feeders Adamussium colbecki from Terra Nova Bay and of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum from the north-western Adriatic coasts were collected and analyzed for PCB-11 by Gas Chromatography coupled both to Low-Resolution and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LRMS, HRMS). In order to assess the influence of PCB-11 with respect to the legacy contamination, 126 PCB congeners related to the Aroclor commercial mixtures were simultaneously analyzed. PCB-11 was detected in all the samples, regardless of the species and of the geographical area, representing on average 17.6% and 15.6% of the total PCBs (n = 127) in Antarctic and Mediterranean samples, respectively. In the Adriatic area the highest concentrations were related to the influence of industrial activities or ship traffic, while the highest value found in Antarctic specimens, namely those collected in the austral summer 1997-1998, was ascribed to a local anthropogenic source. The occurrence of PCB-11 in the other samples from Terra Nova Bay may be related to Long-Range Atmospheric Transport (LRAT), facilitated by the higher volatility of the analyte compared to the heavier PCB congeners. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies are needed in order to evaluate the relative contribution of local and distant sources.

  19. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  20. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-04-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB 126 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 to 23 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate 50% lethal dose (LD50) for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1,000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low-level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster`s terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  1. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

  2. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  3. Species-Specific Differences and Structure-Activity Relationships in the Debromination of PBDE Congeners in Three Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Simon C.; Noyes, Pamela D.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there may be species-specific differences in the metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) among different fish species. In this study, we investigated the in vitro hepatic metabolism of eleven individual PBDE congeners (tri- through decaBDEs) in three different fish species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Chinook salmon (O. tschwatcha). In addition, we evaluated the influence of PBDE structural characteristics (i.e., bromine substitution patterns) on metabolism. Six of the eleven congeners we evaluated, BDEs 99, 153, 183, 203, 208, and 209, were metabolically debrominated to lower brominated congeners. All of the congeners that were metabolized contained at least one meta-substituted bromine. Metabolites were not detected for congeners without one meta-substituted bromine (e.g., BDEs 28, 47, and 100). Metabolite formation rates were generally 10–100 times faster in carp than in trout and salmon. BDEs 47, 49, 101, 154, and 183 were the major metabolites observed in all three species with the exception of BDE 47, which was only detected in carp. Carp demonstrated a preference towards meta-debromination, while trout and salmon debrominated meta- and para- bromine atoms to an equal extent. We compared glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and deiodinase (DI) activity among all three species as these enzyme systems have been hypothesized to play a role in PBDE debromination among teleosts. Carp exhibited a preference for meta-deiodination of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which was consistent with the preference for meta-debromination of PBDEs observed in carp. PMID:21291240

  4. Environmental occurrence, abundance, and potential toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners: considerations for a congener-specific analysis.

    PubMed

    McFarland, V A; Clarke, J U

    1989-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as environmental contaminants often cannot be adequately described by reference to Aroclors or to total PCBs. Although there are 209 possible PCB configurations (congeners), perhaps half that number account for nearly all of the environmental contamination attributable to PCBs. Still fewer congeners are both prevalent and either demonstrably or potentially toxic. If potential toxicity, environmental prevalence, and relative abundance in animal tissues are used as criteria, the number of environmentally threatening PCB congeners reduces to about thirty-six. Twenty-five of these account for 50 to 75% of total PCBs in tissue samples of fish, invertebrates, birds, and mammals. A few PCB congeners that are sterically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) are directly toxic. Other PCB congeners, as well as those that are directly toxic, may also be involved in toxicity indirectly by stimulating the production of (inducing) bioactivating enzyme systems. The most consequential of these have the ability to induce aryl hydrocarbon metabolizing mixed-function oxidases (MFOs). A result can be an increased capacity for bioactivation of otherwise nontoxic foreign compounds such as certain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to cytotoxic or genotoxic metabolites. The effectiveness of specific PCB congeners as inducers of different types of cytochrome P-450-dependent MFO systems is determined by their stereochemistry. Although MFO induction is not a proximate cause, it is a strong correlate of certain kinds of toxicities. Structural patterns can thus be used to discriminate among PCB congeners on the basis of toxic potential, if not entirely on toxicity per se. Congeners that demonstrate 3-methylcholanthrene-type (3-MC-type) and mixed-type MFO induction have the greatest toxic potential. These congeners most closely resemble 2,3,7,8-TCDD in their structures and in their toxic effects. The larger group of phenobarbital

  5. Differential effects of two lots of aroclor 1254: congener-specific analysis and neurochemical end points.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, P R; Kannan, N; Yamashita, N; Derr-Yellin, E C; Ward, T R; Burgin, D E; Tilson, H A; Birnbaum, L S

    2001-11-01

    Aroclor 1254 is a widely studied commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture which, by definition, contains 54% chlorine by weight. Recent reports indicate substantial differences in the congener composition among Aroclor lots and hence their biologic effects. We designed the current study to compare the effects of two lots of Aroclor 1254 (lots 6024 and 124-191). We analyzed these two lots for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). We used previously established techniques for analyzing intracellular Ca(2+) buffering and protein kinase C (PKC) translocation to test their biologic activity in neuronal preparations. PCB congener-specific analysis indicated that ortho and non-ortho congeners in these two lots varied in their percent contribution. Among all congeners, the percentages of non-ortho congeners (PCBs 77, 81, 126, and 169) were higher in lot 6024 (2.9% of total) than in lot 124-191 (0.02% of total). We detected no dioxins in these two lots (< 2 ppb). Although there are some differences in the congener composition, total PCNs were similar in both lots: 171 ppm in lot 6024 and 155 ppm in lot 124-191. However, total PCDFs were higher in lot 6024 (38.7 ppm) than in lot 124-191 (11.3 ppm). When we tested these two Aroclors on Ca(2+) buffering and PKC translocation in brain preparations, the effects were significantly different. Although lot 124-191 was more potent on PKC translocation than lot 6024, lot 6024 was slightly more active on Ca(2+) buffering than lot 124-191. These effects could not be attributed to the differences in the percentage of non-ortho congeners or PCDFs because they were inactive on these two parameters. The effects could not be attributed to PCNs because the levels were almost similar. The effects seen with two lots of Aroclor 1254 in neuronal cells were also not predicted based on the TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), although TEQs predicted

  6. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/ degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5 to 3.0V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40–60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O2 was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O2. Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  7. Electrical stimulation of microbial PCB degradation in sediment.

    PubMed

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B; Sowers, Kevin R; May, Harold D

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5-3.0 V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40-60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O(2) was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O(2). Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  8. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V.; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum Halling, Jonrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Brosen, Kim

    2007-10-15

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6{beta}-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6{beta}-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6{beta}-OHC/FC ratios and {sigma}PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only.

  10. 5th International PCB Workshop--summary and implications.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, L S; Staskal-Wikoff, D S

    2010-11-01

    A summation of new and novel findings presented at "The Fifth PCB Workshop: New Knowledge Gained from Old Pollutants" workshop is provided in this overview, along with discussion of data gaps and research needs in the future. Relative to the previous workshop, the scientific presentations had a decreased emphasis on toxicology; rather, more than half of the sessions dealt with environmental sources, fate and transport, or transformations. Approximately 100 presentations in the form of talks and posters were included in the workshop. The presentations were generally divided into: emissions and transport of PCBs in natural and urban settings; chiral aspects of PCB transport; metabolism and distribution; new aspects of environmental metabolism of PCBs--from microbes to plants to animals; reproduction, developmental and cardiovascular effects of PCBs; updates on Anniston--the most highly exposed PCB community in the U.S. to date; and new and novel approaches for evaluating PCB mixtures (e.g., PCB toxic equivalency factors, and TEFs)--and the implications of such for risk assessment. An overarching state-of-the-science view is important to the goal of preventing negative health consequences. Currently, there are still many roadblocks to evaluating risk associated with this large group of 209 congeners--all of which have different physiochemical properties, variable fate and transport mechanism in the environment, and a range of ability for persistence, bioaccumulation, and biological activity.

  11. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysulfide caulk. The PCB-free panels were coated with the same materials but they were not spiked with PCBs. The dust was weighed and spread on the panels as evenly as possible. The dust on each panel was collected at different times to determine its PCB content. The dust data collected from the PCB panels were used to evaluate the PCB migration from the source to the dust through direct contact, and the data from the PCB-free panels were used to evaluate the sorption of PCBs through the dust/air partition. Settled dust can adsorb PCBs from air. The sorption concentration was dependent on the congener concentration in the air and favored less volatile congeners. When the house dust was in direct contact with a primary source, PCBs migrated into the dust at a much faster rate than the PCB transfer rate due to the dust/air partition. Unlike the dust/air partition, the dust/source partition was not significantly affected by the volatility of the congener. This research is important to decision makers, environmental engineers, and researchers who are concerned with risk assessment and risk management for PCB contamination.

  12. Strain and sex differences in repeated ethanol treatment-induced motor activity in quasi-congenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sershen, H; Hashim, A; Vadasz, C

    2002-08-01

    The B6.C quasi-congenic Recombinant QTL Introgression (RQI) strains of the b4i5 series have similar genetic background, but differ in about 5% of their genome from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) background strain because they carry short chromosome segments introgressed from the BALB/cJ (C) donor strain. These RQI strains were derived from mouse lines selectively bred for high activity of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH/MES), therefore genetic variation in dopamine system-related behaviours, such as ethanol-induced motor activity, can be expected. Males and females of 17 RQI and two progenitor strains were tested for initial motor activity for 15 min after a habituating injection of saline, which was followed by an i.p. injection of saline or ethanol (2 g/kg) and an additional test of motor activity for 30 min. This procedure was repeated during 4 subsequent days. In all strains, the first-day ethanol treatment showed an inhibitory effect. With repetition of the treatment the inhibitory effect decreased, and a stimulatory effect could be observed with significant strain- and sex-dependent variation. Females exhibited higher activity in the saline group than males, and reached an equilibrium of inhibition and stimulation sooner than males with repetition of the ethanol treatment. The highest (> 25-fold) difference in activity after repeated ethanol treatment was detected between females of the two strains B6.Cb4i5-Alpha4/Vad and B6.Cb4i5-Beta13/Vad. These results firstly suggest that females are more sensitive to repeated ethanol exposure than males, secondly they support the observations that ethanol has both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on motor activity, which are affected by sex, genotype, and repetition of treatment, and thirdly offer new quasi-congenic animal models with highly different responses to ethanol allowing one to more quickly move to gene detection.

  13. Effects of Natural Organic Matter on PCB-Activated Carbon Sorption Kinetics: Implications for Sediment Capping Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ capping of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments with layers of sorbents such as activated carbon has been proposed, but several technical questions remain regarding long-term effectiveness. An activated carbon amended sediment cap was mimicked in laborat...

  14. Effect of PCB's on plasma vitamin A (retinol) and hepatic retinyl palmitate hydrolase (RPH) activity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, R.H.; Gilbert, L.C.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-05-01

    A single i.p. dose of 15, 5 or 1 mg/kg 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) caused a dose-dependent depression of plasma retinol levels 24 hours after treatment of female Sprague-Dawley rats. The loss of plasma retinol appeared to be a function of depressed levels of the retinol-retinol binding protein (RBP)-transthyretin ternary complex. No free retinol-RBP was observed in plasma from treated animals. Hepatic RPH activity was also depressed, and highly and positively correlated to the plasma retinol levels. TCB was determined to be a non-competitive inhibitor of partially purified RPH with a KI of 91 uM. Metabolism of TCB by microsomes in vitro decreased the inhibition of RPH. Equimolar doses of either 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-HCB failed to cause a similar depression of plasma retinol of treated female rats. They conclude that, unlike other PCB congeners, TCB causes a depression of plasma retinol by inhibition of hepatic RPH.

  15. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  16. Low-Chlorinated Non-Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Present in Blood and Breast Milk Induce Higher Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neutrophil Granulocytes than High-Chlorinated Congeners.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Fonnum, Frode; Walaas, Sven Ivar; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-12-01

    Despite their ban several decades ago, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still pose a health threat to human beings due to their persistent and accumulative nature and continued presence in the environment. Non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs have earlier been found to have effects on the immune system, including human neutrophil granulocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between ortho-chlorinated NDL-PCBs with a low or high degree of chlorination in their capability to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We used some of the congeners occurring at the highest levels in blood, breast milk and food: PCB 52 representing the low-chlorinated congeners and PCB 180 the high-chlorinated congeners. In addition, the extensively studied PCB 153 was included as a reference compound. ROS production was assessed with the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and DCF fluorescence assays. The involvement of intracellular signalling mechanisms was investigated using different pharmacological substances. At high concentrations (10-20 μM), PCB 52 induced more ROS than PCB 153 and PCB 180. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and/or ERK 5 signalling in PCB-induced ROS production was implicated through the reduction in ROS in the presence of the specific inhibitor U0126, whereas reduced ROS production after the use of SB203580 and SP600125 indicated the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, respectively. In addition, the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and the antioxidant vitamin E reduced the levels of ROS. The intracellular signalling mechanisms involved in ROS production in human neutrophil granulocytes appeared to be similar for PCB 52, PCB 153 and PCB 180. Based on the results from the present and previous studies, we conclude that for abundant ortho-chlorinated PCBs

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of PCB atropisomers is present in technical PCB mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective distribution, metabolism, and dispo...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about 1/60 of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCB in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and three sets of co-eluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. Our results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  20. Biodynamic modeling of PCB uptake by Macoma balthica and Corbicula fluminea from sediment amended with activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, Pamela B.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon amendment was assessed in the laboratory as a remediation strategy for freshwater sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Grasse River (near Massena, NY). Three end points were evaluated: aqueous equilibrium PCB concentration, uptake into semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and 28-day bioaccumulation in the clam Corbicula fluminea. PCB uptake by water, SPMDs, and clams followed similar trends, with reductions increasing as a function of carbon dose. Average percent reductions in clam tissue PCBs were 67, 86, and 95% for activated carbon doses of 0.7, 1.3, and 2.5% dry wt, respectively. A biodynamic model that incorporates sediment geochemistry and dietary and aqueous uptake routes was found to agree well with observed uptake by C. fluminea in our laboratory test systems. Results from this study were compared to 28-day bioaccumulation experiments involving PCB-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (San Francisco Bay, CA) and the clam Macoma balthica. Due to differences in feeding strategy, M. balthica deposit-feeds whereas C. fluminea filter-feeds, the relative importance of the aqueous uptake route is predicted to be much higher for C. fluminea than for M. balthica. Whereas M. balthica takes up approximately 90% of its body burden through sediment ingestion, C. fluminea only accumulates approximately 45% via this route. In both cases, results strongly suggest that it is the mass transfer of PCBs from native sediment to added carbon particles, not merely reductions in aqueous PCB concentrations, that effectively reduces PCB bioavailability and uptake by sediment-dwelling organisms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  1. Biodynamic modeling of PCB uptake by Macoma balthica and Corbicula fluminea from sediment amended with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Pamela B; Luoma, Samuel N; Luthy, Richard G

    2008-01-15

    Activated carbon amendment was assessed in the laboratory as a remediation strategy for freshwater sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Grasse River (near Massena, NY). Three end points were evaluated: aqueous equilibrium PCB concentration, uptake into semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and 28-day bioaccumulation in the clam Corbicula fluminea. PCB uptake by water, SPMDs, and clams followed similar trends, with reductions increasing as a function of carbon dose. Average percent reductions in clam tissue PCBs were 67, 86, and 95% for activated carbon doses of 0.7, 1.3, and 2.5% dry wt, respectively. A biodynamic model that incorporates sediment geochemistry and dietary and aqueous uptake routes was found to agree well with observed uptake by C. fluminea in our laboratory test systems. Results from this study were compared to 28-day bioaccumulation experiments involving PCB-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (San Francisco Bay, CA) and the clam Macoma balthica. Due to differences in feeding strategy, M. balthica deposit-feeds whereas C. fluminea filter-feeds, the relative importance of the aqueous uptake route is predicted to be much higher for C. fluminea than for M. balthica. Whereas M. balthica takes up approximately 90% of its body burden through sediment ingestion, C. fluminea only accumulates approximately 45% via this route. In both cases, results strongly suggest that it is the mass transfer of PCBs from native sediment to added carbon particles, not merely reductions in aqueous PCB concentrations, that effectively reduces PCB bioavailability and uptake by sediment-dwelling organisms.

  2. The influence of the lpr gene on B cell activation: differential antibody expression in lpr congenic mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Warren, R W; Caster, S A; Roths, J B; Murphy, E D; Pisetsky, D S

    1984-04-01

    Spontaneous immunoglobulin production in four strains of lpr/lpr congenic mice was investigated to identify genetic interactions in lpr-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Sera were obtained from male and female lpr/lpr mice of the MRL, B6, C3H, and AKR strains as well as controls of +/+ genotypes. Antibody levels were compared at the time of peak response. Quantitative antibody determinations were performed by isotype-specific ELISA assays using responses to single-stranded DNA (sDNA), mouse IgG, rabbit IgG, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin as models. Among the strains studied there were significant differences in the antibody levels observed, with the strain producing highest levels dependent on the response measured. Thus, MRL-lpr/lpr produced the highest levels of IgG anti-sDNA while B6-lpr/lpr mice produced more anti-IgG than mice of other strains. Within each strain, the lpr gene appeared to affect the IgG more than the IgM response. A consistently high response by females was observed only in B6-lpr/lpr mice. These studies suggest that lpr-induced polyclonal B cell activation is influenced by the background genome with the extent of these genetic effects variable among responses.

  3. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}. ► PCB

  4. Levels of specific polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in fatty foods from five Canadian cities between 1986 and 1988.

    PubMed

    Mes, J; Newsome, W H; Conacher, H B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 155 fatty food composites from five major Canadian cities were analysed for 36 selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PCB congener levels of more than 1 ng/g (wet weight) were found in fresh water fish, canned fish, butter, marine fish and cheese, with fresh water fish (18.7 ng/g) containing 5 to 10 times more total PCBs than the other four food commodities. Milk (2%), cooking oils/salads and canned meat soup contained less than 0.1 ng/g (wet weight). The observed total PCB residue levels in fatty foods were well within the Canadian guidelines for fish, dairy products, poultry, eggs and beef. The most predominant congeners found in fish, butter, cheese, meat and poultry were the 2,2',4,4',5-, 2,3',4,4', 5-pentachloro-, 2,2',3,4,4',5'-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro- and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyls. The predominant congener pattern was not always evident in other dairy products (e.g. ice cream) and processed foods (e.g. canned meat soup). An attempt was made to relate the intake of PCB congeners from fatty foods with congener levels found in adipose tissue of Canadians. The estimated daily intake of some specific PCB congeners from fatty foods, in most cases accounted for more than half the total deposit of these congeners in adipose tissue of Canadians.

  5. Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl congener distribution in an aquatic predator-prey, host-parasite system.

    PubMed

    Persson, Maria E; Larsson, Per; Stenroth, Patrik

    2007-05-01

    Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener distribution was examined in a predator-prey, host-parasite system, in which Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preyed upon sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Eubothrium crassum was an intestinal parasite in salmon that also "preyed upon" sprat, because the parasites gained access to foodstuffs via the host (salmon) gut. Salmon contained significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs compared to both parasites and prey (sprat), but no difference in PCB concentration was found between sprat and E. crassum. Salmon biomagnified several PCB congeners from their diet (sprat), whereas parasites did not, despite the fact that both salmon and their parasites ingested the same prey. Differences in nutrient uptake mechanisms between the host and their parasites, in addition to the lack of a gastrointestinal tract in the cestode, may explain the lack of biomagnification in E. crassum. No difference was found in PCB congener distribution between parasites, salmon, and sprat, and none of the animal types showed a preference for accumulating more or less lipophilic congeners (congeners with a high or low octanol/water partition coefficient [K(ow)]). Biomagnification factors for individual congeners in salmon did not increase with K(ow); rather, they were constant, as shown by a linear relationship for congener concentration in prey and predator.

  6. Evidence of latitudinal fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners along the Baltic Sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Agrell, C.; Okla, L.; Larsson, P.; Backe, C.; Wania, F.

    1999-04-15

    Annual cycles of the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were determined at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990 and 1993. The concentration levels of individual congeners were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient temperature, and geographical location. Median levels of PCBs were similar at all stations except at one urban site near Riga. A latitudinal gradient with higher levels in the south was found for the sum of PCB as well as for individual congeners, and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentrations increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites.

  7. Passenger mutations and aberrant gene expression in congenic tissue plasminogen activator-deficient mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, R.; Samson, A. L.; Lawrence, D. A.; Medcalf, R. L.; Bugge, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The ability to generate defined null mutations in mice revolutionized the analysis of gene function in mammals. However, gene-deficient mice generated by using 129-derived embryonic stem cells may carry large segments of 129 DNA, even when extensively backcrossed to reference strains, such as C57BL/6J, and this may confound interpretation of experiments performed in these mice. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), encoded by the PLAT gene, is a fibrinolytic serine protease that is widely expressed in the brain. A number of neurological abnormalities have been reported in tPA-deficient mice. Objectives To study genetic contamination of tPA-deficient mice. Materials and methods Whole genome expression array analysis, RNAseq expression profiling, low- and high-density SNP analysis, bioinformatics, and genome editing was used to analyze gene expression in tPA-deficient mouse brains. Results and conclusions Genes differentially expressed in the brain of Plat−/− mice from two independent colonies highly backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain clustered near Plat on chromosome 8. SNP analysis attributed this anomaly to about 20 Mbp of DNA flanking Plat being of 129 origin in both strains. Bioinformatic analysis of these 129-derived chromosomal segments identified a significant number of mutations in genes co-segregating with the targeted Plat allele, including several potential null mutations. Using zinc finger nuclease technology, we generated novel “passenger mutation”-free isogenic C57BL/6J-Plat−/− and FVB/NJ-Plat−/− mouse strains by introducing an 11 bp deletion in the exon encoding the signal peptide. These novel mouse strains will be a useful community resource for further exploration of tPA function in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27079292

  8. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-10-01

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from thirteen caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 different models from five manufacturers were tested in 53-L environmental chambers. The rates of PCB congener emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts were determined. Several factors that may have affected the emission rates were evaluated. The experimentally determined emission factors showed that, for a given PCB congener, there is a linear correlation between the emission factor and the concentration of the PCB congener in the source. Furthermore, the test results showed that an excellent log-linear correlation exists between the normalized emission factor and the vapor pressure (coefficient of determination, r(2)⩾0.8846). The PCB congener emissions from ballasts at or near room temperature were relatively low with or without electrical load. However, the PCB congener emission rates increased significantly as the temperature increased. The results of this research provide new data and models for ranking the primary sources of PCBs and supports the development and refinement of exposure assessment models for PCBs.

  9. DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS (SELENIUM & N-ACETYLCYSTEINE) MODULATE PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) IN PCB126-EXPOSED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K.; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and glutathione (GSH), but also increases levels of the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups, but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (TBARS), an indicator for lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity, but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in the controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting antioxidant activity by NAC primarily in serum. These

  10. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  11. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  12. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and chlorinated pesticides in a fish tissue standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Kucklick, John R; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Leigh, Stefan D; Wise, Stephen A

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of a wide range of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a fish tissue Standard Reference Material (SRM) have been determined using multiple methods of analysis. This material, SRM 1946, Lake Superior Fish Tissue, was recently issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and complements a suite of marine environmental natural-matrix SRMs that are currently available from NIST for the determination of organic contaminants such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides. SRM 1946 is a fresh tissue homogenate (frozen) prepared from filleted adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) collected from the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior. SRM 1946 has certified and reference concentrations for PCB congeners, including the three non- ortho PCB congeners, and chlorinated pesticides. Certified concentrations are available for 30 PCB congeners and 15 chlorinated pesticides. Reference concentrations are available for 12 PCB congeners and 2 chlorinated pesticides. In addition, SRM 1946 is characterized for additional chemical constituents and properties: fatty acids, extractable fat, methylmercury, total mercury, selected trace elements, proximates, and caloric content. The characterization of chlorinated compounds is described in this paper with an emphasis on the approach used for the certification of the concentrations of PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides. The PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide data are also compared to concentrations in other marine natural-matrix reference materials available from NIST (fish oil, mussel tissue, whale blubber, and a second fresh frozen fish tissue homogenate prepared from filleted adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan) and from other organizations such as the National Research Council Canada (ground whole carp), the International Atomic Energy Agency (fish homogenate), and the

  13. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjiang; Yang, Jixin; Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao; Yang, Kedi

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  14. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  15. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species` diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Caspian terns than in the other species. Overall, PCBs in eggs of birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  16. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Caspian terns than in the other species. Overall, PCBs in eggs of birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  17. Minding the Calcium Store: Ryanodine Receptor Activation as a Convergent Mechanism of PCB Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pessah, Isaac N.; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Lein, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low level polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposures remain a significant public health concern since results from epidemiological studies indicate PCB burden is associated with immune system dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and impairment of the developing nervous system. Of these various adverse health effects, developmental neurotoxicity has emerged as a particularly vulnerable endpoint in PCB toxicity. Arguably the most pervasive biological effects of PCBs could be mediated by their ability to alter the spatial and temporal fidelity of Ca2+ signals through one or more receptor mediated processes. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the structure and function of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in muscle and nerve cells and how PCBs and related non-coplanar structures alter these functions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which non-coplanar PCBs and related structures alter local and global Ca2+ signaling properties and the possible short and long-term consequences of these perturbations on neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration are reviewed. PMID:19931307

  18. Mixed-function oxidase enzyme activity and oxidative stress in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126)

    SciTech Connect

    Palace, V.P.; Klaverkamp, J.F.; Lockhart, W.L. |; Metner, D.A.; Muir, D.C.G.; Brown, S.B.

    1996-06-01

    Juvenile lake trout were intraperitoneally injected with corn oil containing nominal concentrations of 0, 0.6, 6.3, or 25 {micro}g [{sup 14}C]-3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) per gram of body weight. The PCB-126 accumulated in liver in a dose-dependent manner to a sustained concentration by 6 weeks and remained elevated for the 30-week experimental period. Mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme activity was elevated in the two highest dose groups relative to the control group, but not in the low-dose group throughout the 30 weeks. Oxidative stress, measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test, was correlated with ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and was elevated in liver of the two highest PCB dose groups but not the low-dose group. The activities of the enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected by PCB-126 exposure. The nonenzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected by PCB-126 exposure. The nonenzymatic antioxidant tocopherol was depleted to approximately 75% of the control concentration in liver of all three PCB-dosed groups. Hepatic ascorbic acid levels were not different in any of the treatment groups. Retinol was depleted by greater than an order of magnitude in liver of the two highest dose groups but not in the los-dose group. This study demonstrates a correlation between hepatic MFO activity and oxidative stress in PCB-exposed lake trout. Tocopherol and retinol may be important mediators of oxidative stress but additional study is required to confirm the antioxidant activity of retinol.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  1. PCB contamination in soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China: levels, sources, and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Wan, Hongfu

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tropical and sub-tropical areas and the associated risks have attracted great concern. A total of 69 samples representing five distinct land types were collected to assess PCB concentrations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, including spatial distributions in soils of the area, the probable anthropogenic sources, and related potential risks. PCBs concentrations in soils of the PRD ranged from 0.3 to 202 ng g(-1). More severe PCBs contamination was presented in the western part than in the eastern part of the PRD region. The PCBs were dominated by low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, the proportion of higher-chlorinated biphenyls was elevated with the influence of industrial activities. Principal component analysis indicated that PCBs contamination in soils of the PRD region was mainly associated with 1#PCBs, while 2#PCB and e-waste emission in South China also accounted for it partly, especially to the industrial activity severely impacted areas. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the dioxin-like PCBs in the soils indicated that higher risk of PCB contamination was presented in the Dongjiang River Valley (55 ng TEQ kg(-1), on average) than in the Xijiang River Valley, and were mostly contributed by the congener of PCB126.

  2. The influence of biotransformation on the biomagnification of polychlorobiphenyl congeners in marine mammals and birds

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    Results of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments and comparisons of PCB-patterns of prey and predator of field data from the North Sea are presented to explain the influence of biotransformation of PCB congeners on their biomagnification in lung-breathing marine predators. Persistent congeners are taken up proportionally to their relative contribution in prey organisms. Hence molecular descriptors do not play any role here. Metabolizability depends on the presence of vicinal hydrogen atoms and the number of ortho-Cl substituents. The maximum number ortho-Cl atoms still allowing biotransformation differs between seals, cetaceans and seabirds. The majority of congeners with a strong affinity for the Ah-receptor are metabolized in marine mammals, leaving the important question whether the observed effects on reproduction are due to parent compounds or metabolites. Starvation leads to a relative decrease of the metabolizable congeners in the overall pattern.

  3. Toxic congener-specific analysis of PCBs: assessment of toxicity in equivalents of TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Olafsson, P.G.; Bryan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution capillary gas chromatographic analysis of the polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) present in snapping turtle eggs, provided quantitative data on selected toxic congeners. The concentrations of these congeners have been converted into equivalent toxic concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD). The toxic equivalent factors (TEFs), necessary to effect this transformation were derived from EC/sub 50/ values (half the concentration of the toxic congener required to produce the maximum effect) for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction associated with the corresponding toxic PCB congener or isomer. Summation of the resulting toxic equivalents provided a composite assessment of the toxicity of the PCB mixture in terms of an equivalent concentration of TCDD.

  4. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Lars; Penell, Johanna; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, P. Monica

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Somiranjan; De, Supriyo; Chen, Yongqing; Sutton, Darryl C.; Ayorinde, Folahan O.; Dutta, Sisir K.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of congener specific cellular absorption of PCBs is important to the study of the organ specific body burden of an individual and to their toxic effects. We have previously demonstrated that single PCB congeners induce cytotoxicity, as evidenced by decreased cellular viability and accelerated apoptotic death. There is very little, if any, information available on the differences in toxicity due to the nature of absorption of PCBs in different cells. To obtain such information human liver (HepG2) cells (in medium with 10% FBS) were exposed to 70μM of both PCB-153 (non-coplanar hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB-77 (coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl), and human kidney (HK2) cells in serum free medium were exposed to 80 and 40 μM of PCB-153 and PCB-77 respectively, according to their LC50 values in these cells. Medium and cells were collected separately at each time interval from 30 minutes to 48 hours, and PCB concentrations were analyzed in both by GC-MS using biphenyl as an internal standard following hexane: acetone (50:50) extraction. We also performed trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopic studies in assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death. About 40% of PCB-153 (35 μM, 50% of the maximum value) was detected in HepG2 cells within 30 minutes, and it reached its highest concentration at 6 hours (60 μM), concomitant with the PCB depletion in the medium (5μM). For PCB-77, the highest concentrations within the cells were reached at 3 hours. However, the absorption levels of PCB-153 and PCB-77 in HK2 cells reached their peaks at 3 and 6 hours respectively. Exposure of human liver and kidney cells to PCB-153 and PCB-77 caused accelerated apoptotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. The studies demonstrated that (1) liver cells initiate the absorption of PCBs much faster than kidney cells; however, the concentration reaches its maximum level much earlier in kidney cells; (2) both PCB-153 and PCB-77 induced enhanced

  6. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Ludewig, G.

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  7. Sampling the Hudson River estuary for PCBs using multiplate artificial substrate samplers and congener-specific gas chromatography in 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B. . Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY . School of Public Health); Dzurica, S. . School of Public Health); Wood, L.; Madrigal, E.C. . Wadsworth Center for Labs. and Research)

    1994-08-01

    During the summer of 1991, multiplate artificial substrate samplers were deployed at five locations in the Hudson River from Troy to Poughkeepsie, New York. The sedimentary material that collected on these plates was fractionated and analyzed using a congener-specific method for PCB content. The results were compared intrasite, intersite, and across time. The authors found no difference between the PCB congener distribution patterns in the coarse and fine fractions, as determined by linear regression. They also found little evidence of intersite differentiation--they found no discernible difference in PCB congener distribution, but they did find a difference in magnitude. The 1991 results were then compared to the results from a previous study conducted from 1977 to 1985. They found that over the studied 120 km stretch of the river there has been a 3.7 [+-] 1.2% per annum decline in PCB multiplate residue since 1983.

  8. Effects of activated carbon ageing in three PCB contaminated sediments: Sorption efficiency and secondary effects on Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Inna; Waissi-Leinonen, Greta; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Werner, David; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2015-11-15

    The sorption efficiency and possible secondary effects of activated carbon (AC) (ø 63-200 μm) was studied with Lumbriculus variegatus in three PCB contaminated sediments applying long AC-sediment contact time (3 years). AC amendment efficiently reduced PCB bioavailability as determined with both, L. variegatus bioaccumulation test and passive samplers. However, dose related secondary effects of AC on egestion rate and biomass were observed (applied doses 0.25% and 2.5% sediment dry weight). The sorption capacity and secondary effects remained similar when the experiments were repeated after three years of AC-sediment contact time. Further, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples revealed morphological changes in the L. variegatus gut wall microvilli layer. Sediment properties affected both sorption efficiency and secondary effects, but 2.5% AC addition had significant effects regardless of the sediment. In, conclusion, AC is an efficient and stable sorbent to decrease the bioavailability of PCBs. However, sediment dwelling organisms, such as Oligochaete worms in this study, may be sensitive to the carbon amendments. The secondary effects and possible morphological changes in benthic organisms should not be overlooked as in many cases they form the basis of the aquatic food webs.

  9. How much do PCB toxic equivalents account for PHAH toxicity in predatory birds?

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Murk, A J; Van den Berg, H; Walker, Lee A; Shore, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Various diffuse polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) exert common toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Apex predators spatially and temporally integrate diffuse contamination and simultaneous exposure can cause additive toxicity. We investigated the extent to which PCBs, still amongst the most prevalent PHAHs accumulated by predators, accounted for total PHAH toxicity in raptors and fish eating birds from Britain. We analysed egg or liver extracts from six species and compared chemically determined ΣPCB-TEQs concentrations with total AhR-mediated toxicity determined using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX-TEQ). Dioxin-like PCB profiles in eggs and livers were dominated by congeners 118, 105 and 167. ΣPCB-TEQ and CALUX-TEQ concentrations were positively associated but not in a 1:1 relationship. ΣPCB-TEQ were broadly similar to CALUX-TEQ concentrations in eggs and livers with CALUX-TEQ concentrations >50-80 and 160-320 pg g(-1) lipid respectively, but were lower than CALUX-TEQ concentrations in less contaminated samples.

  10. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in shark livers from the north-western African Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, R.; Fernandez, M.A.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been widely used by industry throughout the world since 1930. Although their use has been banned in many countries since the late 1970s, they still represent an important class of priority pollutants due to their persistence. Most open uses of these chemicals have been severely curtailed in industrialized nations, but a considerable fraction of past productions is probably still cycling in the ecosphere. In recent years, attention has been focused on the toxicity of PCBs, especially of those congeners showing similar toxicity as the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been shown that PCB congeners` toxicity largely depends on the chlorine substitution pattern. The most toxic PCB cogeners are those with two para chlorines, at least two meta chlorines and 0-2 ortho chlorines. These so-called {open_quotes}coplanar{close_quotes} (non- mono- and di-ortho) PCB cogeners are able to obtain planar conformation. Recently, toxic equivalence factors have been assigned to coplanar PCBs. Thus determination of individual PCB cogeners is important for evaluating the toxic potentials of PCB residues in, for example, wildlife. This paper presents preliminary results of a study looking at levels of PCB congeners, including coplanar ones, in the liver of six shark species, collected in the North African Atlantic Ocean. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Effect of surfactant solubilization on biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas LB400.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, K A; Backus, S M; Ward, O P

    1999-08-01

    A variety of commercial surfactants were tested to determine their effect on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation by Pseudomonas LB400. Initial tests determined that most surfactants were fully or partially able to solubilize the PCB congeners 2,5,2'-chlorobiphenyl (CBP), 2,4,2',4'-CBP, 2,3,5,2',5'-CBP and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-CBP, at concentrations above the surfactants' critical micelle concentration (CMC). Surfactants were also found to have no negative effect on bacterial survival, as cell numbers were the same or higher after incubation in the presence of surfactants than after incubation without surfactants. A comparison of the extent of biotransformation of single PCB congeners by the bacterium revealed that, at surfactant concentrations above the CMC, the presence of an anionic surfactant promoted while nonionic surfactants inhibited PCB transformation, compared to a control with no surfactant. The rates of transformation of PCB congeners were also higher in the presence of the anionic surfactant compared to the control. The inhibitory effects of a nonionic surfactant, Igepal CO-630 at a concentration above its CMC, on transformation of 2,4,5,2',5'-CBP could be eliminated by diluting the surfactant/PCB solution to a concentration close to the surfactant CMC.

  12. PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Observation of an Unusual Electronically Distorted Semiquinone Radical of PCB Metabolites in the Active Site of Prostaglandin H Synthase-2

    PubMed Central

    Wangpradit, Orarat; Moman, Edelmiro; Nolan, Kevin B.; Buettner, Garry R.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    The activation of the metabolites of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into highly reactive radicals is of fundamental importance. We found that human recombinant prostaglandin H synthase-2 (hPGHS-2) biotransforms dihydroxy-PCBs, such as 4-chlorobiphenyl-2′,5′-hydroquinone (4-CB-2′,5′H2Q), into semiquinone radicals via one-electron oxidation. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we observed the formation of the symmetric quartet spectrum (1:3:3:1 by area) of 4-chlorobiphenyl-2′,5′-semiquinone radical (4-CB-2′,5′-SQ•−) from 4-CB-2′,5′H2Q. This spectrum changed to an asymmetric spectrum with time: the change can be explained as the overlap of two different semiquinone radical species. Hindered rotation of the 4-CB-2′,5′-SQ•− appears not to be a major factor for the change in lineshape because increasing the viscosity of the medium with glycerol produced no significant change in lineshape. Introduction of a fluorine, which increases the steric hindrance for rotation of the dihydroxy-PCB studied, also produced no significant changes. An in silico molecular docking model of 4-CB-2′,5′H2Q in the peroxidase site of hPGHS-2 together with ab initio quantum mechanical studies indicate that the close proximity of a negatively charged carboxylic acid in the peroxidase active site may be responsible for the observed perturbation in the spectrum. This study provides new insights into the formation of semiquinones from PCB metabolites and underscores the potential role of PGHS-2 in the metabolic activation of PCBs. PMID:20843536

  14. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK).

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, P K; Robertson, L W; Ludewig, G

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism.

  15. PCB153 reduces Telomerase Activity and Telomere Length in Immortalized Human Skin Kerantinocytes (HaCaT) but not in Human Foreskin Keratinocytes (NFK)

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Ludewig, G.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. PMID:22210444

  16. Developmental toxicity of PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Rice, C.P.; Eisemann, J.D.; Hines, R.K.; Spann, J.W.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Planar PCB congeners are embryotoxic and teratogenic to birds including American kestrels. The developmental toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was studied in the post-hatching kestrel as a model for the eagle. Nestlings were orally dosed for 10 days with 5 ul/g body weight of corn oil (controls) or the planar PCB 126 at concentrations of 50, 250, or 1000 ng/g body weight. Dosing with 50 ng/g of PCB 126 resulted in a hepatic concentration of 156 ng/g w.w., liver enlargement and mild coagulative necrosis, and over ten-fold increases in hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), and approximately a 5-fold increase in methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MROD). At this dose, mild to moderate lymphoid depletion of the spleen was apparent, and decreased follicle size and content of the thyroid. At 250 ng/g, concentration of PCB 126 in the liver was 380 ng/g with increasing multifocal coagulative necrosis, decreased bone growth, decreased spleen weight with lymphocyte depletion of the spleen and bursa, and degenerative lesions of the thyroid. At 1000 ng/g, the liver concentration was 1098 ng/g, accompanied by decreased bursa weight, decreased hepatic thiol concentration and increased plasma enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and LDH-L) in addition to the previous effects. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between liver concentrations of PCB 126 and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathone. These findings indicate that nestling kestrels are more susceptible to PCB 126 toxicity than adults, but less sensitive than embryos, and that planar PCBs are of potential hazard to nestling birds.

  17. [Analysis of toxaphene and its eight congeners in sediment and fish tissue by gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lao, Wenjian

    2013-07-01

    Toxaphene quantification incorporating gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NCI-MS) offers improved sensitivity and specificity. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently released a GC/NCI-MS method (Method 8276) for the measurement of technical toxaphene and eight specific congeners (Hx-Sed, Hp-Sed, P26, P41, P40, P44, P50 and P62). However, there is still lack of a practical and complete analytical method including sample extraction, clean up, instrumental analysis, and data analysis. The goal of this work was to develop a ready-to-use method for the quantification of total toxaphene and the eight congeners. Sediment and salmon fish tissue were selected as sample matrices and extracted with methylene chloride using an accelerated solvent extraction system. The sample extracts were cleaned up with active copper powder or gel permeation chromatography, and finally silica/alumina combination column. Separation was performed on a DB-XLB column. GC/NCI-MS was operated under selected ion monitoring mode with an identical set of confirmation and quantitation ions for total toxaphene and the eight congeners. Oxygen reaction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was monitored by PCB204, an internal calibration standard, and the reaction level was kept below 1%. Average relative response factors were used in quantitation. Quantitation of total toxaphene employed the sum of all detectable (S/N > or = 3) 6-C1 to 10-Cl homolog peak areas, while the individual congeners were quantified followed the standard procedures for single analytes. Multi-point calibration solutions ranged from 0. 5 (5 for P62) to 500 microg/L for the individual congeners, and 50 to 500 microg/L for technical toxaphene, with the lowest calibration levels as lower limits of quantitation. Average congener recovery was (90.8 +/- 17.4)% (n =10) in spiked sediment with relative standard deviations of 5.4% - 12.8% (n =10), underscoring an excellently accurate and

  18. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Amaya, Esperanza; Grimaldi, Marina; Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F.; Balaguer, Patrick; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  19. PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) retrofill: Fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    PCB transformers changes form the fire safety engineers friend to the environmental engineers worst nightmare, when it became apparent that PCB filled devices are a source of highly toxic chemicals when they are burned improperly. This concern, combined with new regulations, is prompting engineers worldwide to actively plan and design PCB replacements. The two most commonly used PCB mitigation methods are retrofill and retrofit. This report will address retrofill only and is directed toward environmental concerns, facility interfaces, outage requirements, and application questions. This information is offered to help engineers make informed decisions regarding the best way to replace PCB transformers. This overview also addresses whether PCB retrofill is a viable fact'' or is it fiction'' without merit. 3 figs.

  20. Inhalation and Dietary Exposure to PCBs in Urban and Rural Cohorts via Congener-Specific Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 persistent organic pollutants, whose documented carcinogenic, neurological, and respiratory toxicities are expansive and growing. However, PCB inhalation exposure assessments have been lacking for North American ambient conditions and lower-chlorinated congeners. We assessed congener-specific inhalation and dietary exposure for 78 adolescent children and their mothers (n = 68) in the Airborne Exposure to Semi-volatile Organic Pollutants (AESOP) Study. Congener-specific PCB inhalation exposure was modeled using 293 measurements of indoor and outdoor airborne PCB concentrations at homes and schools, analyzed via tandem quadrupole GS-MS/MS, combined with questionnaire data from the AESOP Study. Dietary exposure was modeled using Canadian Total Diet Survey PCB concentrations and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food ingestion rates. For ∑PCB, dietary exposure dominates. For individual lower-chlorinated congeners (e.g., PCBs 40+41+71, 52), inhalation exposure was as high as one-third of the total (dietary+inhalation) exposure. ∑PCB inhalation (geometric mean (SE)) was greater for urban mothers (7.1 (1.2) μg yr–1) and children (12.0 (1.2) μg yr–1) than for rural mothers (2.4 (0.4) μg yr–1) and children (8.9 (0.3) μg yr–1). Schools attended by AESOP Study children had higher indoor PCB concentrations than did homes, and account for the majority of children’s inhalation exposure. PMID:25510359

  1. A mass spectroscopic method for analysis of AHH-inducing and other polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected pesticides in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a wide range in toxicity to fish, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry negative chemical ionization (GC/MS-NCI) to quantify congeners of highly suspected toxicity such as IUPAC #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and #126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). GC/MS analysis time needed to produce the necessary resolution was reduced to 1 h per sample or standard, allowing an autosampler to inject 12 samples in 24 hours, plus 12 standards/QC samples. Identification and quantification of some 60+ congeners and several selected pesticides and estimation of total PCBs are also possible within the 1 h analysis. For congeners of high chlorination (penta through octa), the method exhibited excellent sensitivity, such that we could not locate a fish which exhibited PCB levels below our calibrated quantitation range. NCI was not as sensitive for mono through tri and for some tetrachlorinated PCB congeners, an exception being PCB #77, for which sensitivity was of the same order as for the more highly chlorinated biphenyls. Long term stability was excellent. Over a 6-mo period, results of replicate analyses for PCB congeners and pesticides in a composited sample of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan had a relative standard deviation of 12% of the mean. Over the same time period, mean recoveries for samples spiked at concentrations similar to those in Lake Michigan lake trout were 90-102%. Response was linear over a wide range of concentrations for each of the analyzed compounds. This method is now being used for routine analysis of PCB congeners and selected pesticides in our laboratory.

  2. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  3. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken.

  4. Development of a Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Degradation Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

    1999-12-07

    Several researchers have demonstrated the transformation if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. This transformation, or conversion, is characteristic and often dependent on PCB congener structure and in addition, dictates the products or endpoints. Since transformation is linked to microbial activities, bioremediation has been hailed as a possible solution for PCB-contaminated soils and sediments, and several demonstration activities have verified laboratory results. This paper presents results from mathematical modeling of PCB transformation as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation. Since transformation can be influenced by both starting composition of the PCBs and microbial activity, this paper systematically evaluates several of the most common transformation patterns. The predicted data are also compared with experimental results. For example, the correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0). In addition to predicting chemical endpoints, the possible human effects of the PCBs are discussed through the use of documented dioxin-like toxicity and accumulation in humans before and after transformation.

  5. Concentration and toxic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in migratory oceanic birds from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Guruge, K S; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-09-01

    Concentrations of PCBs and their toxic potential were examined in subcutaneous fat of eight albatross and one petrel species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Oceans. Among all the species analyzed, high PCB levels were found in adult male blackfooted albatross from the North Pacific with the mean value of 92 microg/g wet weight. No significant gender difference in PCB accumulation was observed (P>0.1). The mean PCB levels in Southern Oceanic birds were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those from the North Pacific albatrosses. A regional-specific accumulation of non-ortho coplanar congeners were observed, most birds from the Southern Ocean had higher IUPAC 169 levels while IUPAC 126 concentrations were higher in those from the North Pacific. The estimated toxic equivalents for black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific were in the same range of some fish-eating birds, which were highly contaminated by PCBs. The correlation between ratio of IUPAC 169/126 concentration and total PCBs concentration indicated the possibility of induction in cytochrome P450 activities in North Pacific albatrosses (P<0.01). The calculated hazard indices indicated that black-footed and Laysan albatrosses inhabiting in the North Pacific had similar threshold levels which were known to cause toxic effects in some populations of fish-eating birds.

  6. Cytochrome c Adducts with PCB Quinoid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miao; Teesch, Lynn M.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pope, R. Marshal; Li, Yalan; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are a group of 209 individual congeners widely used as industrial chemicals. PCBs are found as by-products in dye and paint manufacture and are legacy, ubiquitous and persistent as human and environmental contaminants. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms may be metabolized to hydroxy- and dihydroxy- metabolites and further oxidized to quinoid metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, quinoid metabolites may form adducts on nucleophilic sites within cells. We hypothesized that the PCB-quinones covalently bind to cytochrome c and thereby cause defects in the function of cytochrome c. In this study synthetic PCB quinones (2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’, 5’-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’,4’, 5’-trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-3,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone) were incubated with cytochrome c, and adducts were detected by LC-MS and MALDI TOF. SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis was employed to separate the adducted proteins, while trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS were applied to identify the amino acid binding sites on cytochrome c. Conformation change of cytochrome c after binding with PCB3-para-quinone was investigated by SYBYL-X simulation and cytochrome c function was examined. We found that more than one molecule of PCB-quinone may bind to one molecule of cytochrome c. Lysine and glutamic acid were identified as the predominant binding sites. Software simulation showed conformation changes of adducted cytochrome c. Additionally, cross-linking of cytochrome c was observed on the SDS PAGE gel. Cytochrome c was found to be in the reduced form after incubation with PCB quinones. These data provide evidence that the covalent binding of PCB quinone metabolites to cytochrome c may be included among the toxic effects of PCBs. PMID:26062463

  7. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  8. Effect of Antioxidant Phytochemicals on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77)

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Robertson, Larry W.; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have promoting activity in the liver, which may be brought about in part by the induction of oxidative stress. In this study we examined the effects of several antioxidant phytochemicals on the tumor promoting activity of 3,3′,4′4-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77). Female Sprague Dawley rats were first injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) and one week later the rats were fed an AIN-93 based purified diet or the same diet containing ellagic acid (0.4%), β-carotene (0.5%), curcumin (0.5%), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 1.0%), co-enzyme CoQ10 (CoQ10, 0.4%), resveratrol (0.005%), lycopene (10% as LycoVit (Sweeny et al.), which contains 10% lycopene), or a tea extract (1%, containing 16.5% epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG] and 33.4% total catechins). Rats were fed the diets for the remainder of the study. After 3 weeks, 2/3 of the control rats and all of the antioxidant diet-fed rats were injected i.p. with PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg) every other week for four injections. All rats were euthanized 10 days after the last PCB injection. The rats that received PCB-77 alone showed an increase in the number and size of placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST)-positive foci in the liver. Lycopene significantly decreased the number of foci, while curcumin and CoQ10 decreased the size of the foci. In contrast ellagic acid increased the number but decreased the size of the foci. All of the other phytochemicals showed only slight or no effects. Compared with the PCB-77 group, CoQ10 increased cell proliferation in normal hepatocytes, whereas the other antioxidants had no effect in either normal or PGST-positive hepatocytes. These findings show that none of the antioxidant phytochemicals produced a clear decrease in the promoting activity of PCB-77. PMID:18796325

  9. Succinate dehydrogenase activity regulates PCB3-quinone induced metabolic oxidative stress and toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Wagner, Brett A.; Doskey, Claire M.; Buettner, Garry R.; Domann, Frederick E.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental pollutants that are known to have adverse health effects. 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone (4-ClBQ), a quinone-metabolite of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3, present in the environment and human blood) is toxic to human skin keratinocytes, and breast and prostate epithelial cells. This study investigates the hypothesis that 4-ClBQ-induced metabolic oxidative stress regulates toxicity in human keratinocytes. Results from Seahorse XF96 Analyzer showed that the 4-ClBQ treatment increased extracellular acidification rate, proton production rate, oxygen consumption rate and ATP content, indicative of metabolic oxidative stress. Results from a q-RT-PCR assay showed significant increases in the mRNA levels of hexokinase 2 (hk2), pyruvate kinase M2 (pkm2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and decreases in the mRNA levels of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) subunit C and D (sdhc and sdhd). Pharmacological inhibition of G6PD-activity enhanced the toxicity of 4-ClBQ, suggesting that the protective function of the pentose phosphate pathway is functional in 4-ClBQ treated cells. The decrease in sdhc and sdhd expression was associated with a significant decrease in complex II activity and increase in mitochondrial levels of ROS. Overexpression of sdhc and sdhd suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced inhibition of complex II activity, increase in mitochondrial levels of ROS, and toxicity. These results suggest that the 4-ClBQ treatment induces metabolic oxidative stress in HaCaT cells, and while the protective function of the pentose phosphate pathway is active, inhibition of complex II activity sensitizes HaCaT cells to 4-ClBQ induced toxicity. PMID:25417049

  10. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, M D; Fang, H-T; Lee, C-L; Ko, F-C; Baker, J E

    2006-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in cultivated oysters from five aquaculture areas along the western coast of Taiwan were investigated. Poor correlations between total PCB concentrations (ng/g dry weight [dw]) and physiologic parameters of oysters (shell length, width, thickness, and lipid content) were found. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 94 cng/g dw. The highest value was found in oysters from the Lu'ermen aquaculture area, which receives wastewater from a sodium hydroxide and pentachlorophenol factory. Furthermore, principal component analysis confirmed that the PCB congener pattern in this area was distinct from others and that two additional pollution sources might exist in the Tainan and Hsinchu areas. Oysters with PCB concentrations > 1 SD above the geometric mean were found mainly in Tainan (stations TN5 to TN9) with only one increased concentration in the Yunlin (station YL2) and Hsinchu (station HC4) aquaculture areas. Except for four confined stations, TN3 to TN6, where total PCB concentrations were higher (p = 0.028) in the warmer (May and July) than in the colder season (November and March), seasonal variation of total PCB concentrations in oysters was not significant. Geometric mean and geometric mean plus 1 SD of total PCB concentrations in this study are lower than those in South Korea and the United States (Mussel Watch).

  11. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  12. Determination of PCB Elimination Coefficients in Round Goby and Tubenose Goby.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Johnson, Tim B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2016-09-01

    Whole-body elimination coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in two Great Lakes invasive fish species, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris). Elimination rates were determined for a set of model PCB congeners (n = 12 congeners) dosed to fish by intraperitoneal injection and allowed to depurate at a temperature of 21.4°C for 90 days. Eight PCBs (PCB 6, 21, 57, 62, 68, 89, 112 and 125) exhibited significant elimination by round goby and had corresponding half lives ranging from 13 to 39.8 days. For tubenose goby, four congeners (PCBs 21, 57, 62 and 68) exhibited significant elimination with half lives in the range from 18.8 to 48.8 days. Whole-body elimination rate coefficients were significantly higher for round gobies compared to tubenose goby. In both cases, PCB elimination rate coefficients were negatively related to chemical log KOW.

  13. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  14. Estimation of rate constants of PCB dechlorination reactions using an anaerobic dehalogenation model.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-02-15

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic dechlorination rate constants (km) of reactions of individual PCB congeners using data from four laboratory microcosms set up using sediment from Baltimore Harbor. Pathway km values are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model (ADM) which can be applied to any halogenated hydrophobic organic (HOC). Improvements such as handling multiple dechlorination activities (DAs) and co-elution of congeners, incorporating constraints, using new goodness of fit evaluation led to an increase in accuracy, speed and flexibility of ADM. DAs published in the literature in terms of chlorine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The best fit explaining the congener pattern changes was found for pathways of Phylotype DEH10, which has the ability to remove doubly flanked chlorines in meta and para positions, para flanked chlorines in meta position. The range of estimated km values is between 0.0001-0.133d(-1), the median of which is found to be comparable to the few available published biologically confirmed rate constants. Compound specific modelling studies such as that performed by ADM can enable monitoring and prediction of concentration changes as well as toxicity during bioremediation.

  15. The Influence of Atmospheric Transport Regimes on Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Concentrations Measured at Zeppelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubl, S.; Scheringer, M.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of exclusively anthropogenic origin. PCBs are toxic, bioaccumulative and have a great potential of long-range transport. PCBs have been banned globally under the Stockholm convention on POPs since 2004. We analysed times series of 21 PCB congeners ranging from PCB 18 to PCB 187 that have been measured at Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) since 1993. Although primary PCB emissions have been steadily reduced, a strong decreasing trend is not observed in the PCB concentrations in the Arctic. In order to investigate the influence of atmospheric transport on the PCB concentrations and to identify the potential source regions of the PCBs, we calculated footprints for the Zeppelin measurement site using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. Footprints can be interpreted as potential source regions where PCBs may have been picked up. Based on various statistical analyses of the footprints (cluster analysis, k-medoid, silhouette), we identified the prevailing transport regimes for Zeppelin which were represented by 5 different clusters. Cluster 1 and 3 belong to transport regimes with highest residence times over Europe (cluster 1) and North-America (cluster 3); both transport regimes dominantly occur from late fall to early spring. Clusters 2 and 4 represent air masses with surface contact predominantly over the Atlantic Ocean (cluster 2), only occurring during the summer months, and the Arctic Ocean (cluster 4) mainly observed in spring and autumn, but also in summer. Cluster 5 is representative of air originating from the Pacific ocean and eastern Asia; this transport regime occurs mainly in spring and fall. We grouped the PCB concentrations measured at Zeppelin according to the 5 different clusters and calculated the median for each cluster and PCB congener. The median for medium to heavier PCBs is highest for cluster 1 and 3, which represent transport regimes over the continent, suggesting that

  16. ANALYSIS OF 209 CHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS USING COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE 1-D MODE FOLLOWED BY THE 2-D MODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the initial discovery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment, the detection and identification of certain PCB congeners using the traditional one dimensional (1-D) chromatographic technique has been very challenging, especially, separating the 46 isomeric pe...

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  18. Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell superfund site: PCB dechlorination. 1. End-member characterization.

    PubMed

    Magar, Victor S; Johnson, Glenn W; Brenner, Richard C; Quensen, John F; Foote, Eric A; Durell, Greg; Ickes, Jennifer A; Peven-McCarthy, Carole

    2005-05-15

    Under anaerobic conditions, such as those typically found in buried sediments, the primary metabolic pathway for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reductive dechlorination in which chlorine removal and substitution with hydrogen by bacteria result in a reduced organic compound with fewer chlorines. Vertical sediment cores were collected from Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm intervals for 107 PCB congeners in a total of more than 280 samples from 18 sediment cores and surface samples. This paper reports on extensive PCB dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell sediments and the characterization of dechlorination end-member (EM) patterns using chemical forensic methods. PCB congener fingerprinting and a multivariate receptor modeling method, polytopic vector analysis (PVA), were used for identification and characterization of weathered and dechlorinated PCB congener patterns. Dechlorination resulted in a substantial shift in buried sediments from tetra- through decachlorobiphenyl congeners to mono- through trichlorobiphenyl congeners. Mono- through trichlorobiphenyls comprised approximately 80% of the PCBs in buried sediments that underwent maximum dechlorination as compared to approximately 20% in surface sediments. The major concentration decreases were seen in the tetra- through hexachlorobiphenyl homologues, which accounted for over 90% of the dechlorination. Octa- through decachlorobiphenyl congeners also were dechlorinated, but their overall contribution to dechlorination was relatively small due to their low initial concentrations (< 5%). The net accumulation of 2-CB, 2,2'/2,6-DCBs, 2,4'-DCB, 2,2',4-TCB, and 2,2',6-TCB at Lake Hartwell matched characteristic PCB dechlorination products reported in the literature, such as those for Processes M, Q, and C; and the persistence of tetrachlorobiphenyls (TeCBs) that contained 24- and 25-congener groups resembled dechlorination Processes H or H'. Although dechlorination tended to be very

  19. Modular methodology for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil as Aroclors and individual congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.R.; Grange, A.H.; Herron, N.R.

    1996-07-01

    A comprehensive screening and confirmatory method was developed for monitoring polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), both as Aroclors and as individual congeners. This approach incorporates extraction, extract cleanup, and analysis modules designed to match cost, time, and data quality requirements. Soxhlet, sonication, supercritical fluid, and accelerated solvent extractions were evaluated. Carbon chromatographic cleanup procedures were used for separation of congeners on the basis of ortho substitutions, which permitted calculation of toxicity equivalents. Individual congener determinations, congener total histograms, and peak comparison techniques for Aroclor identification were elaborated by using high and low resolution mass spectrometric data. A screening procedure based on immunoassay using the Ohmicron PCB RaPID Assay{trademark} kit gave results comparable to those obtained by gas chromatography with electron capture detection in the range 0.40-230 ppm, when the appropriate Aroclor calibrator was used. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. [Analysis of PCB- and PCT-methylsulfones in the blood in yusho patients].

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y; Kuroki, H; Ohma, M

    1989-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)- and terphenyl (PCT)-methylsulfones were isolated from the blood of yusho patients sampled in 1987 and characterized by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and flame photometric detection (GC/FPD). GC/MS analysis for PCB-methylsulfones showed that all the blood tested (nine samples) contained the tri- and tetrachloro congeners. The concentrations of PCB-methylsulfones were estimated to be 15-120 ppb. PCT-methylsulfones detected in the same fraction, which were confirmed by GC/MS comparison with authentic samples as well as by GC/ECD and GC/FPD, consisted of tetra-, penta- and hexachloroterphenyl methylsulfone congeners. The levels of PCT-methylsulfones in six samples detected were preliminarily estimated to be 10-270 ppb, on the basis of a PCB-methylsulfone standard. Their origins and biological effects are unclear at present.

  1. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, Kenji; Koike, Minako; Suwa, Yoshihide; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Mizutani, Yuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Akao, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    We examined the effect of whisky congeners, substances other than ethanol in whisky, on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Treatment with whisky congeners significantly blocked melanogenesis. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis is due to direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity and to suppression of tyrosinase protein levels.

  2. Does living near a Superfund site contribute to higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure?

    PubMed

    Choi, Anna L; Levy, Jonathan I; Dockery, Douglas W; Ryan, Louise M; Tolbert, Paige E; Altshul, Larisa M; Korrick, Susan A

    2006-07-01

    We assessed determinants of cord serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels among 720 infants born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers living near a PCB-contaminated Superfund site in Massachusetts, measuring the sum of 51 PCB congeners (capital sigmaPCB) and ascertaining maternal address, diet, sociodemographics, and exposure risk factors. Addresses were geocoded to obtain distance to the Superfund site and neighborhood characteristics. We modeled log10(capital sigmaPCB) as a function of potential individual and neighborhood risk factors, mapping model residuals to assess spatial correlates of PCB exposure. Similar analyses were performed for light (mono-tetra) and heavy (penta-deca) PCBs to assess potential differences in exposure pathways as a function of relative volatility. PCB-118 (relatively prevalent in site sediments and cord serum) was assessed separately. The geometric mean of capital sigmaPCB levels was 0.40 (range, 0.068-18.14) ng/g serum. Maternal age and birthplace were the strongest predictors of capital sigmaPCB levels. Maternal consumption of organ meat and local dairy products was associated with higher and smoking and previous lactation with lower capital sigmaPCB levels. Infants born later in the study had lower capital sigmaPCB levels, likely due to temporal declines in exposure and site remediation in 1994-1995. No association was found between capital sigmaPCB levels and residential distance from the Superfund site. Similar results were found with light and heavy PCBs and PCB-118. Previously reported demographic (age) and other (lactation, smoking, diet) correlates of PCB exposure, as well as local factors (consumption of local dairy products and Superfund site dredging) but not residential proximity to the site, were important determinants of cord serum PCB levels in the study community.

  3. Enrichment of marine sediment colloids with polychlorinated biphenyls: Trends resulting from PCB solubility and chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M. |; McKinney, R.A.; Brown, W.A.

    1996-08-01

    In this study, the three phase distributions (i.e., dissolved, colloidal, and particulate) of approximately 75 PCB congeners were measured in a marine sediment core from New Bedford Harbor, M.A. These distributions are the first report of colloid-PCB interactions in an environmentally contaminated sediment. Colloids <1.2 {mu}m in size were isolated from interstitial waters using reverse-phase chromatography with size-selected C{sub 18}. Regardless of solubility or chlorination, the majority of PCBs were associated with the particulate phase. PCBs were distributed in filtered interstitial waters between colloidal and dissolved phases as a function of solubility and degree of chlorination. Interstitial dissolved PCB concentrations generally agreed with literature-reported solubilities. The magnitude of colloid-PCB interactions increased with decreasing PCB solubility and increasing PCB chlorination. Di- and trichlorinated PCBs were approximately 40% and 65% colloidally bound, respectively, while tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octachlorinated PCBs were about 80% colloidally bound. As core depth increased, the magnitude of PCB-colloid interactions also increased. The relationships of organic carbon-normalized colloidal partitioning coefficient(K{sub coc}) to K{sub ow} for several PCB congeners were not linear and suggest that interstitial waters were not equilibrated. 62 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalene congener profiles in background sediments compared to a degraded Halowax 1014 technical mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Jaernberg, U.G.; Asplund, L.T.; Egebaeck, A.L.; Jansson, B.; Unger, M.; Wideqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes were quantified in 10 lake and sea sediment samples from sites with no known present local pollution source. Levels ranged from 0.14 to 7.6 ng/g (dry weight). The chlorinated naphthalene (CN) congener profiles showed an increased relative abundance of 1,3,5,7- and 1,4,6,7-substituted congener profiles as compared to the reported CN congener profiles of technical PCN and PCB. Further, a dominance of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7-heptaCN over 1,2,3,4,5,6,8-heptaCN was found in all samples in contrast to the ratio reported for technical PCN and PCB products. Some samples showed traces of 2,3,6,7-substituted CN congeners, indicative of thermal sources, such as municipal waste incineration. These profiles were compared with the profiles obtained from a Halowax 1014 technical mixture subject to aerobic microbial degradation and sunlight photolysis. The aerobic microbial culture gave no alteration of the CN congener profile of over a 28-day period, whereas sunlight exposure of Halowax 1014 in methanol yielded a more low chlorinated CN congener profile. Furthermore, CN congeners with chlorines in 1,8-positions were more affected than those with 1,3,5,7- or 1,4,6,7-substitution. These results indicate that photolysis may explain the enhancement of the relative abundance of some of the 1,3,5,7- and 1,4,6,7-substituted CN congeners in the environment but not the heptaCN profile.

  5. Long-term trends of continental-scale PCB patterns studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Continental-scale distribution and inter-continental transport of four polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 101, 153, 180) from 1950 to 2010 were studied using the global multicompartment chemistry transport model MPI-MCTM. Following identical primary emissions for all PCB congeners into air, most of the burden is stored in terrestrial (soil and vegetation) compartments. Thereby, PCB-28, PCB-101 and PCB-153 show a shift of the soil burden maxima from source to remote regions. This shift is downwind with regard to the westerlies for Eurasia and upwind for North America and more prominent for the lighter PCBs than for PCB-153 or PCB-180. In meridional direction, all congeners' distributions underwent a northward migration in Eurasia and North America since the 1950s. Inter-continental transport from Eurasian sources accounts largely for contamination of Alaska and British Columbia and determines the migration of the PCB distribution in soil in North America. Trans-Pacific transport occurs mainly in the gas phase in boreal winter (December-January-February) at 3-4 km altitude and is on a multi-year time scale strongly linked to the atmospheric pressure systems over the Pacific. Inter-continental transport of the lighter, more volatile PCBs is more efficient than for the heavier PCBs.

  6. Altered biologic activities of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures after microbial reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, M A; Ganey, P E; Quensen, J F; Madhukar, B V; Chou, K; Giesy, J P; Fischer, L J; Boyd, S A

    1998-01-01

    The reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by anaerobic bacteria has recently been established as an important environmental fate of these compounds. This process removes chlorines directly from the biphenyl ring with replacement by hydrogen, resulting in a product mixture in which the average number of chlorines per biphenyl is reduced. In this study, dechlorination of commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors 1242 and 1254) by microorganisms eluted from PCB-contaminated sediments of the River Raisin (Michigan) and Silver Lake (Massachusetts) caused a depletion in the proportion of highly chlorinated PCB congeners and an accumulation of lesser-chlorinated congeners. Dechlorination occurred primarily at the meta and, to a much lesser extent, para positions of biphenyl. The concentrations of the coplanar congeners including 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, the most potent dioxinlike congener, were significantly lowered by reductive dechlorination. Microbial reductive dechlorination of commercial PCB mixtures caused a substantial reduction in biologic activities in several instances. It significantly lowered or eliminated the inhibitory effects of Aroclors on fertilization of mouse gametes in vitro. Similarly, the dechlorinated product mixtures had substantially lower ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potencies and showed less ability to induce activating protein 1 transcription factor activity as compared to the unaltered Aroclors. In other assays the same dechlorinated product mixtures demonstrated biologic activities similar to the nondechlorinated Aroclors, including the ability of PCB mixtures to stimulate insulin secretion and cause neutrophil activation. The data presented here establish that the biologic activities of commercial PCB mixtures are altered by microbial reductive dechlorination and that an assessment of their toxic potential requires an array of tests that include the different mechanisms associated with PCBs. Images Figure 2

  7. PCB126 Inhibits Adipogenesis of Human Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gadupudi, Gopi; Gourronc, Francoise A.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are involved in the development of diabetes. Dysfunctional adipocytes play a significant role in initiating insulin resistance. Preadipocytes make up a large portion of adipose tissue and are necessary for the generation of functional mature adipocytes through adipogenesis. PCB126 is a dioxin-like PCB and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. We hypothesized that PCB126 may be involved in the development of diabetes through disruption of adipogenesis. Using a newly developed human preadipocyte cell line called NPAD (Normal PreADipocytes), we found that exposure of preadipocytes to PCB126 resulted in significant reduction in their subsequent ability to fully differentiate into adipocytes, more so than when the cells were exposed to PCB126 during differentiation. Reduction in differentiation by PCB126 was associated with downregulation of transcript levels of a key adipocyte transcription factor, PPARγ, and late adipocyte differentiation genes. An AhR antagonist, CH223191, blocked this effect. These studies indicate that preadipocytes are particularly sensitive to the effects of PCB126 and suggest that AhR activation inhibits PPARγ transcription and subsequent adipogenesis. Our results validate the NPAD cell line as a useful model for studying the effects of POPs on adipogenesis. PMID:25304490

  8. Laboratory investigation of PCB bake-out from tertiary contaminated concrete for remediation of buildings.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Frederiksen, Marie; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2017-03-25

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in flexible construction products from the 1950s to the 1970s. Despite a relatively low vapour pressure, PCBs have over the years emitted to the indoor air and adsorbed to other surfaces, creating tertiary sources. While necessary to protect the environment and health of building occupants, remediation of the contaminated buildings is an expensive and difficult process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bake-out as a method for removing PCB from contaminated indoor surfaces. Four painted and four sandblasted samples of concrete wall were kept at 50 or 65 °C for 10 or 20 days in small scale chambers, which were ventilated with clean air at area specific rates comparable to full scale rooms. The air concentrations were measured several times during the bake-out. Concentrations of PCB in paint, plaster and concrete were measured before and after the experiment. For the painted samples, PCB28 and PCB52 followed by PCB138 and PCB153 were the predominant congeners measured in air. A significant reduction of the PCB concentration was only found for more volatile congeners in paint, while no significant effects were observed in the plaster or concrete. For the most effective setting (65 °C, 20 days), the concentration of PCB∑7 in the paint was reduced by 40%. For the sandblasted samples, the less volatile congeners PCB138 and PCB153 were predominant in the air during bake-out. No effect was observed on the initially low concentrations of the sandblasted samples, possibly due to analytical limitations.

  9. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  10. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  11. Fingerprinting PCB patterns among Mohawk women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S A; Yang, B Z; Fitzgerald, E F; Bush, B; Cook, K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association of contaminated fish consumption and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden by comparing the similarity of the congener pattern in yellow perch, caught near the point source of industrial pollution, and in other local fish to the pattern found in the breast milk of Mohawk women from Akwesasne, a Native American community located along the St. Lawrence River in New York, Ontario, and Quebec. The similarity is defined by the weighted Euclidean distance between two congener patterns. Ninety-seven Mohawk mothers participated and provided samples of breast milk. One hundred fifty-four nursing women from the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) of Warren and Schoharie counties, New York, who gave birth during the same time period, were used as the comparison group. Results revealed that the breast milk of the Mohawk women, who ate the most local fish, had a congener pattern that more closely resembled that of perch caught near the waste site or average sampled fish caught in the Reserve than Mohawk women who ate less fish or the controls. The outcome demonstrates how PCBs may be "fingerprinted" as they migrate offsite from industrial sources and ultimately result in human exposure.

  12. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  13. Chemical contamination of the Rybinsk Reservoir, northwest Russia: Relationship between liver polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content and health indicators in bream (Abramis brama)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuiko, G.M.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Flerov, B.A.; Stepanova, V.M.; Zhelnin, Y.Y.; Podgornaya, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Rybinsk Reservoir (Russia) is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4550 km2) and provides drinking water for population of the cities located along the coast line. Industrialization in Cherepovets at the northeastern portion of the reservoir, including one of the largest metallurgical facilities in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in bream liver, a common fish species, taken from six locations in the Rybinsk Reservoir and Volga River, and biochemical and morphometric biomarkers of fish health were investigated. Liver PCB concentrations ranged from non-detected to 3.4 ??g/g wet wt of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area in Sheksna Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir. The source of the bream contamination is the PCB pollution of bottom organisms and sediments conditioned with industrialization facilities of Cherepovets. The patterns of the PCB congeners in the livers of bream taken near Cherepovets were similar at all of the stations that were sampled around the reservoir and Volga River. Among the common fish health biomarkers used only liver total ChE activity and liver-somatic index in bream near Cherepovets can reflect environmental pollution. Other morphometric (FCF, Clark's condition factors, and spleen-somatic index) and biochemical (protein content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain) biomarkers related with fish health varied among locations, but were not correlated to the concentrations of PCBs in the bream livers. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical contamination of the Rybinsk Reservoir, northwest Russia: relationship between liver polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content and health indicators in bream (Abramis brama)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuiko, Grigorii M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Zajicek, James L.; Flerov, Boris A.; Stepanova, Vera M.; Zhelnin, Yuri Y.; Podgornaya, Vera A.

    2007-01-01

    The Rybinsk Reservoir (Russia) is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4550 km2) and provides drinking water for population of the cities located along the coast line. Industrialization in Cherepovets at the northeastern portion of the reservoir, including one of the largest metallurgical facilities in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in bream liver, a common fish species, taken from six locations in the Rybinsk Reservoir and Volga River, and biochemical and morphometric biomarkers of fish health were investigated. Liver PCB concentrations ranged from non-detected to 3.4 μg/g wet wt of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area in Sheksna Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir. The source of the bream contamination is the PCB pollution of bottom organisms and sediments conditioned with industrialization facilities of Cherepovets. The patterns of the PCB congeners in the livers of bream taken near Cherepovets were similar at all of the stations that were sampled around the reservoir and Volga River. Among the common fish health biomarkers used only liver total ChE activity and liver-somatic index in bream near Cherepovets can reflect environmental pollution. Other morphometric (FCF, Clark’s condition factors, and spleen-somatic index) and biochemical (protein content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain) biomarkers related with fish health varied among locations, but were not correlated to the concentrations of PCBs in the bream livers.

  15. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  16. PCB dechlorination enhancement in Anacostia River sediment microcosms.

    PubMed

    Krumins, Valdis; Park, Joong-Wook; Son, Eun-Kyeu; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2009-10-01

    In situ treatment of PCB contaminated sediments via microbial dechlorination is a promising alternative to dredging, which may be reserved for only the most contaminated areas. Reductive dechlorination of low levels of weathered PCB mixtures typical of urban environments may occur at slow rates. Here, we report that biostimulation and bioaugmentation enhanced dechlorination of low concentration (2.1 mg PCBs/kg dry weight) historical PCBs in microcosms prepared with Anacostia River, Washington, DC, sediment. Treatments included electron donors butyrate, lactate, propionate and acetate (1 mM each); alternate halogenated electron acceptors (haloprimers) tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB, 25 microM), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB, 25 microM), or 2,3,4,5,6-PCB (PCB116, 2.0 microM); and/or bioaugmentation with a culture containing Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (3 x 10(6)cells/mL). Dechlorination rates were enhanced in microcosms receiving bioaugmentation, PCNB and PCNB plus bioaugmentation, compared to other treatments. Microcosm subcultures generated after 415 days and spiked with PCB116 showed sustained capacity for dechlorination of PCB116 in PCNB, PCNB plus bioaugmentation, and TeCB treatments, relative to other treatments. Analysis of Chloroflexi 16S rRNA genes showed that TeCB and PCNB increased native Dehalococcoides spp. from the Pinellas subgroup; however this increase was correlated to enhanced dechlorination of low concentration weathered PCBs only in PCNB-amended microcosms. D. ethenogenes strain 195 was detected only in bioaugmented microcosms and decreased over 281 days. Bioaugmentation with D. ethenogenes strain 195 increased PCB dechlorination rates initially, but enhanced capacity for dechlorination of a model congener, PCB116, after 415 days occurred only in microcosms with enhanced native Dehalococcoides spp.

  17. Evaluation of the concentration of HCH, DDT, HCB, PCB and PAH in the sediments along the lower stretch of Hugli estuary, West Bengal, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Guzzella, L; Roscioli, C; Viganò, L; Saha, M; Sarkar, S K; Bhattacharya, A

    2005-05-01

    Detailed analyses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the coastal estuarine environment of West Bengal, northeast India allowed the evaluation of the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources. HCH, DDT, HCB, PCB and PAH were identified compounds in all the samples, whereas the concentrations of chlorinated pesticides (trans-eptachlorepoxide, dieldrin, endrin, metaoxychlor and mirex) were below the detection limits and were not of great concern. The pesticides did demonstrate markedly different distributions reflecting different agricultural and domestic usage in the region. The range of concentrations of HCH, HCB, DDT and PCBs in the sediments were 0.11-0.40, <0.05-0.98, 0.18-1.93 and 0.18-2.33 ng/g dry wt, respectively. Overall elevated levels of HCB, DDT and PCB were recorded at Babughat, a very closely located site of the metropolitan megacity Calcutta. Fluoranthene (flu) and pyrene (py), the dominant 4-ring PAHs, also showed an abrupt elevated concentrations at Babughat with values of 214 and 144 ng/g dry wt, respectively. Among the isomers and metabolites of HCH, DDT and PCB, alpha-HCH, pp'-DDT and PCB (101), PCB (118), PCB(153) and PCB (138) were found to be dominant. High ratios of metabolites of DDT to SigmaDDTs reveal recent use of DDT in this coastal environment. Fluoranthene, pyrene, 1,2-benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene formed the dominant congeners out of 19 identified PAHs. The sources of contamination are closely related to human activities such as domestic and industrial discharge, automobile exhausts, street runoff, slum sewage, agricultural chemicals and soil erosion due to deforestation as well as atmospheric transport. This study is compared to other coastal and

  18. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  19. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics. PMID:25566212

  20. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  1. Evolved resistance to PCB- and PAH-induced cardiac teratogenesis, and reduced CYP1A activity in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations from the Houston Ship Channel, Texas.

    PubMed

    Oziolor, Elias M; Bigorgne, Emilie; Aguilar, Lissette; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), connecting Houston, Texas to Galveston Bay and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico, is heavily industrialized and includes several areas that have historically been identified as containing significant levels of mercury, dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, inhabit this entire estuarine system, including the most contaminated areas. F. grandis is the sister species of the well-established estuarine model organism Fundulus heteroclitus, for which heritable resistance to both PCB and PAH toxicity has been documented in several populations. F. grandis collected from two Superfund sites on the HSC and from a reference population were used to establish breeding colonies. F1 embryos from HSC populations were approximately 1000-fold more resistant to PCB126- and 2-5-fold more resistant to coal tar-induced cardiovascular teratogenesis, relative to embryos from the reference population. Reciprocal crosses between reference and contaminated populations exhibit an intermediate level of resistance, confirming that observed protection is genetic and biparentally inherited. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) data confirm a reduction in basal and induced cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity in resistant populations of F. grandis. This result is consistent with responses previously described for resistant populations of F. heteroclitus, specifically a recalcitrant aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. The decreased levels of cardiovascular teratogenesis, and decrease in CYP1A inducibility in response to PCB126 and a PAH mixture, suggest that HSC F. grandis populations have adapted to chronic contaminants exposures via a mechanism similar to that previously described for F. heteroclitus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of evolved pollution resistance in F. grandis. Additionally, the mechanistic similarities between the population

  2. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a binary mixture of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (Cas No. 57465-28-8) and 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) (Cas No. 31508-00-6) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies).

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    DIOXIN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION OVERVIEW: Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the ability to bind to and activate the ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Structurally related compounds that bind to the AhR and exhibit biological actions similar to TCDD are commonly referred to as "dioxin-like compounds" (DLCs). Ambient human exposure to DLCs occurs through the ingestion of foods containing residues of DLCs that bioconcentrate through the food chain. Due to their lipophilicity and persistence, once internalized they accumulate in body tissue, mainly adipose, resulting in chronic lifetime human exposure. Since human exposure to DLCs always occurs as a complex mixture, the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) methodology has been developed as a mathematical tool to assess the health risk posed by complex mixtures of these compounds. The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that ranks the dioxin-like activity of a compound relative to TCDD, which is the most potent congener. This allows for the estimation of the potential dioxin-like activity of a mixture of chemicals, based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of DLCs to the AhR. The toxic equivalency of DLCs was nominated for evaluation because of the widespread human exposure to DLCs and the lack of data on the adequacy of the TEF methodology for predicting relative potency for cancer risk. To address this, the National Toxicology Program conducted a series of 2-year bioassays in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of DLCs and structurally related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mixtures of these compounds. Mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) were produced commercially before 1977 for the electric industry as dielectric

  3. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  4. Alterations in geometry, biomechanics, and mineral composition of juvenile rat femur induced by nonplanar PCB-155 and/or planar PCB-169.

    PubMed

    Brankovič, Jana; Jovanovski, Sašo; Jevnikar, Peter; Hofmeister, Alexander; Reininger-Gutmann, Birgit; Jan, Janja; Grošelj, Maja; Osredkar, Joško; Uršič, Matjaž; Fazarinc, Gregor; Pogačnik, Azra; Vrecl, Milka

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to widespread lipophilic and bioaccumulative polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induces diverse biochemical and toxicological responses in various organs, including the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in growth rate, geometry, serum, and bone biochemical parameters and biomechanics of juvenile rat femur induced by lactational exposure to nonplanar PCB-155 and planar PCB-169 individually and in combination. Fifteen lactating Wistar rats were divided into four groups (PCB-169, PCB-155, PCB-155+169, and control), and PCBs were administered intraperitoneally at different time points after delivery. Femurs from 22-day-old offspring were analyzed by microCT, three-point bending test and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to obtain data on bone geometry, biomechanics and mineral composition. The serum levels of calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. Lactational exposure to planar PCB-169 resulted in shorter and thinner femurs, reduced endosteal and periosteal perimeters, smaller total cross-sectional and medullary areas, and lowered serum bone marker levels and calcium levels in the bone, while femur mechanical properties were not significantly altered. The changes observed in the combination exposure (PCB-155+169) group were similar to those observed in the PCB-169 group but were less pronounced. In summary, our results demonstrate that alterations in lactationally exposed offspring were primarily induced by planar PCB-169. The milder outcome in the combined group suggested that the PCB-169-mediated toxic effects on the bone might be reduced by a nonplanar PCB-155 congener. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1135-1146, 2017.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2015-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide 137Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of 137Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear 137Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the 137Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  7. PCB recordkeeping and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  8. Chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB causes reproductive toxicity in mink

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstroem, B.; Oerberg, J.; Lund, B.O.; Athanasiadou, M.

    1995-12-31

    Female mink (Mustela vison) were exposed to the technical PCB preparation Clophen A50 (0.3 or 0.1 mg/animal/day) in the feed for 18 months, including two reproduction seasons. Isomer-specific PCB-analysis of the technical mixture was made and the concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the feed were calculated. In addition, Clophen A50 was separated into two fractions, one containing the non and mono-ortho-chlorinated PCB congeners (planar fraction) and the other containing congeners with 2-4 chlorines in ortho-position (non-planar fraction). Animals in two separate groups were exposed daily to these individual fractions extracted from 0.3 mg Clophen A50. No effect on the reproduction outcome was observed during the first reproduction season. However, reduced birth weights were noted in the kits born to animals treated with 0.3 mg Clophen A50 per day. The reproductive performance was seriously affected in the second season. Only 39% of the females exposed to 0.3 mg Clophen A50 per day whelped, compared with 93% in the control group. All whelps in the group exposed to the high dose of Clophen A50 died within 1 day after birth. Kit survival and growth were reduced also in the group treated with the low dose of Clophen A50. Treatment with the non and mono-orthochlorinated PCB congeners strongly reduced kit survival and body weight gain. Only 8% of the kits survived until 2 weeks of age. It is concluded that the non and monoortho-chlorinated PCB congeners were responsible for the major part of the reproductive toxicity caused by Clophen A50. PCB residue concentrations in the mink, determined at the end of the experiment, were within the range of the levels that have been observed in wild mink in Sweden.

  9. Oxidative DNA damage induced by activation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): implications for PCB-induced oxidative stress in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oakley, G G; Devanaboyina, U; Robertson, L W; Gupta, R C

    1996-12-01

    We have previously reported that mono- and dichlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be metabolized to dihydroxy compounds and further oxidized to reactive metabolites which form adducts with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles including DNA [Amaro et al. (1966) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9, 623-629; Oakley et al. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 109-114]. The former studies also demonstrated that during the metabolism of PCBs superoxide may be produced. We have therefore examined the abilities of PCB metabolites to induce free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage using a newly developed, highly sensitive, 32P-postlabeling assay for 8-oxode-oxyguanosine (8-oxodG) [Devanaboyina, U., and Gupta, R. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 917-924]. The incubation of 3,4-dichloro-2'5'-dihydroxybiphenyl (100 microM) with calf thymus DNA (300 micrograms/microL) in the presence of the breast tissue and milk-associated enzyme, lactoperoxidase (10 mU/mL), and H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in a significant increase in free radical-induced DNA damage (253 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides) as compared to vehicle-treated DNA (118 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides). Substituting CuCl(2) (100 microM) for lactoperoxidase/H2O2, however, resulted in a substantial increase in 8-oxodG content (2669 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides). FeCl(3) was ineffective, suggesting that CuCl(2) but not FeCl(3) mediates oxidation of PCB dihydroxy metabolites, resulting in oxidative DNA damage. The addition of catalase (100 U/mL) and sodium azide (0.1 M) reduced the effect of CuCl(2) (849 and 896 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides, respectively), while superoxide dismutase (600 U/mL) moderately stimulated and glutathione (100 microM) substantially stimulated 8-oxodG formation (3014 and 4415 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides, respectively). The effect of various buffers as well as the effects of PCB structure on Cu(II)-mediated oxidative DNA damage were examined. These results demonstrate that free radicals and oxidative DNA damage are produced during oxidation of lower chlorinated

  10. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  11. Airborne PCB as a contamination risk on freeze-drying of sediment.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Maria; Nylund, Kerstin; Järnberg, Ulf; Alsberg, Tomas; Asplund, Lillemor

    2005-01-01

    In a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in freeze-dried sediments from Swedish lakes, the samples were found to contain unexpectedly high concentrations of PCBs. In one of the lakes (Björken), e.g. the concentration of PCB-28 was found to be 189 ng/g dw after freeze-drying compared to 7 ng/g dw after air-drying of the sediment and therefore our hypothesis was that the contamination had occurred during the freeze-drying procedure. Hence, a dry reference sediment (RS) was used in order to identify potential sources of PCB contamination. The investigation included freeze-drying of the dry RS in five different laboratories, exposure to the air in the freeze-drying room, storage at room temperature and air-drying in a certain fume hood and in a laminar flow clean bench. The pattern and concentrations of PCBs detected in the exposed RS were strongly influenced by low chlorinated PCB congeners under all of these conditions with exception for air-drying in the fume hood. Storage in the laboratory air resulted in a slight elevation in the concentrations of low chlorinated PCB congeners, whereas higher concentrations of all PCB congeners were observed after freeze-drying. In all experiments the contamination appeared to be due to adsorption of PCB from the laboratory air. On the basis of these findings we recommend that reference material be subjected to the entire procedure, including sample preparation, in order to monitor contamination and that a procedure involving solvent extraction of wet sediment samples is used, whenever possible, instead of procedures involving dry samples.

  12. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  13. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent and bioaccumulative. In this study we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77 and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal and redox cycling (i.e. sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after two weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms, and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  14. Expression and function of ryanodine receptor related pathways in PCB tolerant Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Erika B; Stegeman, John J; Goldstone, Jared V; Nacci, Diane E; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Connon, Richard E; Pessah, Isaac N

    2015-02-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) thrive in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Resident killifish have evolved tolerance to dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, whose toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well studied. In NBH, non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL PCBs), which lack activity toward the AhR, vastly exceed levels of DL congeners yet how killifish counter NDL toxic effects has not been explored. In mammals and fish, NDL PCBs are potent activators of ryanodine receptors (RyR), Ca(2+) release channels necessary for a vast array of physiological processes. In the current study we compared the expression and function of RyR related pathways in NBH killifish with killifish from the reference site at Scorton Creek (SC, MA). Relative to the SC fish, adults from NBH displayed increased levels of skeletal muscle RyR1 protein, and increased levels of FK506-binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12) an accessory protein essential for NDL PCB-triggered changes in RyR channel function. In accordance with increased RyR1 levels, NBH killifish displayed increased maximal ligand binding, increased maximal response to Ca(2+) activation and increased maximal response to activation by the NDL PCB congener PCB 95. Compared to SC, NBH embryos and larvae had increased levels of mtor and ryr2 transcripts at multiple stages of development, and generations, while levels of serca2 were decreased at 9 days post-fertilization in the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that there are compensatory and heritable changes in RyR mediated Ca(2+) signaling proteins or potential signaling partners in NBH killifish.

  15. Expression and function of ryanodine receptor related pathways in PCB tolerant Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Erika B.; Stegeman, John J.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Connon, Richard E.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) thrive in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), MA, highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Resident killifish have evolved tolerance to dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, whose toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well studied. In NBH, non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL PCBs), which lack activity toward the AhR, vastly exceed levels of DL congeners yet how killifish counter NDL toxic effects has not been explored. In mammals and fish, NDL PCBs are potent activators of ryanodine receptors (RyR), Ca2+ release channels necessary for a vast array of physiological processes. In the current study we compared the expression and function of RyR related pathways in NBH killifish with killifish from the reference site at Scorton Creek (SC, MA). Relative to the SC fish, adults from NBH displayed increased levels of skeletal muscle RyR1 protein, and increased levels of FK506-binding protein 12 kDa (FKBP12), an accessory protein essential for NDL PCB-triggered changes in RyR channel function. In accordance with increased RyR1 levels, NBH killifish displayed increased maximal ligand binding, increased maximal response to Ca2+ activation and increased maximal response to activation by the NDL PCB congener PCB 95. Compared to SC, NBH embryos and larvae had increased levels of mtor and ryr2 transcripts at multiple stages of development, and generations, while levels of serca2 were decreased at 9 days post-fertilization in the F1 and F2 generations. These findings suggest that there are compensatory and heritable changes in RyR mediated Ca2+ signaling proteins or potential signaling partners in NBH killifish. PMID:25546006

  16. Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings -- Part 4. Evaluation of the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for On-site Destruction of PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the fourth, also the last, report of the report series entitled “Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings.” This report evaluates the performance of an on-site PCB destruction method, known as the AMTS method, developed ...

  17. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  18. The role of DDE, PCB, coplanar PCB and eggshell parameters for reproduction in the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Helander, Björn; Olsson, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor; Litzén, Kerstin

    2002-08-01

    The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in 1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through the shell. In the highly contaminated Bp, p,p'-DDE concentrations in the eggs decreased continuously and 5-fold during the study period and PCB concentrations decreased 3-fold from the mid 1980s. The PCB pattern changed slightly over time towards more high-chlorinated congeners but the relative toxicity of the PCB mixture, expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ), remained constant and TEQ can be assumed to have decreased in a similar way as PCB over time. Productivity (P), shell thickness (St), shell index (Si) and Di increased over time in the Bp but no change in Di or productivity occurred in the Lp, where residue concentrations were 5-8 times lower. P of the Bp was not correlated to St or Si but was negatively correlated to Di, DDE and PCB. An S-shaped dose-response relationship was indicated between P and DDE. After 1988, when the PCB/DDE ratio was considerably higher than previously, PCB but not DDE concentrations were significantly higher in eggs with dead embryos as compared to undeveloped eggs, implying lethal concentrations of PCB, and a LOEL of 320 pg g-1 TEQ is suggested for embryo mortality. In a subset of 21 eggs, representing productive and unproductive females, analyzed for a selection of coplanar PCB congeners, tris(4-chlorophenyl) methanol and bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulphone, there was no evidence for a correlation between P and any of these compounds. A reduction in residue concentrations in old females did not lead to increased P or improved Di-values, indicating a remaining effect from a previous, higher exposure to contaminants. The inability

  19. PCB dry and wet weather concentration and load comparisons in Houston-area urban channels.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nathan L; Lakshmanan, Divagar; Rifai, Hanadi S; Koenig, Larry

    2011-04-15

    All 209 PCB congeners are quantified in water in both dry and wet weather urban flows in Houston, Texas, USA. Total water PCBs ranged from 0.82 to 9.4ng/L in wet weather and 0.46 to 9.0ng/L in dry. Wet weather loads were 8.2 times higher (by median) than dry weather with some increases of over 100-fold. The majority of the PCB load was in the dissolved fraction in dry weather while it was in the suspended fraction in wet weather. Dissolved PCB loads were correlated with rain intensity and highly developed land area, and a multiple linear regression (MLR) equation was developed to quantify these correlations. PCA generated five PCB components with nearly all positive loadings. They were interpreted as DOC-associated A1248, wet weather primarily suspended fraction A1254/A1260 likely from building sealants, truly dissolved-associated wastewater dechlorination, watershed-sourced PCB 11, and monochlorinated PCBs (likely connected to a different state or source of dechlorination). The PCB 11 component was statistically higher in wet versus dry weather when no other component showed such clear distinctions. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) did not always group dry and wet weather samples from the same location together illustrating the different congener composition that often exists between dry and wet conditions. Four wet weather samples from high percentage developed land (>90%) watersheds had nearly the same fingerprint suggesting a generic "urban" signature in runoff, which in this case was caused by residual A1254/A1260 PCB stocks and currently produced PCB 11 in consumer goods.

  20. Methyl sulfone PCB and DDE metabolites in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1995-12-31

    An important Arctic marine food chain is polar bear, ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). The Arctic is relatively uncontaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs). However, high levels of CHCs are bioaccumulated through the marine food web. Methyl sulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-PCB and -DDE metabolites are major CHCs in polar bear, although the proportion of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs derived from PCB metabolism and/or MeSO{sub 2}-PCB bioaccumulation from the diet is unknown. For this reason, the structure and concentration of MeSO{sup 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, PCBs and DDE were determined in whole body Arctic cod, the liver, adipose, lung and muscle of ringed seal and ten tissues of polar bear from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic. Preliminary analysis of the ratios of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in bear fat and liver to their parent PCBs in seal blubber suggested that CB-49 and CB-87 result in a higher proportion of metabolites in bear than the other PCB congeners, assuming that the MeSO{sup 2}-PCBs are not themselves accumulated from the diet. Bio-availability of the precursor PCBs for subsequent metabolism may also be a factor. The absence in bears of MeSO{sub 2}-metabolites of other metabolizable PCBs in seal may indicate that some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs are not formed or that they are formed and further metabolized. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE levels and congener patterns among seal and bear tissues and the difference in tissue distribution between species will also be compared. In polar bear, the s-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to S-PCB and s-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE to DDE ratios were highest in liver, indicating preferred storage.

  1. Biomarkers of exposure: Novel methods for the chemical analysis of PCB

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Ramarumo, P.M. )

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the extent of migration of PCB from a Superfund chemical dump site to the inhabitants of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, we have developed an ultrasensitive chemical analysis of milk, blood, and urine. The method, which measures 68 PCB congeners, p, p[prime]-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and mirex, uses conventional gas chromatography. The data are organized using widely available PC-based software. The sensitivity and simplicity of the method make this apparently daunting task a viable option in epidemiological studies of the cohort; patterns of PCB congeners allow sources of exposure to be identified with statistical discernibility. This is an important consideration at Akwesasne, since the baseline congener pattern in the St. Lawrence Rivers differs from the pattern of effluents emitted by local industries. Our novel analysis of urine has not been previously attempted because of the low proportion of PCB excreted in urine and the consequent difficulty of achieving the required analytical detection limits. The noninvasive nature of urine sampling makes it attractive for wide population surveys, particularly of children. We have developed a method that requires 0.5 L of urine and reduces it to 0.1 ml for GC analysis, yielding a detectability of 0.5 ng/L per congener. Originally, solvent extraction was employed, but recent work using solid-phase filtration membranes (Empore Discs) shows promise in further simplifying the method for adults. We have also developed a method for use in infants, using Teflon-wrapped diapers as a collection device. We will report on recovery efficiency, precision, detection limits, and the avoidance of chemical interference. We will also present preliminary data on PCB levels in milk and urine in 68 women.

  2. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  3. Evaluation of Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for 209 Chlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Two Chromatographic Runs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research evaluates a recently developed comprehensive 2-D GC coupled with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer for the potential separation of 209 PCB congeners, using a sequence of 1-D and 2-D chromatographic modes. In two consecutive chromatographic runs, using a 40 m,...

  4. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  5. Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gabrielle L; Mills, Gary L; Lindell, Angela H; Schweitzer, Sara H; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2015-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and the rare PCB mixture Aroclor 1268 in least terns (Sternula antillarum), a colonially-nesting, piscivorous seabird, in the Turtle River estuary and other coastal sites in Georgia, USA, were investigated. The Turtle River estuary is the location of the Linden Chemical Plant (LCP) Superfund site, a site prioritized by USA law for immediate remediation, where industries released effluent containing these contaminants until 1994. Aroclor 1268 is a highly-chlorinated PCB mixture that was used and released exclusively at the LCP site and nowhere else in the south eastern USA. High concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners and mercury have been documented in biota local to LCP, but no studies report concentrations in high trophic level, piscivorous birds such as least terns. We collected feathers and feces from chicks, and eggs from adults, at nesting colonies along the Georgia coast to analyze contaminant loads (in dry weight ppb). Mean Aroclor 1268 mixture concentrations in eggs (≤16,329 ppb) were highest at colonies in and just outside LCP, and decreased with increasing distance (up to 110 km) from LCP, but the Aroclor 1268 signature congener mixture was present at all sites. Mercury concentrations in eggs (≤3370 ppb), feathers (≤5950 ppb), and feces (≤417 ppb), were present at all sites, but did not vary significantly among sites. This report confirms the extensive dispersal of Aroclor 1268 congeners (approximately 110 km north and 70 km south of its point source) via bioaccumulation and trophic transfer.

  6. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  7. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Nakata, Haruhiko; Thomas, Nancy J; Stephenson, Mark; Jessup, David A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  8. Toxic cell concentrations of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, P. |; Halling-Soerensen, B.; Nyholm, N.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.

    1998-09-01

    Algal growth inhibition tests were performed with the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum and three {sup 14}C-labeled polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Toxicity was related to external aqueous concentrations and additionally to internal algal bound PCB concentrations. Estimates of the concentrations at 50% effectiveness (EC50s) for the three PCB congeners ranged within a factor of 17 when based on measured aqueous concentrations. When based on internal toxicant concentrations the corresponding range was 6.7 to 14.3 mmol/kg wet weight. Thus, changing the basis from external to internal concentrations reduced the range by almost one order of magnitude. Additional toxic cell concentrations of five monoaromatic compounds and S. capricornutum were calculated from literature data to be in the same order of magnitude as the experimental toxic cell concentrations for the PCBs, whereas EC50 values for all substances ranged by more than four orders of magnitude. The experimental and calculated data indicate that observed differences in the estimated EC50 values were mainly due to differences in bioconcentration behavior rather than to different intrinsic toxicities. These findings are in agreement with the concept of baseline toxicity, meaning that a number of hydrophobic organics exerts their acute toxicity by one relatively nonspecific mode of action.

  9. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date.

  10. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  11. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  12. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  13. In vitro metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and relationship to cytochrome P450 expression.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Shea, D; Schlezinger, J J; Hahn, M E; Stegeman, J J

    2000-07-01

    We measured rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) congeners by hepatic microsomes of two marine mammal species, beluga whale and pilot whale, as related to content of selected cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms. Beluga liver microsomes oxidized 3,3',4,4'-TCB at rates averaging 21 and 5 pmol/min per mg for males and females, respectively, while pilot whale samples oxidized this congener at 0.3 pmol/min per mg or less. However, rates of 3,3',4,4'-TCB metabolism correlated with immunodetected CYP1A1 protein content in liver microsomes of both species. The CYP1A inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone inhibited 3,3',4,4'-TCB metabolism by 40% in beluga, supporting a role for a cetacean CYP1A as a catalyst of this activity. Major metabolites of 3,3',4,4'-TCB generated by beluga liver microsomes were 4-OH-3,3',4',5-TCB and 5-OH-3,3',4,4'-TCB (98% of total), similar to metabolites formed by other species CYP1A1, and suggesting a 4,5-epoxide-TCB intermediate. Liver microsomes of both species metabolized 2,2',5,5'-TCB at rates of 0.2-1.5 pmol/min per mg. Both species also expressed microsomal proteins cross-reactive with antibodies raised against some mammalian CYP2Bs (rabbit; dog), but not others (rat; scup). Whether CYP2B homologues occur and function in cetaceans is uncertain. This study demonstrates that PCBs are metabolized to aqueous-soluble products by cetacean liver enzymes, and that in beluga, rates of metabolism of 3,3',4,4'-TCB are substantially greater than those of 2,2',5,5'-TCB. These directly measured rates generally support the view that PCB metabolism plays a role in shaping the distribution patterns of PCB residues found in cetacean tissue.

  14. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p < 0.04) over the range of congeners and habitats examined. PBDEs were taken up by biota more readily than PCBs, suggesting a large, potentially available biological reservoir of PBDEs in sediments. Dominant congeners in benthos comprised PBDEs 47, 99, 209, and 100 and PCBs 138/163, 153, 101, 118, and 110. PBDE uptake was anomalously high near one wastewater outfall, likely due to selective feeding on PBDE-enriched particulates from that source. Conversely, outfalls supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  15. Congener specific determination and enantiomeric ratios of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, S.; Schurig, V.; Jimenez, B.; Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Marsili, L.

    1999-06-01

    Blubber and liver samples from six striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found dead in the Mediterranean Sea in 1989--1990 were tested for 37 coplanar and chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including the enantiomeric ratios of 9 chiral PCBs. The method includes a fractionation step using HPLC (PYE column) for separating the PCBs according to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho positions. HRGC/ECD and HRGC/LRMS with an a chiral column (DB-5) were used to determine the PCB congeners. The enantiomeric ratios of nine chiral PCBs were determined by HRGC/LRMS (SIM) with a chiral column (Chirasil-Dex) and by MDGC as the confirmatory technique. The total PCB concentration (sum of 37 congeners) ranged from 7.2 to 89.6 {micro}g/g (wet weight) and from 0.52 to 29.2 {micro}g/g (wet weight) for blubber and liver samples, respectively. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, 170, and 180. The toxic equivalent values (TEQ) ranged from 0.17 to 3.93 ng/g (wet weight) and from 0.02 to 0.73 ng/g (wet weight) for blubber and liver samples, respectively. PCBs 95, 132, 135, 149, and 176 revealed an enantiomeric excess of the second eluted enantiomer in almost all of the samples, whereas PCBs 136 and 174 were racemic or almost racemic. PCBs 88 and 91 were under the detection limits of the methodology used.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl source attribution in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, using multivariate similarity among congener profiles in sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Cacela, Dave; Beltman, Douglas J; Lipton, Joshua

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations measured in 1,189 sediment samples from Green Bay (MI/WI, USA), Lake Michigan (MI/WI, USA), and the Fox River (WI, USA) were analyzed statistically to evaluate whether PCB congener profiles in outer Green Bay are more similar to those observed in inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan. Similarities among PCB profiles were assessed with complementary multivariate analysis techniques: Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and classification trees. The PCA indicated that profiles in outer Green Bay are distinct from those of inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan but are more similar to those of inner Green Bay. The outer bay profiles are dissimilar to profiles that would result from a simple process of mixing contaminated sediments from the inner bay with Lake Michigan sediments and, therefore, support the conclusion that contaminants in outer Green Bay come from discharges of the Fox River. Several classification trees based on small sets of congener proportions defined simple rules that consistently distinguished the regional profiles. Application of these rules to classify the outer bay samples suggests that the profiles of less than 7% of outer bay samples are similar to Lake Michigan profiles. These results are interpreted with respect to physical transport and chemical weathering processes that may account for the observed differences.

  17. ENANTIOSELECTIVITY IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF PCB ATROPISOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms inoculated with sediment from two locations in a contaminated reservoir, Lake Hartwell, SC, USA, degraded certain PCB atropisomers enantioselectively while other atropisomers were degraded in racemic proportions. The microcosms were spiked with either 234-236 PCB (PCB...

  18. Trophodynamic analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.G.; Niimi, A.J. )

    1988-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some other chlorinated organics in the Lake Ontario ecosystem has been studied. In addition to the classical biomagnification of PCBs and some of the other organics, the chlorine content of the PCBs was observed to increase with trophic level. Most of the differential PCB fractionation seemed to occur at the lower end of the food chain (water to plankton to mysid). At the higher trophic levels (mysid to smelt to salmonid), the PCBs seemed to be distributed as a uniform composition mixture. The bioaccumulation factor of these hydrophobic organics increased linearly with octanol-water partition coefficient of the chemicals at all trophic levels. The environmental bioaccumulation of these chemicals in salmonids was higher than that predicted from bioconcentration from water alone, showing that contaminated food is a major source of these chemical residues in fish.

  19. Dioxin-like pcb emissions from cement kilns during the use of alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2017-02-05

    The substitution of combustion fuels in cement plants is increasing throughout many countries, and its individual performance is constantly assessed against strict regulatory standards. For cement plants within Australia, normal operations remain to use petroleum coal as the dominate energy source at the precalciner, avoiding the opportunity to reduce carbon-based resources and pollutant emissions (such as carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, persistent organic pollutants) whilst providing the necessary energy needs through resource recovery. This paper presents stack emission monitoring of health-critical dl-PCB (dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners during the substitution of alternative fuels at ten Australian cement plants, and to distinguish statistical similarities between other key pollutants (such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD-F) and hydrogen halogens) and amongst the fuels used. Sampling of plant emissions was performed during normal operations (as baseline trials) and with the varied substitution rates of waste oil, solvents, chipped wood, refuge waste, carbon dust, shredded tyres and black sand (as experimental trials). The extraction of field and analytical data during these trials allowed for determining the total and individual unit mass of dl-PCB and PCDD-F isomers, standardised to 10% O2 and to World Health Organization (2005) toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values. The findings showed waste co-incineration during cement operations does reduce health-critical congeners of dioxins and dl-PCBs whilst providing the necessary energy and calcination needs. Experimental trials showed all dl-PCBs and PCB TEQ are below the internationally regulated Stockholm Convention article of 10pg TEQ/Nm(3). In several cases, an increased rate of substituted fuel also identified a consistent reduction to baseline dl-PCBs. The distribution of toxic isomers (TCDD-F and PeCDD-F) were shown to be predominate during waste oil, wood chips, and

  20. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies.

  1. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-06-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congenersPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure.

  2. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2012-01-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congenersPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure. PMID:23538476

  3. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    PubMed

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases.

  4. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica. Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of airborne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprising.

  5. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, J Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa; Billa, Nanditha; Hawthorne, Steven B; Miller, David J; Grabanski, Carol B

    2013-07-01

    Review of data from several contaminated sediment sites suggested that biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) declined with increasing contaminant concentrations in the sediment. To evaluate the consistency and possible causes of this behavior, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox River Superfund sites were used in sediment bioaccumulation tests with the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with PCB concentrations in interstitial water (IW) quantified using polyoxymethylene passive samplers. Measured BSAFs tended to decrease with increasing PCB concentration in sediment, especially for the more highly chlorinated congeners. Measures of partitioning between sediment, IW, and oligochaetes showed that measured sediment-IW partition coefficients (KTOC ) tended to increase slightly with increasing sediment contamination, whereas the ratio of tissue PCB to IW PCB tended to decrease with increasing concentration in IW. Variation in accumulation among sediments was clearly influenced by bioavailability, as reflected by IW measurements, although the specific cause of varying KTOC was not clear. Calculated partitioning between IW and organism lipid (Klipid ) indicated that accumulation was generally 5 to 10-fold higher than would be predicted if Klipid was approximately equal to the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). While affirming previous observations of decreasing BSAFs with increasing PCB contamination, the relatively shallow slope of the observed relationship in the current data may suggest that this concentration dependence is not a major uncertainty in sediment risk assessment, particularly if measurements of PCBs in IW are incorporated.

  6. The effect of size and sex on PCB and PAH concentrations in crab Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Hosseini, Mehdi; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the hepatopancreas of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) from the north Persian Gulf were measured. In addition, the relationships between crab size (carapace width) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in hepatopancreas were investigated by linear regression analysis. Among the PCBs, congeners 110 and 153 were the most frequent and abundant. The results showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between PCB and PAH levels and crab size were positive. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average PCB16, 44, 153, and acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and anthracene concentrations in hepatopancreas of male crab were found to be significantly higher than those found in the female crab.

  7. The Effect of Dietary Glycine on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3’,4,4’-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O

  8. Effects of Age, Adipose Percent, and Reproduction on PCB Concentrations and Profiles in an Extreme Fasting North Pacific Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Hassrick, Jason L.; Lafontaine, Anne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Crocker, Daniel E.; Debier, Cathy; Costa, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs) than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth) may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research. PMID:24755635

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Exposure and Diabetes: Results from the Anniston Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Bartell, Scott M.; Foushee, Herman R.; Shelton, Christie; Pavuk, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) manufactured in Anniston, Alabama, from 1929 to 1971 caused significant environmental contamination. The Anniston population remains one of the most highly exposed in the world. Objectives: Reports of increased diabetes in PCB-exposed populations led us to examine possible associations in Anniston residents. Methods: Volunteers (n = 774) from a cross-sectional study of randomly selected households and adults who completed the Anniston Community Health Survey also underwent measurements of height, weight, fasting glucose, lipid, and PCB congener levels and verification of medications. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the relationships between PCBs and diabetes, adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Participants with prediabetes were excluded from the logistic regression analyses. Results: Participants were 47% African American, 70% female, with a mean age of 54.8 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 27% in the study population, corresponding to an estimated prevalence of 16% for Anniston overall; the PCB body burden of 35 major congeners ranged from 0.11 to 170.42 ppb, wet weight. The adjusted OR comparing the prevalence of diabetes in the fifth versus first quintile of serum PCB was 2.78 (95% CI: 1.00, 7.73), with similar associations estimated for second through fourth quintiles. In participants < 55 years of age, the adjusted OR for diabetes for the highest versus lowest quintile was 4.78 (95% CI: 1.11, 20.6), whereas in those ≥ 55 years of age, we observed no significant associations with PCBs. Elevated diabetes prevalence was observed with a 1 SD increase in log PCB levels in women (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.28); a decreased prevalence was observed in men (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.41). Conclusions: We observed significant associations between elevated PCB levels and diabetes mostly due to associations in women and in individuals < 55 years of age. PMID:22334129

  10. Effect Of Reaction Environments On The Reactivity Of PCB (2-Chlorobiphenyl) Over Activated Carbon Impregnated With Palladized Iron

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles has been developed to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated the effects of various reaction environments on the adsorption-mediated dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-...

  11. Differential accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the aquatic food web at the Kalamazoo River Superfund site, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kay, Denise P; Blankenship, Alan L; Coady, Katherine K; Neigh, Arianne M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Millsap, Stephanie D; Strause, Karl; Park, Cyrus; Bradley, Patrick; Newsted, John L; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

    2005-08-15

    A series of field studies were conducted to gain a better understanding of the bioaccumulation and dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the aquatic food web of the Kalamazoo River flood plain. Representative species of passerine birds, mammals, fish, aquatic plants, invertebrates, and colocated sediments were collected from areas located within submerged portions of the former Trowbridge impoundment and also from areas located at an upstream reference location. In most matrixes, total concentrations of PCBs were significantly greater in the downstream study area compared to the upstream reference location. Patterns of PCB congeners varied among trophic levels due to selective bioaccumulation of more chlorinated congeners in upper trophic level organisms. There were no statistically significant differences in total PCB concentrations among sampling grids within either site or temporally among three sampling seasons between May and September. The greatest total PCB concentrations were detected in adult tree swallows (mean = 8.7 mg/kg wet weight (ww)) and fish (mean = 4.4 mg/ kg ww) collected from the former Trowbridge impoundment. Concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) were greatest in egg, nestling, and adult tree swallows collected from the former Trowbridge impoundment. There was not a significant correlation between concentrations of total PCBs and TEQs at either site in the mammalian or avian food webs. The relative potency of the mixture of PCBs, expressed as the ratio of TEQs to total PCBs, increased with trophic position in the avian and mammalian aquatic food webs located within the former Trowbridge impoundment.

  12. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    SciTech Connect

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  13. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Background Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age. PMID:20378105

  14. Non-dioxin-like PCBs inhibit [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Wigestrand, M B; Stenberg, M; Walaas, S I; Fonnum, F; Andersson, P L

    2013-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are neurotoxic compounds with known effects at the dopaminergic system in the brain. In a previous study we demonstrated that NDL-PCBs inhibit uptake of dopamine into rat brain synaptosomes, an effect most likely mediated by inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, using the cocaine analogue [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding assay and synaptosomes, we directly investigate whether NDL-PCBs act via DAT and explore the structure-activity relationship of this effect. In total, thirty PCBs were investigated, including a previously selected training set of twenty PCBs covering the structural variation within tri- to hepta-chlorinated NDL-PCBs, and an additional set of ten NDL-PCB congeners selected to validate the structure-activity pattern of neurotoxic PCBs. Since previous work has demonstrated that NDL-PCBs can also inhibit the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), we additionally examined whether some PCB congeners favour an effect on VMAT2 and others on DAT. Our results show that NDL-PCBs are potent inhibitors of [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to DAT. In fact, we identify a PCB congener (PCB 110) with similar potency for [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding inhibition as cocaine. All active congeners were ortho-chlorinated PCBs, and in particular, tetra- and penta-chlorinated with 2-3 chlorine atoms in the ortho position were potent inhibitors of [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding. Notably, the most active PCBs are highly prevalent in commercial mixtures of PCBs (Aroclor 1242, 1254 and 1260), which indicates that DAT inhibition could be one of the factors contributing to behavioural effects after Aroclor exposure. Derived data correlated well with the recently derived neurotoxic equivalency factors (NEQs), indicating the generality and applicability of the NEQ scheme in risk assessments of PCBs.

  15. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals.

  16. Seasonal variations in aldrin epoxidase (MFO) activity of yellow-legged herring gulls: the relationship to breeding and PCB residues

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A.

    1988-09-01

    The hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) constitute a defense mechanism which enables the organism to make xenobiotics more polar and thus render them more readily excretable. The degree of induction of this system is an expression of its exposure to xenobiotics, but it is also a function of endogenous physiological mechanisms. These two forms of induction may lead to mutual interference: foreign compounds may stimulate hepatic hydroxylation and affect the metabolism of steroid hormones; the later may in turn stimulate the activity of the MFO system favoring the degradation of the xenobiotics. Induction and detoxication processes of endogenous and exogenous compounds have been observed in mammals in laboratory experiments. Relationships between MRO activity, the reproductive cycle and variations in tissue levels of liposoluble xenobiotics, have been reported for marine organisms. In birds, seasonal variations of MFO levels have been observed, but the relationship between these enzyme variations and the levels of contaminants in the animal tissues has never been made clear. The authors aim to clarify this relationship by determining the levels of PCBs residues and aldrin epoxidase activities in Yellow-legged Herring gull (Larus cachinnans) specimens from different areas of Italy collected during two phases of the annual cycle, namely those of reproduction (spring) and of sexual inactivity (autumn). This species was chosen because of its wide distribution, its opportunistic feeding habits and its adaptive capacity in polluted environments.

  17. RECENT DECLINES IN PAH, PCB, AND TOXAPHENE LEVELS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT LAKES AS DETERMINED FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SEDIMENT CORES. (R825151)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were collected from two sites in Grand Traverse Bay, Lake
    Michigan in May 1998, dated using 210Pb geochronology, and analyzed
    for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    (PAHs), and toxaphene. The extraor...

  18. PCB accumulation and tissue distribution in cave salamander (Proteus anguinus anguinus, Amphibia, Urodela) in the polluted karstic hinterland of the Krupa River, Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pezdirc, Marko; Heath, Ester; Bizjak Mali, Lilijana; Bulog, Boris

    2011-08-01

    For over two decades, a manufacturer of electrical capacitors disposed of its waste within the karstic hinterland of the Krupa River (Slovenia) resulting in the surroundings becomming heavily polluted with PCB. Albeit the extent of the contamination has been known since 1983 and the Krupa River has become one of the most PCB polluted river in Europe, the effects on the cave fauna of the region remain unknown. The most famous cave dweller of the Krupa hinterland is the endemic cave salamander Proteus anguinus anguinus. In this study we determine the levels of PCB in the tissues of the Proteus and in river sediments. The total concentration of PCB in individual tissue samples from specimens of the Krupa spring was between 165.59 μg g(-1) and 1560.20 μg g(-1)dry wt, which is at least 28-times higher than those from an unpolluted site. The kidneys contained the lowest concentration, while the highest concentration was in subcutaneous fat and tissues with high lipid contents like visceral fat and liver. Total PCB concentrations in sediment samples from the Krupa River were between 5.47 and 59.20 μg g(-1)dry wt showing that a high burden of PCB still remains in the region. The most abundant PCB congeners in all analyzed samples were di-ortho substituted (PCB #101, #118, #138 and #158), but higher proportion of mono-ortho PCB was present in sediments. The ability of Proteus to survive a high PCB loading in its environment and especially in its tissues is remarkable. Its partial elimination of low chlorinated and mono-ortho substituted congeners is also reported.

  19. Sustained expression of CYPs and DNA adduct accumulation with continuous exposure to PCB126 and PCB153 through a new delivery method: Polymeric implants

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, Farrukh; Xin, Xing; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    A new delivery method via polymeric implants was used for continuous exposure to PCBs. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous polymeric implants containing PCB126 (0.15% load), PCB153 (5% load), or both, for up to 45 days and release kinetics and tissue distribution were measured. PCB153 tissue levels on day 15 were readily detected in lung, liver, mammary and serum, with highest levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 was detected only in liver and mammary tissues. However, a completely different pharmacokinetics was observed on co-exposure of PCB153 and PCB126, with a 1.8-fold higher levels of PCB153 in the liver whereas a 1.7-fold lower levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 and PCB153 caused an increase in expression of key PCB-inducible enzymes, CYP 1A1/2 and 2B1/2, respectively. Serum and liver activities of the antioxidant enzymes, PON1 and PON3, and AhR transcription were also significantly increased by PCB126. 32P-Postlabeling for polar and lipophilic DNA-adducts showed significant quantitative differences: PCB126 increased 8-oxodG, an oxidative DNA lesion, in liver and lung tissues. Adduct levels in the liver remained upregulated up to 45 days, while some lung DNA adducts declined. This is the first demonstration that continuous low-dose exposure to PCBs via implants can produce sustained tissue levels leading to the accumulation of DNA-adducts in target tissue and induction of indicator enzymes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that this exposure model is a promising tool for long-term exposure studies. PMID:25530946

  20. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  1. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.).

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wegner, Anna; Foekema, Edwin M; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-01-02

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight, as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight. A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor of 1.1-3.6, an effect that was significant for ΣPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS had statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.

  2. Differential accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the terrestrial food web of the Kalamazoo River Superfund site, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Alan L; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Coady, Katherine K; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Strause, Karl; Park, Cyrus; Bradley, Patrick W; Neigh, Arianne M; Millsap, Stephanie D; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

    2005-08-15

    A series of field studies was conducted to determine the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the terrestrial food web of the Kalamazoo River flood plain. Samples included colocated soils, native plants likely to be consumed by wildlife, several taxa of terrestrial invertebrates, small mammals, passerine bird eggs, nestlings, and adults, and great horned owl plasma and eggs. Mean concentrations of total PCBs in samples from the former Trowbridge impoundment were 6.5 mg/kg dry weight for soils and 0.023, 0.13, 1.3, 1.3, 1.6, and 8.2 mg/kg wet weight for plants, small herbivorous mammals, depurated earthworms, shrews, great horned owl eggs, and house wren eggs, respectively. Historical data from the Kalamazoo River have reported Aroclor-equivalent total PCB concentrations in the terrestrial food web; however, the degree of environmental weathering of the parent PCB mixtures was unknown. In this study, earthworms and composite samples of coleoptera exhibited PCB congener patterns that were similar to patterns in colocated soils. However, in plants, less chlorinated PCBs (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachlorinated biphenyls) were predominant, and in small mammals, there was a notable enrichment of PCBs 153, 180, 138, 118, and 99. In general, concentrations of PCBs were lower in most biota than in soil from the Kalamazoo River Area of Concern (KRAOC) although there was a modest biomagnification of PCBs from lower trophic level biota to highertrophic levels. As a consequence of environmental weathering of PCBs in the terrestrial food web of the KRAOC, the relative potency of the PCBs (expressed as mg TEQs/kg PCBs) decreased from soil to most biota. While there was a general trend, as expected, in which concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) increased with total PCBs, this relationship was rather poor (R2 = 0.13). Taken together, these data suggest that the differential accumulation of PCB congeners in the

  3. PCB body burdens in US women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Goodman, Stephanie; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2009-05-01

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Although manufacture and use of PCBs were banned in the US in 1977, exposure to PCBs is a continuing concern due to the widespread distribution of these compounds in the environment and their persistence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides PCB body burden measurements representative of the US population for the years 1999-2002. Interpretation of these data is challenging due to the large number of PCB congeners reported. We examined 6 PCB body burden metrics to identify an approach for summarizing the NHANES data and for characterizing changes over time in potential risks to children's health. We focused on women of childbearing age, defined here as 16-39 years, because in utero exposures have been associated with neurodevelopmental effects, and used only the 2001-2002 data because of higher detection rates. The 6 metrics, each consisting of different combinations of the 9 most frequently detected congeners, were as follows: total PCBs (all 9 congeners); highly chlorinated PCBs (2 congeners); dioxin-like PCBs (3 congeners, weighted by toxic equivalency factors); non-dioxin-like PCBs (6 congeners); a 4-congener metric (PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180); and PCB-153 alone. The PCB metrics were generally highly correlated with each other. There was a strong association of PCB body burdens with age for all metrics. Median body burdens of Mexican American women were lower than those of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women for 5 of the 6 metrics, and there were no significant differences in body burdens between the latter two groups. Body burdens of women with incomes above poverty level were greater than those for lower-income women at the

  4. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  5. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  6. PARTITIONING, DESORPTION, AND DECHLORINATION OF A PCB CONGENER IN SEDIMENT SLURRY SUPERNATANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning and desorption played specific roles in the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP) in sediment slurry supernatants, which are suspensions of disssolved organic matter(DOM). In short-term experiments, the partition coefficient (Kp) was related to the a...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. PCB Congener Sorption To Carbonaceous Sediment Components: Macroscopic Comparison And Characterization Of Sorption Kinetics And Mechanism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to sediment is a key process in determining their mobility, bioavailability, and chemical decomposition in aquatic environments. In order to examine the validity of currently used interpretation approaches for PCBs sorption, comparati...

  9. The Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect Studied for All 209 PCB Congeners

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk was developed; with application to a set of caulk and window glazing material samples. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, and including quality...

  10. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  11. PCB concentrations in plankton size classes, a temporal study in Marseille Bay, Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tiano, Marion; Tronczyński, Jacek; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Tixier, Céline; Carlotti, François

    2014-12-15

    PCB levels in plankton were investigated in the Bay of Marseille, Western Mediterranean Sea, between September 2010 and October 2011. Concentrations of PCB congeners (CB 18, CB 52, CB 101, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 180) were determined in three plankton size-classes (60-200, 200-500 and 500-1000μm) together with different parameters: chlorophyll content, plankton dry-weight biomass, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and plankton-community structure. The ∑PCB7 concentrations ranged between 14.2 and 88.1ngg(-1)d.w., for all size classes and all sampling periods. The results do not show the biomass dilution effect and indicate moderate but significant biomagnification with plankton trophic position estimated by δ(15)N signatures. Equilibrium with water phase may notably contribute in controlling the PCB levels in the plankton. More generally, presented results imply that PCB accumulation in the plankton is an effect of abiotic and trophic complex interactions in the Bay of Marseille.

  12. Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Estrogenic Activity in Human Male Serum

    PubMed Central

    Plíšková, Martina; Vondráček, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jiřií; Kočan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomáš; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighboring background region in eastern Slovakia. We found that the lower-chlorinated PCBs were estrogenic, whereas the prevalent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199, and 203, as well as major PCB metabolites, behaved as anti-estrogens. Coplanar PCBs had no direct effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activation in this in vitro model. In human male serum samples, high levels of PCBs were associated with a decreased ER-mediated activity and an increased dioxin-like activity, as determined by the DR-CALUX assay. 17β-Estradiol (E2) was responsible for a major part of estrogenic activity identified in total serum extracts. Significant negative correlations were found between dioxin-like activity, as well as mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes, and total estrogenic activity. For sample fractions containing only persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the increased frequency of anti-estrogenic samples was associated with a higher sum of PCBs. This suggests that the prevalent non-dioxin-like PCBs were responsible for the weak antiestrogenic activity of some POPs fractions. Our data also suggest that it might be important to pay attention to direct effects of PCBs on steroid hormone levels in heavily exposed subjects. PMID:16203234

  13. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination on estrogenic activity in human male serum.

    PubMed

    Plísková, Martina; Vondrácek, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jirí; Kocan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomás; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighboring background region in eastern Slovakia. We found that the lower-chlorinated PCBs were estrogenic, whereas the prevalent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199, and 203, as well as major PCB metabolites, behaved as antiestrogens. Coplanar PCBs had no direct effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activation in this in vitro model. In human male serum samples, high levels of PCBs were associated with a decreased ER-mediated activity and an increased dioxin-like activity, as determined by the DR-CALUX assay. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) was responsible for a major part of estrogenic activity identified in total serum extracts. Significant negative correlations were found between dioxin-like activity, as well as mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes, and total estrogenic activity. For sample fractions containing only persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the increased frequency of antiestrogenic samples was associated with a higher sum of PCBs. This suggests that the prevalent non-dioxin-like PCBs were responsible for the weak antiestrogenic activity of some POPs fractions. Our data also suggest that it might be important to pay attention to direct effects of PCBs on steroid hormone levels in heavily exposed subjects.

  14. Sensory effects of capsaicin congeners. Part II: Importance of chemical structure and pungency in desensitizing activity of capsaicin-type compounds.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, J; Jancsó-Gábor, A

    1976-01-01

    The characteristic insensitivity of sensory nerve endings to chemically induced pain brought about by capsaicin could be reproduced on the rat's eye by pungent vanillylamides, homovanilloyl-alkylamides and piperine, while homovanilloyl-cycloalkylamides, -azacycloalkylamides, - alkylesters, -alkyl-homovanillylamides, undecenoyl-3-aminopropranololand zingerone were practically ineffective in this respect. Desensitizing potency was not parallel with the stimulating effect of the compounds, e.g. the strongly pungent homovanilloyl-octylester failed to desensitize the receptors, while the less pungent homovanilloyl-dodecylamide proved to be a more potent desensitizing agent than capsaicin itself. It is concluded that the inverse position of the acylamide linkage does not modify, while its replacement by an esteric group completely abolishes the desensitizing activity. In contrast to the stimulating effect, in desensitizing action the presence of an alkyl chain is essential and its optimal length corresponds to 10-12 C atoms. On the basis of these results the possible molecular interactions at the site of action are discussed.

  15. PCB cycling in marine plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Ashizawa, D.; Brownawell, B.; Fisher, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystem-scale models of contaminant bioaccumulation and toxicity are often sensitive to quantification of uptake and trophic transfer at the base of aquatic food chains. Significant uncertainty remains in assessing the rates and routes of transfer of hydrophobic contaminants by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Using radio-labeled 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB), the authors have conducted experiments to measure the transfer of PCB from seawater to phytoplankton to copepods. Uptake, equilibration, and release of PCB onto/from algal cells were found to be rapid and not appreciably affected by the algal growth phase. Initial experiments indicate that when PCB-contaminated diatoms were fed to calanoid copepods, the assimilation efficiencies in the grazers ranged from 30--50%. Ongoing experiments are investigating this process further and quantitatively comparing copepod uptake of PCB from food and from the dissolved phase. These parameters of uptake and release are essential in the development and application of contaminant bioaccumulation models for marine and aquatic food chains.

  16. Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell superfund site: PCB dechlorination. 2. Rates and extent.

    PubMed

    Magar, Victor S; Brenner, Richard C; Johnson, Glenn W; Quensen, John F

    2005-05-15

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners. The preferential loss of meta and para chlorines with sediment depth demonstrated that PCBs in the sediments underwent reductive dechlorination after burial. Notably, ortho chlorines were highly conserved for more than 5 decades; since the first appearance of PCBs, ca. 1950-1955. These dechlorination characteristics resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners dominated by ortho chlorine substituents. Dechlorination rates were determined by plotting the numbers of meta plus para chlorines per biphenyl molecule (mol of chlorine/mol of PCB) with sediment age. Regression analyses showed linear correlations between meta plus para chlorine concentrations with time. The average dechlorination rate was 0.094 +/- 0.063 mol of Cl/mol of PCB/yr. The rates measured using the 2001 cores were approximately twice those measured using the 2000 cores, most likely because the 2001 cores were collected only at transects O, L, and I, which had the highest rates measured in 2000. An inverse of the dechlorination rates indicated that 16.4 +/- 11.6 yr was required per meta plus para chlorine removal (ranging from 4.3 to 43.5 yr per chlorine removal). The rates determined from this study were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than rates reported from laboratory microcosm studies using Hudson River and St. Lawrence River sediments, suggesting that dechlorination rates reported for laboratory experiments are much higher than those occurring in situ.

  17. The trophodynamics of PCBs, including mono- and non-ortho congeners, in the food web of North-Central Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, T L; Metcalfe, C D

    1997-08-18

    The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food-web of Lake Ontario was studied to determine the parameters that control the trophodynamics of PCB congeners; including toxic non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs. 'Biomagnification' of PCBs was evident in the food-web as total PCBs increased through trophic levels when concentrations were calculated on both a wet wt. and lipid weight basis; although there was no evidence of biomagnification between forage fish and piscivorous fish. Biomagnification was greatest for congeners with log octanol-water partition (log Kow) coefficients between 6 and 7.5. Non-ortho congeners 77 and 126, and congener 151 were not biomagnified to the extent of other congeners with similar Kow, which was attributed to high rates of metabolic clearance of these compounds. The Toxic Equivalent Quantities (TEQs) associated with non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs increased throughout the Lake Ontario food-web. The high TEQ observed in herring gull eggs was primarily the result of very high concentrations of congener 126 in this component of the food web.

  18. Assessment of exposure to PCB 153 from breast feeding and normal food intake in individual children using a system approach model

    PubMed Central

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Dedík, Ladislav; Jusko, Todd A.; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, Ľubica; Kočan, Anton; Šovčíková, Eva; Wimmerová, Soňa; Tihányi, Juraj; Patayová, Henrieta; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Investigators have typically relied on a single or few discrete time points as measures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden, however health effects are more likely to be the result of integrative exposure in time, optionally expressed as an area under the time curve (AUC) of PCB serum concentration. Using data from a subgroup of 93 infants from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia—a region highly polluted by PCBs—we fit a system type model, customized to our longitudinal measures of serum PCB concentrations in cord, 6, 16, and, 45 month blood specimens. The most abundant congener, PCB 153, was chosen for modeling purposes. In addition to currently used methods of exposure assessment, our approach estimates a concentration time profile for each subject, taking into account mean residence time of PCB 153 molecules in the body, duration of breast feeding, hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without breast feeding and alternately without normal food intake. Hypothetical PCB 153 concentration in steady-state without normal food intake correlates with AUC (r=0.84, p<0.001) as well as with duration of breast feeding (r=0.64, p<0.001). It makes possible to determine each subject’s exposure profile expressed as AUC of PCBs serum concentration with a minimum model parameters. PCB body burden in most infants was strongly associated with duration of breast feeding in most, but not all children, was apparent from model output. PMID:22051344

  19. Suppression of aromatase activity in vitro by PCBs 28 and 105 and Aroclor 1221.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Amanda J; Cooke, Gerard M

    2004-08-30

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in vitro were investigated using a commercially available microsomal fraction obtained from baculovirus infected insects that had been transfected with the human CYP19 gene and cytochrome P450 reductase. The assay measured the conversion of tritiated testosterone to estradiol in Tris buffer at pH 7.4. When aroclors, commercial preparations of PCBs, were added to aromatase assays at a 10 microM concentration, Aroclor 1221 caused a reduction in the aromatase activity, whereas other aroclors (1016, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 5432, 5442 and 5460) were without effect. Further investigation of the effect of Aroclor 1221 on aromatase activity showed that the inhibition was dose dependent. When a reconstituted mixture (RM) of PCBs that represented the congeneric content of human milk was investigated, no inhibition of aromatase activity at the maximum treatment of 15.0 microM was observed. None of the congeners present in the reconstituted mixture, except PCB 28 and 105, affected P450 arom activity. PCB 28 showed a statistically significant inhibition of aromatase activity (P<0.05) at 1.5 and 15 microM and a significant inhibition of aromatase activity by PCB 105 was also observed, but only at 15 microM. In three separate kinetic analyses the Km(app) for aromatase was 64, 89 and 69 nM (mean 74 nM). In addition, PCB 28 resulted in an increase in the Km(app) without a significant effect on Vmax(app), suggesting competitive inhibition by this congener. This conclusion was supported by slope (Km(app)/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) and intercept (1/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) replots. The slope replots gave Ki(app) values for PCB 28 of 0.9, 1.3 and 2.0 microM (mean 1.4 microM), whereas intercept replots were almost horizontal. Thus, PCB 28 is a competitive inhibitor of aromatase with a Ki(app) value approximately 20-fold the Km(app) value. Based on these studies, we conclude that

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  1. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  2. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  3. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  4. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  5. Dietary Manganese Modulates PCB126 Toxicity, Metal Status, and MnSOD in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingxuan; Klaren, William D.; Wels, Brian R.; Simmons, Donald L.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Wang, Kai; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist and induces oxidative stress. Because liver manganese (Mn) levels decrease in response to PCB126, a Mn dietary study was designed to investigate the role of Mn in PCB126 toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats received diets containing 0, 10, or 150 ppm added Mn for 3 weeks, followed by a single ip injection of corn oil or PCB126 (5 µmol/kg body weight). After 2 weeks, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in the heart, liver, and liver mitochondria, and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and metallothionein mRNA, MnSOD protein, and MnSOD activity were determined. Mn levels in liver, heart, and liver mitochondria were strongly decreased by the Mn-deficient diet. Small effects on Fe levels and a stepwise increase in MnSOD activity with dietary Mn were also visible. PCB126 caused profound changes in Cu (up), Zn, Fe, and Mn (down) in liver, but not in heart, and differing effects (Cu, Zn, and Fe up, Mn down) in liver mitochondria. Liver MnSOD and metallothionein mRNA levels and MnSOD protein were increased but MnSOD activity was decreased by PCB126. PCB126-induced liver enlargement was dose-dependently reduced with increasing dietary Mn. These changes in metals homeostasis and MnSOD activity in liver but not heart may be a/the mechanism of PCB126 liver-specific toxicity. Specifically, transport of Fenton metals (Cu, Fe) into and Mn out of the mitochondria, a probable mechanism for lower MnSOD activity, may be a/the cause of PCB126-induced oxidative stress. The role of metallothioneins needs further evaluation. Dietary Mn slightly alleviated PCB126-induced toxicities. PMID:26660635

  6. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: the role of sediment organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Dinn, Pamela M; Johannessen, Sophia C; Ross, Peter S; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher J; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation.

  7. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  8. High breast milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among four women living adjacent to a PCB-contaminated waste site.

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, S A; Altshul, L

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since 1993, measures of intrauterine PCB exposure have been obtained for a sample of New Bedford area infants. Among 122 mother-infant pairs, we identified four milk samples with total PCB levels that were significantly higher than the rest, with estimated total PCBs ranging from 1,100 to 2,400 ng/g milk fat compared with an overall mean of 320 ng/g milk fat for the 122 women. The congener profile and history of one case was consistent with past occupational PCB exposures. Otherwise, the source of PCB exposures in these cases was difficult to specify. Environmental exposures including those from fish consumption were likely, whereas residence adjacent to a PCB-contaminated site was considered an unlikely exposure source. In all four cases, the infants were full-term, healthy newborns. Because the developing nervous system is believed to be particularly susceptible to PCBs (for example, prenatal PCB exposures have been associated with prematurity, decrements in birth weight and gestation time, and behavioral and developmental deficits in later infancy and childhood, including decrements in IQ), it is critical to ascertain if breast-feeding is a health risk for the women's infants. Despite the potential for large postnatal PCB exposures via breast milk, there is limited evidence of significant developmental toxicity associated with the transmission of moderate PCB concentrations through breast milk. Breast-feeding is associated with substantial health benefits including better cognitive skills among breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. We conclude, based on evidence from other studies, that the benefits of breast-feeding probably outweigh any risk from PCB exposures via breast

  9. FeSO{sub 4} amendments stimulate extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Zwiernik, M.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Boyd, S.A.

    1998-11-01

    Anaerobic microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs is important because it removes the chlorine substituents that block aerobic metabolism and it reduces PCB toxicity. Although this process occurs widely in nature, its extent is often limited to dechlorination of some of the chlorines in the meta positions of biphenyl. In this report the authors demonstrate the ability to achieve nearly complete meta plus para dechlorination of Aroclor 1242. This involves the additions of FeSO{sub 4} to PCB contaminated sediments and results in {approximately}90 mol % of the total PCBs being converted to aerobically degradable ortho-substituted mono- and dichlorinated congeners. They propose that iron sulfate provides two mutually beneficial effects leading to its stimulation of anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Sulfate stimulates growth of sulfate reducing organisms responsible for PCB dechlorination, while Fe{sup 2+} reduces sulfide bioavailability and hence toxicity by forming the insoluble precipitate FeS. Ferrous sulfate is an inexpensive, innocuous compound which could be utilized to overcome factors limiting both the extent of in situ dechlorination as well as the implementation of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment systems. In addition it is expected that the toxicities of Aroclors, and hence the risk they pose, will be substantially reduced at sites where PCBs have been extensively dechlorinated.

  10. Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  11. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S; Borgå, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-06-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C(w); pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperate) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arcti):BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  12. Hepatic Metabolism Affects the Atropselective Disposition of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs. PMID:25420130

  13. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Costanzi, Stefano; Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of an intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM dendrimer to

  14. Continuous coculture degradation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Acinetobacter spp. in an aerobic reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.; Focht, D.D. )

    1990-07-01

    A coculture of two Acinetobacter spp. was applied to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls during a 42-day incubation study in a continuous aerobic fixed-bed reactor system, filled with polyurethane foam boards as support for bacterial biofilm development. The reactor was supplied with mineral medium containing 500 ppm sodium benzoate as a growth (primary) substrate, while the incoming airstream was saturated with biphenyl vapors to induce for PCB cometabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain P6. The chlorobenzoates thus generated from 4,4{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4{prime}-DCBP), 3,4-dichlorobiphenyl (3,4-DCBP), and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl were further metabolized by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1. The chlorobenzoate metabolites, as well as ring-fission product ({lambda}{sub max} = 442 nm) from the PCB congeners, accounted for the degradation of 63% (2.8 mM) of the 4,4{prime}-DCBP, 100% (0.5 mM) of the 3,4-DCBP, and 32% (0.12 mM) of the 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TCBP, the biofilm responded with a concurrent higher release of chlorobenzoates and chloride through cosubstrate utilization.

  15. Delayed effects of developmental exposure to low levels of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on adult zebrafish behavior

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Lilah; Hahn, Mark E.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The most toxic PCBs are the non-ortho-substituted (“dioxin-like”) congeners that act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway. In humans, perinatal exposure to dioxin-like PCBs is associated with neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. Yet, the full potential for later-life neurobehavioral effects that result from early-life low level exposure to dioxin-like PCBs is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of developmental exposure to low levels of dioxin-like PCBs on early-and later-life behavioral phenotypes using zebrafish as a model system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to either vehicle (DMSO) or low concentrations of PCB126 (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 nM) for 20 hours (4–24 hours post fertilization), and then reared them to adulthood in clean water. Locomotor activity was tested at two larval stages (7 and 14 days post fertilization). Adult fish were tested for anxiety-related behavior using the novel tank and shoaling assays. Adult behavioral assays were repeated several times on the same group of fish and effects on intra-and inter-trial habituation were determined. While there was no effect of PCB126 on larval locomotor activity in response to changes in light conditions, developmental exposure to PCB126 resulted in impaired short-and long-term habituation to a novel environment in adult zebrafish. Cyp1a induction was measured as an indicator for AHR activation. Despite high induction at early stages, cyp1a expression was not induced in the brains of developmentally exposed adult fish that showed altered behavior, suggesting that AHR was not activated at this stage. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the zebrafish model in detecting subtle and delayed behavioral effects resulting from developmental exposure to an environmental contaminant. PMID:26616910

  16. Levels of toxaphene congeners in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Andersen, G; Føreid, S; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M; Lydersen, C; Kovacs, K M

    2006-03-15

    This study reports concentrations of three pesticide toxaphene congeners (CHBs; CHB-26, -50 and -62) from the blubber of ten adult, male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway. The CHB congeners that occurred at the highest levels in the blubber of the white whales were, as expected, CHB-26 (4636+/-1992 (SD) ng/g l.w.) and CHB-50 (6579+/-2214 ng/g l.w.); CHB-62 (232+/-231 ng/g l.w.) was also present, but at much lower concentrations. The mean level of the sum of the three CHBs (SigmaCHBs = 11,447+/-4208 ng/g l.w.) in this study is more than twice the mean concentrations of the well-known organochlorine (OC) pollutants SigmaDDTs (sum of pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD) and SigmaPCBs (sum of 27 PCB congeners) previously reported from the same individual white whales. The concentrations of CHBs in white whales from Svalbard are at the high end of the range for concentrations of these compounds compared to other Arctic white whale populations. Additionally, the contribution of CHBs to the overall OC burden is larger in white whales from Svalbard compared with their counterparts from other areas in the Arctic. Male white whales from Svalbard have several orders of magnitude higher concentrations of SigmaCHBs compared to seals and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the same area. The high levels of CHBs in these whales, and their dominance in the OC pattern, suggests that white whales in Svalbard are exposed to high levels of this group of contaminants. Further studies are needed to investigate possible effects of CHBs and other OC contaminants on the white whale population in Svalbard.

  17. Assessment of cerebral hemispheric symmetry in hatchling chickens exposed in ovo to polychlorinated biphenyl congeners.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, L; Powell, D; Bursian, S; Tanaka, D

    1997-05-01

    Previous investigators have reported that exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, results in morphologic asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres in hatchling great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and have suggested that this asymmetry may be a useful biomarker for contamination. This study was made to determine whether exposure to PCB congeners 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC #77) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC #126) causes similar asymmetry in hatchling domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus). Eggs were injected at day 0 of incubation with either a high dose, low dose, or combination of each congener. At hatching, the chicks were perfused with 10% formalin-saline. The brains were removed, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet. Width and height measurements of each hemisphere were taken at eight locations, caudal to rostral, 400 microm apart starting at the level of the anterior commissure (CA) and ending at the lobus paraolfactorius (LPO). The absolute differences between measurements of the left and right sides were used to run a univariate split plot analysis of variance to determine if the amount of asymmetry present was associated with specific congeners or doses. Significant differences in asymmetry were found between noninjected control groups and vehicle-injected control groups (p

  18. Structure-activity relationship of selected meta- and para-hydroxylated non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls: from single RyR1 channels to muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Niknam, Yassaman; Feng, Wei; Cherednichenko, Gennady; Dong, Yao; Joshi, Sudhir N; Vyas, Sandhya M; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Pessah, Isaac N

    2013-12-01

    Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are legacy environmental contaminants with contemporary unintentional sources. NDL-PCBs interact with ryanodine receptors (RyRs), Ca(2+) channels of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) that regulate excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and Ca(2+)-dependent cell signaling in muscle. Activities of 4 chiral congeners PCB91, 95, 132, and 149 and their respective 4- and 5-hydroxy (-OH) derivatives toward rabbit skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) are investigated using [(3)H]ryanodine binding and SR Ca(2+) flux analyses. Although 5-OH metabolites have comparable activity to their respective parent in both assays, 4-OH derivatives are unable to trigger Ca(2+) release from SR microsomes in the presence of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. PCB95 and derivatives are investigated using single channel voltage-clamp and primary murine embryonic muscle cells (myotubes). Like PCB95, 5-OH-PCB95 quickly and persistently increases channel open probability (p o > .9) by stabilizing the full-open channel state, whereas 4-OH-PCB95 transiently enhances p o. Ca(2+) imaging of myotubes loaded with Fluo-4 show that acute exposure to PCB95 (5 µM) potentiates ECC and caffeine responses and partially depletes SR Ca(2+) stores. Exposure to 5-OH-PCB95 (5 µM) increases cytoplasmic Ca(2+), leading to rapid ECC failure in 50% of myotubes with the remainder retaining negligible responses. 4-OH-PCB95 neither increases baseline Ca(2+) nor causes ECC failure but depresses ECC and caffeine responses by 50%. With longer (3h) exposure to 300 nM PCB95, 5-OH-PCB95, or 4-OH-PCB95 decreases the number of ECC responsive myotubes by 22%, 81%, and 51% compared with control by depleting SR Ca(2+) and/or uncoupling ECC. NDL-PCBs and their 5-OH and 4-OH metabolites differentially influence RyR1 channel activity and ECC in embryonic skeletal muscle.

  19. Structure-Activity Relationship of Selected Meta- and Para-Hydroxylated Non–Dioxin Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls: From Single RyR1 Channels to Muscle Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pessah, Isaac N.

    2013-01-01

    Non–dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are legacy environmental contaminants with contemporary unintentional sources. NDL-PCBs interact with ryanodine receptors (RyRs), Ca2+ channels of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) that regulate excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and Ca2+-dependent cell signaling in muscle. Activities of 4 chiral congeners PCB91, 95, 132, and 149 and their respective 4- and 5-hydroxy (-OH) derivatives toward rabbit skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1) are investigated using [3H]ryanodine binding and SR Ca2+ flux analyses. Although 5-OH metabolites have comparable activity to their respective parent in both assays, 4-OH derivatives are unable to trigger Ca2+ release from SR microsomes in the presence of Ca2+-ATPase activity. PCB95 and derivatives are investigated using single channel voltage-clamp and primary murine embryonic muscle cells (myotubes). Like PCB95, 5-OH-PCB95 quickly and persistently increases channel open probability (p o > .9) by stabilizing the full-open channel state, whereas 4-OH-PCB95 transiently enhances p o. Ca2+ imaging of myotubes loaded with Fluo-4 show that acute exposure to PCB95 (5µM) potentiates ECC and caffeine responses and partially depletes SR Ca2+ stores. Exposure to 5-OH-PCB95 (5 µM) increases cytoplasmic Ca2+, leading to rapid ECC failure in 50% of myotubes with the remainder retaining negligible responses. 4-OH-PCB95 neither increases baseline Ca2+ nor causes ECC failure but depresses ECC and caffeine responses by 50%. With longer (3h) exposure to 300nM PCB95, 5-OH-PCB95, or 4-OH-PCB95 decreases the number of ECC responsive myotubes by 22%, 81%, and 51% compared with control by depleting SR Ca2+ and/or uncoupling ECC. NDL-PCBs and their 5-OH and 4-OH metabolites differentially influence RyR1 channel activity and ECC in embryonic skeletal muscle. PMID:24014653

  20. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  1. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  2. Time-Trends and Congener Profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in California Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus)

    PubMed Central

    Park, June-Soo; Holden, Arthur; Chu, Vivian; Kim, Michele; Rhee, Alexandra; Patel, Puja; Shi, Yating; Linthicum, Janet; Walton, Brian J.; Mckeown, Karen; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hooper, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High levels (µg/g lw) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in peregrine falcon eggs from California (n = 90 eggs from 52 birds, 38 nest sites, collected 1986–2007, ΣPBDEs median = 4.53, range = 0.08–53.1). Over the past 22 years, PBDE levels more than tripled each decade in the eggs, whereas PCB levels had no significant changes. PBDE levels were highest in eggs from major California cities (“Big Cities”), whereas PCBs showed no difference across the regions. For PBDEs, Big City eggs had markedly different patterns from Coastal eggs:BDE-209 and the higher brominated PBDEs (hexa–nona) were dominant congeners in Big City eggs, while BDE-47 and -99 were dominant in Coastal eggs. In many of the birds that gave multiple eggs over time (“time series”), PBDE patterns changed over time: the high proportions of BDE-209 and higher brominated PBDEs (short half-lives) in young birds contrasted with increasingly higher proportions of BDE-153 (long half-life) and other lower brominated PBDEs as the birds aged. These data are consistent with metabolic debromination of BDE-209 (t1/2 = 1–2 weeks) to the lower brominated PBDEs, with accumulation over time of BDE-153 (t1/2 = 3–4 years). In contrast, PCB patterns showed no differences by locations, and did not change over time. Diet (prey birds) may explain the urban PBDE pattern, as the patterns in urban pigeons and peregrines were similar, with high proportions of BDE-209 and the higher-brominated PBDEs. Also, our prey data (feathers from peregrine nests) showed urban peregrines having a higher proportion (>2 fold) of granivorous/opportunistic birds (e.g., “introduced feral” pigeons, mourning doves, starlings) in their diet than coastal peregrines. In summary, these data indicate that BDE-209 exits consumer products as an environmental contaminant to be taken up by wildlife (particularly in urban locations), and undergoes metabolic debromination to the

  3. Effects of PCB 126 and PCB 153 on secretion of steroid hormones and mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B, CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) in prehierarchical chicken ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Sechman, Andrzej; Batoryna, Marta; Antos, Piotr A; Hrabia, Anna

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of dioxin-like PCB 126 and non-dioxin-like PCB 153 on basal and ovine LH (oLH)-stimulated testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) secretion and expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in white (WF) and yellowish (YF) prehierarchical follicles of the hen ovary. Steroid concentrations in a medium and gene expression in follicles following 6h of exposition were determined by RIA and real-time qPCR, respectively. Both PCBs increased basal and oLH-stimulated T secretion by the WF follicles. PCB 126 reduced basal E2 secretion by the WF follicles. PCB 153 elevated but PCB 126 reduced oLH-stimulated E2 secretion by the prehierarchical follicles. PCB 126 increased basal STAR and HSD3B and reduced CYP19A1 mRNA expression in these follicles. PCB 153 increased basal expression of STAR and HSD3B in YF follicles, but diminished HSD3B mRNA levels in the WF. The studied PCBs had an opposite effect on basal and oLH-stimulated CYP19A1 mRNA expression in prehierarchical follicles. Both PCBs modulated basal and inhibited oLH-stimulated ERα and ERβ gene expression in the prehierarchical follicles. In conclusion, data of the current study demonstrate the congener-specific effects of PCBs on sex steroid secretion by prehierarchical follicles of the chicken ovary, which are at least partly related to STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1 gene expression. It is suggested that PCBs, by influencing follicular steroidogenesis and expression of estrogen receptors, may impair development and selection of yellowish follicles to the preovulatory hierarchy.

  4. PCB153-Elicited Hepatic Responses in the Immature, Ovariectomized C57BL/6 Mice: Comparative Toxicogenomic Effects of Dioxin and Non-Dioxin-Like Ligands”

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Anna K.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Ibrahim-Aibo, Daher; Mets, Bryan D.; Tashiro, Colleen; Potter, Dave; Sharratt, Bonnie; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants found as complex mixtures of coplanar and non-coplanar congeners. The hepatic temporal and dose-dependent effects of the most abundant non-dioxin-like congener, 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), were examined in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice, and compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand. Animals were gavaged once with 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil vehicle and sacrificed 4, 12, 24, 72 or 168 h post dose. In the dose-response study, mice were gavaged with 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil for 24 h. Significant increases in relative liver weights were induced with 300 mg/kg PCB153 between 24 and 168 h, accompanied by slight vacuolization and hepatocellular hypertrophy. The hepatic differential expression of 186 and 177 genes was detected using Agilent 4 x 44 K microarrays in the time course (|fold change|≥1.5, P1(t)≥0.999) and dose-response (|fold change|≥1.5, P1(t)≥0.985) studies, respectively. Comparative analysis with TCDD suggests that the differential gene expression elicited by PCB153 was not mediated by the AhR. Furthermore, constitutive androstane and pregnane X receptor (CAR/PXR) regulated genes including Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Ces2, Insig2 and Abcc3 were dose-dependently induced by PCB153. Collectively, these results suggest that the hepatocellular effects elicited by PCB153 are qualitatively and quantitatively different from TCDD and suggestive of CAR/PXR regulation. PMID:20005886

  5. PCB153-elicited hepatic responses in the immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice: Comparative toxicogenomic effects of dioxin and non-dioxin-like ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Ibrahim-Aibo, Daher; Mets, Bryan D.; Tashiro, Colleen; Potter, Dave; Sharratt, Bonnie; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2010-03-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants found as complex mixtures of coplanar and non-coplanar congeners. The hepatic temporal and dose-dependent effects of the most abundant non-dioxin-like congener, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), were examined in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice, and compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand. Animals were gavaged once with 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil vehicle and sacrificed 4, 12, 24, 72 or 168 h post dose. In the dose-response study, mice were gavaged with 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil for 24 h. Significant increases in relative liver weights were induced with 300 mg/kg PCB153 between 24 and 168 h, accompanied by slight vacuolization and hepatocellular hypertrophy. The hepatic differential expression of 186 and 177 genes was detected using Agilent 4 x 44 K microarrays in the time course (|fold change| >= 1.5, P1(t) >= 0.999) and dose-response (|fold change| >= 1.5, P1(t) >= 0.985) studies, respectively. Comparative analysis with TCDD suggests that the differential gene expression elicited by PCB153 was not mediated by the AhR. Furthermore, constitutive androstane and pregnane X receptor (CAR/PXR) regulated genes including Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Ces2, Insig2 and Abcc3 were dose-dependently induced by PCB153. Collectively, these results suggest that the hepatocellular effects elicited by PCB153 are qualitatively and quantitatively different from TCDD and suggestive of CAR/PXR regulation.

  6. ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Envirogard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

  7. Levels and distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surface sediments from Galicia coast (Northwestern, Spain) according to granulometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Moureira, A

    2002-08-01

    In order to know distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the marine environment from Galida, PCBs n degrees 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180 were isolated by Soxhlet extraction from three fractions of different particle size (<0.063 mm, 0.063-0.2 mm and >0.2 mm) in surface marine sediments; the quantification was performed using GC-MS and GC-ECD. Distribution of PCB congeners was shifted in favour of higher chlorinated compounds (CBs 138,153 and 180) and highly correlated to TOC content. In general, the finest fractions (<0.063 mm) of sediment presented the highest loadings of PCBs, only the sediment from As Pías zone exhibited the highest concentration of chlorinated congeners in the coarsest fraction. CB 52 concentration, slightly volatile compound, was related to water temperature. By means of multivariate techniques of data exploration as hierarchical duster analysis and principal components analysis, sediment samples from un-contaminated and slightly contaminated areas were clearly separated; groupings between samples from nearby zones appeared.

  8. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  9. PCB Food Web Dynamics Quantify Nutrient and Energy Flow in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gordon; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2015-11-03

    Measuring in situ nutrient and energy flows in spatially and temporally complex aquatic ecosystems represents a major ecological challenge. Food web structure, energy and nutrient budgets are difficult to measure, and it is becoming more important to quantify both energy and nutrient flow to determine how food web processes and structure are being modified by multiple stressors. We propose that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners represent an ideal tracer to quantify in situ energy and nutrient flow between trophic levels. Here, we demonstrate how an understanding of PCB congener bioaccumulation dynamics provides multiple direct measurements of energy and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. To demonstrate this novel approach, we quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and caloric turnover rates for Lake Huron lake trout, and reveal how these processes are regulated by both growth rate and fish life history. Although minimal nutrient recycling was observed in young growing fish, slow growing, older lake trout (>5 yr) recycled an average of 482 Tonnes·yr(-1) of N, 45 Tonnes·yr(-1) of P and assimilated 22 TJ yr(-1) of energy. Compared to total P loading rates of 590 Tonnes·yr(-1), the recycling of primarily bioavailable nutrients by fish plays an important role regulating the nutrient states of oligotrophic lakes.

  10. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species.

  11. Prenatal PCB Exposure and Thymus Size at Birth in Neonates in Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Youn; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Petrik, Jan; Palkovicova, Lubica; Kocan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, for which animal studies demonstrate immunotoxic effects, including thymic atrophy and suppressed immune responses; human investigations of similar end points are sparse. The thymus is essential for the differentiation and maturation of T-cell lymphocytes. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the association between prenatal PCB exposures and estimated thymus volume in infants from eastern Slovakia, a region where PCBs were produced until 1984. Methods Mothers were enrolled at delivery, and maternal blood samples were collected for analysis of 15 PCB congeners, p,p′-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], and p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]. Each mother was interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics, past pregnancies, occupational history, medication history, and living environment. Neonatal thymus volume was estimated using ultrasound measurements on the third or fourth day after birth. Thymic index was calculated on 982 newborns from mothers with PCB measurements. We developed a predictive model of the natural log of the thymic index using multiple linear regression with covariates selected from the bivariate analyses. Results Prenatal PCB exposure was associated with a smaller thymic index at birth [β= −36 (natural log-transformed; nanograms per gram lipids); p = 0.047]. District of residence and delivery also predicted thymic index. Male sex, later gestational age, larger birth weight z-score, and Roma ethnicity were associated with a larger thymic index, whereas respiratory illness was associated with a lower thymic index. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence to date that PCB exposure in neonates is associated with a smaller thymic volume, suggesting possible impaired immunologic development. PMID:18197307

  12. Concentrations of halogenated natural products versus PCB 153 in bivalves from the North and Baltic Seas.

    PubMed

    Hauler, Carolin; Rimkus, Gerhard; Risacher, Célia; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-15

    Different halogenated natural products (HNPs) have been reported to occur in marine wildlife, particularly from regions with comparably little contamination with anthropogenic pollutants. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been known as a marine site heavily polluted with organohalogen compounds, and especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study we wished to determine the current abundance of HNPs in comparison with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), i.e. the major PCB congener in marine biota. For this purpose, forty blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from seven sites were analyzed on HNPs and PCB 153. Most of the samples contained HNPs in the form of polyhalogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (PMBPs including Q1) and the mixed halogenated compound MHC-1. In addition we determined several polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (PDBPs), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-N-methylpyrrole and several novel homologs, as well as polybrominated N-methylindoles. The occurrence of these HNP groups were considerably different in the samples from different regions with varying sum concentrations up to 1930 μg/kg lipids in blue mussels from Heligoland (North Sea) and much lower concentrations in samples from the Baltic Sea (up to 13 μg/kg lipids). The concentrations of HNPs varied by two orders of magnitude, compared to a factor of 10 for PCB 153, suggesting that HNPs are more spatially (and perhaps temporally) variant than POPs. In the North Sea region Heligoland, HNPs were more abundant than PCB 153.

  13. In vitro estrogen receptor binding of PCBs: measured activity and detection of hydroxylated metabolites in a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Layton, Alice C; Sanseverino, John; Gregory, Betsy W; Easter, James P; Sayler, Gary S; Schultz, T Wayne

    2002-05-01

    The estrogenic activities of 17beta-estradiol, biphenyl, chlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor mixtures 1221, 1242, and 1248 were measured with a modified recombinant yeast estrogen assay (i.e., a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z (beta-galactosidase) reporter assay). Modifications of the assay included the use of glass vials instead of plastic microtiter plates and the addition of the medium and yeast before the test substrate. 14C-labeled compounds were used to follow improvements in the assay procedures. 14C-17beta-estradiol recovery from plastic microtiter plates and glass vials using the standard or the modified procedure was approximately 89%. However, 14C-4-CB (4-chlorobiphenyl) recovery was considerably less, ranging from 3% in plastic microtiter plates using the standard procedure to 26% in vials using the modified procedure. These results suggest that the toxicity of strongly hydrophobic chemicals may be underestimated. Using the modified yeast estrogen assay, full agonist activity was observed for 4-CB, 2,4,6-CB, and 2,5-CB while each of the Aroclor mixtures were only partial agonists. The equivalent EC50 values in ppm were in environmentally relevant concentrations for biphenyl (19 ppm), 4-CB (4.5 ppm), 2,5-CB (21 ppm), 2,4,6-CB (0.8 ppm), Aroclor 1221 (2.9 ppm), Aroclor 1242 (0.65 ppm), and Aroclor 1248 (2.3 ppm). Estrogen receptor binding for the individual PCB congeners was 25- to 650-fold less than the reported estrogen binding for the corresponding hydroxylated PCB metabolite. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of yeast extracts indicated that S. cerevisiae hydroxylated the individual PCB congeners in the ppb range. With the exception of biphenyl, the concentration of hydroxylated metabolites obtained from incubation of S. cerevisiae with PCB congeners was consistent with the concentration necessary to elicit a positive estrogen receptor-binding response. This work provides evidence that S. cerevisiae are capable of metabolic

  14. A comparison of congeneric PCB patterns in American eels and striped bass from the Hudson and Delaware River estuaries.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Jeffrey T F; Horwitz, Richard; Steinbacher, Joseph C; Ruppel, Bruce

    2003-10-01

    The Hudson River estuary has enormous spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination due in large part to historical point source discharges above Troy Dam. The Delaware River estuary has accumulated significant levels of PCBs through decades of industrial, municipal, and non-point source inputs. The overall goal of this research was to use existing data sets to compare and contrast the patterns of accumulated PCB congeners in sub-populations of American eels and striped bass inhabiting these two estuaries and surrounding coastal waters. Using principal component analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), inter- and intra-estuarine differences in accumulated congeneric patterns were denoted for both species. Results from our study support the idea that migratory behaviors of striped bass hamper the use of accumulated congener-specific PCB patterns in providing information on localized contamination, although major regional differences were seen between upriver Hudson River fish, downriver Hudson River fish and fish from other areas within this study. This study provides additional evidence for the use of the American eel as a biomonitoring tool, since its limited home range provides finer resolution of regional contamination.

  15. Absorption of PCB126 by upper airways impairs G protein-coupled receptor-mediated immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Ana Lúcia B.; Cruz, Wesley S.; Loiola, Rodrigo A.; Drewes, Carine C.; Dörr, Fabiane; Figueiredo, Natália G.; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2015-10-01

    PCB126 is a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) environmental pollutant with a significant impact on human health, as it bioaccumulates and causes severe toxicity. PCB126-induced immune toxicity has been described, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an in vivo protocol of PCB126 intoxication into male Wistar rats by intranasal route was used, which has not yet been described. The intoxication was characterised by PCB126 accumulation in the lungs and liver, and enhanced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and adipose tissues. Moreover, an innate immune deficiency was characterised by impairment of adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes and by reduced blood neutrophil locomotion and oxidative burst activation elicited by ex vivo G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Specificity of PCB126 actions on the GPCR pathway was shown by normal burst oxidative activation evoked by Toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C direct activation. Moreover, in vivo PCB180 intoxication did not alter adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes either blood neutrophil locomotion, and only partially reduced the GPCR-induced burst oxidative activation on neutrophils. Therefore, a novel mechanism of in vivo PCB126 toxicity is described which impairs a pivotal inflammatory pathway to the host defence against infections.

  16. [Biosynthesis of congeners during alcohol fermentation].

    PubMed

    Santillán-Valverde, M C; García-Garibay, M

    1998-01-01

    The flavor of alcoholic beverages is a consequence of a complex mixture of many compounds, including small concentrations of some volatile metabolites known as congeners, which are produced by the yeast during the fermentation. The more important compounds are those that can be found in all the alcoholic beverages in different concentrations, and they can be grouped on the following chemical species: higher alcohols, esters, and carboniles. In the current paper the biochemical pathways that produce these compounds from the raw materials are reviewed. Research done in this field has led to a more complete knowledge concerning to organoleptic profiles of alcoholic beverages and to a better control for the production of the final product.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) anaerobic degradation in marine sediments: microcosm study and role of autochthonous microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Matturro, Bruna; Ubaldi, Carla; Grenni, Paola; Caracciolo, Anna Barra; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) biodegradation was followed for 1 year in microcosms containing marine sediments collected from Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy) chronically contaminated by this class of hazardous compounds. The microcosms were performed under strictly anaerobic conditions with or without the addition of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, the main microorganism known to degrade PCBs through the anaerobic reductive dechlorination process. Thirty PCB congeners were monitored during the experiments revealing that the biodegradation occurred in all microcosms with a decrease in hepta-, hexa-, and penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and a parallel increase in low chlorinated PCBs (tri-CBs and tetra-CBs). The concentrations of the most representative congeners detected in the original sediment, such as 245-245-CB and 2345-245-CB, and of the mixture 2356-34-CB+234-245-CB, decreased by 32.5, 23.8, and 46.7 %, respectively, after only 70 days of anaerobic incubation without any bioaugmentation treatment. Additionally, the structure and population dynamics of the microbial key players involved in the biodegradative process and of the entire mixed microbial community were accurately defined by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) in both the original sediment and during the operation of the microcosm. The reductive dehalogenase genes of D. mccartyi, specifically involved in PCB dechlorination, were also quantified using real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results demonstrated that the autochthonous microbial community living in the marine sediment, including D. mccartyi (6.32E+06 16S rRNA gene copy numbers g(-1) sediment), was able to efficiently sustain the biodegradation of PCBs when controlled anaerobic conditions were imposed.

  18. PCB intake from sport fishing along the Northern Illinois shore of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Pellettieri, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.; Cailas, M.; Clark, M.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chlorinated hydrocarbons with an empirical formula of C{sub 12}H{sub 10-x}Cl{sub x}. The biphenyl can have from one to 10 chlorine substitutions resulting in 209 theoretical congeners. Commercial formulations of PCBs are complex mixtures of congeners; 125 congeners have been identified in commercial formulations. PCBs have entered the aquatic environment by industrial discharge, airborne deposition, and release from sediments. The most likely route of non-occupational human exposure to PCBs is from consumption of contaminated fish. PCBs are considered to be the most important contaminants in fish from the Great Lakes. Hence, in 1993 the Great Lakes Fish and Advisory Task Force developed a fish consumption advisory for the Great Lakes which incorporated a Health Protection Value (HPV) of 3.5 {mu}g of PCBs/day. This study combines the creel species, weight, and length distribution data with PCB monitoring data to quantitate the theoretical intake of PCBs by sport fishermen in the Chicago area. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Modern method features for determining aroclors and toxic PCB isomers in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.R.; Grange, A.H.; Herron, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    A goal of the analytical chemistry program of the USEPA Characterization Research Division in Las Vegas is to develop a comprehensive method to address PCB screening and confirmatory needs. Supercritical and liquid solvent extractions, carbon chromatographic partitioning, immunoassay, gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques are being applied. The result of this research is a method with options to meet a variety of detection limit, congener specificity, waste reduction, and identification requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of waste reduction, identification and quantitation of toxic congeners, and Aroclor identification using high- and low-resolution mass spectrometric data. Specific mass monitoring procedures will be discussed. Procedures will be presented for converting individual isomer and congener total area responses to quantitation based on Aroclor content. Notice: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Office of Research and Development (ORD), partially funded and collaborated in the research described in this abstract for a proposed poster. It does not necessarily reflect the views of the EPA or ORD.

  20. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.; Pagano, J.; Sargent, D.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on progressive ratio performance, and on the pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% diet of either Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE), Pacific Ocean salmon, or lab chow control for 20 or 65 days. Following the treatment regimen, half the rats from each group were sacrificed immediately for gas chromatographic analysis of organochlorine contaminants, and the other half were tested on a multiple fixed-ratio-progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and then sacrificed for analysis. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish resulted in significantly higher levels of brain PCBs, DDE, and mirex relative to controls, but still well within human exposure ranges. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 457 and 934 ng/g fat, respectively. Consumption of laboratory rat chow or Pacific Ocean salmon for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 240, 464, and 441 ng/g fat, respectively. Moreover, both LAKE-fed groups showed a much more heavily chlorinated pattern of brain PCBs than all control groups, as evidenced by both significant increases in the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners and significant increases in the average chlorine biphenyl.

  1. C-Depth Method to Determine Diffusion Coefficient and Partition Coefficient of PCB in Building Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars; Zhang, Yinping

    2015-10-20

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be persistent in the environment and possibly harmful. Many buildings are characterized with high PCB concentrations. Knowledge about partitioning between primary sources and building materials is critical for exposure assessment and practical remediation of PCB contamination. This study develops a C-depth method to determine diffusion coefficient (D) and partition coefficient (K), two key parameters governing the partitioning process. For concrete, a primary material studied here, relative standard deviations of results among five data sets are 5%-22% for K and 42-66% for D. Compared with existing methods, C-depth method overcomes the inability to obtain unique estimation for nonlinear regression and does not require assumed correlations for D and K among congeners. Comparison with a more sophisticated two-term approach implies significant uncertainty for D, and smaller uncertainty for K. However, considering uncertainties associated with sampling and chemical analysis, and impact of environmental factors, the results are acceptable for engineering applications. This was supported by good agreement between model prediction and measurement. Sensitivity analysis indicated that effective diffusion distance, contacting time of materials with primary sources, and depth of measured concentrations are critical for determining D, and PCB concentration in primary sources is critical for K.

  2. Depletion of selected polychlorinated biphenyl, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran congeners in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a hint for safer fish farming.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Fochi, Igor; Iacovella, Nicola; Miniero, Roberto; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Farmed fish can be exposed to persistent organic contaminants--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--via feed, this eventually resulting in accumulation levels of health concern. To study the correlation between feed contamination, chemical accumulation in fish muscle (fillet), and chemical depletion, an all-vegetal base (or blank) feed was prepared and fortified with a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) and six PCDD and PCDF congeners (namely, 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDD, 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDF, 1,2,3,7,8-P(5)CDD, 1,2,3,7,8-P(5)CDF, O(8)CDD, and O(8)CDF) to reproduce realistic low, medium, and high contamination levels. After a 1-month exposure, trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed with the blank feed and sacrificed every 0.5 months over a 3-month period from exposure end; fillet specimens were sampled at each time. In all groups, the average fish weight increased linearly through the observation period. The chemical diminishing patterns observed were due to the combined effect of clearance and growth dilution: for 10 PCB and four PCDD and PCDF congeners, patterns were described with an empirical one-compartment (fish muscle) model. The canonical pseudo-first-order kinetic equation used was also modified into the form C=[C(0)exp(-k(C)t)] (m(W)t+1)(-1) to distinguish between the contributions to depletion from clearance, exp(-k(C)t), and growth dilution, (m(W)t+1)(-1). Most mean clearance half-life (HL(C)) estimates appear to be greater than 4 months, in a number of cases reaching magnitudes well over 10 months or even negative, thus clearly indicating a non-negligible contribution from a second compartment. Based on means and their 95% confidence intervals, the depletion HL(D) estimates of the 14 selected congeners seem to be comprised between 1.2-3.4 and 1.0-5.0 months, respectively: these values, accounting for both clearance and growth dilution, provide an indication of the relevance of a blank feed as a management option

  3. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  4. Concentration-dependent changes in PCB patterns of fish-eating mammals in relation to biotransformation capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Boon, J.P.; Meer, J. van der; Allchin, C.R.; Law, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Datasets on chlorobiphenyl (CB) concentrations in fish-eating mammals from five laboratories were combined to test and refine a pharmacokinetic model. Clear differences in PCB patterns were observed between species. The pattern of persistent congeners was similar in fish and all mammal species, indicating that transfer rates from prey to predator do not depend on molecular descriptors such as logP{sub ow} and molecular size. The ability to metabolize CB congeners with vicinal H-atoms only in the ortho- and meta-positions and 1 ortho chlorine substituent increased in the order otter < cetaceans < phocid seals, but metabolism of congeners with vicinal H-atoms in the meta- and para-positions and two ortho-chlorines increased in the order cetaceans < seals < otter. Both categories of congeners are probably metabolized by different families of cytochrome P450. Within each species, CB patterns differed in a concentration-dependent manner. Induction of cytochrome P450 offers the most likely explanation for this phenomenon, but starvation could have a similar effect on occasion.

  5. Relative potency of PCB126 to TCDD for sublethal embryotoxicity in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Cyril; Couillard, Catherine M; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Légaré, Benoît; Gonzalez, Patrice; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-03-15

    The relative potency (ReP) of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for sublethal responses was assessed in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos. Eggs were treated with intravitelline injections of graded sublethal doses of PCB126 (312-5000 pg g(-1) wet weight, ww) or TCDD (5-1280 pg g(-1) ww). At 16 days post-fertilization (DPF), craniofacial deformities were observed in larvae hatched from eggs treated with the two highest doses of PCB126 (2500-5000 pg g(-1) ww). Both compounds caused a dose-responsive reduction of larval growth and prey capture ability (at ≥1250 pg g(-1) ww), and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (at ≥80 pg g(-1) ww). The dose-response relationships for EROD activity for PCB126 and TCDD had similar slopes and the ReP of PCB126 to TCDD for EROD activity was estimated at 0.71. This is 140-fold higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) TCDD equivalency factor (TEF) of PCB126 for fish (0.005), which is based on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryolethality data. The slope of the dose-response relationship for prey capture ability for PCB126 was steeper than for TCDD, suggesting different mechanisms of action. Expression levels of several genes were also studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) following exposure to single doses of TCDD or PCB126 (1280 and 1250 pg g(-1) ww, respectively) causing similar EROD induction. A different pattern of responses was observed between PCB126 and TCDD: PCB126 appeared to induce antioxidant responses by inducing sod2 expression, while TCDD did not. These results suggest that relative potencies are species-specific and that the current ReP for PCB126 underestimates its toxicity for some fish species. It is recommended to develop species-specific RePs for a variety of sublethal endpoints and at environmentally relevant doses.

  6. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate.

  7. On enumeration of congeners of common persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Puzyn, Tomasz; Ng, Esmond G

    2010-08-01

    Congeners are molecules based on the same carbon skeleton but different by the number of substituents and/or a substitution pattern. Various Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) exist in the environment as families of halogen substituted congeners and/or their hydroxyl and methoxy substituted derivatives. Numbers of possible congeners resulting from substitution of a parent POP molecule with only one type of chemical group are generally available. At the same time, numbers of mixed-substituent congeners have not been counted and presented yet, although there is an increasing interest in such as is the increasing number of research articles presenting results on already identified Cl-/Br-mixed type congeners and/or their HO-/CH(3)O-mixed metabolites. We have enumerated and counted possible mixed-substituent congeners of common POPs. This article presents the obtained numbers for congener families of benzene, naphthalene, biphenyl, diphenyl ether, dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, anthracene, pyrene and others and obtained by substitution of up to five chemical group types.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  9. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  10. Estimation of the health risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations found onboard older U.S. Navy vessels.

    PubMed

    Still, K R; Arfsten, D P; Jederberg, W W; Kane, L V; Larcom, B J

    2003-10-01

    PCBs have been identified on surfaces and in component materials and equipment from inactive U.S. Navy nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970. Health risks associated with PCBs present onboard submarines were estimated for hypothetical crew members and shipyard workers. Median non-cancer hazard quotients for shipyard workers and submarine crew ranged between 0.4-54.6, with the highest quotients estimated for unprotected shipyard workers. Median cancer risk estimates ranged from 7.3 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-3) with the highest estimated risk calculated for unprotected shipyard workers. Our findings suggest that PCB surface concentrations found onboard inactive nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970 may be high enough to constitute a possible risk to the health of persons involved in dismantling of Navy submarines if PCB exposure is not minimized. Potential sources of uncertainty in our risk assessment include the correlation between PCB contamination levels on inactive versus active nuclear submarine vessels, the relationship between wipe sample concentrations and human exposure, dermal contact frequency with PCB-contaminated surfaces, carcinogenicity of PCBs in humans, and uncertainties inherent with the PCB cancer slope factor and oral RfD. Our findings support Navy policy that shipyard workers should wear personal protective equipment when PCB contamination is suspected or has been identified and that IH surveys should continue to identify sources of PCB contamination onboard vessels and reduce PCB contamination to concentrations that are reasonably achievable.

  11. PCB spill response and notification requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  12. Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) possessing malignant hyperthermia mutation R615C exhibits heightened sensitivity to dysregulation by non-coplanar 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95).

    PubMed

    Ta, Tram Anh; Pessah, Isaac N

    2007-07-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is conferred by inheriting one of >60 missense mutations within the highly regulated microsomal Ca(2+) channel known as ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). Although MH susceptible patients lack overt clinical signs, a potentially lethal MH syndrome can be triggered by exposure to halogenated alkane anesthetics. This study compares how non-coplanar 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95), a congener identified in environmental and human samples, alters the binding properties of [(3)H]ryanodine to RyR1 in vitro. Junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was isolated from skeletal muscle dissected from wild type pigs ((Wt)RyR1) and pigs homozygous for MH mutation R615C ((MH)RyR1), a mutation also found in humans. Although the level of (Wt)RyR1 and (MH)RyR1 expression is the same, (MH)RyR1 shows heightened sensitivity to activation and altered regulation by physiological cations. We report here that (MH)RyR1 shows more pronounced activation by Ca(2+), and is less sensitive to channel inhibition by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), compared to (Wt)RyR1. In a buffer containing 100nM free Ca(2+), conditions typically found in resting cells, PCB 95 (50-1000nM) enhances the activity of (MH)RyR1 whereas it has no detectable effect on (Wt)RyR1. PCB 95 (2microM) decreases channel inhibition by Mg(2+) to a greater extent in (MH)RyR1 (IC(50) increased nine-fold) compared to (Wt)RyR1 (IC(50) increased by 2.5-fold). PCB95 reduces inhibition by Ca(2+) two-fold more with (MH)RyR1 than (Wt)RyR1. Our data suggest that non-coplanar PCBs are more potent and efficacious toward (MH)RyR1 than (Wt)RyR1, and have more profound effects on its cation regulation. Considering the important roles of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in regulating Ca(2+) signals involving RyR channels, these data provide the first mechanistic evidence that a genetic mutation known to confer susceptibility to pharmacological agents also enhances sensitivity to an environmental contaminant.

  13. PCB and DDE methyl sulfones in mammals from Canada and Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, A.; Kuroki, Hiroaki . Environmental Chemistry); Norstrom, R.J. . Environment Canada); Haraguchi, Koichi ); Beland, P. )

    1994-01-01

    Levels of PCB methyl sulfones (MeSO[sub 2]-CBs) and DDE methyl sulfones (MeSO[sub 2]-DDEs) have been determined in tissues from polar bear (Ursus martimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) from the Canadian environment, and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), otter (Lutra lutra), and wild mink (Mustela vison) from the Swedish environment. Up to 30 MeSO[sub 2]-CB congeners and three MeSO[sub 2]-DdE isomers were shown to be present in the analyzed tissues. The concentration of total MeSO[sub 2]-CBs ranged from 0.1 to 21 [mu]g/g extracted lipids. 3-MeSO[sub 2]-2,5,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-penta-CB is the dominating MeSO[sub 2]-CB congener in all the analyzed samples, but the corresponding 4-MeSO[sub 2]-CB also is present in high concentrations. A smaller number of MeSO[sub 2]-CBs, always dominated by the meta-substituted MeSO[sub 2]-CBs, were present in livers of grey seal, otter, and mink than in adipose tissue or muscle. In all studied mammals the concentration of MeSO[sub 2]-CBs were higher in liver than in blubber or muscle. Seven PCB congeners were identified as precursors of the PCB methyl sulfones: 2,4,2[prime],5[prime]-tetra-CB (CB-49),2,5,3[prime],4[prime]-tetra-CB (CB-70), 2,4,5,2[prime],5[prime]-penta-CB (CB-101),2,3,4,5,2[prime],5[prime]-penta-CB (CB-87),2,3,6,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-hexa-CB (CB-149),2,3,4,2[prime],3[prime],6[prime]-hexa-CB (CB-132), and 2,3,4,2[prime],5[prime]-hexa-CB (CB-141). All species except beluga whale contained 3-MeSO[sub 2]-4,4[prime]-DDE, but at a much lower concentration in mink and otter than in the other mammals. Polar bear and grey seal liver also contained 2-MeSO[sub 2]-4,4[prime]-DDE. The concentration of 2- and 3-MeSo[sub 2]-DDE ranged from 0.01 to 1.3 [mu]g/g extracted lipids.

  14. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  15. Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Pajari, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty. PMID:3928364

  16. Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) on the Thyroid Gland of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William T.; Capen, Charles C.; Kasza, Louis; Carter, Celester; Dailey, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions in thyroid follicular cells and reductions in serum thyroxine levels in rats that were time- and dose-dependent. The acute effects (4 week) of PCB (50 and 500 ppm) consisted of an accumulation of lysosomal bodies and colloid droplets in follicular cells with abnormalities of microvilli on the luminal surface. The chronic administration (12 week) of PCB (50 and 500/250 ppm) resulted in a striking distention of many follicular cells with large lysosomal bodies with strong acid phosphatase activity and colloid droplets, blunt and abnormally branched microvilli, and mitochondrial vacuolation. These ultrastructural alterations in follicular cells were associated with a highly significant reduction in serum thyroxine with both the low and the high dose of PCB. Follicular cells remained responsive to the lowered thyroxine level after feeding PCB for 4 and 12 weeks and underwent moderate compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Thyroid follicles were smaller than in controls and were lined by more columnar cells that occasionally formed papillary projections into the colloid. Residual ultrastructural alterations persisted for 12 weeks following cessation of feeding the compound, and serum thyroxine levels were significantly lower than in control rats. However, 35 weeks after discontinuing PCB, thyroid follicular cells were similar to those in controls and serum thyroxine levels had returned to normal. The striking ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells produced by feeding PCB to rats appeared to contribute to the lowering of serum thyroxine levels, in combination with the known stimulation of peripheral thyroxine metabolism by these compounds. Certain metabolic alterations produced by PCB intoxication in experimental animals and human beings may be related to an alteration in thyroid function. ImagesFigure 7Figure 8Figure 11Figure 12Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 9Figure 10 PMID

  17. PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in fishery products: occurrence, congener profile and compliance with European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Garofalo, Rita; Castiglia, Domenico; Storelli, Maria M

    2014-12-01

    PCB and PCDD/F concentrations and congener specific profiles were determined in seafood (fish, cephalopods, crustaceans) purchased in supermarkets in Southern Italy. The results intended to assess and compare the levels and congener profiles among the various organisms and evaluate whether the pollutant concentrations exceed the maximum permitted levels according to European Union guidelines. Contaminant accumulation followed the order PCBs > PCDFs > PCDDs in all samples. Species-specific bioaccumulation of contaminants and differences in PCB and PCDD/F profiles among the three different groups of seafood were noted. Pollutant concentrations, given as sum of WHO-TEQ, in all samples (fish: 0.28 pg g(-1) wet wt; cephalopods: 0.01 pg g(-1) wet wt; crustaceans: 0.03 pg g(-1) wet wt) did not exceed the maximum limits for human consumption. Also the sum of six indicator PCBs (fish: 0.07-16.7 ng g(-1) wet weight; cephalopods: 0.05-0.21 ng g(-1) wet weight; crustaceans: 0.07-0.57 ng g(-1) wet weight) was below the level prescribed by the legislation in all the species tested. The estimated dietary intakes (fish: 0.52 TEQs/kg bw/week; cephalopods: 0.01 TEQs/kg bw/week; crustaceans: 0.02 TEQs/kg bw/week) were below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) proposed by the European Commission. Therefore, the samples analyzed can be considered safe considering the levels obtained and the in-force legislation.

  18. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  19. Assimilation efficiency of PBDE congeners in Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Joseph P; Strickland, Stacy A; Hutchinson, Greg P; Van Gaest, Ahna L; Krupkin, Alex B; Ylitalo, Gina M; Arkoosh, Mary R

    2015-03-17

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are environmental contaminants that can accumulate in biota. PBDE accumulation in an organism depends on exposure, assimilation efficiency, and elimination/metabolism. Net assimilation efficiency represents the fraction of the contaminant that is retained in the organism after exposure. In the present study, congener-specific estimates of net PBDE assimilation efficiencies were calculated from dietary exposures of juvenile Chinook salmon. The fish were exposed to one to eight PBDE congeners up to 1500 ng total PBDEs/g food. Mean assimilation efficiencies varied from 0.32 to 0.50 for BDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154. The assimilation efficiency of BDE49 was significantly greater than 100%, suggesting biotransformation from higher brominated congeners. Whole body concentrations of BDE49 significantly increased with both exposure to increasing concentrations of BDE99 and decreasing fish lipid levels, implying lipid-influenced debromination of BDE99 to BDE49. Excluding BDE49, PBDE assimilation efficiency was not significantly related to the numbers of congeners in the diets, or congener hydrophobicity, but was greater in foods with higher lipid levels. Estimates of PBDE assimilation efficiency can be used in bioaccumulation models to assess threats from PBDE exposure to Chinook salmon health and recovery efforts, as well as to their predators.

  20. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase in cerebellar granule neurons by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Chunyang; Besas, Jonathan

    2010-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flame retardants and have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue, and breast milk. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the effects of PBDEs are similar to the known human developmental neurotoxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on a molar basis. Previously, we reported that PBDE mixtures and congeners, perturbed calcium homeostasis which is critical for the development and function of the nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether environmentally relevant PBDE/PCB mixtures and congeners affected mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are down-stream events of calcium signaling in cerebellar granule neuronal cultures. In this study, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)1/2, a widely studied MAPK cascade and known to be involved in learning and memory, levels were quantitated using western blot technique with phospho-specific antibodies. Glutamate (a positive control) increased pERK1/2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner reaching maximum activation at 5-30 min of exposure and at doses >= 10 muM. Both Aroclor 1254 (a commercial penta PCB mixture) and DE-71 (a commercial penta PBDE mixture) elevated phospho-ERK1/2, producing maximum stimulation at 30 min and at concentrations >= 3 mug/ml; Aroclor 1254 was more efficacious than DE-71. DE-79 (an octabrominated diphenyl ether mixture) also elevated phospho-ERK1/2, but to a lesser extent than that of DE-71. PBDE congeners 47, 77, 99, and 153 also increased phospo-ERK1/2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The data indicated that PBDE congeners are more potent than the commercial mixtures. PCB 47 also increased phospho-ERK1/2 like its structural analog PBDE 47, but to a lesser extent, suggesting that these chemicals affect similar pathways. Cytotoxicity, measured as %LDH release, data showed that higher concentrations (> 30 muM) and longer exposures (> 30 min) are

  1. PCB trial burn in a modular, movable incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, P. ); Reiter, B.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss a trial burn conducted from March 11-13, 1986, in El Dorado, Arkanasas, of an MWP-2000 Modular Incinerations system to destroy PCB liquids, PCB items and PCB-contaminated solids in conformance with TSCA requirements. MWP-2000 has 4 main process modules--Rotary kiln, capable of destroying liquid PCBs and PCB-contaminated dirt; secondary combustor, capable of destroying high-level PCB liquids; heat recovery system, generating steam to drive the system's prime mover; and pollution control system that removes acid gases and fine particulates from the gas stream. The trial burn consisted of 5 separate tests. The first 3 tests were replicate tests. In these tests PCB-contaminated soils, having a PCB content of 1.8%, and PCB-contaminated fuel, having a content of 60%, were burned simultaneously in the secondary combustor. In the fourth test, PCB liquids, having a PCB content of 61%, were burned in the secondary combustor while the kiln was not operated. In the fifth test, pre-shredded capacitors having a PCB content of 18% were fed to the kiln and PCB liquids having a PCB concentration of 64% were fed to the secondary combustor. Trial burn results clearly demonstrate that a DREs of 99.999999% were achieved. HCl removal efficiencies of 99.9% were achieved. Total particulate emissions of 0.01-0.02 gr/DSCF were achieved. PCB contamination in the kiln ash and effluent residuals of <2 ppm were achieved.

  2. Theoretical perspectives on the mechanism and kinetics of the OH radical-initiated gas-phase oxidation of PCB126 in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dang, Juan; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) primarily exist in the gas phase in air and may undergo atmospheric oxidation degradations, particularly the oxidation reaction initiated by OH radicals. In this work, the mechanism of the OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of the most toxic PCB congener 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) was investigated by using quantum chemistry methods. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were estimated by the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory. The oxidation products of the reaction of PCB126 with OH radicals include 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-ols, chlorophenols, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,6,7-pentachlorodibenzofuran, dialdehydes, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachloro-5'-nitro-biphenyl, and 4,5-dichloro-2-nitrophenol. Particularly, the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the atmospheric oxidation of PCBs is revealed for the first time. The overall rate constant of the OH addition reaction is 2.52×10(-13)cm(3)molecule(-1)s(-1) at 298K and 1atm. The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08days which indicates that PCB126 can be transported long distances from local to global scales.

  3. Effects of two PBDE congeners on the moulting enzymes of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners on the chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes activities of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, according to gender, PBDE concentration and time of exposure. In addition, the bioaccumulation of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were measured. Results revealed that females have bioaccumulated more PBDE than males, and BDE-99 was more accumulated than BDE-47. PBDE exposures for 96 h have caused chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes inhibition. This study not only indicate the importance of taking into account various confounding factors (gender, congeners, concentration) to understand PBDE effects, but underline also disruptions of molting enzymes activities. These disturbances suggest effects on the gammarid development and reproduction, and consequently effects on the gammarid population, and on a larger scale, a dysfunction of the ecosystem.

  4. Electrocatalytic Dechlorination Of A PCB Congener At A Palladized Granular Graphite-Packed Electrode: Reaction Equilibrium And Mechanism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous study on the electrocatalytic dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl at a Pd-loaded granular graphite-packed electrode demonstrated that the process did not follow the first order kinetics. The rate constant varied with the applied potential at the beginning, but later b...

  5. Reactivity Of Substituted Chlorines And Ensuing Dechlorination Pathways Of Select PCB Congeners With Pd/Mg Bimetallics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conflicting accounts occur on the reactivity of substituted chlorines and the ensuing dechlorination pathway of PCBs undergoing catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDCl). In order to understand these relationships, intermediates and dechlorination pathways of carefully selected 17 co...

  6. Integrated Forensics Approach To Fingerprint PCB Sources In Sediments Using Immunoassays And GC/MS Congener Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the original source of contamination to a heterogeneous matrix such as sediments is a requirement for both clean-up and compliance programs within the military. Understanding the source of contaminants to sediment in industrial settings is a prerequisite to implement...

  7. Isotope dilution analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and global commercial PCB formulations by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Matsumura, Tohru; Shiozaki, Ken; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Special polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) standards (native and isotope labeled) were analyzed by isotope dilution method using HRGC-HRMS. Multiple analysis of special PCBs standards by three different laboratories produced the relative response factors (RRFs) and relative standard deviations (RSDs %) was in the average of 0.979 and 3.86, respectively. Additionally, inter-laboratory analysis of various forms of transformer oil revealed the PCBs concentrations were in the following order; PCBs fortified transformer oil (940-1300 ng/g)>PCB polluted transformer oil (490-680 ng/g)>chemically degraded-transformer oil (480-490 ng/g) and PCBs free oil (ND-17 ng/g). Chemical degradation resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in the PCB concentrations. Specifically, higher chlorinated PCBs degraded into lower chlorinated PCBs. Also, composition of PCBs have been determined in PCB formulations from Japan (Kanechlor), Germany (Clophen), USA (Aroclor), Russia (Sovol) and Poland (Chlorofen). Major PCBs (24-PCB congeners) contributed 54-67%, 55-68%, 16-69%, 71% and 72% in Kanechlor, Clophen, Aroclor, Sovol and Chlorofen, respectively to total PCBs. The homologue pattern of Kanechlor, Aroclor and Clophen in technical fromulation was similar (e.g., Kanechlor-300 resembled to those of Clophen A-30 and Aroclor-1242). Furthermore, congener-specific distributions of major PCBs/dioxin-like PCBs and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) were calculated. Based on our tentative assumption calculations, cumulative production of five different technical PCB formulations, WHO-TEQ emission was estimated to be approximately 16.05 tons.

  8. PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) have not changed between 1981 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Addison, R F; Ikonomou, M G; Fernandez, M P; Smith, T G

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) and of non-ortho-, mono-ortho- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (NO-CB, MO-CB and DO-CB) were measured in blubber of ringed seals sampled at Holman, NWT, in 1981, 1991, 1996 and 2000. Total PCDD and PCDF concentrations were usually below approx. 10 and 5 pg/g wet wt., respectively, and did not change significantly between 1981 and 2000, although there were sporadic temporal differences in some congeners. Total NO-CB, MO-CB and DO-CB concentrations were below approx. 1 ng/g, 250 ng/g and 1 microg/g wet wt. respectively; none of the total PCB concentrations changed significantly over the sampling period. Neither PCDD nor PCDF concentrations differed between males and females, nor did they increase with age in male samples. MO-CB and DO-CB concentrations increased with age in males, but not in females, and concentrations of total MO-CB and DO-CB were usually lower in females than in males. Changes in the distribution of PCB congeners between the 1980s and the 1990s are consistent with atmospheric transport processes becoming increasingly important in the introduction of PCBs to the Arctic in recent years.

  9. NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (CAS No. 57465-28-8) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (Gavage Studies).

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    DIOXIN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION OVERVIEW: Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the ability to bind to and activate the ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Structurally related compounds that bind to the AhR and exhibit biological actions similar to TCDD are commonly referred to as "dioxin-like compounds" (DLCs). Ambient human exposure to DLCs occurs through the ingestion of foods containing residues of DLCs that bioconcentrate through the food chain. Due to their lipophilicity and persistence, once internalized they accumulate in adipose tissue resulting in chronic lifetime human exposure. Since human exposure to DLCs always occurs as a complex mixture, the Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) methodology has been developed as a mathematical tool to assess the health risk posed by complex mixtures of these compounds. The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that ranks the dioxin-like activity of a compound relative to TCDD that is the most potent congener. This allows for the estimation of the potential dioxin-like activity of a mixture of chemicals, based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of DLCs to the AhR. The toxic equivalency of DLCs was nominated for evaluation, because of the widespread human exposure to DLCs and the lack of data on the adequacy of the TEF methodology for predicting relative potency for cancer risk. To address this, the National Toxicology Program conducted a series of 2-year bioassays in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of DLCs and structurally-related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mixtures of these compounds. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was produced commercially before 1977 for the electric industry as a dielectric insulating fluid for transformers and capacitors. Manufacture and use of the chemical was stopped because of increased

  10. Exposure to sublethal levels of PCB-126 impacts fuel metabolism and swimming performance in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Karyne; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognized physiological stressors to fish which over time may impair individual performance and perhaps fitness by inducing changes that could have population-level consequences. PCB-126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) accumulates in lipids and can subsequently be released into the bloodstream during periods of high activity that involve the mobilization of stored fuels to meet with increasing energy demands. The goal of this study was to determine if a sublethal exposure to PCB-126 altered the content of tissue energy supplies (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides) and impaired swimming performance as well as oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were injected intraperitoneally with a single Low (100μgkg(-1)) or High (400μgkg(-1)) dose of PCB-126 then swimming performance and metabolic rates from 1 to 9days post-injection were compared to Control (non-dosed) fish. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was assessed as an indication of PCB-126 intoxication while plasma and white muscle tissue metabolites were analyzed as an index of physiological disturbance. Swimming performance, assessed using two successive modified critical swimming speed (Ucrit) tests, was highest for fish in the High PCB-126 treatment; however, their initial condition factor (K) was also higher, largely due to their greater body mass. Trout in the High and Low PCB-126 treatments exhibited impaired recovery following intense exercise as they swam comparatively poorly when provided a second challenge. PCB-exposed fish exhibited reduced spleen somatic indices as well as muscle glucose and glycogen contents; whereas plasma cortisol and glucose levels were elevated, indicating higher metabolic costs during recovery and muscle restoration. Overall, this research provides insights into the sublethal effects of a toxic organic compound on swimming performance in trout.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  12. Addition of carbon sorbents to reduce PCB and PAH bioavailability in marine sediments: physicochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, John R; Ghosh, Upal; Millward, Rod N; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2004-10-15

    The addition of activated carbon as particulate sorbent to the biologically active layer of contaminated sediment is proposed as an in-situ treatment method to reduce the chemical and biological availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We report results from physicochemical experiments that assess this concept. PCB- and PAH-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, was contacted with coke and activated carbon for periods of 1 and 6 months. Sediment treated with 3.4 wt % activated carbon showed 92% and 84% reductions in aqueous equilibrium PCB and PAH concentrations, 77% and 83% reductions in PCB and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD), respectively, and reductions in PCB flux to overlying water in quiescent systems up to 89%. Adding coke to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations nor PCB or PAH availability in SPMD measurements. Coke decreased PAH aqueous equilibrium concentrations by 38-64% depending on coke dose and particle size. The greater effectiveness of activated carbon as compared to coke is attributed to its much greater specific surface area and a pore structure favorable for binding contaminants. The results from the physicochemical tests suggest that adding activated carbon to contaminated field sediment reduces HOC availability to the aqueous phase. The benefit is manifested relatively quickly under optimum contact conditions and improves in effectiveness with contact time from 1 to 6 months. Activated carbon application is a potentially attractive method for in-situ, nonremoval treatment of marine sediment contaminated with HOCs.

  13. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in zooplankton in the Baltic Sea - spatial and temporal shifts in the congener-specific concentrations.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Heikki; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Korhonen, Markku; Kiviranta, Hannu; Flinkman, Juha; Verta, Matti

    2014-11-01

    In the marine food-webs, zooplankton is a key element in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants to higher trophic levels. We determined the congener-specific concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in offshore zooplankton (size from 0.2 to 20mm) collected in 2001, 2002 and 2010 in the northern and central Baltic Sea. Of the PCDD/Fs, the concentrations of 2378-TCDF were from 18 to 47 and of 23478-PeCDF from 7.9 to 29 pg g(-1)fat and showed little temporal differences. However, 1234678-HpCDF and OCDF were abundant in 2001-2002 especially in the eastern Gulf of Finland (average concentrations 50 and 89 pg g(-1)fat, respectively). In 2010 the concentrations of these two congeners were lower, 29 and 30 pg g(-1)fat, respectively, but still substantially higher than in the other surveyed areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) supported that area-specific patterns in pollution strongly contributed to the congener profiles particularly in surface sediment and in sediment trap material, but even in zooplankton. The concentrations of the PCBs were highest in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Bay. The concentrations of most PCBs were somewhat lower in 2010 than in 2001-2002. Of the dioxin-like PCBs, the concentrations of PCB-77 were highest (271-572 pg g(-1)fat) but PCB-126 (32-113 pg g(-1)fat) contributed from 85% to 91% of the total toxicity of PCBs due to its higher toxic potency. Of the PBDEs, the BDE47 and BDE99 were the most abundant (concentrations from 1.2 to 4.6 and from 0.4 to 3.3 ng g(-1) fat, respectively). The concentrations of most PBDEs were lower in 2010 than in 2001/2002 except in the eastern Gulf of Finland.

  14. Investigation of Mechanism(s) of DNA Damage Induced by 4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wang, Kai; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) is readily converted by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes to dihydroxy-metabolites and quinones. The PCB3 hydroquinone (PCB3-HQ; 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-hydroquinone) induces chromosome loss in Chinese Hamster V79 cells, whereas the para-quinone (PCB3-pQ; 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone) very efficiently induces gene mutations and chromosome breaks. Apparently, each of these two metabolites, which are a redox pair, has a different spectrum of genotoxic effects due to different, metabolite-specific mechanisms. We hypothesized that the HQ requires enzymatic activation by peroxidases with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the ultimate genotoxin, whereas the pQ reacts directly with nucleophilic sites in DNA and/or proteins. To examine this hypothesis, we employed two cell lines with different myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, MPO-rich HL-60 and MPO-deficient Jurkat cells, and measured cytotoxicity, DNA damage (COMET assay), MPO activity, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular free –SH groups (monochlorobimane assay, MCB) and free GSH contents (enzyme recycling method) after treatment with PCB3-HQ and PCB3-pQ. We also examined the modulation of these effects by normal/low temperature, pre-treatment with an MPO inhibitor (succinylacetone, SA), or GSH depletion. PCB3-p-Q increased intracellular ROS levels and induced DNA damage in both HL-60 and Jurkat cells at 37 °C and 6 °C, indicating a direct, MPO-independent mode of activity. It also strongly reduced intracellular free –SH groups and GSH levels in normal and GSH-depleted cells. Thus the ROS increase could be caused by reduced protection by GSH or non-enzymatic autoxidation of the resulting PCB3-HQ-GSH adduct. PCB3-HQ did not produce a significant reduction of intracellular GSH in HL-60 cells and reduced intracellular free –SH groups only at the highest concentration tested in GSH depleted cells. Moreover, PCB3-HQ induced DNA

  15. Congener-specific patterns and toxic assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in resident and migratory birds from Southern India and Lake Baikal in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, T; Watanabe, M; Subramanian, A; Titenko, A M; Tanabe, S

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-, mono-, and di-ortho congeners, were determined in migratory and resident birds collected from India and Lake Baikal in Russia. In the 11 different species examined, total PCBs concentrations were in the range of 11-4500 ng/g (wet wt). IUPAC 105, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were the predominant congeners in almost all the birds. White-cheeked tern collected from India and common tern collected from Lake Baikal showed high PCBs concentrations of 4400 ng/g (wet wt) and 4500 ng/g (wet wt), respectively, and accumulated relatively high ratios of penta-CBs (IUPAC 118, 105, 99). Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of non- and mono-ortho PCB congeners in birds collected from India and Lake Baikal were in the range of 1.5-56 and 2.8-370 pg/g wet wt, respectively. Toxic assessment results led by calculated TEQs of the transfer to eggs from female birds revealed that TEQs in most of migratory and resident birds were comparable to the lowest observable effect level (LOAEL) of chicken which is a highly sensitive species against dioxin-like compounds. Calculated transfer TEQs to eggs of common tern collected from Lake Baikal in autumn, however, exceeded the LOAEL of CYP1A induction in bald eagle embryos and ED50 of that in pheasant embryos, suggesting that embryo toxicity by coplanar PCBs in some avian species breeding in Lake Baikal is possible.

  16. Source identification and fish exposure for polychlorinated biphenyls using congener analysis from passive water samplers in the Millers River basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish and in streambed sediments of the Millers River Basin, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, have been reported without evidence of the PCB source. In 1999, an investigation was initiated to determine the source(s) of the elevated PCB concentrations observed in fish and to establish the extent of fish exposure to PCBs along the entire main stems of the Millers River and one of its tributaries, the Otter River. Passive samplers deployed for 2-week intervals in the water-column at 3 1 stations, during summer and fall 1999, were used to assess PCB concentrations in the Millers River Basin. The samplers concentrate PCBs, which diffuse from the water column through a polyethylene membrane to hexane (0.200 liters) contained inside the samplers. Only dissolved PCBs (likely equivalent to the bioavailable fraction) are subject to diffusion through the membrane. The summed concentrations of all targeted PCB congeners (summed PCB) retrieved from the samplers ranged from 1 to 8,000 nanograms per hexane sample. Concentration and congener-pattern comparisons indicated that the historical release of PCBs in the Millers River Basin likely occurred on the Otter River at the upstream margin of Baldwinville, Mass. Elevated water-column concentrations measured in a wetland reach on the Otter River downstream from Baldwinville were compatible with a conceptual model for a present-day (1999) source in streambed sediments, to which the PCBs partitioned after their original introduction into the Otter River and from which PCBs are released to the water now that the original discharge has ceased or greatly decreased. Two four-fold decreases in summed PCB concentrations in the Millers River, by comparison with the highest concentration on the Otter River, likely were caused by (1) dilution with water from the relatively uncontaminated upstream Millers River and (2) volatilization of PCBs from the Millers River in

  17. Green Tea Catechin, EGCG, Suppresses PCB 102-Induced Proliferation in Estrogen-Sensitive Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kimberly Mantzke; Bauer, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment is of considerable concern since they accumulate in human breast tissue and may stimulate the growth of estrogen-sensitive tumors. Studies have shown that EGCG from green tea can modify estrogenic activity and thus may act as a cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of PCB 102 and EGCG on cell proliferation using an estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7/BOS. PCB 102 (1–10 μM) increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the proliferative effects of PCB 102 were mediated by ERα and could be abrogated by the selective ERα antagonist MPP. EGCG (10–50 μM) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of PCB 102-induced cell proliferation, with nearly complete inhibition at 25 μM EGCG. The antiproliferative action of EGCG was mediated by ERβ and could be blocked by the ERβ-specific inhibitor PHTPP. In conclusion, EGCG suppressed the proliferation-stimulating activity of the environmental estrogen PCB 102 which may be helpful in the chemoprevention of breast cancer. PMID:26783468

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental standard reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, D.L.; Schantz, M.M.; Parris, R.M.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Natural matrix environmental sample SRMs have been developed the Analytical Chemistry Division to assist in validating measurements for organic contaminants in the environment. Many of these are well characterized for contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). SRM 1649, Organics in Urban Dust, is currently available with certified concentrations for 5 PAHs but because of the widespread use of this material in air pollution monitoring programs and to expand the usefulness of this material, the authors are further characterizing the material for a larger number of PAHs as well as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. They will also soon issue a diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975) that is well characterized for PAHS, including many nitrogen substituted compounds. In addition to natural matrix materials, solutions useful for calibrating chromatographic detector response factors and retention times, and spiking sample blanks for determination of analyte recoveries, are also available. Solution SRMs currently available contain PCS congeners, chlorinated pesticides, and PAHs. New solution SRMs in preparation will contain additional chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners (e.g., non-ortho substituted chlorobiphenyls), and perdeuterated PAHs. Recent SRM work will be presented with particular attention on the methods used for determining organic contaminant concentrations in the urban dust material and in the diesel particulate extract.

  19. Similarity analysis of PAH and PCB bioaccumulation patterns in sediment-exposed Chironomus tentans larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.W.; O`Keefe, P.; Bush, B.

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of the aquatic insect Chironomus tentans were exposed at the third or fourth instar stage to sediments collected near the outfalls of two aluminum foundries and an aluminum fabrication plant. Biota and sediment bioaccumulation factors (BFs), based on wet tissue weights and dry sediment weights, ranged from 0.07 to 0.27 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from 0.22 to 1.42 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A higher rate of metabolism of PAHs compared with PCBs could explain the differences in BF values for the two groups of chemicals. It was found, using community similarity procedures from the field of ecology, that the congener patterns for PAHs and PCBs bioaccumulated by the larvae differed from the pattern of the same compounds in the sediments to which they were exposed. Affinity analysis indicated that the larvae favored the higher molecular weight PAH and PCB congeners. Preferential ingestion of sediments with defined particle size ranges, metabolism, and octanol/water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) are factors that may have influenced the bioaccumulation patterns. However, no single factor could adequately account for the differences between the larval and sediment patterns.

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EnviroGard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

  1. Printed Circuit Board Design (PCB) with HDL Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkert, Thomas K.; LaFourcade, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: PCB design with HDL designer, design process and schematic capture - symbols and diagrams: 1. Motivation: time savings, money savings, simplicity. 2. Approach: use single tool PCB for FPGA design, more FPGA designs than PCB designers. 3. Use HDL designer for schematic capture.

  2. Differences in DDT and PCB residues between common and striped dolphins from the southwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A

    2005-05-01

    Organochlorine concentrations (OCs) and stable isotopes were investigated in the blubber of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the southwestern Mediterranean. Samples were obtained from dolphins entangled in fishing nets during the 1992-1994 fishing season and from biopsies taken in 1992. Intrapopulation variations were studied, but because most of the dolphins were juveniles or calves (90%), no significant differences were found on the basis of reproductive condition or sex. Only mature male common dolphins showed significantly higher levels of most of the compounds studied than immature individuals did. There were quantitative and qualitative interspecific differences in organochlorine compounds profile. As compared to common dolphins, striped dolphins carried higher concentrations of organochlorine concentrations (OCs), their %DDE/tDDT and PCB/tDDT ratios were significantly higher, and recalcitrant PCB congeners were more abundant. Distribution and information on composition of stomach contents would in principle support a higher exposure to OCs in common dolphins as compared to striped dolphins, thus apparently contradicting the observed results. However, stable isotopes showed that striped dolphins exploit a higher trophic level, thus explaining observed differences. Interspecific dissimilarities in metabolic capacity to handle OCs may be an added factor. Although in the two species OC concentrations exceeded levels considered to be ineffective in marine mammals, pollution-induced effects on populations could not be properly assessed.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  4. Serum PCB concentrations in residents of Calcasieu and Lafayette Parishes, Louisiana with comparison to the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee-Yang; Uddin, Mohammed S; Turner, Wayman; Ragin, Angela D; Dearwent, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, a cross-sectional study designed to compare the serum dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) of a population-based sample of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana residents, to Lafayette Parish was conducted. The mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in order to calculate the TEQ. We compared the sum of lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 27 PCB congeners (total PCBs) in residents of these two parishes and also by their demographic characteristics. The geometric means (GM) [standard errors (SE)] of the concentrations (ngg(-1) lipids) of total PCBs in participants from Calcasieu Parish and Lafayette Parish were 154 (11.8) and 168.6 (20.8) (T-test p=0.54), respectively. Various percentiles of the distribution of serum total PCB concentrations were similar in the two parishes. After adjusting by age and race in the ANCOVA regression model, the adjusted GM for the lipid adjusted total PCBs was statistically higher in the residents in Lafayette than in Calcasieu Parish regardless of age or race (P=0.007). The adjusted GM of lipid adjusted total PCBs for African Americans was significantly higher than for Whites (p<0.001). Serum total PCB levels in residents of both parishes increased linearly with age (P<0.001). The congener profiles were similar in residents of both parishes. We also compared the GMs of a sum of 8 PCBs in Calcasieu and Lafayette Parish residents to those from a representative sample of the U.S. general population in 2001-2002 and they were not significantly different between parishes or between the parish data and the U.S. general population.

  5. Airborne PCB patterns and urban scale in the Southern Río de la Plata Basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Astoviza, Malena J; Cappelletti, Natalia; Bilos, Claudio; Migoya, Maria C; Colombo, Juan C

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs: ∑ 42 congeners) collected by polyurethane passive samplers (PAS-PUFs) in 29 stations from July 2010 to February 2014 (n=141) in the most productive and populated Southern Rio de la Plata area in Argentina were evaluated to assess concentration gradients, potential sources and compositional profiles related to different land use and urbanization. On a global scale, total airborne PCBs concentrations are low/very low (below detection limit to 937pgm(-3)) and show a significant potential correlation with urban scale increasing 2.5 times each 10 times increase of population reflecting the primary role of urbanization controlling PCB emissions. Compositional patterns evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) of individual congeners indicated that highly populated atmospheres are enriched in lighter, more volatile tri, tetra and penta chlorine congeners of lighter Aroclor mixtures (from 1242 to 1254) suggesting actual emission of fresh PCBs signatures from sealants, combustion and/or electrical equipment. Sub urban and rural sites show a gradual transition to heavier Aroclor mixtures (from 1254 to 1260) with predominance of more persistent hexa and hepta PCBs indicating an aged background signal resulting from long range transport and/or re-emission from historic reservoirs such as soils.

  6. Development of ecotoxicoproteomics on the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex: identification of PCB biomarkers in glycolysis and glutamate pathways.

    PubMed

    Leroy, D; Haubruge, E; De Pauw, E; Thomé, J P; Francis, F

    2010-03-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants largely distributed in the biosphere. Although their effects on vertebrates are well described, little is known about their action on freshwater invertebrate's metabolism. Gammarus pulex (Linné) was selected as an indicator model to develop a proteomic approach in order to characterize the effects of PCBs on the protein profile of this freshwater crustacean. Sublethal coplanar PCBs exposition and related 2D gel were performed. More than 560 spots were detected and a total of 21 proteins exhibiting significant expression differences in PCB exposed to G. pulex were identified by mass spectrometry. Database searches were conducted to relate the results to well-known metabolic pathways (pentose phosphate, cytoskeleton, energy, etc.). In particular, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and arginine kinase were found to be sensitive to the PCB exposition of G. pulex. The aim of the present study was to assess the biochemical responses and the metabolic changes in G. pulex following intoxication to coplanar PCB congeners CB77 and CB169 by a proteomic approach. This approach allowed us, by the identification of key proteins, to highlight important biochemical mechanisms disturbed by the presence of these contaminants in G. pulex.

  7. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Griffith, Michael B; Mills, Marc; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph; McCormick, Frank; Brenner, Richard; Zeller, Craig

    2015-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical, chemical, and biological processes to contain, destroy, and/or reduce the bioavailability or toxicity of in-place contaminants. These naturally occurring processes are monitored to ensure that management and recovery are progressing as expected. One approach frequently used to evaluate the recovery of contaminated sediments and associated biota is the assessment of contaminant tissue levels, or body burden concentrations, in top trophic level fish. In the present study, aquatic invertebrates were examined as an indicator of recent exposure to PCBs. The approach aimed to determine whether invertebrates collected using artificial substrates (i.e., Hester-Dendy samplers) could be used to discriminate among contaminated sites through the analyses of PCBs in whole homogenates of macroinvertebrates. Macroinvertebrates were sorted, preserved, and analyzed for total PCBs (t-PCBs), by summing 107 PCB congeners. Macroinvertebrate body burden concentrations showed similar trends to sediment t-PCB concentrations at the sites sampled. The results indicate that macroinvertebrates can be used to assess sediment contamination among sites that have different PCB contamination levels.

  8. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  9. Monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination and estrogenic activity in water, commercial feed and farmed seafood.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Barbara; Garritano, Sonia L; Cristofani, Renza; Ortaggi, Giancarlo; Giuliano, Antonella; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata; Cirillo, Teresa; De Giusti, Maria; Boccia, Antonio; Reali, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    We evaluated the concentration and congener distribution of seven "target" polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in water collected in different aquaculture farms of the Mediterranean area, commercial feeds, and farmed seafood. PCBs were present in feed and in tissues of all the analysed organisms at levels ranging from 1.96 ng g(-1) to 124.00 ng g(-1) wet weight, and in 10.5% of the water samples, at levels from under detection limit to 33.0 ng l(-1) with total PCB concentrations significantly higher in samples from the Tyrrhenian Sea than the Adriatic Sea. PCB congener distribution in tissues resembled that of feed, suggesting that commercial feed is an important source of PCBs. The estrogenicity of organic extracts of the samples was also evaluated by using an in vitro yeast reporter assay. Estrogenic activity higher than 10% of the activity induced by 10 nM 17 beta-estradiol was observed in 20.0% of seafood samples and 15.8% of water samples. Seafood and water samples from the Tyrrhenian Sea were more frequently estrogenic than the Adriatic ones (16.45 versus 4.08%). A significant correlation of total PCB concentrations on biological activity was observed for sea bass and mussels from the Adriatic Sea (p < 0.045 and p < 0.04, respectively), and for sea bass of the Tyrrhenian Sea (p = 0.05). These results indicate the need of an integral approach in the exposure assessment to potential toxic compounds for human via food.

  10. JNK pathway decreases thyroid hormones via TRH receptor: a novel mechanism for disturbance of thyroid hormone homeostasis by PCB153.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjiang; Ha, Mei; Cui, Yushan; Wang, Chengmin; Yan, Maosheng; Fu, Wenjuan; Quan, Chao; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Kedi

    2012-12-08

    PCBs, widespread and well-characterized endocrine disruptors, cause the disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. In order to verify the hypotheses that MAPK pathways would play roles in disturbance of TH levels caused by PCBs, and that TH-associated receptors could function in certain MAPK pathway, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 0, 4, 16 and 32mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, 10μM) for 30min. Results showed that after the treatment with PCB153, serum total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were decreased, whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were not altered. In vivo and in vitro studies indicated that JNK pathway was activated after PCB153 exposure. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was suppressed after the activation of JNK pathway and was elevated after the inhibition of JNK pathway, but TSH receptor (TSHr) level was not affected by the status of JNK pathway though it was reduced after PCB153 treatment. The activated signs of ERK and P38 pathways were not observed in this study. Taken together, observed effects suggested that JNK pathway could decrease TH levels via TRHr, and that would be one novel mechanism of PCB153-mediated disruption of THs.

  11. Management and disposal of radioactively contaminated PCBs and PCB items at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaster, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    In order to manage and dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) properly, a federal facility placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) must establish and implement a sitewide management concept to address radioactively contaminated PCBs in soil and debris area and PCBs encountered as a result of remedial activities. Suspect PCB contamination may include areas under and former uranium processing plants and facilities, roads, buildings, and structures known to have contained or utilized different types of electric, high temperature, and/or hydraulic equipment containing PCB contaminated fluids. It is the responsibility of the Superfund site to consult with EPA regional offices for the purpose of selecting response action strategies, cleanup levels, and disposal options CERCLA by evaluating the form and concentration of the PCB contamination as well as the presence of other contaminants such as low level radionuclides. Cleanup levels, limited treatment and disposal options, and associated technologies must be determined while ensuring adequate protection to human health and the environment.

  12. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  13. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  14. Proteomic responses of blue mussel (Mytilus) congeners to temperature acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fields, Peter A; Zuzow, Marcus J; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    The ability to acclimate to variable environmental conditions affects the biogeographic range of species, their success at colonizing new habitats, and their likelihood of surviving rapid anthropogenic climate change. Here we compared responses to temperature acclimation (4 weeks at 7, 13 and 19°C) in gill tissue of the warm-adapted intertidal blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, an invasive species in the northeastern Pacific, and the cold-adapted M. trossulus, the native congener in the region, to better understand the physiological differences underlying the ongoing competition. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, we showed that warm acclimation caused changes in cytoskeletal composition and proteins of energy metabolism in both species, consistent with increasing rates of filtration and respiration due to increased ciliary activity. During cold acclimation, changes in cytoskeletal proteins were accompanied by increasing abundances of oxidative stress proteins and molecular chaperones, possibly because of the increased production of aldehydes as indicated by the upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase. The cold-adapted M. trossulus showed increased abundances of molecular chaperones at 19°C, but M. galloprovincialis did not, suggesting that the two species differ in their long-term upper thermal limits. In contrast, the warm-adapted M. galloprovincialis showed a stronger response to cold acclimation than M. trossulus, including changes in abundance in more proteins and differing protein expression profiles between 7 and 13°C, a pattern absent in M. trossulus. In general, increasing levels of oxidative stress proteins inversely correlate with modifications in Krebs cycle and electron transport chain proteins, indicating a trade-off between oxidative stress resistance and energy production. Overall, our results help explain why M. galloprovincialis has replaced M. trossulus in southern California over the last century, but

  15. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl mass transfer after amendment of contaminated sediment with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    David Werner; Upal Ghosh; Richard G. Luthy

    2006-07-01

    The sorption kinetics and concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically polluted sediment is modeled to assess a remediation strategy based on in situ PCB sequestration by mixing with activated carbon (AC). The authors extend their evaluation of a model based on intraparticle diffusion by including a biomimetic semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and a first-order degradation rate for the aqueous phase. The model predictions are compared with the previously reported experimental PCB concentrations in the bulk water phase and in SPMDs. The simulated scenarios comprise a marine and a freshwater sediment, four PCB congeners, two AC grain sizes, four doses of AC, and comparison with laboratory experiments. The modeling approach distinguishes between two different sediment particles types: a light-density fraction representing carbonaceous particles such as charcoal, coal, coke, cenospheres, or wood, and a heavy-density fraction representing the mineral phase with coatings of organic matter. A third particle type in the numerical model is AC. The model qualitatively reproduces the observed shifts in the PCB distribution during repartitioning after AC amendment but overestimates the overall effect of the treatment in reducing aqueous and SPMD concentrations of PCBs by a factor of 2-6. For the AC application in sediment, competitive sorption of the various solutes apparently requires a reduction by a factor of 16 of the literature values for the AC-water partitioning coefficient measured in pure aqueous systems. With this correction, model results and measurements agree within a factor of 3. After AC amendment is homogeneously mixed into the sediment and then left undisturbed, aqueous PCB concentrations tend toward the same reduction after 5 years. 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous Arctic Char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserves are mobilized. We tested the hypothesis that winter fasting and the associated polychlorinated biphenyls' (PCBs) redistribution from lipid depots to critical tissues impair the liver metabolic capacity in these animals. Char were administered Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/ kg body mass) orally and maintained for 4 months without feeding to mimic seasonal winter fasting, while fed groups (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg) were maintained for comparison. A clear dose-related increase in PCB accumulation and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein content was observed in the livers of fasted fish. This PCB concentration and CYP1A response with the high dose of Aroclor were 1.5-fold and 3-fold greater in the fasted than in the fed fish, respectively. In fed fish, PCB exposure lowered liver glycogen content, whereas none of the other metabolic indicators were significantly affected. In fasted fish, PCB exposure depressed liver glycogen content and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and elevated 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activity and glucocorticoid receptor protein expression. There were no significant impacts of PCB on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and hsp90 contents in either fed or fasted fish. Collectively, our study demonstrates that winter emaciation associated with the anadromous lifestyle predisposes arctic char to PCB impact on hepatic metabolism including disruption of the adaptive metabolic responses to extended fasting. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  18. PD/MG BIMETALLIC CORROSION SYSTEMS FOR DECHLORINATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of 209 compounds manufactured till mid70's, are toxic pollutants that persist in the environment. Enhanced corrosion of an active metal combined with catalytic hydrogenation properties of Pd in bimetallic cells can effectively reduce PCB...

  19. PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan cohort study, Sheboygan maternal/infant PCB study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The PCB problem in the United States today has been raised to national concern with the discovery of PCBs in human breast milk above the highest recommended level for any commercially sold flood. This study, done in Sheboygan, Wisconsin in 1980-81, was to determine if (1) there were high levels of PCBs in mother's serum and breast milk in the vicinity of a PCB spill, (2) if these levels could be linked to the women's consumption of local fish, and (3) if the infants born to these women in the study showed signals of impaired health, growth, and development. Seventy-three women participated in the study, 62 who were breast-feeding their children, and 11 who were bottle-feeding their children. The serum PCB levels for the study population ranged from 1.29 to 14.90 ppb with a mean of 5.76 ppb. The breast milk PCB levels for the women who were breast feeding was 0.29 to 4.04 ppm with a mean of 1.13 ppm. The infants showed signs of impaired health as a result of in utero exposure to PCBs. No negative effects from exposure to breast milk PCB could be discerned up to 4 months postpartum.

  20. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  1. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  2. Assessment of the Mitigative Capacity of Dietary Zinc on PCB126 Hepatotoxicity and the Contribution of Zinc to Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Klaren, William D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; McCormick, Michael L; Spitz, Douglas R; Robertson, Larry W

    2016-05-16

    Hepatic levels of the essential micronutrient, zinc, are diminished by several hepatotoxicants, and the dietary supplementation of zinc has proven protective in those cases. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a liver toxicant, alters hepatic nutrient homeostasis and lowers hepatic zinc levels. The current study was designed to determine the mitigative potential of dietary zinc in the toxicity associated with PCB126 and the role of zinc in that toxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary groups and fed diets deficient in zinc (7 ppm Zn), adequate in zinc (30 ppm Zn), and supplemented in zinc (300 ppm). The animals were maintained for 3 weeks on these diets, then given a single IP injection of vehicle or 1 or 5 μmol/kg PCB126. After 2 weeks, the animals were euthanized. Dietary zinc increased the level of ROS, the activity of CuZnSOD, and the expression of metallothionein but decreased the levels of hepatic manganese. PCB126 exposed rats exhibited classic signs of exposure, including hepatomegaly, increased hepatic lipids, increased ROS and CYP induction. Liver histology suggests some mild ameliorative properties of both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation. Other metrics of toxicity (relative liver and thymus weights, hepatic lipids, and hepatic ROS) did not support this trend. Interestingly, the zinc supplemented high dose PCB126 group had mildly improved histology and less efficacious induction of investigated genes than did the low dose PCB126 group. Overall, decreases in zinc caused by PCB126 likely contribute little to the ongoing toxicity, and the mitigative/preventive capacity of zinc against PCB126 exposure seems limited.

  3. Addendum to: Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population.

    PubMed

    Scott, Laura L F; Unice, Kenneth M; Scott, Paul; Nguyen, Ly M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, we published a paper in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology describing PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data collected for the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Since publication of this paper, several of the 1998 World Health Organization Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs), which were used to calculate the summary statistics we presented, have been changed. In this addendum, we publish new reference statistics using the WHO(2006) TEFs in addition to assessing the effect of these new TEFs on total TEQ concentrations for the general US population. We also examined the effect of the limits of detection (LODs) on the calculated TEQ summary statistics for the top seven contributing congeners and completed a missing data analysis to determine whether our estimates were biased by excluding individuals without complete congener profiles. Similar to our previous results, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD; 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-PeCDD; 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD; 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF; and PCB 126 contributed the most to total TEQ. However, both PCB 156 and 157 were no longer significant contributors, instead being displaced by 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-HxCDF, and PCB 169. In general, the decrease in TEFs for the mono-ortho-substituted PCBs decreased their contribution to total TEQ appreciably, causing TEQ(17-9) to approximately equal TEQ(17-3). The effect of LODs for five of the top seven contributing congeners was negligible; however, the LODs for 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD and 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-PeCDD were noticeably higher and may impact TEQ estimates primarily for individuals aged 20-29 years. Results from the missing data analysis provide compelling evidence that the summary statistics we reported previously, as well as those described here, were not greatly influenced due to censoring data.

  4. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  5. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  6. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3) and the effects of its hydroxylated metabolites on cellular apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Anna; Ludewig, Gabriele; Rak, Agnieszka; Nadolna, Weronika; Bochenek, Michał; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest an involvement of PCBs in breast cancer formation, but the results are ambiguous and the mechanisms not clear. We propose that local activation of cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by PCB3, may generate active metabolites which affect apoptosis and thereby promote mammary carcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were exposed to 300 nM PCB3 and its hydroxylated metabolites, 4OH-PCB and 3,4diOH-PCB3. The enzyme activity for CYP1A1 was assayed using the EROD assay, and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 protein expression by western blotting. PCB3 increased CYP1A1 activity (~1.5fold) and protein levels within 6 hrs after exposure. No effect on CYP1B1 protein expression was observed. The effects of PCB3 and both its metabolites on staurosporine-induced apoptosis were determined by measuring DNA fragmentation using ELISA and TUNEL assays, and by measuring caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity. We found that PCB3 and both of its hydroxylated metabolites had no effect on caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity when cells were grown in medium deprived of estrogen, but reduced caspase-9 activity when cells were grown in medium supplemented with serum containing estradiol. Interestingly, a decrease of DNA fragmentation was observed upon treatment with 3,4diOH-PCB3 in both culture conditions, suggesting that 3,4diOH-PCB3 affects a caspase-independent pathway of cell death. In summary, interactions of PCB3 and its metabolites with estradiol by yet unknown mechanisms inhibit caspase 9-related apoptosis and additional, other death pathways are affected by the catechol metabolite 3,4diOH-PCB3. These anti-apoptotic effects and the change in metabolic activity may contribute to the carcinogenic effect of PCBs. PMID:19604582

  7. Congenic mapping and sequence analysis of the Renin locus

    PubMed Central

    Flister, Michael J.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Reddy, Prajwal; Jacob, Howard J.; Moreno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Renin was the first blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapped by linkage analysis in the rat. Subsequent BP linkage and congenic studies capturing different portions of the renin region have returned conflicting results, suggesting that multiple interdependent BP loci may be residing in the chromosome 13 BP QTL that includes Renin. We used SS-13BN congenic strains to map 2 BP loci in the Renin region (chr13:45.2–49.0 Mb). We identified a 1.1 Mb protective Brown Norway (BN) region around Renin (chr13:46.1–47.2 Mb) that significantly decreased BP by 32 mmHg. The Renin protective BP locus was offset by an adjacent hypertensive locus (chr13:47.2–49.0 Mb) that significantly increased BP by 29 mmHg. Sequence analysis of the protective and hypertensive BP loci revealed 1,433 and 2,063 variants between Dahl salt-sensitive/Mcwi (SS) and BN rats, respectively. To further reduce the list of candidate variants, we re-genotyped an overlapping SS-13SR congenic strain (S/renrr) with a previously reported BP phenotype. Sequence comparison between SS, Dahl R (SR), and BN reduced the number of candidate variants in the 2 BP loci by 42% for further study. Combined with previous studies, these data suggest that at least 4 BP loci reside within the 30 cM chromosome 13 BP QTL that includes Renin. PMID:23460292

  8. Chemical analysis and in vitro EROD activities in extracts from the American oyster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardinali, P.; Willett, K.; Sericano, J.; Safe, S.; Wade, T.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical residue analysis and EROD induction activities were measured in extracts from three groups of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) after uptake-depuration experiments conduct in Galveston Bay, Texas. Levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCD) were determined by HRGC/HRMS and HRGC/HRMS while congener specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by HRGC/EC Induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity by sample extracts were determined in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. Oysters from Hanna Reef (HR), a relatively clean site in Galveston Bay, were transplanted to a contaminated site in the Houston Ship Channel (SC) area for 48 days. After this exposure period, the remaining oysters were retransplanted to their original (HR) site to study the depuration of the toxic compounds benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), PCB77, PCB126, PCB105, PCB118, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF concentrations were measured during the uptake experiment and used to estimate the corresponding Induction/Toxic TCDD equivalents (I-TEQS) which ranged from 0.13 to 0.499 ng/g. The results demonstrate that BAP and DBA are major contributors to the TCDD induction equivalents (55--76%) of calculated I-TEC compared to PCBs (16--38%) and TCDD/TCDF (5--10%). The bioassay results gave I-TEQs approximately 10 fold higher than the calculated values suggesting that other compounds not detected by HRGC/HRMS, LRMS or ECD were present in the samples and are active as inducers of EROD activity.

  9. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  10. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste...

  11. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  12. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  13. In vivo/in vitro comparison of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yu, Kyung O.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Byczkowski, Janusz Z.; Burton, G. Allen; Channel, Stephen R.; Drerup, Joanne M.; Flemming, Carlyle D.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    The rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, serves as a useful tool to assess potential biological effects such as induction of cytochrome P4501A1 expression. The objectives of this study were twofold: to investigate the kinetic time course and dosimetry of PCB77 in rat hepatoma cells dosed with PCB77 and in liver of rats given ip doses of PCB77, and to comparein vitroandin vivoP4501A1 enzyme induction responses. For the 4-day time–course study, H4IIE cells were exposed with two doses of [14C]PCB77 (0.9 and 3 μg/plate) and harvested at 15 and 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hr, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days. PCB77-derived radioactivity was detected in the cells as early as 15 min postdosing. For the dose–response study, the cells were dosed with various concentrations of PCB77 (0.00316–5.37 μg/plate) and harvested on Day 3 since ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD) activityin vitroreached its maximum on the third day postdosing. Time–course and dose–response studies revealed that only 1–3% of the total delivered dose was found in the cells, with the remainder in the media and adhering to the culture plates. For the dose–response studyin vivo,male Fischer rats were dosed with a single ip injection of various concentrations of PCB77 (0.1–50 mg/kg body wt) and euthanized on Day 3. PCB77-derived radioactivity and EROD inductionin vivowere measured. When EROD activity and PCB77-derived radioactivity in the rat hepatoma cells and in the rat liver were compared on an equivalent weight basis, there was a significant correlation (r2= 0.985) between them. Prior to this study, no information on quantitative dosimetry and EROD activities of PCB77 has been reported to validate thein vitroassay within vivodata.

  14. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor.

    PubMed

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R; Karchner, Sibel I; Nacci, Diane E; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E; Stegeman, John J; Celander, Malin C

    2015-02-01

    Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of AhR2 or CYP1A in liver and gills of NBH fish. In NBH fish, but not in SC fish, there was increased mRNA expression of hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp upon exposure to either of the two PCB congeners. However, basal PXR and Pgp mRNA levels in liver of NBH fish were significantly lower than in SC fish. A different pattern was seen in gills, where there were no differences in basal mRNA expression of these genes between the two

  15. Divergent PCB organohalide-respiring consortia enriched from the efflux channel of a former Delor manufacturer in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Cvancarova, Monika; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Holliger, Christof; Rossi, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) organohalide-respiring communities from the efflux channel of a former Delor manufacturer in Eastern Slovakia were assessed using metagenomic, statistical and cultivation-adapted approaches. Multivariate analysis of environmental factors together with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the bacterial communities in the primary sediments revealed both temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of microbial populations, which reflects the dynamic pattern of contamination and altered conditions for biodegradation activity along the channel. Anaerobic microcosms were developed from eight sediments sampled along the channel, where high concentrations of PCBs - from 6.6 to 136mg/kg dry weight, were measured. PCB dehalorespiring activity, congruent with changes in the microbial composition in all microcosms, was detected. After 10 months of cultivation, the divergently evolved consortia achieved up to 35.9 percent reduction of the total PCB concentration. Phylogenetic-analysis of the active Chloroflexi-related organohalide-respiring bacteria by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in cDNA from microcosms with the highest PCB dechlorination activity revealed diverse and unique complexity of the populations. The predominant organohalide respirers were either affiliated with Dehalococcoides sp. and Dehalococcoides-like group (DLG) organisms or were composed of currently unknown distant clades of DLG bacteria. The present study should encourage researchers to explore the full potential of the indigenous PCB dechlorinating populations to develop effective bioremediation approaches that can perform the complete mineralization of PCBs in polluted environments.

  16. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

  17. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB...

  18. Evidence for the use of organic carbon as the sorbing matrix in the modeling of PCB accumulation in phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Skoglung, R.S.; Swackhamer, D.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents empirical evidence for the use of organic carbon as the sorbing matrix in the kinetic modeling of PCB accumulation in phytoplankton. A kinetic-based model was used to predict congener-specific bioaccumulation factors of PCBs in phytoplankton samples collected from Green Bay, Lake Michigan. These values were compared to the measured bioaccumulation factors, and the sum of the residuals was used to evaluate the model`s predictive quality. The sorbing matrix fraction (F{sub M}) that minimized the sum of residuals of the model was then solved by iteration. The appropriateness of using dry weight, organic carbon fraction, or lipid fractions as the sorbing matrix fraction was determined by measuring their correlation to the optimum F{sub M}. It was determined that the F{sub M} correlated best with the organic carbon fraction, and this correlation appeared to be independent of both the spatial and seasonal differences of the field samples.

  19. Increased Expression of Rififylin in A < 330 Kb Congenic Strain is Linked to Impaired Endosomal Recycling in Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Kalinoski, Andrea; Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Farms, Phyllis; Joe, Bina

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are internalized into the cell through endocytosis and either degraded within lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. While perturbations in endosomal internalization are known to modulate renal function, it is not known whether similar alterations in recycling affect renal function. Rififylin is a known regulator of endocytic recycling with E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. In this study, using two genetically similar strains, the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat and an S.LEW congenic strain, which had allelic variants within a < 330 kb segment containing rififylin, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in endosomal recycling affect renal function. The congenic strain had 1.59-fold higher renal expression of rififylin. Transcriptome analysis indicated that components of both endocytosis and recycling were upregulated in the congenic strain. Transcription of Atp1a1 and cell surface content of the protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na+K+ATPase were increased in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain. Because rififylin does not directly regulate endocytosis and it is also a differentially expressed gene within the congenic segment, we reasoned that the observed alterations in the transcriptome of the congenic strain constitute a feedback response to the primary functional alteration of recycling caused by rififylin. To test this, recycling of transferrin was studied in isolated proximal tubules. Recycling was significantly delayed within isolated proximal tubules of the congenic strain, which also had a higher level of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteinuria compared with S. These data provide evidence to suggest that delayed endosomal recycling caused by excess of rififylin indirectly affects endocytosis, enhances intracellular protein polyubiquitination and contributes to proteinuria. PMID:22891072

  20. Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.-C.; Pan, M.-H.; Li, L.-A.; Chen, C.-J.; Tsai, S.-S.; Guo, Y.L. . E-mail: leonguo@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2007-05-15

    Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification.

  1. SAR of Sponge-Inspired Hemibastadin Congeners Inhibiting Blue Mussel PhenolOxidase

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Hendrik; Hagenow, Jens; Chung, Mi-Young; Hellio, Claire; Weber, Horst; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Hemibastadin derivatives, including the synthetically-derived 5,5′-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB), are potent inhibitors of blue mussel phenoloxidase (PO), which is a key enzyme involved in the firm attachment of this invertebrate to substrates and, thus, a promising molecular target for anti-fouling research. For a systematic investigation of the enzyme inhibitory activity of hemibastadin derivatives, we have synthesized nine new congeners, which feature structural variations of the DBHB core structure. These structural modifications include, e.g., different halogen substituents present at the aromatic rings, different amine moieties linked to the (E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, the presence of free vs. substituted aromatic hydroxyl groups and a free vs. methylated oxime group. All compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity towards the target enzyme in vitro, and IC50 values were calculated. Derivatives, which structurally closely resemble sponge-derived hemibastadins, revealed superior enzyme inhibitory properties vs. congeners featuring structural moieties that are absent in the respective natural products. This study suggests that natural selection has yielded structurally-optimized antifouling compounds. PMID:25988522

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm