Science.gov

Sample records for active phase separation

  1. Active Nematics Are Intrinsically Phase Separated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shradha; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2006-09-01

    Two-dimensional nonequilibrium nematic steady states, as found in agitated granular-rod monolayers or films of orientable amoeboid cells, were predicted [Europhys. Lett. 62, 196 (2003)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/epl/i2003-00346-7] to have giant number fluctuations, with the standard deviation proportional to the mean. We show numerically that the steady state of such systems is macroscopically phase separated, yet dominated by fluctuations, as in the Das-Barma model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1602 (2000)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.85.1602]. We suggest experimental tests of our findings in granular and living-cell systems.

  2. Activity induced phase separation in particles and (bio)polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosberg, Alexander

    It was recently shown that the non-equilibrium steady state of the mixture of two types of particles exposed to two different thermostats can phase separate (A.Y.Grosberg, J.-F.Joanny, PRE, v. 91, 032118, 2015). similar result is valid also in the case when particles in question are monomers of two different polymer chains, or blocks of a co-polymer. We discuss the implications of these results for the physics of chromatin.

  3. Phase separation of biphasic mixture of active Janus colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Han, Ming; Luijten, Erik; Granick, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Recently there is a surge of interest in the phase behavior of active matter in which building blocks display self-propelling motion. Although much has been known from theory and simulation, experimental examples are very rare. Specifically, the epitomic problem of a binary mixture of active matter defies any experiment or theory so far. Here we present an experimental realization of binary mixture of particles, which only acquires activity when they collisionally interact with the opposite kind. We used a system in which the only difference in the two particles is the phase in their cyclic motion, precluding any artifact due to difference in interparticle potential. We observe phenomena strikingly similar to spinodal decomposition of molecular system, in addition to new features due to the nonequilibrium nature of the system. We derived a general, effective Flory-Huggins theory for spinodal decomposition of bicomponent active system, and rationalized the 1/3 power law growth of the domain size in regions where thermodynamic analogy is valid. The system also presents a plethora of nonequilibrium phenomena such as critical fluctuation, lane formation, and dynamic absorbing state in different parameter space.

  4. Phase separation and rotor self-assembly in active particle suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Linek, J.; Valeriani, C.; Cacciuto, A.; Cates, M. E.; Marenduzzo, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Poon, W. C. K.

    2012-01-01

    Adding a nonadsorbing polymer to passive colloids induces an attraction between the particles via the “depletion” mechanism. High enough polymer concentrations lead to phase separation. We combine experiments, theory, and simulations to demonstrate that using active colloids (such as motile bacteria) dramatically changes the physics of such mixtures. First, significantly stronger interparticle attraction is needed to cause phase separation. Secondly, the finite size aggregates formed at lower interparticle attraction show unidirectional rotation. These micro-rotors demonstrate the self-assembly of functional structures using active particles. The angular speed of the rotating clusters scales approximately as the inverse of their size, which may be understood theoretically by assuming that the torques exerted by the outermost bacteria in a cluster add up randomly. Our simulations suggest that both the suppression of phase separation and the self-assembly of rotors are generic features of aggregating swimmers and should therefore occur in a variety of biological and synthetic active particle systems. PMID:22392986

  5. Line active hybrid lipids determine domain size in phase separation of saturated and unsaturated lipids.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Robert; Safran, Samuel A

    2010-03-17

    A simple model of the line activity of a hybrid lipid (e.g., POPC) with one fully saturated chain and one partially unsaturated chain demonstrates that these lipids preferentially pack at curved interfaces between phase-separated saturated and unsaturated domains. We predict that the domain sizes typically range from tens to hundreds of nm, depending on molecular interactions and parameters such as molecular volume and area per headgroup in the bulk fluid phase. The role of cholesterol is taken into account by an effective change in the headgroup areas and the domain sizes are predicted to increase with cholesterol concentration.

  6. Line Active Hybrid Lipids Determine Domain Size in Phase Separation of Saturated and Unsaturated Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Robert; Safran, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    A simple model of the line activity of a hybrid lipid (e.g., POPC) with one fully saturated chain and one partially unsaturated chain demonstrates that these lipids preferentially pack at curved interfaces between phase-separated saturated and unsaturated domains. We predict that the domain sizes typically range from tens to hundreds of nm, depending on molecular interactions and parameters such as molecular volume and area per headgroup in the bulk fluid phase. The role of cholesterol is taken into account by an effective change in the headgroup areas and the domain sizes are predicted to increase with cholesterol concentration. PMID:20303848

  7. Activity mediated phase separation: Can we understand phase behavior of the nonequilibrium problem from an equilibrium approach?

    PubMed

    Trefz, Benjamin; Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2016-04-14

    We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations. Depending upon the composition of active and passive particles, the diffusive motion of the active species can only be realized at large time scales. Despite this, we have been able to construct an equilibrium approach to obtain the structural properties of such inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. In this method, effective inter-particle potentials were constructed via IET by taking structural inputs from the MD simulations of the active system. These potentials in turn were used in passive MD simulations, results from which are observed to be in fair agreement with the original ones. PMID:27083747

  8. Activity mediated phase separation: Can we understand phase behavior of the nonequilibrium problem from an equilibrium approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefz, Benjamin; Das, Subir K.; Egorov, Sergei A.; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations. Depending upon the composition of active and passive particles, the diffusive motion of the active species can only be realized at large time scales. Despite this, we have been able to construct an equilibrium approach to obtain the structural properties of such inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. In this method, effective inter-particle potentials were constructed via IET by taking structural inputs from the MD simulations of the active system. These potentials in turn were used in passive MD simulations, results from which are observed to be in fair agreement with the original ones.

  9. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  10. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  11. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-14

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results. PMID:26071703

  12. Dynamical mean-field theory and weakly non-linear analysis for the phase separation of active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Thomas; Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-06-01

    Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.

  13. Separation of active laccases from Pleurotus sapidus culture supernatant using aqueous two-phase systems in centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schwienheer, C; Prinz, A; Zeiner, T; Merz, J

    2015-10-01

    For the production of bio active compounds, e.g., active enzymes or antibodies, a conserved purification process with a minimum loss of active compounds is necessary. In centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), the separation effect is based on the different distribution of the components to be separated between two immiscible liquid phases. Thereby, one liquid phase is kept stationary in chambers by a centrifugal field and the mobile phase is pumped through via connecting ducts. Aqueous two phase systems (ATPS) are known to provide benign conditions for biochemical products and seem to be promising when used in CPC for purification tasks. However, it is not known if active biochemical compounds can "survive" the conditions in a CPC where strong shear forces can occur due to the two-phasic flow under centrifugal forces. Therefore, this aspect has been faced within this study by the separation of active laccases from a fermentation broth of Pleurotus sapidus. After selecting a suitable ATPS and operating conditions, the activity yield was calculated and the preservation of the active enzymes could be observed. Therefore, CPC could be shown as potentially suitable for the purification of bio-active compounds.

  14. Three phase downhole separator process

    DOEpatents

    Cognata, Louis John

    2008-06-24

    Three Phase Downhole Separator Process (TPDSP) is a process which results in the separation of all three phases, (1) oil, (2) gas, and (3) water, at the downhole location in the well bore, water disposal injection downhole, and oil and gas production uphole.

  15. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ and cell sizes of 30..mu..m or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure.

  16. Synthesis of a mixed-model stationary phase derived from glutamine for HPLC separation of structurally different biologically active compounds: HILIC and reversed-phase applications.

    PubMed

    Aral, Tarık; Aral, Hayriye; Ziyadanoğulları, Berrin; Ziyadanoğulları, Recep

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed-mode stationary phase was synthesised starting from N-Boc-glutamine, aniline and spherical silica gel (4 µm, 60 Å). The prepared stationary phase was characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The new stationary phase bears an embedded amide group into phenyl ring, highly polar a terminal amide group and non-polar groups (phenyl and alkyl groups). At first, this new mixed-mode stationary phase was used for HILIC separation of four nucleotides and five nucleosides. The effects of different separation conditions, such as pH value, mobile phase and temperature, on the separation process were investigated. The optimum separation for nucleotides was achieved using HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature. Under these conditions, the four nucleotides could be separated and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Five nucleosides were separated under HILIC isocratic elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=3.25 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 265 nm within 14 min. Chromatographic parameters as retention factor, selectivity, theoretical plate number and peak asymmetry factor were calculated for the effect of temperature and water content in mobile phase on the separation process. The new column was also tested for nucleotides and nucleosides mixture and six analytes were separated in 10min. The chromatographic behaviours of these polar analytes on the new mixed-model stationary phase were compared with those of HILIC columns under similar conditions. Further, phytohormones and phenolic compounds were separated in order to see influence of the new stationary phase in reverse phase conditions. Eleven plant phytohormones were separated within 13 min using RP-HPLC gradient elution with aqueous mobile phase containing pH=2.5 phosphate buffer (10mM) and acetonitrile with 20°C column temperature and detected at 230 or 278 nm. The best separation

  17. Vapors-liquid phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1980-10-01

    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  18. Enantiomeric separation of tocainide and its analogues on an optically active crown ether-based stationary phase by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Myung Ho; Min, Hye Jung; Cho, Yoon Jae

    2003-05-01

    Tocainide and its 14 analogues were resolved on a chiral stationary phase (CSP) based on (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl)-20-crown-6 covalently bonded to silica gel. The resolution was quite good, the separation (alpha) and resolution factors (Rs) being 1.84-15.32 and 1.34-13.78, respectively. Especially, the result for the resolution of tocainide on the CSP turns out to be the best one among others reported so far. The chromatographic resolution behaviors were demonstrated to be dependent on the content and the type of organic and acidic modifiers and the ammonium acetate concentration in aqueous mobile phase.

  19. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically require subjects to have an elevated acute phase reactant (APR), in addition to tender and swollen joints. However, despite the elevation of individual components of the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (tender and swollen joint counts and patient and physician global assessment), some patients with active RA may have normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and thus fail to meet entry criteria for clinical trials. We assessed the relationship between CDAI and APRs in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry by comparing baseline characteristics and one-year clinical outcomes of patients with active RA, grouped by baseline APR levels. Methods This was an observational study of 9,135 RA patients who had both ESR and CRP drawn and a visit at which CDAI was >2.8 (not in remission). Results Of 9,135 patients with active RA, 58% had neither elevated ESR nor CRP; only 16% had both elevated ESR and CRP and 26% had either ESR or CRP elevated. Among the 4,228 patients who had a one-year follow-up visit, both baseline and one-year follow-up modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) and CDAI scores were lowest for patients with active RA but with neither APR elevated; both mHAQ and CDAI scores increased sequentially with the increase in number of elevated APR levels at baseline. Each individual component of the CDAI followed the same trend, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in both CDAI and mHAQ scores at one year was associated positively with the number of APRs elevated at baseline. Conclusions In a large United States registry of RA patients, APR levels often do not correlate with disease activity as measured by joint counts and global assessments. These data strongly suggest that it is appropriate to obtain both ESR and CRP from RA patients at the initial

  20. Two-Phase Flow Separator Investigation

    NASA Video Gallery

    The goal of the Two-Phase Flow Separator investigation is to help increase understanding of how to separate gases and liquids in microgravity. Many systems on the space station contain both liquids...

  1. Quenching Phase Separation by Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2015-03-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solventless, free radical technique predominately used to deposit homogeneous films of linear and crosslinked polymers directly from gas phase feeds. We report a template-free method to fabricate continuous-phase porous polymer films by simultaneous phase separation during iCVD. Phase separation during film growth is achieved by condensing an inert porogen, along with initiator, monomer, and crosslinker. When the vapor mixture transports to the cooled substrate, phase separation occurs along with polymerization and crosslinking, which quench the state of phase separation. The kinetics of spontaneously phase separation can be qualitatively understood on the basis of Cahn-Hilliard theory. A series of films were grown by varying monomer and porogen's degree of saturation. Deposited films were studied by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques.

  2. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-5: Phase Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Matthew; Weitz, David A.; Lu, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 5: Phase Separation (BCAT-5-PhaseSep) experiment will photograph initially randomized colloidal samples onboard the ISS to determine their resulting structure over time. This allows the scientists to capture the kinetics (evolution) of their samples, as well as the final equilibrium state of each sample. BCAT-5-PhaseSep studies collapse (phase separation rates that impact product shelf-life); in microgravity the physics of collapse is not masked by being reduced to a simple top and bottom phase as it is on Earth.

  3. Superfluid helium 2 liquid-vapor phase separation: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature survey of helium 2 liquid vapor phase separation is presented. Currently, two types of He 2 phase separators are being investigated: porous, sintered metal plugs and the active phase separator. The permeability K(P) shows consistency in porous plug geometric characterization. Both the heat and mass fluxes increase with K(P). Downstream pressure regulation to adjust for varying heat loads and both temperatures is possible. For large dynamic heat loads, the active phase separator shows a maximum heat rejection rate of up to 2 W and bath temperature stability of 0.1 mK. Porous plug phase separation performance should be investigated for application to SIRTF and, in particular, that plugs of from 10 to the minus ninth square centimeters to 10 to the minus eighth square centimeters in conjunction with downstream pressure regulation be studied.

  4. Study Of Phase Separation In Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.; Smith, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes an experimental study of effect of hydroxide content on phase separation in soda/silica glasses. Ordinary and gel glasses melted at 1,565 degree C, and melts stirred periodically. "Wet" glasses produced by passing bubbles of N2 saturated with water through melts; "dry" glasses prepared in similar manner, except N2 dried before passage through melts. Analyses of compositions of glasses performed by atomic-absorption and index-of-refraction measurements. Authors conclude hydroxide speeds up phase separation, regardless of method (gel or ordinary) by which glass prepared. Eventually helps material scientists to find ways to control morphology of phase separation.

  5. Polymer solution phase separation: Microgravity simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, Lawrence C.; Sutter, James K.

    1989-01-01

    In many multicomponent systems, a transition from a single phase of uniform composition to a multiphase state with separated regions of different composition can be induced by changes in temperature and shear. The density difference between the phase and thermal and/or shear gradients within the system results in buoyancy driven convection. These differences affect kinetics of the phase separation if the system has a sufficiently low viscosity. This investigation presents more preliminary developments of a theoretical model in order to describe effects of the buoyancy driven convection in phase separation kinetics. Polymer solutions were employed as model systems because of the ease with which density differences can be systematically varied and because of the importance of phase separation in the processing and properties of polymeric materials. The results indicate that the kinetics of the phase separation can be performed viscometrically using laser light scattering as a principle means of following the process quantitatively. Isopycnic polymer solutions were used to determine the viscosity and density difference limits for polymer phase separation.

  6. Spatial Separation of Charge Carriers in In2O3-x(OH)y Nanocrystal Superstructures for Enhanced Gas-Phase Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    He, Le; Wood, Thomas E; Wu, Bo; Dong, Yuchan; Hoch, Laura B; Reyes, Laura M; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Qian, Chenxi; Jia, Jia; Liao, Kristine; O'Brien, Paul G; Sandhel, Amit; Loh, Joel Y Y; Szymanski, Paul; Kherani, Nazir P; Sum, Tze Chien; Mims, Charles A; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2016-05-24

    The development of strategies for increasing the lifetime of photoexcited charge carriers in nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors is important for enhancing their photocatalytic activity. Intensive efforts have been made in tailoring the properties of the nanostructured photocatalysts through different ways, mainly including band-structure engineering, doping, catalyst-support interaction, and loading cocatalysts. In liquid-phase photocatalytic dye degradation and water splitting, it was recently found that nanocrystal superstructure based semiconductors exhibited improved spatial separation of photoexcited charge carriers and enhanced photocatalytic performance. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether this strategy is applicable in gas-phase photocatalysis. Using porous indium oxide nanorods in catalyzing the reverse water-gas shift reaction as a model system, we demonstrate here that assembling semiconductor nanocrystals into superstructures can also promote gas-phase photocatalytic processes. Transient absorption studies prove that the improved activity is a result of prolonged photoexcited charge carrier lifetimes due to the charge transfer within the nanocrystal network comprising the nanorods. Our study reveals that the spatial charge separation within the nanocrystal networks could also benefit gas-phase photocatalysis and sheds light on the design principles of efficient nanocrystal superstructure based photocatalysts. PMID:27159793

  7. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  8. Gas-Liquid Flows and Phase Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John

    2004-01-01

    Common issues for space system designers include:Ability to Verify Performance in Normal Gravity prior to Deployment; System Stability; Phase Accumulation & Shedding; Phase Separation; Flow Distribution through Tees & Manifolds Boiling Crisis; Heat Transfer Coefficient; and Pressure Drop.The report concludes:Guidance similar to "A design that operates in a single phase is less complex than a design that has two-phase flow" is not always true considering the amount of effort spent on pressurizing, subcooling and phase separators to ensure single phase operation. While there is still much to learn about two-phase flow in reduced gravity, we have a good start. Focus now needs to be directed more towards system level problems .

  9. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  10. Phase separations in a copolymer copolymer mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Jin, Guojun; Ma, Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a three-order-parameter model to study the phase separations in a diblock copolymer-diblock copolymer mixture. The cell dynamical simulations provide rich information about the phase evolution and structural formation, especially the appearance of onion-rings. The parametric dependence and physical reason for the domain growth of onion-rings are discussed.

  11. Gelation and phase separation of attractive colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peter James

    2008-07-01

    I present several scientific and technical contributions in this thesis. I demonstrate that the gelation of spherical particles with isotropic, short-range attractive interactions is initiated by spinodal decomposition, a thermodynamic instability that triggers the formation of clusters that span and dynamically arrest to create a gel. This simple, universal gelation picture does not depend on microscopic system-specific details---thus broadly describing any particle system with short-range attractions---and suggests that gelation, often considered a purely kinetic phenomenon, is in fact a direct consequence of equilibrium liquid-gas phase separation. I also demonstrate that spherical particles with isotropic attractive interactions exhibit a stable phase---a fluid of particle clusters---that persists on experimental timescales even in the absence of any long-range Coulombic charge repulsion; this contrasts some expectations based on simulation and theory. I describe a new capability I created by integrating accelerated image processing software that I wrote into a high-speed confocal microscope system that I developed: active target-locking, the ability to follow freely-moving complex objects within a microscope sample, even as they change size, shape, and orientation---in real time. Finally, I report continuous, month-long observations of near-critical spinodal decomposition of colloids with isotropic attractions, aboard the International Space Station. I also include detailed descriptions, with examples and illustrations, of the tools and techniques that I have developed to produce these results.

  12. Vapor-liquid phase separator permeability results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1981-01-01

    Continued studies are described in the area of vapor-liquid phase separator work with emphasis on permeabilities of porous sintered plugs (stainless steel, nominal pore size 2 micrometer). The temperature dependence of the permeability has been evaluated in classical fluid using He-4 gas at atmospheric pressure and in He-2 on the basis of a modified, thermosmotic permeability of the normal fluid.

  13. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon. PMID:24898563

  14. Does dynamic vulcanization induce phase separation?

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Zarejousheghani, Fatemeh; Naebe, Minoo; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-08-14

    Immiscible and miscible blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber (ACM) were subjected to dynamic vulcanization to investigate the effect of crosslinking on phase separation. As a result of different processability, mixing torque behavior of miscible and immiscible blends was significantly different from one another. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the system. After dynamic vulcanization, submicron ACM droplets were observed in the samples near the binodal curve of the system under mixing conditions. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were used to investigate the effect of dynamic vulcanization on the lamellar structure of the system. It was shown that for samples near the boundary of phase separation, increasing the crosslink density led to a decrease in the lamellar long period (L) as a sign of increment of crosslink density induced phase decomposition. Effects of shear rate on the final morphology of the system were investigated by changing the mixing temperature and by comparing the results of dynamic vulcanization at one phase and two phase regions. PMID:24957793

  15. Does dynamic vulcanization induce phase separation?

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Zarejousheghani, Fatemeh; Naebe, Minoo; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-08-14

    Immiscible and miscible blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber (ACM) were subjected to dynamic vulcanization to investigate the effect of crosslinking on phase separation. As a result of different processability, mixing torque behavior of miscible and immiscible blends was significantly different from one another. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the system. After dynamic vulcanization, submicron ACM droplets were observed in the samples near the binodal curve of the system under mixing conditions. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were used to investigate the effect of dynamic vulcanization on the lamellar structure of the system. It was shown that for samples near the boundary of phase separation, increasing the crosslink density led to a decrease in the lamellar long period (L) as a sign of increment of crosslink density induced phase decomposition. Effects of shear rate on the final morphology of the system were investigated by changing the mixing temperature and by comparing the results of dynamic vulcanization at one phase and two phase regions.

  16. Thermocapillary-Induced Phase Separation with Coalescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Research has been undertaken on interactions of two or more deformable drops (or bubbles) in a viscous fluid and subject to a temperature, gravitational, or flow field. An asymptotic theory for nearly spherical drops shows that small deformations reduce the coalescence and phase separation rates. Boundary-integral simulations for large deformations show that bubbles experience alignment and enhanced coalescence, whereas more viscous drops may break as a result of hydrodynamic interactions. Experiments for buoyancy motion confirm these observations. Simulations of the sedimentation of many drops show clustering phenomena due to deformations, which lead to enhanced phase separation rates, and simulations of sheared emulsions show that deformations cause a reduction in the effective viscosity.

  17. Spinodal phase separation in relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, Joergen

    2010-09-15

    The spinodal amplification of density fluctuations is treated perturbatively within dissipative fluid dynamics for the purpose of elucidating the prospects for this mechanism to cause a phase separation to occur during a relativistic nuclear collision. The present study includes not only viscosity but also heat conduction (whose effect on the growth rates is of comparable magnitude but opposite), as well as a gradient term in the local pressure, and the corresponding dispersion relation for collective modes in bulk matter is derived from relativistic fluid dynamics. A suitable two-phase equation of state is obtained by interpolation between a hadronic gas and a quark-gluon plasma, while the transport coefficients are approximated by simple parametrizations that are suitable at any degree of net baryon density. We calculate the degree of spinodal amplification occurring along specific dynamical phase trajectories characteristic of nuclear collision at various energies. The results bring out the important fact that the prospects for spinodal phase separation to occur can be greatly enhanced by careful tuning of the collision energy to ensure that the thermodynamic conditions associated with the maximum compression lie inside the region of spinodal instability.

  18. Wetting and phase separation in soft adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Katharine E.; Sarfati, Raphael; Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chaudhury, Manoj K.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    In the classic theory of solid adhesion, surface energy drives deformation to increase contact area whereas bulk elasticity opposes it. Recently, solid surface stress has been shown also to play an important role in opposing deformation of soft materials. This suggests that the contact line in soft adhesion should mimic that of a liquid droplet, with a contact angle determined by surface tensions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observe a contact angle of a soft silicone substrate on rigid silica spheres that depends on the surface functionalization but not the sphere size. However, to satisfy this wetting condition without a divergent elastic stress, the gel phase separates from its solvent near the contact line. This creates a four-phase contact zone with two additional contact lines hidden below the surface of the substrate. Whereas the geometries of these contact lines are independent of the size of the sphere, the volume of the phase-separated region is not, but rather depends on the indentation volume. These results indicate that theories of adhesion of soft gels need to account for both the compressibility of the gel network and a nonzero surface stress between the gel and its solvent. PMID:26553989

  19. Phase Separation: Linking Cellular Compartmentalization to Disease.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Adriano; Altmeyer, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Eukaryotic cells are complex structures capable of coordinating numerous biochemical reactions in space and time. Key to such coordination is the subdivision of intracellular space into functional compartments. Compartmentalization can be achieved by intracellular membranes, which surround organelles and act as physical barriers. In addition, cells have developed sophisticated mechanisms to partition their inner substance in a tightly regulated manner. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that membraneless compartmentalization can be achieved by liquid demixing, a process culminating in liquid-liquid phase separation and the formation of phase boundaries. We discuss how this emerging concept may help in understanding dynamic reorganization of subcellular space and highlight its potential as a framework to explain pathological protein assembly in cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:27051975

  20. Phase Separation kinetics in an Fe-Cr-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The {alpha}-{alpha}{prime} phase separation kinetics in a commercial Fe-20 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Al oxide dispersion-strengthened PM 2000{trademark} steel have been characterized with the complementary techniques atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements during isothermal aging at 673, 708, and 748 K for times up to 3600 h. A progressive decrease in the Al content of the Cr-rich {alpha}{prime} phase was observed at 708 and 748 K with increasing time, but no partitioning was observed at 673 K. The variation in the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase well inside the coarsening regime, along with the Avrami exponent 1.2 and activation energy 264 kJ mol{sup -1}, obtained after fitting the experimental results to an Austin-Rickett type equation, indicates that phase separation in PM 2000{trademark} is a transient coarsening process with overlapping nucleation, growth, and coarsening stages.

  1. Jahn-Teller solitons, structural phase transitions, and phase separation.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Dennis P

    2006-02-01

    It is demonstrated that under common conditions a molecular solid subject to Jahn-Teller interactions supports stable Q-ball-like nontopological solitons. Such solitons represent a localized lump of excess electric charge in periodic motion accompanied by a time-dependent shape distortion of a set of adjacent molecules. The motion of the distortion can correspond to a true rotation or to a pseudorotation about the symmetric shape configuration. These solitons are stable for Jahn-Teller coupling strengths below a critical value; however, as the Jahn-Teller coupling approaches this critical value, the size of the soliton diverges signaling an incipient structural phase transition. The soliton phase mimics features commonly attributed to phase separation in complex solids. PMID:16486846

  2. Jahn-Teller Solitons, Structural Phase Transitions, and Phase Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis P.

    2006-02-01

    It is demonstrated that under common conditions a molecular solid subject to Jahn-Teller interactions supports stable Q-ball-like nontopological solitons. Such solitons represent a localized lump of excess electric charge in periodic motion accompanied by a time-dependent shape distortion of a set of adjacent molecules. The motion of the distortion can correspond to a true rotation or to a pseudorotation about the symmetric shape configuration. These solitons are stable for Jahn-Teller coupling strengths below a critical value; however, as the Jahn-Teller coupling approaches this critical value, the size of the soliton diverges signaling an incipient structural phase transition. The soliton phase mimics features commonly attributed to phase separation in complex solids.

  3. Griffiths phase and temporal effects in phase separated manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoruchko, V. N.; Marchenko, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Phenomenological description of relaxation phenomena in magnetic and transport properties of perovskite manganites has been presented. The approach is based on generalization of some hypotheses appropriate to the Preisach picture of magnetization process for half-metallic ferromagnets and on an assumption that in doped manganites the phase separated state exists near the magnetic ordering temperature. For systems with the percolation type of a ferromagnet-paramagnet transition, distinctive features in relaxation of magnetization and resistivity have been found. The relaxation is shown to be most pronounced near the transition temperature, and to be an approximately logarithmic function of time. The theoretical results replicate a broad spectrum of behavior observed experimentally on time dependence of magnetization and resistivity of CMR systems and allow a direct comparison with available experimental data. We propose an additional experimental test to distinguish between the percolation scenario of magnetic and transport transitions in doped manganites, and the ferromagnetic polaron picture. In particular, an anomalously slow relaxation to zero of the order parameter can be considered as a key feature of the Griffiths-like phase transition in doped manganites. It is also shown that a system with the Griffiths-like state will exhibit nonequilibrium aging and rejuvenation phenomena, which in many aspects resemble that of a spin glass. We hope that experimental observation of a set of time decay properties will provide a settlement of apparently conflicting results obtained for different characteristics of phase-separated manganites.

  4. Wetting and phase separation in soft adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Katharine; Dufresne, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In the classic theories of solid adhesion, surface energies drive deformation to increase contact area while bulk elasticity opposes it. However, recently solid surface tension has also been shown to play an important role in resisting deformation in soft materials. We explore the consequences for the physics of adhesive contact by performing experiments bringing small, rigid spheres into contact with compliant silicone gel substrates. We measure the quasi-static deformation of the substrate, particularly focusing on its structure near the contact line. In order to satisfy the wetting condition prescribed by surface tension balance while avoiding an elastic singularity at the contact line, we find that the gels undergo an adhesion-induced phase separation. This creates a four-phase contact zone with two additional, hidden contact lines. Our results indicate that accurate theories of adhesion of soft gels need to account both for the compressibility of the gel elastic network and for a non-zero surface stress between the gel and its solvent.

  5. Phase separation dynamics during Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guannan; Bahar, Fatmagul; Patch, Adam; Thutupalli, Shashi; Yllanes, David; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Welch, Roy; Shaevitz, Joshua

    Many living systems take advantage of collective behavior for group survival. We use the soil-dwelling bacterium Myxococcus xanthus as a model to study out-of-equilibrium phase separation during fruiting body formation. M. xanthus cells have the ability to glide on solid surfaces and reverse their direction periodically. When starved, M. xanthus cells aggregate together and form structures called fruiting bodies, inside of which cells sporulate to survive stressful conditions. We show that at high cell density the formation of fruiting bodies is a phase separation process. From experimental data that combines single-cell tracking, population-scale imaging, mutants, and drug applications, we construct the phase diagram of M. xanthus in the space of Péclet number and cell density. When wild type cells are starved, we find that they actively increase their Péclet number by modulating gliding speed and reversal frequency which induces a phase separation from a gas-like state to an aggregated fruiting body state.

  6. Separation of granulocytes from whole blood by leukoadhesion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Capillary glass tubes are investigated for the separation and retrieval of large quantities of viable granulocytes and monocytes from whole blood on a continuous basis from a single donor. This effort represented the feasibility demonstration of a three phase program for development of a capillary tube cell separation device. The activity included the analysis and parametric laboratory testing with subscale models required to design a prototype device. Capillary tubes 40 cm long with a nominal 0.030 cm internal diameter yielded the highest total process efficiency. Recovery efficiencies as high as 89% of the adhering cell population were obtained. Granulocyte phagocytosis of latex particles indicated approximately 90% viability. Monocytes recovered from the separation column retained their capability to stimulate human bone marrow colony growth, as demonstrated in an in vitro cell culture assay.

  7. Experimental observation of defect pair separation triggering phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordin, M.; Lechner, B. A. J.; Duerrbeck, S.; Menzel, A.; Bertel, E.; Redinger, J.; Franchini, C.

    2014-03-01

    First-order phase transitions typically exhibit a significant hysteresis resulting for instance in boiling retardation and supercooling. The hysteresis arises, because nucleation of the new phase is activated. The free-energy change is positive until the nucleus reaches a critical size beyond which further growth is downhill. In practice, the barrier is often circumvented by the presence of heterogeneous nucleation centres, e.g. at vessel walls or seed crystals. Recently, it has been proposed that the homogeneous melting of ice proceeds via separation of defect pairs with a substantially smaller barrier as compared to the mere aggregation of defects. Here we report the observation of an analogous mechanism catalysing a two-dimensional homogeneous phase transition. A similar process is believed to occur in spin systems. This suggests that separation of defect pairs is a common trigger for phase transitions. Partially circumventing the activation barrier it reduces the hysteresis and may promote fluctuations within a temperature range increasing with decreasing dimensionality.

  8. Separation and purification and in vitro anti-proliferative activity of leukemia cell K562 of Galium aparine L. petroleum ether phase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guoqing; Liu, Jiang; Zhao, Wen'en; Liu, Yanqi; Tian, Xinfeng

    2016-05-01

    To explore material basis of in vitro anti-proliferative activity of leukemia cell K562 of petroleum ether phase of product resulting from Galium aparine L. 60% ethanol extraction, the experiment adopts column chromatography combined with thin layer preparation, isolates and purifies petroleum ether, conducts structural identification of obtained single compound and applies MTT method for viability assay of in vitro anti-proliferative activity of leukemia cell K562. Experimental results show that G. aparine L. petroleum ether contains mainly β-sitosterol, daucosterol and dibutyl phthalate and other substances. Under experimental conditions, the three could inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cell K562 with dose-effect and time-effect relationship, of which dibutyl phthalate has strongest activity. Dibutyl phthalate with excellent activity, β-sitosterol with rich content and moderate effect should be the main contributor to its biological activity. PMID:27275108

  9. Thermodynamics of the motility-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, Alexandre; Stenhammar, Joachim; Cates, Michael; Tailleur, Julien

    Self-propelled particles are known to accumulate in regions of space where their velocity is lowered. In addition, if their velocity diminishes when the local density increases (for example due to crowding effects), a positive feedback loop leads to the now well-established motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) between a dense immotile phase and a dilute motile phase. Understanding the phase equilibrium of MIPS is still a matter of debate. Although, depending on the models used to study the transition, a chemical potential or a pressure can be defined, these quantities do not play their usual thermodynamic role. In particular, the usual common tangent or equal-area constructions fail in these systems. Indeed, we will show that describing the phase equilibrium of MIPS necessitates generalized thermodynamics that include non-equilibrium contributions. This approach allows us to predict correctly the phase diagram of MIPS and to gain insight into the thermodynamics of active systems. It also sheds light on the (in)equivalence of statistical ensembles for these systems, paving the way for more efficient computational studies.

  10. Numerical simulation of phase separation coupled with crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Douglas; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Pingwen

    2008-10-01

    The kinetics of liquid-liquid phase separation and polymer crystallization observed in double-quench experiments with blends of poly(ethylene-co-hexene) and poly(ethylene-co-butene) are studied using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau Model. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our model can successfully reproduce three experimental phenomena: The decrease in number and size of crystallized spherulites with increasing time in phase separation, the preponderance of nuclei near the domain interface, and the subphase separation and subcrystallization occurring when the second quench is very deep. Moreover, the simulations are consistent with the recently proposed mechanism of "phase separation fluctuation assisted nucleation" in the crystallization process.

  11. The emotional phases of marital separation: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Gray, C; Koopman, E; Hunt, J

    1991-01-01

    The emotional process of marital separation was investigated via the application of Bowlby's theory of loss. Physical separation was found to entail the three phases--wish to recover the lost object, disorganization, and reorganization--proposed by Bowlby. Length of time separated appeared the most powerful factor in emotional resolution. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1985-01-01

    A study of porous plug use for vapor-liquid phase seperation in spaceborne cryogenic systems was conducted. The three main topics addressed were: (1) the usefulness of porous media in designs that call for variable areas and flow rates; (2) the possibility of prediction of main parameters of porous plugs for a given material; and (3) prediction of all parameters of the plug, including secondary parameters.

  13. Phase separation in frozen erythrocyte membrane preparations.

    PubMed

    Finean, J B; Hutchinson, A; Mills, D

    1985-10-01

    The reversible formation of a lipid-like phase in frozen preparations of erythrocyte membranes has been studied by X-ray diffraction and by electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas. The observations provide strong evidence for lateral migration or displacement at specific temperatures of intra-membrane particles. This creates large areas of particle-free membranes which fracture preferentially so as to dominate the freeze-fracture image.

  14. Phase Separators And Fountain-Effect Pumps For He 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Fused-glass microchannel arrays for use as HE 11 phase separators and fountain-effect pumps. Microchannel devices for use in low-gravity storage and cooling systems containing superfluid helium. Phase separators and pumps take advantage of thermomechanical effect peculiar to He 11 in restricted spaces. By creating thermal gradient in porous plug, direction of flow reversed, turning phase separator into pump. However, addition of heat disadvantage. Thermal gradient created by using Peltier effect to transfer heat across array, removing heat from He 11 supply and overcoming undesirable addition of heat.

  15. Vortex motion phase separator for zero gravity liquid transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor); Fraser, Wilson M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vortex motion phase separator is disclosed for transferring a liquid in a zero gravity environment while at the same time separating the liquid from vapors found within either the sender or the receiving tanks. The separator comprises a rigid sender tank having a circular cross-section and rigid receiver tank having a circular cross-section. A plurality of ducts connects the sender tank and the receiver tank. Disposed within the ducts connecting the receiver tank and the sender tank is a pump and a plurality of valves. The pump is powered by an electric motor and is adapted to draw either the liquid or a mixture of the liquid and the vapor from the sender tank. Initially, the mixture drawn from the sender tank is directed through a portion of the ductwork and back into the sender tank at a tangent to the inside surface of the sender tank, thereby creating a swirling vortex of the mixture within the sender tank. As the pumping action increases, the speed of the swirling action within the sender tank increases creating an increase in the centrifugal force operating on the mixture. The effect of the centrifugal force is to cause the heavier liquid to migrate to the inside surface of the sender tank and to separate from the vapor. When this separation reaches a predetermined degree, control means is activated to direct the liquid conveyed by the pump directly into the receiver tank. At the same time, the vapor within the receiver tank is directed from the receiver tank back into the sender tank. This flow continues until substantially all of the liquid is transferred from the sender tank to the receiver tank.

  16. Vortex phase separation in mesoscopic superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Iaroshenko, O.; Rybalko, V.; Vinokur, V. M.; Berlyand, L.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that in mesoscopic type II superconductors with the lateral size commensurate with London penetration depth, the ground state of vortices pinned by homogeneously distributed columnar defects can form a hierarchical nested domain structure. Each domain is characterized by an average number of vortices trapped at a single pinning site within a given domain. Our study marks a radical departure from the current understanding of the ground state in disordered macroscopic systems and provides an insight into the interplay between disorder, vortex-vortex interaction, and confinement within finite system size. The observed vortex phase segregation implies the existence of the soliton solution for the vortex density in the finite superconductors and establishes a new class of nonlinear systems that exhibit the soliton phenomenon.

  17. Phase separation and the formation of cellular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Broedersz, Chase P.; Meir, Yigal; Wingreen, Ned S.

    Cellular bodies in eukaryotic cells spontaneously assemble to form cellular compartments. Among other functions, these bodies carry out essential biochemical reactions. Cellular bodies form micron-sized structures, which, unlike canonical cell organelles, are not surrounded by membranes. A recent in vitro experiment has shown that phase separation of polymers in solution can explain the formation of cellular bodies. We constructed a lattice-polymer model to capture the essential mechanism leading to this phase separation. We used both analytical and numerical tools to predict the phase diagram of a system of two interacting polymers, including the concentration of each polymer type in the condensed and dilute phase.

  18. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  19. Probe diffusion in phase-separated bicontinuous biopolymer gels.

    PubMed

    Wassén, Sophia; Bordes, Romain; Gebäck, Tobias; Bernin, Diana; Schuster, Erich; Lorén, Niklas; Hermansson, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-01

    Probe diffusion was determined in phase separated bicontinuous gels prepared by acid-induced gelation of the whey protein isolate-gellan gum system. The topological characterization of the phase-separated gel systems is achieved by confocal microscopy and the diffusion measurements are performed using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP). These two techniques gave complementary information about the mass transport at different time- and length scales, PFG NMR provided global diffusion rates in the gel systems, while FRAP enabled the measurements of diffusion in different phases of the phase-separated gels. The results revealed that the phase-separated gel with the largest characteristic wavelength had the fastest diffusion coefficient, while the gel with smaller microstructures had a slower probe diffusion rate. By using the diffusion data obtained by FRAP and the structural data from confocal microscopy, modelling through the lattice-Boltzmann framework was carried out to simulate the global diffusion and verify the validity of the experimental measurements. With this approach it was found that discrepancies between the two experimental techniques can be rationalized in terms of probe distribution between the different phases of the system. The combination of different techniques allowed the determination of diffusion in a phase-separated biopolymer gel and gave a clearer picture of this complex system. We also illustrate the difficulties that can arise if precautions are not taken to understand the system-probe interactions.

  20. Texas A&M vortex type phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Frederick

    2000-01-01

    Phase separation is required for regenerative biological and chemical process systems as well as thermal transport and rejection systems. Liquid and gas management requirements for future spacecraft will demand small, passive systems able to operate over wide ranges of inlet qualities. Conservation and recycling of air and water is a necessary part of the construction and operation of the International Space Station as well as future long duration space missions. Space systems are sensitive to volume, mass, and power. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to recycle wastewater with minimal power consumption. Regenerative life support systems currently being investigated require phase separation to separate the liquid from the gas produced. The microgravity phase separator designed and fabricated at Texas A&M University relies on centripetal driven buoyancy forces to form a gas-liquid vortex within a fixed, right-circular cylinder. Two-phase flow is injected tangentially along the inner wall of this cylinder producing a radial acceleration gradient. The gradient produced from the intrinsic momentum of the injected mixture results in a rotating flow that drives the buoyancy process by the production of a hydrostatic pressure gradient. Texas A&M has flown several KC-135 flights with separator. These flights have included scaling studies, stability and transient investigations, and tests for inventory instrumentation. Among the hardware tested have been passive devices for separating mixed vapor/liquid streams into single-phase streams of vapor only and liquid only. .

  1. Chromatographic Separations Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges: Separation of Wine Phenolics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Charles A.; Ebeler, Susan E.

    1999-12-01

    We describe a simple laboratory experiment that demonstrates the principles of chromatographic separation using solid-phase extraction columns and red wine. By adjusting pH and mobile phase composition, the wine is separated into three fractions of differing polarity. The content of each fraction can be monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. When the experiment is combined with experiments involving HPLC or GC separations, students gain a greater appreciation for and understanding of the highly automated instrumental systems currently available. In addition, they learn about the chemistry of polyphenolic compounds, which are present in many foods and beverages and which are receiving much attention for their potentially beneficial health effects.

  2. Athena: Assessment Phase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, David; Ayre, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The Athena mission concept has been proposed by the community in response to science themes of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Unlike other, competitive, mission selection exercises this "Large" class observatory mission has essentially been pre-selected. Nevertheless it has to be demonstrated that Athena meets the programmatic constraints of 1Bn euro cost cap, and a readiness level appropriate for formal mission adoption by the end 2019. This should be confirmed through a Phase A study conducted with two parallel industry activities. We describe the technical and programmatic content of these and latest progress in space and ground segment definition.

  3. Activation parameters of flow through battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhra, R.L.

    1983-05-01

    Studies of the hydrodynamic flow of water and 45 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution through a microporous and an ion exchange separator are described. The permeability values are interpreted in terms of a pseudoactivation process. The enthalpy of activation deltaH* and the entropy of activation deltaS* were estimated from Eyring's rate equation.

  4. Activation parameters of flow through battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhra, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the hydrodynamic flow of water and 45 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution through a microporous and an ion exchange separator are described. The permeability values are interpreted in terms of a pseudoactivation process. The enthalpy of activation deltaH* and the entropy of activation deltaS* were estimated from Eyring's rate equation.

  5. Amine templated zinc phosphates phases for membrane separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, T.M.; Chavez, A.V.; Thoma, S.G.; Provencio, P.; Harrison, W.T.A.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1998-08-01

    This research is focused on developing inorganic molecular sieve membranes for light gas separations such as hydrogen recovery and natural gas purification, and organic molecular separations, such as chiral enantiomers. The authors focus on zinc phosphates because of the ease in crystallization of new phases and the wide range of pore sizes and shapes obtained. With hybrid systems of zinc phosphate crystalline phases templated by amine molecules, the authors are interested in better understanding the association of the template molecules to the inorganic phase, and how the organic transfers its size, shape, and (in some cases) chirality to the bulk. Furthermore, the new porous phases can also be synthesized as thin films on metal oxide substrates. These films allow one to make membranes from organic/inorganic hybrid systems, suitable for diffusion experiments. Characterization techniques for both the bulk phases and the thin films include powder X-ray diffraction, TGA, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS).

  6. Continuous flow system for controlling phases separation near λ transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chorowski, M.; Poliński, J.; Kempiński, W.; Trybuła, Z.; Łoś, Sz.; Chołast, K.; Kociemba, A.

    2014-01-29

    As demands on 3He are increasing and conventional 3He production through tritium decay is decreasing, alternative 3He production methods are becoming economically viable. One such possibility is to use entropy filters for extraction of the 3He isotope from natural gas. According to the phase diagram of the 3He, its solidification is impossible by only lowering of the temperature. Hence during the cooling process at stable pressure we can reach λ-point and pass to the special phase - He II. The total density of HeII is a sum of the two phases: normal the superfluid ones. It is possible to separate these two phases with an entropy filter - the barrier for the classically-behaving normal phase. This barrier can also be used to separate the two main isotopes of He: 4He and 3He, because at temperatures close to the 4He-λ-point the 3He isotope is part of the normal phase. The paper presents continuous flow schemes of different separation methods of 3He from helium commodity coming from natural gas cryogenic processing. An overall thermodynamic efficiency of the 3He/4He separation process is presented. A simplified model of continuous flow HeI -HeII recuperative heat exchanger is given. Ceramic and carbon porous plugs have been tested in entropy filter applications.

  7. Phase Separation in a Polarized Fermi Gas at Zero Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pilati, S.; Giorgini, S.

    2008-01-25

    We investigate the phase diagram of asymmetric two-component Fermi gases at zero temperature as a function of polarization and interaction strength. The equations of state of the uniform superfluid and normal phase are determined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find three different mixed states, where the superfluid and the normal phase coexist in equilibrium, corresponding to phase separation between (a) the polarized superfluid and the fully polarized normal gas, (b) the polarized superfluid and the partially polarized normal gas, and (c) the unpolarized superfluid and the partially polarized normal gas.

  8. Thermal suppression of phase separation in condensate mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arko; Angom, D.

    2015-07-01

    We examine the role of thermal fluctuations in binary condensate mixtures of dilute atomic gases. In particular, we use the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with the Popov approximation to probe the impact of noncondensate atoms to the phenomenon of phase separation in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We demonstrate that, in comparison to T =0 , there is a suppression in the phase separation of the binary condensates at T ≠0 . This arises from the interaction of the condensate atoms with the thermal cloud. We also show that, when T ≠0 , it is possible to distinguish the phase-separated case from the miscible from the trends in the correlation function. However, this is not the case at T =0 .

  9. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. PMID:25541091

  10. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage.

  11. Phase separation of X-irradiated lenses of rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.I.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.; Benedek, G.B.

    1982-02-01

    The phase separation temperature (Tcat) was studied as a function of time (age) after the administration of a single dose of radiation (2000 rad), which induces cataract in the rabbit lens. In the normal unirradiated lens, Tcat decreases linearly with age at a rate (DTcat/dt) approximately 2.2 degrees/week. In the irradiated lens, Tcat initially decreases with age much less than the normal lens, then rises sharply with age at the time of the appearance of opacity in the living rabbit eye. We suggest that the phase separation temperature may serve as a sensitive and early indicator of cataractogenic processes in the lens.

  12. Temperature Gradients Induce Phase Separation in a Miscible Polymer Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaki, Jiro; Hashimoto, Takeji; Granick, Steve

    1996-09-01

    Phase separation occurred up to 20 °C above the coexistence temperature in a polymer solution (polystyrene-polybutadiene-dioctylphthalate) to which small temperature gradients ( ~2 °C) were applied. Before convection began, spinodal-like patterns with characteristic spacing that grew in proportion to time elapsed persisted for times up to hours. The cause appears to be thermally driven concentration gradients normal to the surface, large enough to induce phase separation parallel to the surface, although temperatures throughout the mixture exceeded the thermodynamic coexistence temperature.

  13. Phase and coherence of longitudinally separated equatorial ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, E. B.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the first calculation of phase and coherence of cross-wavelet transform applied on longitudinally separated VHF and L-band equatorial ionospheric scintillation. The cross-wavelet analysis has utilized scintillation observations made over equatorial South America and Christmas Island. Part of the results of this study has been reported recently in the Geophysical Research Letters by Shume and Mannucci (2013). The phase and coherence analysis were employed on pairs of scintillation observations separated by longitudes thereby to develop VHF and L-band scintillation (and equatorial spread F) forecast tools west of observation sites.

  14. Kinetics of phase separation in systems exhibiting simple coacervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bohidar, H. B.

    2005-07-01

    The kinetics of phase separation of a homogeneous polyelectrolytic solution into a dense polymer-rich coacervate and the dilute supernatant phase is discussed through statistical thermodynamics. It has been shown that the coacervate phase is associated with higher internal pressure, consequently giving rise to syneresis. Physical conditions for phase separations has been deduced explicitly which reveals that σ2/I⩾ constant (where σ is polyelectrolyte charge density and I is solution ionic strength), consistent with experimental observations. In the lattice model, r is the number of sites occupied by the polymer having a volume critical fraction φ2c , it was found that phase separation would ensue when σ3r⩾(64/9α2)[φ2c/(1-φ2c)2] , which reduces to (σ3r/φ2c)⩾(64/9α2)≈0.45 at 20 °C for φ2c≪1 . The separation kinetics mimics a spinodal decomposition process. Rate of release of supernatant due to syneresis was found to be independent of the initial coacervate mass. Syneresis results are discussed in the context of temporal evolution of self-organization in polymer melts through Avrami model.

  15. Phase separation in dense glassy liquids: effect of quenching protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Horbach, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the phase separation kinetics in a glass-forming binary Lennard-Jones mixture. The focus is on the two-phase region at low temperatures (i.e. below the glass transition line), where coexistence between a low-density gas with a metastable amorphous solid, i.e. a glass occurs. Two different quench paths are chosen to get into the two-phase region starting from a structurally homogeneous state, one along which temperature is lowered at a fixed density, and in the other case, the volume is expanded to reach lower densities at fixed temperatures. Both paths are explored by tuning the rates of cooling or expansion, respectively. We analyze thermodynamic and structural properties of the phase-separating systems, in particular with respect to differences in the morphologies that are obtained from the different quench protocols.

  16. Phase separation in biological membranes: integration of theory and experiment

    PubMed Central

    Elson, Elliot L.; Fried, Eliot; Dolbow, John E.; Genin, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bilayer model membranes can undergo transitions between ordered and disordered phases, and membranes that contain a mixture of lipid species can undergo phase separations. Studies of these transformations are of interest for what they can tell us about the interaction energies of lipid molecules of different species and conformations. Nanoscopic phases can provide a model for membrane rafts, which have important biological functions in cell membranes. Important questions are whether lipid nanodomains can exist in stable equilibrium in membranes and what is the distribution of their sizes in membranes of different composition. It is also important to know the lifetimes of nanodomains. Theoretical methods have supplied much important information on these questions, but better experimental methods are needed to detect and characterize nanodomains under normal membrane conditions. This review summarizes linkages between theoretical and experimental studies of phase separation in lipid bilayer model membranes. PMID:20192775

  17. Phase transition in Caenorhabditis elegans: A classical oil-water phase separation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christoph; Tony Hyman Collaboration; Andrés Delgadillo Collaboration; Frank Jülicher Team

    2014-03-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans droplets form before the cell divides. These droplets, also referred to as P-granules, consist of a variety of unstructured proteins and mRNA. Brangwynne et al. [Science, 2009] showed that the P-granules exhibit fluid-like behavior and that the phase separation is controlled spatially by a gradient of a component called Mex-5. It is believed that this system exhibits the same characteristics as a classical oil-water phase separation. Here we report the recent experimental investigations on the phase separation in Caenorhabditis elegans and compare our findings with a classical oil-water phase separation. Specifically, we consider the underlying coarsening mechanisms as well as the impact of temperature and species composition. Finally, we present a preliminary model incorporating the characteristics of the phase separation kinetics for Caenorhabditis elegans.

  18. Ruthenium Behavior at Phase Separation of Borosilicate Glass-12259

    SciTech Connect

    Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo

    2012-07-01

    The Rokkasho reprocessing plant (RRP) located in Aomori, Japan, vitrifies high level waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass. The HLW is generated from the reprocessing of spent fuel and contains ruthenium (Ru) and other platinum group metals (PGMs). Based on the recent consequences after a huge earthquake that occurred in Japan, a hypothetical blackout was postulated for the RRP to address additional safety analysis requirements. During a prolonged blackout, the borosilicate glass could phase separate due to cooling of the glass in the melter. The Ru present in the glass matrix could migrate into separate phases and impact the durability of the borosilicate glass. The durability of the glass is important for quality assurance and performance assessment of the vitrified HLW. A fundamental study was performed at an independent university to understand the impact of a prolonged blackout. Simulated HLW glasses were prepared for the RRP, and the Ru behavior in phase separated glasses was studied. The simulated HLW glasses contained nonradioactive elements and PGMs. The glass compositions were then altered to enhance the formation of the phase-separated glasses when subjected to thermal treatment at 700 deg. C for 24 hours. The synthesized simulated glasses contained 1.1 % Ru by weight as ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}). A portion of the RuO{sub 2} formed needle-shaped crystals in the glass specimens. After the thermal treatment, the glass specimen had separated into two phases. One of the two phases was a B{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich phase, and the other phase was a SiO{sub 2} rich phase. The majority of the chemical species in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich phase was leached away with the Material Characterization Center-3 (MCC-3) protocol standardized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory using an aqueous low-concentrated nitric acid solution, but the leaching of the Ru fraction was very limited; less than 1% of the original Ru content. The Ru leaching was much less than

  19. Biopolymers phase separation monitored by a plasmonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Akil-Jradi, Suzanna; Jradi, Safi; Plain, Jérôme; Bijeon, Jean-Louis; Sanchez, Christian; Bachelot, Renaud; Royer, Pascal

    2011-02-28

    We report here a real-time study of interactions induced phase separation between β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and Acacia gum (AG) by analyzing the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. We showed that the binding of BLG to AG is accompanied by refractive index changes, in relation with optical properties and structural changes of the complexes formed.

  20. Assemblages: Functional units formed by cellular phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of intracellular space beyond membrane-bound organelles can be achieved with collections of proteins that are multivalent or contain low-complexity, intrinsically disordered regions. These proteins can undergo a physical phase change to form functional granules or other entities within the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm that collectively we term “assemblage.” Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play an important role in forming a subset of cellular assemblages by promoting phase separation. Recent work points to an involvement of assemblages in disease states, indicating that intrinsic disorder and phase transitions should be considered in the development of therapeutics. PMID:25179628

  1. Demixing kinetics of phase separated polymer solutions in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.; Bamberger, S. B.; Harris, J. M.; Vanalstine, J.; Snyder, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Phase separated solutions of two neutral polymers in buffer provide a useful and versatile medium for the partition separation of biological cells. However, the efficiency of such separations is orders of magnitude lower than the thermodynamic limit. To test the hypothesis that this inefficiency is at least partially due to the convection and sedimentation that occur during the gravity driven demixing that follows introduction of cells to the systems, a series of experiments were begun aimed at performing cell partition in a low g environment. Demixing of isopycnic three polymer solvent systems was studied, experiments were performed on KC-135 aircraft and one shuttle middeck experiment was completed. Analysis of the results of these experiments and comparisons with the predictions of scaling relations for the dependence of phase domain size on time, derived for a number of possible demixing mechanisms, are presented.

  2. Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

  3. Binary mixtures of polyhedral nanoparticles: from phase separation to superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadilkar, Mihir; Agarwal, Umang; Escobedo, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Polyhedral nanoparticles have emerged as important model systems for both fundamental studies of entropic self-assembly as well as material design. The mixing of more than one shape provides a promising strategy towards achieving a greater variety of structures and properties. We explore this with the study of the phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard convex polyhedra having similar sizes but different shapes. Choosing representative particle shapes from those readily synthesizable, we find that the phase behavior of such mixtures is dependent on the interplay of mixing and packing entropy, which can give rise to miscible or phase-separated states. While expectedly many of the binary systems studied exhibit phase separation at high pressures due to the incompatible pure-component crystal structures, our study shows that the essential qualitative trends in miscibility and phase separation can be correlated to properties of the pure components, such as the relative values of the order-disorder transition pressure of each component. However, the relative size ratios and the presence of mesophases for the pure-component systems are also critical in aiding the formation of fully miscible blends of novel plastic crystalline superstructures.

  4. Prediction of phase separation during the drying of polymer shells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.; Boone, T.; Cheung, L.; Nelson, D.

    1995-12-01

    During the drying of polymer shells formed by microencapsulation, vacuole formation is believed to occur as a result of phase separation. To better understand and control this process, we have used a multicomponent diffusion formalism to predict compositional changes in the layer as organic solvents diffuse out and water diffuses into the layer. Formation of thermodynamically unstable compositions can lead to phase separation by condensation of water on submicron foreign particles present in the shell wall. We used statistical mechanics, the UNIFAP methodology, and empirical data to deduce the required values of transport coefficients and equilibrium phase compositions. The results suggest that vacuole formation can be eliminated or reduced by removing submicron and larger particles from the shell wall and by using solvents with lower intrinsic water solubilities. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Synthesis of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 by one-pot two-phase separated hydrolysis-solvothermal processes and its high activity for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingzheng; Jing, Liqiang; Zhou, Jia; Lin, Jingsheng; Fu, Honggang

    2010-04-15

    Si-doped and un-doped nanocrystalline TiO(2) samples have been synthesized by simple one-pot water-organic two-phase separated hydrolysis-solvothermal (HST) processes, and characterized by XRD, BET, TEM, FT-IR, DRS and surface photovoltage techniques. The effects of the solvothermal temperature and Si doping on the anatase thermal stability, and on the photocatalytic activity for degrading rhodamine B were investigated in detail. The results show that, as the solvothermal temperature rises, the crystallinity and thermal stability of the resulting nano-sized anatase TiO(2) gradually increase. Noticeably, the as-prepared TiO(2) obtained at appropriate solvothermal temperature (160 degrees C) exhibits high photocatalytic activity. Moreover, although Si doping does not improve the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared anatase TiO(2), it greatly enhances the anatase thermal stability and inhibits crystallite growth during the process of post-thermal treatment. Interestingly, the Si-doped TiO(2) post-treated at high temperature displays much higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 TiO(2). It is clearly demonstrated that the joint effects of high anatase crystallinity and large surface area lead to high photocatalytic activity. This work provides a simple and effective strategy for the synthesis of high-performance TiO(2)-based functional nanomaterials.

  6. Metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes separation using an aqueous two-phase separation technique: a review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Malcolm S Y; Ng, Eng-Poh; Juan, Joon Ching; Ooi, Chien Wei; Ling, Tau Chuan; Woon, Kai Lin; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-08-19

    It is known that carbon nanotubes show desirable physical and chemical properties with a wide array of potential applications. Nonetheless, their potential has been hampered by the difficulties in acquiring high purity, chiral-specific tubes. Considerable advancement has been made in terms of the purification of carbon nanotubes, for instance chemical oxidation, physical separation, and myriad combinations of physical and chemical methods. The aqueous two-phase separation technique has recently been demonstrated to be able to sort carbon nanotubes based on their chirality. The technique requires low cost polymers and salt, and is able to sort the tubes based on their diameter as well as metallicity. In this review, we aim to provide a review that could stimulate innovative thought on the progress of a carbon nanotubes sorting method using the aqueous two-phase separation method, and present possible future work and an outlook that could enhance the methodology. PMID:27396920

  7. Metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes separation using an aqueous two-phase separation technique: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Malcolm S. Y.; Ng, Eng-Poh; Juan, Joon Ching; Ooi, Chien Wei; Ling, Tau Chuan; Woon, Kai Lin; Loke Show, Pau

    2016-08-01

    It is known that carbon nanotubes show desirable physical and chemical properties with a wide array of potential applications. Nonetheless, their potential has been hampered by the difficulties in acquiring high purity, chiral-specific tubes. Considerable advancement has been made in terms of the purification of carbon nanotubes, for instance chemical oxidation, physical separation, and myriad combinations of physical and chemical methods. The aqueous two-phase separation technique has recently been demonstrated to be able to sort carbon nanotubes based on their chirality. The technique requires low cost polymers and salt, and is able to sort the tubes based on their diameter as well as metallicity. In this review, we aim to provide a review that could stimulate innovative thought on the progress of a carbon nanotubes sorting method using the aqueous two-phase separation method, and present possible future work and an outlook that could enhance the methodology.

  8. Phase separation in phosphatidylcholine membrane caused by the presence of a pyrimidine analogue of fluphenazine with high anti-multidrug-resistance activity.

    PubMed

    Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Swiątek, Piotr; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Zawilska, Patrycja; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Malinka, Wiesław; Köhler, Gottfried

    2014-04-01

    Phenothiazine compounds are known as effective inhibitors of a multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. This group consists of many important substances used in human medicine such as antipsychotic drugs in the case of fluphenazine (FPh) or chlorpromazine (CPZ). Fluphenazine was on the World Health Organization (WHO) list of Essential Medicines of 2009, and its new pyrimidine analog (FPh-prm) presented in this work has been documented to have a high anti-MDR activity. In order to discover the character of alterations of the lipid bilayer structure caused by the presence of FPh-prm inside the lipid membrane, which is responsible for the essential increase of an anti-MDR activity of FPh-prm, microcalorimetric (differential scanning calorimetry), Laurdan fluorescence, (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were used for dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes mixed with a different concentration of amine analogue. It was stated that the formation of domains with different content of FPh-prm/DPPC can be a reason for the membrane-related mechanism of chemoprevention associated with the inhibition of the outward transport of anticancer drugs by the glycoprotein P (Pgp) in cancer cells by the pyrimidine analog of FPh. To our best knowledge, this report is the first to show the bilayer structure of domains formed by incomplete miscibility of fluphenazine-related compounds and phospholipid molecules. Our results provide a sound basis for the design of future modifications of anti-MDR drugs by providing very effective inhibitors of the pump activity of Pgp. PMID:24601791

  9. Phase transitions and separations in a distorted liquid crystalline mixture.

    PubMed

    Kasch, Nicholas; Dierking, Ingo

    2015-08-14

    A theoretical method is proposed for modelling phase transitions and phase ranges in a multi-component liquid crystalline mixture where the liquid crystal structure is distorted and defects are formed. This method employs the Maier-Saupe and Kobayashi-McMillan theories of liquid crystalline ordering and the Flory-Huggins theory of mixtures. It builds on previous work on mixed systems that can form smectic-A and nematic phases by incorporating "distortion factors" into the expression for the local free energy of the mixture, which account for the effects of a deviation of the liquid crystal structure from the uniform nematic and smectic-A states. The method allows a simple description of chiral defect phases such as the blue phase and the twist grain boundary phase. In a previous work, it was shown that a model of the blue phase along these lines could effectively explain the observed effect whereby an added guest compound can stabilize the phase by separating into the high energy defect regions of the structure. It is shown here that with the correct choice of guest material a similar effect could be observed for the twist grain boundary phase.

  10. Phase transitions and separations in a distorted liquid crystalline mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasch, Nicholas; Dierking, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    A theoretical method is proposed for modelling phase transitions and phase ranges in a multi-component liquid crystalline mixture where the liquid crystal structure is distorted and defects are formed. This method employs the Maier-Saupe and Kobayashi-McMillan theories of liquid crystalline ordering and the Flory-Huggins theory of mixtures. It builds on previous work on mixed systems that can form smectic-A and nematic phases by incorporating "distortion factors" into the expression for the local free energy of the mixture, which account for the effects of a deviation of the liquid crystal structure from the uniform nematic and smectic-A states. The method allows a simple description of chiral defect phases such as the blue phase and the twist grain boundary phase. In a previous work, it was shown that a model of the blue phase along these lines could effectively explain the observed effect whereby an added guest compound can stabilize the phase by separating into the high energy defect regions of the structure. It is shown here that with the correct choice of guest material a similar effect could be observed for the twist grain boundary phase.

  11. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  12. An overview of multidimensional liquid phase separations in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maraíssa Silva; Padovan, Rodrigo Nogueira; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Food safety is a priority public health concern that demands analytical methods capable to detect low concentration level of contaminants (e.g. pesticides and antibiotics) in different food matrices. Due to the high complexity of these matrices, a sample preparation step is in most cases mandatory to achieve satisfactory results being usually tedious, lengthy, and prone to the introduction of errors. For this reason, many research groups have focused efforts on the development of online systems capable to do the cleanup, concentration, and separation steps at once through multidimensional separation techniques (MDS). Among several possible setups, the most popular are the multidimensional chromatographic techniques (MDC) that consist in combining more than one mobile and/or stationary phase to provide a satisfactory separation. In the present review, we selected a variety of multidimensional separation systems used for food contaminant analysis in order to discuss the instrumentation aspects, the concept of orthogonality, column approaches used in these systems, and new materials that can be used in these columns. Selected classes of contaminants present in food matrices are introduced and discussed as example of the potential applications of multidimensional liquid phase separation techniques in food safety. PMID:27030380

  13. An overview of multidimensional liquid phase separations in food analysis.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maraíssa Silva; Padovan, Rodrigo Nogueira; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Food safety is a priority public health concern that demands analytical methods capable to detect low concentration level of contaminants (e.g. pesticides and antibiotics) in different food matrices. Due to the high complexity of these matrices, a sample preparation step is in most cases mandatory to achieve satisfactory results being usually tedious, lengthy, and prone to the introduction of errors. For this reason, many research groups have focused efforts on the development of online systems capable to do the cleanup, concentration, and separation steps at once through multidimensional separation techniques (MDS). Among several possible setups, the most popular are the multidimensional chromatographic techniques (MDC) that consist in combining more than one mobile and/or stationary phase to provide a satisfactory separation. In the present review, we selected a variety of multidimensional separation systems used for food contaminant analysis in order to discuss the instrumentation aspects, the concept of orthogonality, column approaches used in these systems, and new materials that can be used in these columns. Selected classes of contaminants present in food matrices are introduced and discussed as example of the potential applications of multidimensional liquid phase separation techniques in food safety.

  14. Nanocrystallization in Oxyfluoride Glasses Controlled by Amorphous Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changgui; Bocker, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2015-10-14

    Transparent bulk glass-ceramics containing ZnF2, K2SiF6, and KZnF3 nanocrystals are successfully obtained from xKF-xZnF2-(100 - 2x)SiO2 oxyfluoride glasses for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The glass transition temperatures of heat-treated samples increase with time and approach values that resemble the temperatures chosen for thermal treatment. During nucleation and crystal growth, the residual glass around the crystals is depleted in fluoride which as glass component usually leads to a decrease in viscosity. The crystallization behavior notably depends on the glass composition and changes within a small range from x = 20 to 22.5 mol %. The occurrence of liquid/liquid phase separation in dependence of the composition is responsible for the physicochemical changes. Two different microstructures of droplet and interpenetrating phase separation and their compositional evolution are observed by replica transmission electron microscopy technique in the multicomponent glassy system. This study suggests that the size and crystal phase of precipitated crystallites can be controlled by the initial phase separation.

  15. Phase separation in solutions with specific and nonspecific interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, William M.; Frenkel, Daan; Oxtoby, David W.

    2014-05-28

    Protein solutions, which tend to be thermodynamically stable under physiological conditions, can demix into protein-enriched and protein-depleted phases when stressed. Using a lattice-gas model of proteins with both isotropic and specific, directional interactions, we calculate the critical conditions for phase separation for model proteins with up to four patches via Monte Carlo simulations and statistical associating fluid theory. Given a fixed specific interaction strength, the critical value of the isotropic energy, which accounts for dispersion forces and nonspecific interactions, measures the stability of the solution with respect to nonspecific interactions. Phase separation is suppressed by the formation of protein complexes, which effectively passivate the strongly associating sites on the monomers. Nevertheless, we find that protein models with three or more patches can form extended aggregates that phase separate despite the assembly of passivated complexes, even in the absence of nonspecific interactions. We present a unified view of the critical behavior of model fluids with anisotropic interactions, and we discuss the implications of these results for the thermodynamic stability of protein solutions.

  16. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Y H; Li, L H; Zhai, W; Zhang, X M; Wei, B

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  17. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.

    2015-11-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate.

  18. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W .L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Zhai, W.; Zhang, X. M.; Wei, B.

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate. PMID:26552711

  19. Liquid-liquid phase separation of freely falling undercooled ternary Fe-Cu-Sn alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Y H; Li, L H; Zhai, W; Zhang, X M; Wei, B

    2015-01-01

    The active modulation and control of the liquid phase separation for high-temperature metallic systems are still challenging the development of advanced immiscible alloys. Here we present an attempt to manipulate the dynamic process of liquid-liquid phase separation for ternary Fe47.5Cu47.5Sn5 alloy. It was firstly dispersed into numerous droplets with 66 ~ 810 μm diameters and then highly undercooled and rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside drop tube. 3-D phase field simulation was performed to explore the kinetic evolution of liquid phase separation. Through regulating the combined effects of undercooling level, phase separation time and Marangoni migration, three types of separation patterns were yielded: monotectic cell, core shell and dispersive structures. The two-layer core-shell morphology proved to be the most stable separation configuration owing to its lowest chemical potential. Whereas the monotectic cell and dispersive microstructures were both thermodynamically metastable transition states because of their highly active energy. The Sn solute partition profiles of Fe-rich core and Cu-rich shell in core-shell structures varied only slightly with cooling rate.

  20. Fibril Formation and Phase Separation in Aqueous Cellulose Ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Amanda; Schmidt, Peter; McAllister, John; Lott, Joseph; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    Aqueous solutions of many cellulose ethers are known to undergo thermoreversible gelation and phase separation upon heating to form turbid hydrogels, but the mechanism and resulting structures have not been well understood. Turbidity, light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to show that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) chains are dissolved in water below 50 °C and undergo phase separation at higher temperatures. At 70 °C, at sufficiently high concentrations in water, HPMC orders into fibrillar structures with a well-defined radius of 18 +/- 2 nm, as characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and SANS. The HPMC fibril structure is independent of concentration and heating rate. However, HPMC fibrils do not form a percolating network as readily as is seen in methylcellulose, resulting in a lower hot-gel modulus, as demonstrated by rheology.

  1. Phase separation of compatibilized polymer blends during shear

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatani, A.I.; Johnsonbaugh, D.S.; Han, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    The phase separation and mixing behavior during shear of a blend of polystyrene (PS) and polybutadiene (PB) with and without a symmetric diblock copolymer added (PS-PB) are examined as a function of quench depth and copolymer concentration for a fixed ratio of PS to PB. This blend exhibits upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behavior (60:40 PS:PB, T{sub c} = 108{degrees}C). The results are obtained on a static light scattering instrument coupled to a transparent cone and plate rheometer with a two-dimensional charge-coupled device detector. A comparison of the homopolymer blend with the three-component mixture showed enhanced mixing during isothermal, steady shear experiments and a suppressed rate of phase separation while cooling with shear in the three-component system.

  2. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Takuma; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, Tc, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/Tc, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  3. Phase-separated Al-Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Fukutani, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Koichi; Saito, Tatsuya; Den, Tohru

    2005-08-01

    Phase-separated Al-Si films composed of Al nanocylinders embedded in an amorphous-Si matrix have been prepared by a sputtering method. By controlling the deposition rate, substrate temperature, and film composition, the average diameter of the Al cylinders can be varied systematically from less than 5 to 13 nm with a cylinder density ranging from 10{sup 15} to in excess of 10{sup 16} cylinders m{sup -2}. A three-dimensional simulation of phase separation in binary thin films was performed using a modified Cahn-Hilliard [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] equation to understand the growth mechanism. The simulation studies indicate that the surface diffusion length and film composition are important factors which determine film morphology. Experimental and simulation studies are compared and discussed.

  4. Phase separation of metallic hydrogen-helium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.; Beck, H.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the thermodynamic functions and phase separation boundaries of solid metallic hydrogen helium alloys at temperatures between 0 K and 19,000 K and at pressures between 15 and 90 megabars. Expressions for the band structure energy of a randomly disordered alloy (including third order in the electron ion interaction) are derived and evaluated. Short and long range order are included by the quasi-chemical method, and lattice dynamics in the virtual crystal harmonic approximation. We conclude that at temperatures below 4,000 K there is complete phase separation of hydrogen helium alloys, and that a miscibility gap remains at the highest temperatures and pressures considered. The relevance of these results to models of the deep interior of Jupiter is briefly discussed.

  5. Phase separated BEC for high-sensitivity force measurement.

    PubMed

    Bhongale, S G; Timmermans, Eddy

    2008-05-01

    A trapped, phase separated, two component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can be configured to give a single BEC bubble that floats freely in the surrounding BEC. We point out that this system gives a unique template to carry out mesoscopic quantum studies and to detect weak forces. We demonstrate the detection capabilities by proposing and studying a "quantum level" for fundamental quantum fluctuation studies and for mapping the potential energy landscape near a surface with exquisite accuracy.

  6. Phase separation of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zuhan

    2009-10-15

    Recently, coupled systems of nonlinear Schroedinger equations have been used extensively to describe mixtures Bose-Einstein condensates. In this paper, we study the distribution of two different hyperfine spin states of a binary mixture of three dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. In a double condensate, an interface may occur due to large intraspecies and interspecies scattering lengths. We prove that there is an asymptotic separation of different phases in the strong coupling (Thomas-Fermi) limit.

  7. Macroscopic phase separation in high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hai-Hu

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity is recovered by introducing extra holes to the Cu-O planes, which initially are insulating with antiferromagnetism. In this paper I present data to show the macroscopic electronic phase separation that is caused by either mobile doping or electronic instability in the overdoped region. My results clearly demonstrate that the electronic inhomogeneity is probably a general feature of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:11027323

  8. Amphiphilic silica nanoparticles as pseudostationary phase for capillary electrophoresis separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Chen, Jie; Tang, An-Na

    2010-11-19

    Amphiphilic silica nanoparticles surface-functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and octyltriethoxylsilane (OTES) were successfully prepared and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG) techniques. The potential use of these bifunctionalized nanoparticles as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the separation of charged and neutral compounds was evaluated in terms of their suitability. As expected, fast separation of representative aromatic acids was fulfilled with high separation efficiency, because they migrate in the same direction with the electroosmotic flow (EOF) under optimum experimental conditions. Using a buffer solution of 30mmol/L phosphate (pH 3.0) in the presence of 0.5mg/mL of the synthesized bifunctionalized nanoparticles, the investigated basic compounds were baseline-resolved with symmetrical peaks. Due to the existence of amino groups on the surface of nanoparticles, "silanol effect" that occurs between positively charged basic analytes and the silanols on the inner surface of capillary was greatly suppressed. Furthermore, the separation systems also exhibited reversed-phase (RP) behavior when neutral analytes were tested. PMID:20961550

  9. Ligand-Driven Phase Separation in Binary Particle Brush Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaller, Michael; Schmitt, Michael; Zhang, Jianan; Yan, Jiajun; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    The tethering of polymer chains to the surface of nanoparticles (to form so-called `particle brush materials') has emerged as an effective means to enable the bottom-up assembly of one-component hybrid materials with controlled microstructure and improved mechanical stability as well as novel optical or acoustic properties. The polymer-like interactions and response of these particle-brush materials suggest intriguing new opportunities to control structure formation in multicomponent particle mixtures. This contribution will demonstrate that polymer-ligand interactions can drive phase separation processes in mixed particle systems that share analogies to those of regular binary polymer blends. The role of particle size, density and degree of polymerization of tethered chains as well as the interaction parameter between the distinct tethered chains on the mechanism and kinetics of phase separation processes in mixed particle brush systems will be discussed. Ligand-driven phase separation will be shown to enable the efficient fabrication of monochromatic domain structured in mixed quantum dot systems that might find application in next generation quantum dot-enabled LEDs. Support by the National Science Foundation (via Grant DMR-1410845) is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Phase separated microstructure and dynamics of polyurethane elastomers under strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Ciprian; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Runt, James

    The molecular mobility of polyurethane elastomers is of the utmost importance in establishing physical properties for uses ranging from automotive tires and shoe soles to more sophisticated aerospace and biomedical applications. In many of these applications, chain dynamics as well as mechanical properties under external stresses/strains are critical for determining ultimate performance. In order to develop a more complete understanding of their mechanical response, we explored the effect of uniaxial strain on the phase separated microstructure and molecular dynamics of the elastomers. We utilize X-ray scattering to investigate soft segment and hard domain orientation, and broadband dielectric spectroscopy for interrogation of the dynamics. Uniaxial deformation is found to significantly perturb the phase-separated microstructure and chain orientation, and results in a considerable slowing down of the dynamics of the elastomers. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of the polyurethanes under uniaxial deformation are also employed and the results are quantitatively correlated with mechanical tensile tests and the degree of phase separation from small-angle X-ray scattering measurements.

  11. Uphill diffusion and phase separation in partially miscible multicomponent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Raghavan, Ashwin; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The partially miscible multicomponent mixtures, which are frequently encountered in green chemistry processes, often exhibit complicated behaviors, and are critical to the production rate, energy efficiency, and pollution controls. Recent studies have been mainly focused on phase behaviors. However, the coupled phase equilibrium and transport process, which may be the answer to phase separations observed in experiments, is not well researched. Here, we present a numerical and theoretical study on coupled mixing of heavy oil and supercritical water, and the results of our state-of-art modeling agree with experimental measurements. We find that due to the non-ideal diffusion driving force, (1) strong uphill diffusion of heavy oil fractions occurs, (2) a new heavy oil phase is separated starting from the plait point, and heavy fractions become highly concentrated, and (3) water diffusion initially overshoots in oil, and is expelled lately. Finally, we conclude our analysis applicable to different molecules and conditions. The authors thank Saudi Aramco for supporting this work (contract number 6600023444).

  12. Phase Separation in Poly(urethane urea) Multiblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, J. T.; Xu, R.; Cho, J.; Runt, J.

    2002-03-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our research on microdomain morphology and phase separation of model poly(urethane urea) copolymers, complimenting our previous AFM and small-angle x-ray scattering studies. Phase transitions were monitored using both dynamic mechanical analysis and DSC, taking care to keep the temperature below where chemical degradation becomes significant. Surprisingly, soft phase Tgs were found to consistently decrease in temperature with increasing hard segment content in the copolymers. This is seemingly in contrast with an increase in unlike segment mixing in the domains with increasing hard segment content, as determined from SAXS. Several possible explanations for this behavior are proposed. The nature of the hard domains was also characterized using wide-angle x-ray diffraction experiments. Evidence of very weak crystalline diffraction peak(s) where found, superimposed on the amorphous halo. Finally, we also evaluated the sensitivity of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to hard/soft segment phase separation in these systems.

  13. Phase separation in artificial vesicles driven by light and curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldin, Melissa; Pomp, Wim; Schmidt, Thomas; Giomi, Luca; Kraft, Daniela; Physics of Life Processes Team; Soft; Bio Mechanics Collaboration; Self-Assembly in Soft Matter Systems Collaboration

    The role of phase-demixing in living cells, leading to the lipid-raft hypothesis, has been extensively studied. Lipid domains of higher lipid chain order are proposed to regulate protein spatial organization. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles provide an artificial model to study phase separation. So far temperature was used to initiate the process. Here we introduce a new methodology based on the induction of phase separation by light. To this aim, the composition of the lipid membrane is varied by photo-oxidation of lipids. The control of the process gained by using light allowed us to observe vesicle shape fluctuations during phase-demixing. The presence of fluctuations near the critical mixing point resembles features of a critical process. We quantitatively analyze these fluctuations using a 2d elastic model, from which we can estimate the material parameters such as bending rigidity and surface tension, demonstrating the non-equilibrium critical behaviour. Finally, I will describe recent attempts toward tuning the membrane composition by controlling the vesicle curvature.

  14. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation. PMID:26346223

  15. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-09-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation.

  16. Macroscopic Phase Separation, Modulated Phases, and Microemulsions: A Unified Picture of Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Shlomovitz, Roie; Maibaum, Lutz; Schick, M.

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a simple phenomenological model describing phase behavior in a multicomponent membrane, a model capable of producing macroscopic phase separation, modulated phases, and microemulsions, all of which have been discussed in terms of raft phenomena. We show that one effect of thermal fluctuations on the mean-field phase diagram is that it permits a direct transition between either one of the coexisting liquid phases to a microemulsion. This implies that one system exhibiting phase separation can be related to a similar system exhibiting the heterogeneities characteristic of a microemulsion. The two systems could differ in their average membrane composition or in the relative compositions of their exoplasmic and cytoplasmic leaves. The model provides a unified description of these raft-associated phenomena. PMID:24806930

  17. Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Ram S.; Shoham, Ovadia

    1999-10-28

    The objective of this five-year project (October, 1997--September, 2002) is to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project will be executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) will focus on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase will include the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crudes conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

  18. Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.S.; Shoham, O.

    2001-01-10

    The objective of this five-year project (October 1997--September 2002) was to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project was executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) focused on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase included the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crude conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

  19. Isolation of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase using phase separation with Triton X-114 and monoclonal immunosorbent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, O J; Selmer, J; Hangaard, J; Larsen, F

    1985-01-01

    A generally applicable approach to the preparative isolation of amphiphilic membrane proteins that follow the Triton X-114 phase during a temperature-dependent phase separation is described. The phase separations were performed direct on whole blood and a 650-fold purification of human erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was obtained. Thus, 0.2 mg enzyme was isolated per 1 liter of blood, with a specific activity of 13 IU/mg, the major contaminants being glycophorin and hemoglobin. The protein material was isolated from the detergent phase by Cu2+ chelate chromatography. This material was used to raise monoclonal anti-AchE antibodies which, when applied to immunosorbent chromatography of washed Triton X-100-lysed erythrocytes in one step, allowed a 246,000-fold purification of AchE with a yield of 88% and a specific activity of 3800 IU/mg.

  20. Silk fibroin gelation via non-solvent induced phase separation.

    PubMed

    Kasoju, Naresh; Hawkins, Nicholas; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Kubies, Dana; Vollrath, Fritz

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineering benefits from novel materials with precisely tunable physical, chemical and mechanical properties over a broad range. Here we report a practical approach to prepare Bombyx mori silk fibroin hydrogels using the principle of non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). A combination of reconstituted silk fibroin (RSF) and methanol (non-solvent), with a final concentration of 2.5% w/v and 12.5% v/v respectively, maintained at 22 °C temperature turned into a hydrogel within 10 hours. Freeze-drying of this gel gave a foam with a porosity of 88%, a water uptake capacity of 89% and a swelling index of 8.6. The gelation kinetics and the loss tangent of the gels were investigated by rheometry. The changes in the morphology of the porous foams were visualized by SEM. The changes in RSF chemical composition and the relative fraction of its secondary structural elements were analyzed by ATR-FTIR along with Fourier self-deconvolution. And, the changes in the glass transition temperature, specific heat capacity and the relative fraction of crystallinity of RSF were determined by TM-DSC. Data suggested that RSF-water-methanol behaved as a polymer-solvent-non-solvent ternary phase system, wherein the demixing of the water-methanol phases altered the thermodynamic equilibrium of RSF-water phases and resulted in the desolvation and eventual separation of the RSF phase. Systematic analysis revealed that both gelation time and the properties of hydrogels and porous foams could be controlled by the ratios of RSF and non-solvent concentration as well as by the type of non-solvent and incubation temperature. Due to the unique properties we envisage that the herein prepared NIPS induced RSF hydrogels and porous foams can possibly be used for the encapsulation of cells and/or for the controlled release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. PMID:26730413

  1. Hydrogen isotope systematics of phase separation in submarine hydrothermal systems: Experimental calibration and theoretical models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.E.; Seal, R.R.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Seyfried, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation factors were measured for coexisting brines and vapors formed by phase separation of NaCl/H2O fluids at temperatures ranging from 399-450??C and pressures from 277-397 bars. It was found that brines are depleted in D compared to coexisting vapors at all conditions studied. The magnitude of hydrogen isotope fractionation is dependent on the relative amounts of Cl in the two phases and can be empirically correlated to pressure using the following relationship: 1000 ln ??(vap-brine) = 2.54(??0.83) + 2.87(??0.69) x log (??P), where ??(vap-brine) is the fractionation factor and ??P is a pressure term representing distance from the critical curve in the NaCl/H2O system. The effect of phase separation on hydrogen isotope distribution in subseafloor hydrothermal systems depends on a number of factors, including whether phase separation is induced by heating at depth or by decompression of hydrothermal fluids ascending to the seafloor. Phase separation in most subseafloor systems appears to be a simple process driven by heating of seawater to conditions within the two-phase region, followed by segregation and entrainment of brine or vapor into a seawater dominated system. Resulting vent fluids exhibit large ranges in Cl concentration with no measurable effect on ??D. Possible exceptions to this include hydrothermal fluids venting at Axial and 9??N on the East Pacific Rise. High ??D values of low Cl fluids venting at Axial are consistent with phase separation taking place at relatively shallow levels in the oceanic crust while negative ??D values in some low Cl fluids venting at 9??N suggest involvement of a magmatic fluid component or phase separation of D-depleted brines derived during previous hydrothermal activity.

  2. Self-assembly of amorphous biophotonic nanostructures by phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, Eric R.; Noh, Heeso; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Cao, Hui; Prum, Richard O.

    2009-04-23

    Some of the most vivid colors in the animal kingdom are created not by pigments, but by wavelength-selective scattering of light from nanostructures. Here we investigate quasi-ordered nanostructures of avian feather barbs which produce vivid non-iridescent colors. These {beta}-keratin and air nanostructures are found in two basic morphologies: tortuous channels and amorphous packings of spheres. Each class of nanostructure is isotropic and has a pronounced characteristic length scale of variation in composition. These local structural correlations lead to strong backscattering over a narrow range of optical frequencies and little variation with angle of incidence. Such optical properties play important roles in social and sexual communication. To be effective, birds need to precisely control the development of these nanoscale structures, yet little is known about how they grow. We hypothesize that multiple lineages of birds have convergently evolved to exploit phase separation and kinetic arrest to self-assemble spongy color-producing nanostructures in feather barbs. Observed avian nanostructures are strikingly similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of fluid mixtures; the channel and sphere morphologies are characteristic of phase separation by spinodal decomposition and nucleation and growth, respectively. These unstable structures are locked-in by the kinetic arrest of the {beta}-keratin matrix, likely through the entanglement or cross-linking of supermolecular {beta}-keratin fibers. Using the power of self-assembly, birds can robustly realize a diverse range of nanoscopic morphologies with relatively small physical and chemical changes during feather development.

  3. [Chromatographic separation of aminoglutethimide enantiomers on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoiian; Gong, Rujin; Li, Ping; Yu, Jianguo

    2014-08-01

    Aminoglutethimide (AG) has been used clinically as a drug in the treatment of hormone-dependent metastatic breast cancer. It was reported that S-(-)-AG enantiomer had small activity and sometimes might cause side effects. Therefore, it was of great significance to obtain the high-purity R-(+)-AG by enantioseparation. In this work, aminoglutethimide enantiomers were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an analytical column which was packed with cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) stationary phase (Chiralcel OD-H). The solubilities of racemic AG in two different solvent compositions, n-hexane/ethanol and n-hexane/isopropanol, were measured, separately. The effects of alcohol content and monoethanolamine additive on the separation performance of racemic AG by HPLC were investigated. According to the experiments, n-hexane-ethanol (30:70, v/v) with 0.1% monoethanolamine additive was selected as the mobile phase. The separation factor, resolution, asymmetry factor, number of theoretical plates and maximum column capacity were measured and analyzed for the chromatographic separation of racemic AG at a flow-rate of 0. 6 mL/min and column temperature of 25-40 °C, with Chiralcel OD-H as stationary phase and n-hexane-ethanol (30:70, v/v) with 0. 1% monoethanolamine as mobile phase. This work provides the basic information of chromatographic separation for the batch and continuous production of aminoglutethimide enantiomers.

  4. Nanopatterns by phase separation of patterned mixed polymer monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Huber, Dale L; Frischknecht, Amalie

    2014-02-18

    Micron-size and sub-micron-size patterns on a substrate can direct the self-assembly of surface-bonded mixed polymer brushes to create nanoscale patterns in the phase-separated mixed polymer brush. The larger scale features, or patterns, can be defined by a variety of lithographic techniques, as well as other physical and chemical processes including but not limited to etching, grinding, and polishing. The polymer brushes preferably comprise vinyl polymers, such as polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate).

  5. Formation of regular structures in the process of phase separation.

    PubMed

    Krekhov, Alexei

    2009-03-01

    Phase separation under directional quenching has been studied in a Cahn-Hilliard model. In distinct contrast to the disordered patterns which develop under a homogeneous quench, periodic stripe patterns are generated behind the quench front. Their wavelength is uniquely defined by the velocity of the quench interface in a wide range. Numerical simulations match perfectly analytical results obtained in the limit of small and large velocities of the quench interface. Additional periodic modulation of the quench interface may lead to cellular patterns. The quenching protocols analyzed are expected to be an effective tool in technological applications to design nanostructured materials. PMID:19392008

  6. Anomalous phase separation kinetics observed in a micelle system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martin, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a real-time, two-dimensional light scattering study of the evolution of structure of a two component nonionic micelle system undergoing phase separation. The micelles act like molecular slug-a-beds whose domain growth is lethargic (i.e. slower than the cube root of time prediction for simple binary fluids). In fact, the growth kinetics can be empirically described as a stretched exponential approach to a pinned domain size. Although the kinetics are not yet understood, the anomalous behavior may be due to the ability of the spherical micelles to reorganize into more complex structures.

  7. Phase/Shape Transitions and the Two Neutron Separation Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Zamfir, N. V.; Anghel, Sabina; Cata-Danil, G.

    2008-11-11

    We investigated the evolution of experimental two-neutron separation energies (S{sub 2n}) along the isotopic chains for the even-even nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity of our search, differential variation of the S{sub 2n} has been investigated. The emphasis is on finding nonmonotonic behaviors which can be correlated with phase/shape transition. Correlations of the ground state S{sub 2n} values with the excited states energies R{sub 4/2} ratio are also discussed.

  8. Vapors-liquid phase separator. [infrared telescope heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  9. Separation of membrane proteins according to their hydropathy by serial phase partitioning with Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    González de la Vara, Luis E; Lino Alfaro, Bárbara

    2009-04-15

    The detergent Triton X-114, because of its convenient cloud point temperature (22 degrees C), has been used extensively to extract membrane proteins and to separate them in two phases according to their hydropathy. The upper detergent-poor phase contains mostly hydrophilic proteins, whereas hydrophobic ones are found mainly in the lower detergent-rich phase. In this work, we developed a method to fractionate membrane proteins and estimate their hydropathy based on a series of cloud point partitions with Triton X-114. With this method, beetroot plasma membrane proteins were separated in different fractions according to their hydropathy, following the binomial distribution law as expected. This method revealed the presence of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases in those membranes. At least five distinct Ca(2+)-dependent kinases were observed in in-gel kinase activity assays. This separation procedure was also used as the first step in the purification of a hydrophobic 60-kDa kinase.

  10. Viscoelastic effects on the phase separation of polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, N.; McLeish, T.C.B.; Pavawongsak, S.; Higgins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    We have observed unusual behaviour in the phase separation dynamics in PS/PVME polymer blends, in which the PS component is highly entangled. To account for this theoretically, we modify the Cahn-Hilliard theory of concentration fluctuation dynamics to include the short time network-like nature of high molecular weight polymers. We propose an additional term in the free energy, due to elastic energy arising from the finite lifetime of entanglements. If we assume a single exponential decay time for the entanglements, the equation of motion is governed by two exponential modes. For quenches into the two phase region, the faster mode always decays with time, and the slower mode grows. The extent to which the theory agrees with experimental results is discussed.

  11. Accelerated sintering in phase-separating nanostructured alloys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mansoo; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Sintering of powders is a common means of producing bulk materials when melt casting is impossible or does not achieve a desired microstructure, and has long been pursued for nanocrystalline materials in particular. Acceleration of sintering is desirable to lower processing temperatures and times, and thus to limit undesirable microstructure evolution. Here we show that markedly enhanced sintering is possible in some nanocrystalline alloys. In a nanostructured W–Cr alloy, sintering sets on at a very low temperature that is commensurate with phase separation to form a Cr-rich phase with a nanoscale arrangement that supports rapid diffusional transport. The method permits bulk full density specimens with nanoscale grains, produced during a sintering cycle involving no applied stress. We further show that such accelerated sintering can be evoked by design in other nanocrystalline alloys, opening the door to a variety of nanostructured bulk materials processed in arbitrary shapes from powder inputs. PMID:25901420

  12. Liquid-liquid phase separation: characterisation of a novel device capable of separating particle carrying multiphase flows.

    PubMed

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2009-02-01

    Capillary forces on the microscale are exploited to create a continuous flow liquid-liquid phase separator. Segmented flow regimes of immiscible fluids are generated and subsequently separated into their component phases through an array of high aspect ratio, laser machined, separation ducts (36 microm wide, 130 microm deep) in a planar, integrated, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microdevice. A controlled pressure differential across the phase separator architecture facilitates the selective passage of the wetting, organic, phase through the separator ducts, enabling separation of microfluidic multiphase flow streams. The reported device is demonstrated to separate water and chloroform segmented flow regimes at flow rates up to 0.4 ml min(-1). Separation efficiency is quantified over a range of flow rates and applied pressure differentials, characterising device behaviour and limits of operation. Experimental measurements and observations are supported by theoretical hydrodynamic and capillary pressure modelling. The influence of material properties and geometric design parameters on phase separation is quantified and optimisation strategies proposed. The novel ability of the membrane free device to separate an organic phase containing suspended microparticulates, from an aqueous phase, is also demonstrated.

  13. Cluster formation and phase separation in heteronuclear Janus dumbbells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaò, G.; O'Toole, P.; Hudson, T. S.; Costa, D.; Caccamo, C.; Sciortino, F.; Giacometti, A.

    2015-06-01

    We have recently investigated the phase behavior of model colloidal dumbbells constituted by two identical tangent hard spheres, with the first being surrounded by an attractive square-well interaction (Janus dumbbells, Munaó et al 2014 Soft Matter 10 5269). Here we extend our previous analysis by introducing in the model the size asymmetry of the hard-core diameters and study the enriched phase scenario thereby obtained. By employing standard Monte Carlo simulations we show that in such ‘heteronuclear Janus dumbbells’ a larger hard-sphere site promotes the formation of clusters, whereas in the opposite condition a gas-liquid phase separation takes place, with a narrow interval of intermediate asymmetries wherein the two phase behaviors may compete. In addition, some peculiar geometrical arrangements, such as lamellæ, are observed only around the perfectly symmetric case. A qualitative agreement is found with recent experimental results, where it is shown that the roughness of molecular surfaces in heterogeneous dimers leads to the formation of colloidal micelles.

  14. Comparison of zirconia- and silica-based reversed stationary phases for separation of enkephalins.

    PubMed

    Soukupová, K; Krafková, E; Suchánková, Jana; Tesarová, E

    2005-09-16

    In this study, the separation of biologically active peptides on two zirconia-based phases, polybutadiene (PBD)-ZrO2 and polystyrene (PS)-ZrO2, and a silica-based phase C18 was compared. Basic differences in interactions on both types of phases led to quite different selectivity. The retention characteristics were investigated in detail using a variety of organic modifiers, buffers, and temperatures. These parameters affected retention, separation efficiency, resolution and symmetry of peaks. Separation systems consisting of Discovery PBD-Zr column and mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer, pH 2.0 (45:55, v/v) at 70 degrees C and Discovery PS-Zr with acetonitrile and phosphate buffer, pH 3.5 in the same (v/v) ratio at 40 degrees C were suitable for a good resolution of enkephalin related peptides. Mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer, pH 5.0 (22:78, v/v) was appropriate for separation of enkephalins on Supelcosil C18 stationary phase. PMID:16130703

  15. Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Three existing and two new excitation magnitude scaling options for active separation control at Reynolds numbers below one Million. The physical background for the scaling options was discussed and their relevance was evaluated using two different sets of experimental data. For F+ approx. 1, 2D excitation: a) The traditional VR and C(mu) - do not scale the data. b) Only the Re*C(mu) is valid. This conclusion is also limited for positive lift increment.. For F+ > 10, 3D excitation, the Re corrected C(mu), the St corrected velocity ratio and the vorticity flux coefficient, all scale the amplitudes equally well. Therefore, the Reynolds weighted C(mu) is the preferred choice, relevant to both excitation modes. Incidence also considered, using Ue from local Cp.

  16. Phase Separation in Lean Grade Duplex Stainless Steel 2101

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkel, D.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Young, Jr., George A.; Tucker, Julie

    2015-08-19

    The use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in nuclear power generation systems is limited by thermal instability that leads to embrittlement in the temperature range of 204°C - 538°C. New lean grade alloys, such as 2101, offer the potential to mitigate these effects. Thermal embrittlement was quantified through impact toughness and hardness testing on samples of alloy 2101 after aging at 427°C for various durations (1-10,000 hours). Additionally, atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized in order to observe the kinetics of α-α’ separation and G-phase formation. Mechanical testing and APT data for two other DSS alloys, 2003 and 2205 were used as a reference to 2101. The results show that alloy 2101 exhibits superior performance compared to the standard grade DSS alloy, 2205, but inferior to the lean grade alloy, 2003, in mechanical testing. APT data demonstrates that the degree of α-α’ separation found in alloy 2101 closely resembles that of 2205, and greatly exceeds 2003. Additionally, contrary to what was observed in 2003, 2101 demonstrated G-phase like precipitates after long aging times, though precipitates were not as abundant as was observed in 2205.

  17. Binary-liquid phase separation of lens protein solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Broide, M L; Berland, C R; Pande, J; Ogun, O O; Benedek, G B

    1991-01-01

    We have determined the coexistence curves (plots of phase-separation temperature T versus protein concentration C) for aqueous solutions of purified calf lens proteins. The proteins studied, calf gamma IIIa-, gamma IIIb-, and gamma IVa-crystallin, have very similar amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. Both ascending and descending limbs of the coexistence curves were measured. We find that the coexistence curves for each of these proteins and for gamma II-crystallin can be fit, near the critical point, to the function /(Cc-C)/Cc/ = A [(Tc - T)/Tc]beta, where beta = 0.325, Cc is the critical protein concentration in mg/ml, Tc is the critical temperature for phase separation in K, and A is a parameter that characterizes the width of the coexistence curve. We find that A and Cc are approximately the same for all four coexistence curves (A = 2.6 +/- 0.1, Cc = 289 +/- 20 mg/ml), but that Tc is not the same. For gamma II- and gamma IIIb-crystallin, Tc approximately 5 degrees C, whereas for gamma IIIa- and gamma IVa-crystallin, Tc approximately 38 degrees C. By comparing the published protein sequences for calf, rat, and human gamma-crystallins, we postulate that a few key amino acid residues account for the division of gamma-crystallins into low-Tc and high-Tc groups. Images PMID:2062844

  18. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles.

  19. Correlated lateral phase separations in stacks of lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Takuma; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2015-12-28

    Motivated by the experimental study of Tayebi et al. [Nat. Mater. 11, 1074 (2012)] on phase separation of stacked multi-component lipid bilayers, we propose a model composed of stacked two-dimensional Ising spins. We study both its static and dynamical features using Monte Carlo simulations with Kawasaki spin exchange dynamics that conserves the order parameter. We show that at thermodynamical equilibrium, due to strong inter-layer correlations, the system forms a continuous columnar structure for any finite interaction across adjacent layers. Furthermore, the phase separation shows a faster dynamics as the inter-layer interaction is increased. This temporal behavior is mainly due to an effective deeper temperature quench because of the larger value of the critical temperature, T{sub c}, for larger inter-layer interaction. When the temperature ratio, T/T{sub c}, is kept fixed, the temporal growth exponent does not increase and even slightly decreases as a function of the increased inter-layer interaction.

  20. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Oil Bodies from Seeds.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentally, oil bodies are discrete storage organelles found in oilseeds, comprising a hydrophobic triacylglycerol core surrounded by a half-unit phospholipid membrane and an outer shell of specialized proteins known as oleosins. Oil bodies possess a number of attributes that were exploited by SemBioSys Genetics to isolate highly enriched fractions of oil bodies through liquid-liquid phase separation for a number of commercial applications. The current chapter provides a general guide for the isolation of oil bodies from Arabidopsis and/or safflower seed, from which protocols can be refined for different oilseed sources. For SemBioSys Genetic's recombinant technology, therapeutic proteins were covalently attached to oleosins or fused in-frame with ligands which bound oil bodies, facilitating their recovery to high levels of purity during "upstream processing" of transformed seed. Core to this technology was oil body isolation consisting of simple manipulation including homogenization of seeds to free the oil bodies, followed by the removal of insoluble fractions, and phase separation to recover the oil bodies. During oil body enrichment (an increase in oil body content concomitant with removal of impurities), a number of options and tips are provided to aid researchers in the manipulation and monitoring of these robust organelles. PMID:26614290

  1. Phase Separation in Lean-Grade Duplex Stainless Steel 2101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, David A.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Young, George A.; Tucker, Julie D.

    2015-08-01

    The use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in nuclear power generation systems is limited by thermal instability that leads to embrittlement in the temperature range of 204°C to 538°C. New lean-grade alloys, such as 2101, offer the potential to mitigate these effects. Thermal embrittlement was quantified through impact toughness and hardness testing on samples of alloy 2101 after aging at 427°C for various durations (1-10,000 h). Additionally, atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized in order to observe the kinetics of α-α' separation and G-phase formation. Mechanical testing and APT data for two other DSS alloys, 2003 and 2205, were used as a reference to 2101. The results show that alloy 2101 exhibits superior performance compared to the standard-grade DSS alloy 2205 but inferior to the lean-grade alloy 2003 in mechanical testing. APT data demonstrate that the degree of α-α' separation found in alloy 2101 closely resembles that of 2205 and greatly exceeds 2003. Additionally, contrary to what was observed in 2003, 2101 demonstrated G-phase like precipitates after long aging times, although precipitates were not as abundant as was observed in 2205.

  2. Phase Separation in Lean Grade Duplex Stainless Steel 2101

    DOE PAGES

    Garfinkel, D.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei; Young, Jr., George A.; Tucker, Julie

    2015-08-19

    The use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in nuclear power generation systems is limited by thermal instability that leads to embrittlement in the temperature range of 204°C - 538°C. New lean grade alloys, such as 2101, offer the potential to mitigate these effects. Thermal embrittlement was quantified through impact toughness and hardness testing on samples of alloy 2101 after aging at 427°C for various durations (1-10,000 hours). Additionally, atom probe tomography (APT) was utilized in order to observe the kinetics of α-α’ separation and G-phase formation. Mechanical testing and APT data for two other DSS alloys, 2003 and 2205 weremore » used as a reference to 2101. The results show that alloy 2101 exhibits superior performance compared to the standard grade DSS alloy, 2205, but inferior to the lean grade alloy, 2003, in mechanical testing. APT data demonstrates that the degree of α-α’ separation found in alloy 2101 closely resembles that of 2205, and greatly exceeds 2003. Additionally, contrary to what was observed in 2003, 2101 demonstrated G-phase like precipitates after long aging times, though precipitates were not as abundant as was observed in 2205.« less

  3. The mechanical properties of phase separated protein droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawerth, Louise; Ijavi, Mahdiye; Patel, Avinash; Saha, Shambaditya; Jülicher, Frank; Hyman, Anthony

    In vivo, numerous proteins associate into liquid compartments by de-mixing from the surrounding solution, similar to oil molecules in water. Many of these proteins and their corresponding liquid compartments play a crucial role in important biological processes, for instance germ line specification in C. elegans or in neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, despite their importance, very little is known about the physical properties of the resulting droplets as well as the physical mechanisms that control their phase separation from solution. To gain a deeper understanding of these aspects, we study a few such proteins in vitro. When these proteins are purified and added to a physiological buffer, they phase separate into droplets ranging in size from a few to tens of microns with liquid-like behavior similar to their physiological counterparts. By attaching small beads to the surface of the droplets, we can deform the droplets by manipulating the beads directly using optical tweezers. By measuring the force required to deform the droplets we determine their surface tension, elasticity and viscosity as well as the frequency response of these properties. We also measure these properties using passive micro-rheology.

  4. Phase separation in complex oxides: RTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bo; Schussler-Langeheine, C.; Goedkoop, J. B.; Golden, M. S.; Buchholz, M.; Trabant, C.; Chang, C. F.; Ricci, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Durr, H. A.; Robert, A.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.

    2014-03-01

    Complex oxides display an unparalleled richness of physical phenomena arising from the coupling of their charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom, with cuprate high Tc superconductors and colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites as flagship materials systems. For the CMR systems, phase separation is believed to play a crucial role in creating the hypersensitivity to external stimuli such as external field. In this contribution I will report our experiments on perovskite titanate systems, which are a t2g materials analogy to the CMR systems with which they share much underlying physics. In particular, I will deal with calcium-doped rare earth titanium oxides, which exhibit charge and orbital ordering during a temperature-driven metal-insulator transition (T-driven MIT). These systems are hypersensitive to the tuning of the hole-doping level, whereby the electrical transport then differs by several orders of magnitude, as occurs with external field in the CMR manganites. In this talk, I will present recently recorded data aimed at the investigation of the phase separation dynamics during T-driven MIT in titanates at LCLS. This is the first time that the single crystal coherent x-ray diffraction patterns have been recorded at 120Hz in the time domain. VI, HZB and FOM

  5. Phase separation temperatures of mixtures of Triton X-114 and Triton X-45: application to protein separation.

    PubMed

    Ganong, B R; Delmore, J P

    1991-02-15

    Triton X-114 solutions separate above 22 degrees C into two immiscible aqueous phases. The more dense phase is enriched in detergent, and the less dense phase is depleted of detergent, relative to the original single phase. This phenomenon has been used to partition proteins according to hydrophobicity. The phase separation temperature is sensitive to the length of the polyoxyethylene headgroup. When Triton X-45, with a shorter headgroup, is mixed with Triton X-114 in various proportions, the phase transition temperature can be adjusted anywhere between 0 and 22 degrees C. Partitioning properties of the resulting mixtures are similar to those of Triton X-114 alone.

  6. Phase-separated, epitaxial composite cap layers for electronic device applications and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Polat, Ozgur

    2012-07-17

    An electronic component that includes a substrate and a phase-separated layer supported on the substrate and a method of forming the same are disclosed. The phase-separated layer includes a first phase comprising lanthanum manganate (LMO) and a second phase selected from a metal oxide (MO), metal nitride (MN), a metal (Me), and combinations thereof. The phase-separated material can be an epitaxial layer and an upper surface of the phase-separated layer can include interfaces between the first phase and the second phase. The phase-separated layer can be supported on a buffer layer comprising a composition selected from the group consisting of IBAD MgO, LMO/IBAD-MgO, homoepi-IBAD MgO and LMO/homoepi-MgO. The electronic component can also include an electronically active layer supported on the phase-separated layer. The electronically active layer can be a superconducting material, a ferroelectric material, a multiferroic material, a magnetic material, a photovoltaic material, an electrical storage material, and a semiconductor material.

  7. Evolution equations for phase separation and ordering in binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, J.W.; Novick-Cohen, A.

    1994-08-01

    We explore two phenomenological approaches leading to systems of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Cahn-Allen equations for describing the dynamics of systems which can undergo first-order phase separation and order-disorder transitions simultaneously, starting from the same discrete lattice free energy function. In the first approach, a quasicontinuum limit is taken for this discrete energy and the evolution of the system is then assumed to be given by gradient flow. In the second approach, a discrete set of gradient flow evolution equations is derived for the lattice dynamics and a quasicontinuum limit is then taken. We demonstrate in the context of BCC Fe-Al binary alloys that it is important that variables be chosen that accommodate the variations in the average concentration as well as the underlying ordered structure of the possible coexistent phases. Only then will the two approaches lead to roughly the same continuum descriptions. We conjecture that in general the number of variables necessary to describe the dynamics of such systems is equal to N{sub 1} + N{sub 2}-1, where N{sub 1} is given by the dimension of the span of the bases of the irreducible representations needed to describe the symmetry groups of the possible equilibrium phases and N{sub 2} is the number of chemical components. N{sub 1} of these variables are nonconserved, and the remaining are conserved and represent the average concentrations. For the Fe-Al alloys this implies a description of one conserved order parameter and one nonconserved order parameter. The resultant description is given by a Cahn-Hilliard equation coupled to a Cahn-Allen equation via the lower-order nonlinear terms. The rough equivalence of the two phenomenological methods adds credibility to the validity of the resulting evolution equations. A similar description should also be valid for alloy systems in which the structure of the competing phases is more complicated.

  8. The evolutionary significance of phase-separated microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The source, preparation, and properties of phase-separated systems such as lipid layers, coacervate droplets, sulphobes, and proteinoid microspheres are reviewed. These microsystems are of interest as partial models for the cell and as partial or total models for the protocell. Conceptual benefits from the study of such models include clues to experiments on origins, insights into principles of action, and, in some instances, presumable models of the origin of the protocell. The benefits to evolution of organized chemical units are many, and can in part be analyzed. Ease of formation suggests that such units would have arisen early in primordial organic evolution. Integration of these various concepts and the results of consequent experiments have contributed to the developing theory of the origins of primordial and contemporary life.

  9. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  10. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  11. Ostwald-Driven Phase Separation in Bimetallic Nanoparticle Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Prévot, Geoffroy; Nguyen, Nhat Tai; Alloyeau, Damien; Ricolleau, Christian; Nelayah, Jaysen

    2016-04-26

    The compositional stability of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial for many applications. We have studied the coarsening of amorphous carbon-supported Au-Pd NPs during annealing at 873 K. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy measurements, we show that, despite a complete miscibility of the two metals, the particle assembly undergoes a phase separation during annealing, which leads to two distinct populations: Au-rich NPs with a mean radius of 3.5 nm and large Pd-rich NPs with a mean radius of 25 nm. Thermodynamic calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations explain this behavior that is driven by the competition between surface and mixing energy and by the different mobilities of the two atomic species. PMID:26989906

  12. A phase separation model for the nanopatterning of diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Sumper, Manfred

    2002-03-29

    Diatoms are encased in an intricately patterned wall that consists of amorphous silica. Species-specific fabrication of this ornate biomineral enables taxonomists to identify thousands of diatom species. The molecular mechanisms that control this nanofabrication and generate the diversity of patterns is not well understood. A simple model is described, in which repeated phase separation events during wall biogenesis are assumed to produce self-similar silica patterns in smaller and smaller scales. On the basis of this single assumption, the apparently complex patterns found in the valves of the diatom genus Coscinodiscus can be predicted. Microscopic analysis of valves in statu nascendi from three different Coscinodiscus species supports the conclusions derived from the model.

  13. Fabrication of polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffolds by facile phase separation approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqiong; He, Zhihang; Xu, Guojie; Xiao, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with spherulite and nanofibrous structures were fabricated for the first time by thermally induced phase separation from a ternary PCL/dioxane/water system. Moreover, the effects of polymer concentration, aging temperature and the ratio of dioxane to water on the morphology of nanofibrous scaffolds were investigated. The result revealed that gelation, aging temperature, and ratio of solvents significantly influenced the formation of the unique spherulite and nanofibrous structures. The apatite-formation ability test showed relatively rapid growth of carbonate hydroxyapatite in the nanofibrous PCL scaffold with macropore compared to the other two scaffolds with smooth structure and nanofibrous structure without macropore, respectively, indicating good apatite-formation ability of the macroporous and nanofibrous PCL scaffolds.

  14. Chronotaxic systems with separable amplitude and phase dynamics.

    PubMed

    Suprunenko, Yevhen F; Clemson, Philip T; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, deterministic nonautonomous oscillatory systems with stable amplitudes and time-varying frequencies were not recognized as such and have often been mistreated as stochastic. These systems, named chronotaxic, were introduced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 024101 (2013). In contrast to conventional limit cycle models of self-sustained oscillators, these systems posses a time-dependent point attractor or steady state. This allows oscillations with time-varying frequencies to resist perturbations, a phenomenon which is ubiquitous in living systems. In this work a detailed theory of chronotaxic systems is presented, specifically in the case of separable amplitude and phase dynamics. The theory is extended by the introduction of chronotaxic amplitude dynamics. The wide applicability of chronotaxic systems to a range of fields from biological and condensed matter systems to robotics and control theory is discussed.

  15. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  16. Active membrane phased array radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Huang, John; Sadowy, Greg; Hoffman, James; Smith, Phil; Hatake, Toshiro; Derksen, Chuck; Lopez, Bernardo; Caro, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We have developed the first membrane-based active phased array in L-band (1.26GHz). The array uses membrane compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules (membrane T/R) for each antenna element. We use phase shifters within each T/R module for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the T/R module design and integration with the membrane, We will also present transmit and receive beam-steering results for the array.

  17. Photon-induced phase transitions of individual electronic phase separated domains in manganites strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hanxuan; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Hao; Miao, Tian; Yu, Yang; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Jian

    Effective photosensors should be built on materials whose properties depend sensitively on light. Manganites are one of the candidates, where light can trigger resistivity change by several orders of magnitude. Such dramatic change is often associated with photoinduced phase transitions of electronic phase separated (EPS) domains in manganites. Previous studies of the light effect all use macroscopic manganite samples, which consist of large numbers of EPS domains smearing out the photon-induced phase transitions. Here, we observe the signature of individual domains' photoinduced phase transition by macroscopic transport measurement of spatially confined manganites strips. Pronounced photon-induced resistivity jumps emerge in the warming process, which reveals the dynamics of the phase transitions of individual EPS domains upon interaction with light. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) has been used to investigate the mechanism of those resistivity jumps. Supervisor.

  18. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Frederick S; Contescu, Cristian I; Tsouris, Costas; Burchell, Timothy D

    2011-09-01

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  19. Micro-phase Separation via Spinodal-like Decomposition in Hexamethylynediisocyanate (HDI)-polyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Amit S.; Beaucage, Gregory; Wilkes, Garth L.; Das, Sudipto; Yilgor, Iskander

    2012-04-03

    We found that micro-phase separation in hexamethylynediisocyanate-polyurea was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and infrared absorption. Moreover, it was found that phase separation in this system followed spinodal-like decomposition on a 3–4 nm size scale with phase separation occuring on a time scale of days.

  20. Photocatalytically active titanium dioxide nanopowders: Synthesis, photoactivity and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, J.-P.; Heinonen, S.; Huttunen Saarivirta, E.; Honkanen, M.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Two approaches were used to obtain nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders. Firstly, low-temperature synthesis method and secondly liquid flame spraying. The structural properties of the produced powders were determined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption tests. The photocatalytic properties of the powders were studied with methylene blue (MB) discoloration tests. After discolorations tests, TiO2 was coagulated with magnetite particles using FeCl3·6 H2O at a fixed pH value. Magnetic separation of coagulated TiO2 and magnetite was carried out by a permanent magnet. The obtained results showed that the particle size of the powders synthesized at low-temperature was very small and the specific surface area high. The phase content of the powder was also shown to depend greatly on the acidity of the synthesis solution. Powder synthesized by liquid flame spraying was mixture of anatase and rutile phases with essentially larger particle size and lower specific surface area than those of low-temperature synthesized powders. The MB discoloration test showed that photocatalytic activity depends on the phase structure as well as the specific surface area of the synthesized TiO2 powder. The magnetic separation of TiO2-magnetite coagulate from solution proved to be efficient around pH:8.

  1. Immunomagnetic separation and solid-phase detection of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, M; Reizenstein, E; Uhlén, M; Lundeberg, J

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, novel solid-phase methods were used for both sample preparation and PCR detection of Bordetella pertussis. The sample preparation was performed by immunomagnetic separation with paramagnetic beads coated with polyclonal antibodies directed toward the surface antigens of the bacteria. The precoated immunobeads were directly used on nasopharyngeal aspirates to capture the bacteria on the solid support and were subsequently transferred to the PCR tube with no further manipulations. The region encompassing the pertussis toxin promoter was analyzed to allow direct discrimination between the three major Bordetella species (B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica). The resulting amplicons were captured on a second magnetic solid phase, allowing detection and restriction analysis of the target sequence. A colorimetric detection system based on a DNA binding fusion protein enabled the use of standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent format tests both for the detection of Bordetella spp. and for species evaluation. When the optimized system was evaluated on 55 clinical aspirate samples, 21 of 22 (95%) culture-positive samples were positive by the system that we developed. In addition, two samples were positive by the PCR-based assay, while the culture assay was negative. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:8815083

  2. Evolution of a phase separated gravity independent bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villeneuve, Peter E.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor is described. The initial prototype, a zero head-space manifold silicone membrane based reactor, maintained large diffusional resistances. Obtaining oxygen transfer rates needed to support carbon-recycling aerobic microbes is impossible if large resistances are maintained. Next generation designs (Mark I and II) mimic heat exchanger design to promote turbulence at the tubing-liquid interface, thereby reducing liquid and gas side diffusional resistances. While oxygen transfer rates increased by a factor of ten, liquid channeling prevented further increases. To overcome these problems, a Mark III reactor was developed which maintains inverted phases, i.e., media flows inside the silicone tubing, oxygen gas is applied external to the tubing. This enhances design through changes in gas side driving force concentration and liquid side turbulence levels. Combining an applied external pressure of 4 atm with increased Reynolds numbers resulted in oxygen transfer intensities of 232 mmol O2/l per hr (1000 times greater than the first prototype and comparable to a conventional fermenter). A 1.0 liter Mark III reactor can potentially deliver oxygen supplies necessary to support cell cultures needed to recycle a 10-astronaut carbon load continuously.

  3. Evolution of a phase separated gravity independent bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Peter E.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    The evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor is described. The initial prototype, a zero head-space manifold silicone membrane based reactor, maintained large diffusional resistances. Obtaining oxygen transfer rates needed to support carbon-recycling aerobic microbes is impossible if large resistances are maintained. Next generation designs (Mark I and II) mimic heat exchanger design to promote turbulence at the tubing-liquid interface, thereby reducing liquid and gas side diffusional resistances. While oxygen transfer rates increased by a factor of ten, liquid channeling prevented further increases. To overcome these problems, a Mark III reactor was developed which maintains inverted phases, i.e., media flows inside the silicone tubing, oxygen gas is applied external to the tubing. This enhances design through changes in gas side driving force concentration and liquid side turbulence levels. Combining an applied external pressure of four atmospheres with increased Reynolds numbers resulted in oxygen transfer intensities of 232 mmol O2/l/h (1000 times greater than first prototype and comparable to a conventional fermenter). A 1.0 liter Mark III reactor can potentially deliver oxygen supplies necessary to support cell cultures needed to recycle a 10 astronaut carbon load continuously.

  4. Phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, W.; Guo, G.-C.

    2011-09-15

    We study the phase separation of a spin-polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling near a wide Feshbach resonance. As a result of the competition between spin-orbit coupling and population imbalance, the phase diagram for a uniform gas develops a rich structure of phase separation involving topologically nontrivial gapless superfluid states. We then demonstrate the phase separation induced by an external trapping potential and discuss the optimal parameter region for the experimental observation of the gapless superfluid phases.

  5. DUAL PHASE MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CO2 SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Seungjoon Chung; Matthew Anderson

    2005-12-01

    This project is intended to expand upon the previous year's research en route to the development of a sustainable dual phase membrane for CO{sub 2} separation. It was found that the pores within the supports had to be less than 9 {micro}m in order to maintain the stability of the dual phase membrane. Pores larger than 9 {micro}m would be unable to hold the molten carbonate phase in place, rendering the membrane ineffective. Calculations show that 80% of the pore volume of the 0.5 media grade metal support was filled with the molten carbonate. Information obtained from EDS and SEM confirmed that the molten carbonate completely infiltrated the pores on both the contact and non-contact size of the metal support. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} at 450-750 C show very low permeance of those two gases through the dual phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased quite rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase. XRD data obtained form the surface of the membrane indicated the formation of lithium iron oxides on the support. This layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture, limiting the formation of the ionic species. These results indicate that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation has created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which can be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Future research efforts will be directed towards preparation of a new ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane. The membrane will based on an

  6. Kinetics of phase separation in polymer blends revealed by resonance light scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Xudong; Fu, Ruowen; Luo, Wei-ang; Li, Yunbo; Zhang, Mingqiu

    2010-03-01

    In this work, kinetics of phase separation in the blends of polystyrene (PS) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) was investigated by a simple and sensitive method, i.e., resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopy. Owing to the aggregation of chromophores (phenyl rings) in the systems when phase separation occurred, RLS intensities were drastically enhanced and hence acted as a characteristic indicator. At the early stage of phase separation, two different RLS behaviors corresponding to spinodal decomposition (SD) and nucleation and growth (NG) were observed. The Cahn-Hilliard (C-H) linearization theory was found not applicable for kinetics analysis of the scattering data at lambda < 346 nm due to RLS effect near the absorption band. Based on a decomposition reaction model, the apparent activation energy of SD phase separation was estimated by the Arrhenius equation. In view of its simplicity and sensitivity of measurement, affordability and availability of instrument, and wide application range of polymer blends, RLS proved to be an effective means for characterization of microstructural variation in polymer blends. PMID:20165773

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY PHASE ENHANCED GAS-LIQUID ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    2004-09-30

    A new process called phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption has been developed in its early stage. It was found that adding another phase into the absorption system of gas/aqueous phase could enhance the absorption rate. A system with three phases was studied. In the system, gas phase was carbon dioxide. Two liquid phases were used. One was organic phase. Another was aqueous phase. By addition of organic phase into the absorption system of CO{sub 2}-aqueous phase, the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} was increased significantly. CO{sub 2} finally accumulated into aqueous phase. The experimental results proved that (1) Absorption rate of carbon dioxide was enhanced by adding organic phase into gas aqueous phase system; (2) Organic phase played the role of transportation of gas solute (CO{sub 2}). Carbon dioxide finally accumulated into aqueous phase.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY PHASE ENHANCED GAS-LIQUID ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu; Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2004-05-01

    A new process called phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption has been developed in its early stage. It was found that adding another phase into the absorption system of gas/aqueous phase could enhance the absorption rate. A system with three phases was studied. In the system, gas phase was carbon dioxide. Two liquid phases were used. One was organic phase. Another was aqueous phase. By addition of organic phase into the absorption system of CO{sub 2}-aqueous phase, the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} was increased significantly. CO{sub 2} finally accumulated into aqueous phase. The experimental results proved that (1) Absorption rate of carbon dioxide was enhanced by adding organic phase into gas aqueous phase system; (2) Organic phase played the role of transportation of gas solute (CO{sub 2}). Carbon dioxide finally accumulated into aqueous phase.

  9. Interplay Between Two Phase Transitions: Crystallization and Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in a Polyolefin Blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Charles C.; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2006-03-01

    The correlation between liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and crystallization at several compositions in statistical copolymer blends of poly (ethylene-co-hexene) (PEH) and poly (ethylene-co-butene) (PEB) has been examined by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The overwhelming change in the crystallization kinetics due to the density fluctuation caused by the spontaneous spinodal LLPS is observed. This coupling mechanism suggests a new mechanism in the nucleation-crystallization process. All evidences are pointing to a cross-over mechanism from the spinodal fluctuations (of liquid-liquid phase separation) to the nucleation and than crystallization. The detailed experimental evidences and a suggested physical model will be presented.

  10. Effect of temperature and shear on phase separation in liquid crystalline polymer/polycarbonate blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kam-Wa (Danny)

    The objective of this thesis is to obtain deeper understanding of phase separation in blends of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) and polycarbonate (PC) under the influence of temperature and shear (at low steady shear rates). The LCP selected for this work was a main-chain type copolyester exhibiting low solubility and high chemical resistance. Therefore, melt-blending was used to prepare blends. Polarized light microscopy, in conjunction with a heating/shearing stage, was employed to observe the evolution of the phase-separated structure in the blends. Phase separation in the blends was observed with increasing temperature. Two phase separation temperatures (Tsp1 and Tsp2) were determined for each LCP/PC blend composition. Thus, the phase diagram, obtained under quiescent conditions, exhibited three regions separated by two internal boundaries. Thermally induced phase separation in the blends at different positions of the phase diagram was investigated. A wide range of phase-separated morphologies was observed. Blends containing 20-30 wt.% LCP developed into interconnected structures, which is one of the characteristic of spinodal decomposition. Blends with other LCP contents (up to 60 wt.%) formed droplet-type structure. Coarsening of the phase-separated domains was also observed in the late stages of the phase separation. The effects of low steady shear rate on the phase diagram and phase-separated morphology of the blends were examined. Compared to the phase diagram under quiescent conditions, phase separation temperatures were shifted to lower values at the corresponding concentrations. Also, the speed and extent of phase separation in the 50 wt.% blends increased, when shear was applied. Thus, the blend exhibited shear-induced phase separation behavior at low shear rates.

  11. Architecture Study on Telemetry Coverage for Immediate Post-Separation Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lee, Charles H.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Stocklin, Frank J.; Zillig, David J.; Fielhauer, Karl B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. This study is a collaboration effort between Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed.This paper presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. This study is a collaboration effort between Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) At low altitude (< 10000 km) when most post-separation critical operations are executed, Earth-based network

  12. Nanoparticle-Mediated, Light-Induced Phase Separations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Oara; Neumann, Albert D; Silva, Edgar; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Tian, Shu; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles that both absorb and scatter light, when dispersed in a liquid, absorb optical energy and heat a reduced fluid volume due to the combination of multiple scattering and optical absorption. This can induce a localized liquid-vapor phase change within the reduced volume without the requirement of heating the entire fluid. For binary liquid mixtures, this process results in vaporization of the more volatile component of the mixture. When subsequently condensed, these two steps of vaporization and condensation constitute a distillation process mediated by nanoparticles and driven by optical illumination. Because it does not require the heating of a large volume of fluid, this process requires substantially less energy than traditional distillation using thermal sources. We investigated nanoparticle-mediated, light-induced distillation of ethanol-H2O and 1-propanol-H2O mixtures, using Au-SiO2 nanoshells as the absorber-scatterer nanoparticle and nanoparticle-resonant laser irradiation to drive the process. For ethanol-H2O mixtures, the mole fraction of ethanol obtained in the light-induced process is substantially higher than that obtained by conventional thermal distillation, essentially removing the ethanol-H2O azeotrope that limits conventional distillation. In contrast, for 1-propanol-H2O mixtures the distillate properties resulting from light-induced distillation were very similar to those obtained by thermal distillation. In the 1-propanol-H2O system, a nanoparticle-mediated, light-induced liquid-liquid phase separation was also observed. PMID:26535465

  13. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Matthew Anderson

    2006-09-29

    Dual-phase membranes consisting of stainless steel supports infiltrated with molten carbonate have been shown to be selective to CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (400-650 C). However, over time at high temperatures, the formation of iron oxides on the surface of the stainless steel supports render the membranes ineffective. This report details synthesis and characteristics of dual-phase carbonate membrane with an oxidation resistant perovskite type ceramic (lanthanum-strontium-cobaltite-iron; LSCF) support. Porous LSCF supports were prepared from its powder synthesized by the citrate method. Both steady state permeation and mercury porosimetry confirmed that the LSCF membrane sintered at 900 C has pores large enough to absorb molten carbonate, yet small enough to retain the molten carbonate under high pressure conditions. Results of XRD analysis have shown that LSCF and the molten carbonate mixture do not react with each other at temperatures below 700 C. Four-point method conductivity tests indicate that the support material has sufficiently high electronic conductivity for this application. Li-Na-K carbonate was coated to the porous LSCF support by a liquid infiltration method. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. Preliminary high temperature permeation experiments indicate that the membrane does separate CO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}, with a maximum flux of 0.623 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min obtained at 850 C.

  14. Phase separation explains a new class of self-organized spatial patterns in ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Doelman, Arjen; Rottschäfer, Vivi; de Jager, Monique; Herman, Peter M J; Rietkerk, Max; van de Koppel, Johan

    2013-07-16

    The origin of regular spatial patterns in ecological systems has long fascinated researchers. Turing's activator-inhibitor principle is considered the central paradigm to explain such patterns. According to this principle, local activation combined with long-range inhibition of growth and survival is an essential prerequisite for pattern formation. Here, we show that the physical principle of phase separation, solely based on density-dependent movement by organisms, represents an alternative class of self-organized pattern formation in ecology. Using experiments with self-organizing mussel beds, we derive an empirical relation between the speed of animal movement and local animal density. By incorporating this relation in a partial differential equation, we demonstrate that this model corresponds mathematically to the well-known Cahn-Hilliard equation for phase separation in physics. Finally, we show that the predicted patterns match those found both in field observations and in our experiments. Our results reveal a principle for ecological self-organization, where phase separation rather than activation and inhibition processes drives spatial pattern formation. PMID:23818579

  15. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on the shuttle in a Get Away Special (GAS) canister: Design and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid that will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The phase separation experiment is totally self-contained, with three levels of containment on all fluids, and provides all necessary electrical power and control. The controller regulates the temperature of the fluid and controls data logging and sampling. An astronaut-activated switch will initiate the experiment and an unmaskable interrupt is provided for shutdown. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS 42 in April 1991. Presented here are the design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost.

  16. Theory of Phase Separation and Polarization for Pure Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Gavish, Nir; Yochelis, Arik

    2016-04-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids are attractive to numerous applications and particularly, to renewable energy devices. As solvent free electrolytes, they demonstrate a paramount connection between the material morphology and Coulombic interactions: the electrode/RTIL interface is believed to be a product of both polarization and spatiotemporal bulk properties. Yet, theoretical studies have dealt almost exclusively with independent models of morphology and electrokinetics. Introduction of a distinct Cahn-Hilliard-Poisson type mean-field framework for pure molten salts (i.e., in the absence of any neutral component), allows a systematic coupling between morphological evolution and the electrokinetic phenomena, such as transient currents. Specifically, linear analysis shows that spatially periodic patterns form via a finite wavenumber instability and numerical simulations demonstrate that while labyrinthine type patterns develop in the bulk, lamellar structures are favored near charged surfaces. The results demonstrate a qualitative phenomenology that is observed empirically and thus, provide a physically consistent methodology to incorporate phase separation properties into an electrochemical framework. PMID:26954098

  17. Light scattering investigation of phase separation in a micelle system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1993-12-31

    We report a real-time, two-dimensional light scattering study of the evolution of structure in a two component nonionic micelle system during phase separation via spinodal decomposition. Our principal finding is that domain growth proceeds much slower than the cube root of time prediction for simple binary fluids. In fact, the growth kinetics can be empirically described as a stretched exponential approach to a pinned domain size. Although the kinetics are not yet understood, this anomalous behavior may be due to the ability of the spherical micelles to reorganize into more complex structures. The domain structure also shows some anomalies. Although at short times the expected structure factor for a critical quench is observed, at long times the structure factor crosses over to the off-critical form. However, in all cases the average scattered intensity is proportional to the cube of the domain size. These findings are discussed in comparison to standard theories of and experimental work on binary fluids.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    2006-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer (transportation layer phase) is used for the increase of absorption rate. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the liquid mass transfer

  19. Effect of OH content on phase separation behavior of soda-silica glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, G. F.; Weinberg, M. C.; Smith, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of phase separation in a gel and ordinary soda-silica glass are followed by use of small angle X-ray scattering. Also, the influence of OH on the phase separation behavior is studied. It is found that OH accelerates the growth of the secondary phase, and that gel and ordinary glasses of similar composition and OH concentration exhibit similar phase separation characteristics.

  20. W/O emulsions: solvent phase separation for pH determination.

    PubMed

    Bungard, A; Hameyer, P; Metzelaars, J

    1996-12-01

    Synopsis The aim of this investigation was to find a measure for the phase separation by substances capable of rapidly demulsifying emulsions, which is necessary for the correct determination of the pH in cosmetic W/O emulsions. Results are reported for pH determination in the separated water phase of W/O emulsions containing metal soaps, micropigments and thermally unstable active agents. Of the substances investigated - solvents of different polarity and electrolytes - the best were mixtures of the polar butanol, which has a surfactant-like molecular structure and limited oil and water solubility, and the low polar trichloromethane which in particular has strong fat- and wax-dissolving properties. The combination achieved within 10 to 20 min at room temperature complete phase separations. Stable preparations, based on a polymer emulsifier (cetyl dimethicone copolyol), were demulsified as well as metal soap stabilized creams which characteristically contain a high amount of stabilizing waxes. The so-called solvent phase separation method was confirmed by using model preparations of known pH. During the investigation of model emulsions matching those used in practice, it was found, for example, that magnesium and aluminium stearate as well as various types of micronized zinc oxide which are dissolved or dispersed in the oil phase can shift the pH of the aqueous phase during manufacture from an initial acidic value through neutral to pH 8-10. Time-related and temperature-related changes in pH in formulations containing thermally unstable additives such as dihydroxyacetone or urea can be easily monitored. PMID:19245446

  1. W/O emulsions: solvent phase separation for pH determination.

    PubMed

    Bungard, A; Hameyer, P; Metzelaars, J

    1996-12-01

    Synopsis The aim of this investigation was to find a measure for the phase separation by substances capable of rapidly demulsifying emulsions, which is necessary for the correct determination of the pH in cosmetic W/O emulsions. Results are reported for pH determination in the separated water phase of W/O emulsions containing metal soaps, micropigments and thermally unstable active agents. Of the substances investigated - solvents of different polarity and electrolytes - the best were mixtures of the polar butanol, which has a surfactant-like molecular structure and limited oil and water solubility, and the low polar trichloromethane which in particular has strong fat- and wax-dissolving properties. The combination achieved within 10 to 20 min at room temperature complete phase separations. Stable preparations, based on a polymer emulsifier (cetyl dimethicone copolyol), were demulsified as well as metal soap stabilized creams which characteristically contain a high amount of stabilizing waxes. The so-called solvent phase separation method was confirmed by using model preparations of known pH. During the investigation of model emulsions matching those used in practice, it was found, for example, that magnesium and aluminium stearate as well as various types of micronized zinc oxide which are dissolved or dispersed in the oil phase can shift the pH of the aqueous phase during manufacture from an initial acidic value through neutral to pH 8-10. Time-related and temperature-related changes in pH in formulations containing thermally unstable additives such as dihydroxyacetone or urea can be easily monitored.

  2. Solidification Behavior of Polymer Solution during Membrane Preparation by Thermally Induced Phase Separation

    PubMed Central

    Ishigami, Toru; Nii, Yoko; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    The solidification behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) solution during membrane preparation by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was investigated. Apparatus newly developed in our laboratory was used to quantitatively measure membrane stiffness during phase separation. In this apparatus, a cooling polymer solution, placed on a stage, is moved upwards and the surface of the polymer solution contacts a sphere attached to the tip of a needle. The displacement of a blade spring attached to the needle is then measured by a laser displacement sensor. Different phase separation modes, such as liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation and solid-liquid (S-L) phase separation (polymer crystallization) were investigated. In the case of S-L phase separation, the stiffness of the solution surface began to increase significantly just before termination of crystallization. In contrast, L-L phase separation delayed solidification of the solution. This was because mutual contact of the spherulites was obstructed by droplets of polymer-lean phase formed during L-L phase separation. Thus, the solidification rate was slower for the L-L phase separation system than for the S-L phase separation system. PMID:24957124

  3. Solidification Behavior of Polymer Solution during Membrane Preparation by Thermally Induced Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Toru; Nii, Yoko; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    The solidification behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) solution during membrane preparation by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was investigated. Apparatus newly developed in our laboratory was used to quantitatively measure membrane stiffness during phase separation. In this apparatus, a cooling polymer solution, placed on a stage, is moved upwards and the surface of the polymer solution contacts a sphere attached to the tip of a needle. The displacement of a blade spring attached to the needle is then measured by a laser displacement sensor. Different phase separation modes, such as liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation and solid-liquid (S-L) phase separation (polymer crystallization) were investigated. In the case of S-L phase separation, the stiffness of the solution surface began to increase significantly just before termination of crystallization. In contrast, L-L phase separation delayed solidification of the solution. This was because mutual contact of the spherulites was obstructed by droplets of polymer-lean phase formed during L-L phase separation. Thus, the solidification rate was slower for the L-L phase separation system than for the S-L phase separation system. PMID:24957124

  4. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Tsouris, Costas; McFarlane, Joanna

    2008-03-01

    In continuation of the development of composite materials for air separation based on molecular sieving properties and magnetic fields effects, several molecular sieve materials were tested in a flow system, and the effects of temperature, flow conditions, and magnetic fields were investigated. New carbon materials adsorbents, with and without pre-loaded super-paramagnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized; all materials were packed in chromatographic type columns which were placed between the poles of a high intensity, water-cooled, magnet (1.5 Tesla). In order to verify the existence of magnetodesorption effect, separation tests were conducted by injecting controlled volumes of air in a flow of inert gas, while the magnetic field was switched on and off. Gas composition downstream the column was analyzed by gas chromatography and by mass spectrometry. Under the conditions employed, the tests confirmed that N2 - O2 separation occurred at various degrees, depending on material's intrinsic properties, temperature and flow rate. The effect of magnetic fields, reported previously for static conditions, was not confirmed in the flow system. The best separation was obtained for zeolite 13X at sub-ambient temperatures. Future directions for the project include evaluation of a combined system, comprising carbon and zeolite molecular sieves, and testing the effect of stronger magnetic fields produced by cryogenic magnets.

  5. Phase separation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    McCluskey, M.D.; Romano, L.T.; Krusor, B.S.; Bour, D.P.; Johnson, N.M.; Brennan, S.

    1998-04-01

    Evidence is presented for phase separation in In{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}N/GaN multiple quantum wells. After annealing for 40 h at a temperature of 950{degree}C, the absorption threshold at 2.95 eV is replaced by a broad peak at 2.65 eV. This peak is attributed to the formation of In-rich InGaN phases in the active region. X-ray diffraction measurements show a shift in the diffraction peaks toward GaN, consistent with the formation of an In-poor phase. A diffraction peak corresponding to an In-rich phase is also present in the annealed material. Nanoscale In-rich InGaN precipitates are observed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Architecture Study on Telemetry Coverage for Immediate Post-Separation Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lee, Charles; Kellogg, Kent; Stocklin, Frank; Zillig, David; Fielhauer, Karl

    2008-01-01

    This document is the viewgraphs that accompanies a paper that presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) At low altitude (< 10000 km) when most post-separation critical operations are executed, Earth-based network (e.g. Deep Space Network (DSN)) can only provide limited coverage, whereas space-based network (e.g. Space Network (SN)) can provide continuous coverage. 2) Commercial-off-the-shelf SN compatible transmitters are available for small satellite applications. In this paper we present the detailed coverage analysis of Earth-based and Space-based networks. We identify the key functional and performance requirements of the architecture, and describe the proposed selection criteria of the spacecraft transmitter. We conclude the paper with a proposed forward plan.

  7. Selective Metal Deposition on a Phase-Separated Polymer Blend Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2013-07-01

    We report selective metal deposition on a phase-separated polymer blend surface. A polymer blend film consisting of polystyrene (PS) and a polystyrene-block-polybutadiene copolymer (PS-BR) was annealed, and a micro-phase-separated film was obtained. Pb was evaporated onto the phase-separated surface without an evaporation mask and was selectively deposited on the PS phase but not on the PS-BR phase. We achieved fine metal patterns corresponding to the microphase separation. This result suggests a novel method of preparing fine metal patterns for electronics and photonics.

  8. Phase separation explains a new class of self-organized spatial patterns in ecological systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Doelman, Arjen; Rottschäfer, Vivi; de Jager, Monique; Herman, Peter M. J.; Rietkerk, Max; van de Koppel, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The origin of regular spatial patterns in ecological systems has long fascinated researchers. Turing’s activator–inhibitor principle is considered the central paradigm to explain such patterns. According to this principle, local activation combined with long-range inhibition of growth and survival is an essential prerequisite for pattern formation. Here, we show that the physical principle of phase separation, solely based on density-dependent movement by organisms, represents an alternative class of self-organized pattern formation in ecology. Using experiments with self-organizing mussel beds, we derive an empirical relation between the speed of animal movement and local animal density. By incorporating this relation in a partial differential equation, we demonstrate that this model corresponds mathematically to the well-known Cahn–Hilliard equation for phase separation in physics. Finally, we show that the predicted patterns match those found both in field observations and in our experiments. Our results reveal a principle for ecological self-organization, where phase separation rather than activation and inhibition processes drives spatial pattern formation. PMID:23818579

  9. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Fout

    2007-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer is used for the increase of absorption rate, and plays the role of transportation of CO{sub 2}. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the

  10. Vapor-phase elemental mercury adsorption by residual carbon separated from fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Gang; Chen, Chang-He; Kolker, Kruse H

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption capacity for vapor-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) of residual carbon separated from fly ash was studied in an attempt for the control of elemental mercury emissions from combustion processes. At low mercury concentrations (< 200 microg/m3), unburned carbon had higher adsorption capacity than commercial activated carbon. The adsorbality of unburned carbon was also found to be source dependent. Isotherms of FS carbon (separated from fly ash of a power plant of Shishi in Fujian Province) were similar to those classified as type II. Isotherms of XJ carbon (separated from fly ash of a power plant of Jingcheng in Shanxi Province) were more like those classified as type II. Due to the relatively low production costs, these residual carbons would likely be considerably more cost-effective for the full-scale removal of mercury from combustion flue gases than other technology.

  11. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  12. Crystalline Phase Separation in Phosphate Containing Waste Glasses: Relevance to INEEL HAW

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-09-21

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges have been studied. The type of phase separation that occurs in the phosphate rich borosilicate waste glasses, such as those investigated for INEEL, crystallizes upon cooling. This type of phase separation mechanism is less well studied than amorphous phase separation in phosphate poor borosilicate waste glasses. Therefore, the type of phase separation, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of INEEL-type glasses were examined and the data statistically analyzed in this study.

  13. Phase separation of integral membrane proteins in Triton X-114 solution.

    PubMed

    Bordier, C

    1981-02-25

    A solution of the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 is homogeneous at 0 degrees C but separates in an aqueous phase and a detergent phase above 20 degrees C. The extent of this detergent phase separation increases with the temperature and is sensitive to the presence of other surfactants. The partition of proteins during phase separation in solutions of Triton X-114 is investigated. Hydrophilic proteins are found exclusively in the aqueous phase, and integral membrane proteins with an amphiphilic nature are recovered in the detergent phase. Triton X-114 is used to solubilize membranes and whole cells, and the soluble material is submitted to phase separation. Integral membrane proteins can thus be separated from hydrophilic proteins and identified as such in crude membrane or cellular detergent extracts.

  14. Removal of endotoxin from protein solutions by phase separation using Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Aida, Y; Pabst, M J

    1990-09-14

    Endotoxin contamination of protein solutions was reduced by a phase separation technique using the detergent, Triton X-114. Protein solutions containing endotoxin were treated with Triton X-114 on ice. The solution was then warmed to 37 degrees C, whereupon two phases formed. The Triton X-114 phase, containing the endotoxin, was precipitated by centrifugation. The first cycle of phase separation produced a 1000-fold reduction of endotoxin from contaminated preparations of cytochrome c, catalase and albumin. Complete removal of endotoxin could be achieved by further cycles of phase separation. Each cycle of phase separation resulted in only a 2% loss of protein, and could be completed within 15 min. The small amount of detergent (0.018%) that persisted in protein solution could be removed by gel filtration or absorption. Proteins treated by this procedure retained normal functions. This phase separation technique provides a rapid and gentle method for removing endotoxin from protein solutions.

  15. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  16. Formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal composites by a surface-controlled anisotropic phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hong; Khoo, Iam Choon; Yu, Chang-Jae; Jung, Min-Sik; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2005-01-10

    We report on formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal (PLC) composites using a surface-controlled phase separation method. The binary nature of the PLC phase gratings is produced by employing a single step photo-ablation through an amplitude photomask which precisely controls the interfacial interactions between the LC and the photopolymer on the alignment layer. A subsequent illumination of the ultraviolet light onto the whole PLC promotes an anisotropic phase separation resulting in the formation of distinct binary patterns for the PLC structure. The electrically tunable diffraction properties of the binary phase gratings are presented.

  17. BEC BCS crossover, phase transitions and phase separation in polarized resonantly-paired superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2007-08-01

    We study resonantly-paired s-wave superfluidity in a degenerate gas of two species (hyperfine states labeled by ↑, ↓) of fermionic atoms when the numbers N↑ and N↓ of the two species are unequal, i.e., the system is "polarized." We find that the continuous crossover from the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) limit of tightly-bound diatomic molecules to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) limit of weakly correlated Cooper pairs, studied extensively at equal populations, is interrupted by a variety of distinct phenomena under an imposed population difference Δ N ≡ N↑ - N↓. Our findings are summarized by a "polarization" (Δ N) versus Feshbach-resonance detuning ( δ) zero-temperature phase diagram, which exhibits regions of phase separation, a periodic FFLO superfluid, a polarized normal Fermi gas and a polarized molecular superfluid consisting of a molecular condensate and a fully polarized Fermi gas. We describe numerous experimental signatures of such phases and the transitions between them, in particular focusing on their spatial structure in the inhomogeneous environment of an atomic trap.

  18. Application of an eremomycin-chiral stationary phase for the separation of DL-methionine using simulated moving bed technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gedicke, K; Kuznetsov, M A; Staroverov, S M; Seidel-Morgenstern, A

    2007-08-24

    Recently a new chiral stationary phase (CSP) was introduced, based on the immobilization of the macrocyclic glycopeptide eremomycin to epoxy-activated silica. The application of this new CSP to preparative enantioseparation using simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography will be presented. MeOH-H(2)O (0.1M NaH(2)PO(4))=20/80 (v/v) was used as the mobile phase to separate the enantiomers of methionine. Successful separation was realized providing productivities around 15 g(product)/l(stat)/h for both l and d-methionine under nonlinear conditions. In such delicate continuous chromatographic separation processes, besides productivity, the long-term stability of the applied stationary phases is of importance. Column to column fluctuations were negligible and long-term stability of the preparative stationary phase was satisfactory according to the results of perturbation experiments performed before and after long-term SMB runs. PMID:17482626

  19. Separation of gas from liquid in a two-phase flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, L. G.; Elliott, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Separation system causes jets which leave two-phase nozzles to impinge on each other, so that liquid from jets tends to coalesce in center of combined jet streams while gas phase is forced to outer periphery. Thus, because liquid coalescence is achieved without resort to separation with solid surfaces, cycle efficiency is improved.

  20. Comment on "Pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas".

    PubMed

    Zwierlein, Martin W; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    Partridge et al. (Reports, 27 January 2006, p. 503) reported pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas. We argue that it is not possible to distinguish the superfluid from the normal regimes in the presented data, or to discern which clouds were phase-separated. Some of the reported conclusions are inconsistent with recent experiments.

  1. Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

  2. Vertical phase separation in bulk heterojunction solar cells formed by in situ polymerization of fulleride

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lipei; Xing, Xing; Zheng, Lingling; Chen, Zhijian; Xiao, Lixin; Qu, Bo; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Vertical phase separation of the donor and the acceptor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells is crucial to improve the exciton dissociation and charge transport efficiencies. This is because whilst the exciton diffusion length is limited, the organic film must be thick enough to absorb sufficient light. However, it is still a challenge to control the phase separation of a binary blend in a bulk heterojunction device architecture. Here we report the realization of vertical phase separation induced by in situ photo-polymerization of the acrylate-based fulleride. The power conversion efficiency of the devices with vertical phase separation increased by 20%. By optimising the device architecture, the power conversion efficiency of the single junction device reached 8.47%. We believe that in situ photo-polymerization of acrylate-based fulleride is a universal and controllable way to realise vertical phase separation in organic blends. PMID:24861168

  3. Phase separation in lipid bilayers triggered by low pH

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Swetha; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Lipid bilayers have been imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). {yields} At pH 5 phase separation occurs in lipid bilayers containing mixed acyl chains. {yields} Phase separation does not occur when lipids have only unsaturated chains. {yields} Phase separation might drive protein clustering during endocytosis. -- Abstract: Endocytosis involves the capture of membrane from the cell surface in the form of vesicles, which become rapidly acidified to about pH 5. Here we show using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging that this degree of acidification triggers phase separation in lipid bilayers containing mixed acyl chains (e.g. palmitoyl/oleoyl) or complex mixtures (e.g. total brain extract) but not in bilayers containing only lipids with unsaturated chains (e.g. dioleoyl). Since mixed-chain lipids are major constituents of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, the type of phase separation reported here might support protein clustering and signaling during endocytosis.

  4. Timing of traffic lights and phase separation in two-dimensional traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Duo; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of traffic light period in two-dimensional Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) traffic flow model. It is found that a phase separation phenomenon, in which the system separates into coexistence of free flow and jam, could be observed in intermediate vehicle density range when traffic light period T⩾4. We have explained the reason of occurrence of phase separation and investigated its behavior in different traffic light period.

  5. Phase separations in mixtures of a liquid crystal and a nanocolloidal particle.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2009-11-28

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase separations in mixtures of a liquid crystal and a nanocolloidal particle. By taking into account a nematic, a smectic A ordering of the liquid crystal, and a crystalline ordering of the nanoparticle, we calculate the phase diagrams on the temperature-concentration plane. We predict various phase separations, such as a smectic A-crystal phase separation and a smectic A-isotropic-crystal triple point, etc., depending on the interactions between the liquid crystal and the colloidal surface. Inside binodal curves, we find new unstable and metastable regions, which are important in the phase ordering dynamics. We also find a crystalline ordering of the nanoparticles dispersed in a smectic A phase and a nematic phase. The cooperative phenomena between liquid-crystalline ordering and crystalline ordering induce a variety of phase diagrams.

  6. Phase separation in optical lattices in a spin-dependent external potential

    SciTech Connect

    A-Hai Chen; Gao Xianlong

    2010-01-15

    We investigate the phase separation in one-dimensional Fermi gases on optical lattices. The density distributions and the magnetization are calculated by means of the density-matrix renormalization method. The phase separation between spin-up and spin-down atoms is induced by the interplay of the spin-dependent harmonic confinement and the strong repulsive interaction between intercomponent fermions. We find the existence of a critical repulsive interaction strength above which the phase separation evolves. By increasing the trap imbalance, the composite phase of the Mott-insulating core is changed into one of the ferromagnetic insulating core, which is incompressible and originates from the Pauli exclusion principle.

  7. Phase conversion and interface growth in phase-separated 3He - 4He liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Haruka; Satoh, Takeo; Burmistrov, Serguei N.

    2005-10-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the transmission coefficient of a sound propagating through the interface in phase-separated He3-He4 liquid mixtures. The method and the results are described with discussions by examining the phase-conversion process of He3 quasiparticles driven to flow across the interface. From the data, we have determined the kinetic growth coefficient of the interface, ξ(T,P,ω) , as a function of temperature, pressure, and frequency. The temperature range of the present investigation is about 2-100mK at the pressure mainly around 1bar with sound frequency 9.64, 14.4, and 32.4MHz . The main specific features observed for the kinetic growth coefficient are, as follows: (i) there is a maximum at some temperature Tm(ω) depending on the frequency, (ii) above Tm(ω) , ξ decreases with the increase of temperature as ∝ω5/2T-3 , and (iii) below Tm(ω) , ξ becomes frequency independent and diminishes as a cube of temperature, T3 .

  8. Separation of microsomal cytochrome b5 via phase separation in a mixed solution of Triton X-114 and charged dextran.

    PubMed

    Tani, H; Ooura, T; Kamidate, T; Kamataki, T; Watanabe, H

    1998-04-24

    The successful introduction of a charged dextran into the Triton X-114 phase separation system for the selective extraction of cytochrome b5 (cyt. b5) in liver microsomes is described. In the absence of charged dextran, 55% of total microsomal proteins and 84% of cyt. b5 were extracted into the surfactant-rich phase. In the presence of anionic dextran sulfate, the extractability of total microsomal proteins was greatly reduced while that of cyt. b5 was increased. After triplicate extraction, cyt. b5 was purified more than 10-fold from microsomes with a recovery of 91% in the surfactant-rich phase. In view of its operational simplicity, this method provides a good means for the partial purification of cyt. b5 prior to chromatographic separations.

  9. [Separation mechanism of chiral stationary phase based on quinine and crown ether for the direct stereoselective separation of amino acids].

    PubMed

    Wu, Haixia; Wang, Dongqiang; Zhao, Jianchao; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel chiral stationary phase combining quinine and crown ether (QN-CR CSP) was developed to separate amino acid enantiomers. This CSP showed good enantioselectivity for some amino acids. Since the synergistic effect of ion exchange and complexation in chiral recognition of amino acids, a new adsorption isotherm was built. Using the method of frontal analysis by characteristic point (FACP), the adsorption isotherms of tryptophan (Trp) under different mobile phase conditions were determined and fitted the proposed adsorption isotherm model well. With the increase of the competition between metal cationic and amino to crown ether, the equilibrium constant of complexing adsorption was found increased. The chiral separation ability was decreased. The adsorption isotherm improved the understanding of the retention behavior of amino acids on QN-CR CSP, which was also benefit to optimize the structure of the stationary phase.

  10. [Separation mechanism of chiral stationary phase based on quinine and crown ether for the direct stereoselective separation of amino acids].

    PubMed

    Wu, Haixia; Wang, Dongqiang; Zhao, Jianchao; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel chiral stationary phase combining quinine and crown ether (QN-CR CSP) was developed to separate amino acid enantiomers. This CSP showed good enantioselectivity for some amino acids. Since the synergistic effect of ion exchange and complexation in chiral recognition of amino acids, a new adsorption isotherm was built. Using the method of frontal analysis by characteristic point (FACP), the adsorption isotherms of tryptophan (Trp) under different mobile phase conditions were determined and fitted the proposed adsorption isotherm model well. With the increase of the competition between metal cationic and amino to crown ether, the equilibrium constant of complexing adsorption was found increased. The chiral separation ability was decreased. The adsorption isotherm improved the understanding of the retention behavior of amino acids on QN-CR CSP, which was also benefit to optimize the structure of the stationary phase. PMID:27319166

  11. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  12. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  13. Impact of immobilized polysaccharide chiral stationary phases on enantiomeric separations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2006-04-01

    Immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) are gaining importance in the resolution of racemic compounds due to their stable nature on working with normal solvents and those prohibited for use with coated phases (tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, ethyl acetate, and certain other ethers). This review discusses the use of immobilized polysaccharide CSPs in the chiral resolution of various racemates by liquid chromatography. The discussion includes immobilization methodologies, enantioselectivities, efficiencies, and a comparison of chiral recognition capabilities of coated vs. immobilized CSPs. Some applications of immobilized CSPs to the chiral resolution of racemic compounds are also presented. PMID:16830488

  14. Liquid-gas phase separation in confined vibrated dry granular matter.

    PubMed

    Roeller, Klaus; Clewett, James P D; Bowley, R M; Herminghaus, Stephan; Swift, Michael R

    2011-07-22

    A new phase transition is observed experimentally in a dry granular gas subject to vertical vibration between two horizontal plates. Molecular dynamics simulations of this system allow us to investigate the observed phase separation in detail. We find a high-density, low temperature liquid, coexisting with a low-density, high temperature gas moving coherently. The importance of the coherent motion for phase separation is investigated using frequency modulation.

  15. Novel platform for minimizing cell loss on separation process: Droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngho; Hong, Su; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Kangsun; Yun, Seok; Kang, Yuri; Paek, Kyeong-Kap; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Byungkyu

    2007-07-01

    To reduce the problem of cell loss due to adhesion, one of the basic phenomena in microchannel, we proposed the droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator (DMACS). Based on the platform of the DMACS-which consists of permanent magnets, a coverslip with a circle-shaped boundary, and an injection tube-we could collect magnetically (CD45)-labeled (positive) cells with high purity and minimize cell loss due to adhesion. To compare separation efficiency between the MACS and the DMACS, the total number of cells before and after separation with both the separators was counted by flow cytometry. We could find that the number (3241/59 940) of cells lost in the DMACS is much less than that (22 360/59 940) in the MACS while the efficiency of cell separation in the DMACS (96.07%) is almost the same as that in the MACS (96.72%). Practically, with fluorescent images, it was visually confirmed that the statistical data are reliable. From the viability test by using Hoechst 33 342, it was also demonstrated that there was no cell damage on a gas-liquid interface. Conclusively, DMACS will be a powerful tool to separate rare cells and applicable as a separator, key component of lab-on-a-chip.

  16. Phase-Contrast Velocimetry with Simultaneous Fat/Water Separation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin M.; Wieben, Oliver; Samsonov, Alexey A.

    2011-01-01

    Phase-contrast MRI can provide high-resolution angiographic velocity images, especially in conjunction with non-Cartesian k-space sampling. However, acquisitions can be sensitive to errors from artifacts from main magnetic field inhomogeneities and chemical shift from fat. Particularly in body imaging, fat content can cause degraded image quality, create errors in the velocity measurements, and prevent the use of self-calibrated amplitude of static field heterogeneity corrections. To reduce the influence of fat and facilitate self-calibrated amplitude of static field heterogeneity corrections, a combination of chemical shift imaging with phase-contrast velocimetry with nonlinear least-squares estimation of velocity, fat, and water signals is proposed. A chemical shift and first-moment symmetric dual-echo sequence is proposed to minimize the scan time penalty, and initial investigations are performed in phantoms and volunteers that show reduced influence from fat in velocity images. PMID:20512860

  17. Structural studies of the phase separation of amorphous FexGe100-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentz, Robert D.; Bienenstock, Arthur; Morrison, Timothy I.

    1994-02-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray-absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments have been performed on amorphous FexGe100-x alloys over the composition range 0<=x<=72. The observed small-angle x-ray-scattering patterns were compared both with those calculated for a model assuming segregation of the alloys into particular phases and with scattering patterns calculated for voids in a homogeneous matrix. The x-ray-absorption near-edge-structure data were used to test for phase separation. No large-scale phase separation is observed in the semiconductor-metal transition region (15-25 at. % Fe), but fine-scale, kinetically limited phase separation or other types of composition fluctuations cannot be ruled out. The results also indicate that phase separation occurs for alloys with 37<=x<=72, with data consistent with separation into amorphous FeGe2 and Fe3Ge. Thus, ferromagnetic moment formation occurs in the phase-separated region, with the transition composition (40-43 at. % Fe) probably linked to a-Fe3Ge percolation, as hypothesized by Janot for the related FexSn100-x system. This phase separation explains the Mossbauer observation of ``magnetic'' and ``nonmagnetic'' Fe atoms in these alloys.

  18. Conserved interdomain linker promotes phase separation of the multivalent adaptor protein Nck

    PubMed Central

    Banjade, Sudeep; Wu, Qiong; Mittal, Anuradha; Peeples, William B.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The organization of membranes, the cytosol, and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells can be controlled through phase separation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Collective interactions of multivalent molecules mediated by modular binding domains can induce gelation and phase separation in several cytosolic and membrane-associated systems. The adaptor protein Nck has three SRC-homology 3 (SH3) domains that bind multiple proline-rich segments in the actin regulatory protein neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and an SH2 domain that binds to multiple phosphotyrosine sites in the adhesion protein nephrin, leading to phase separation. Here, we show that the 50-residue linker between the first two SH3 domains of Nck enhances phase separation of Nck/N-WASP/nephrin assemblies. Two linear motifs within this element, as well as its overall positively charged character, are important for this effect. The linker increases the driving force for self-assembly of Nck, likely through weak interactions with the second SH3 domain, and this effect appears to promote phase separation. The linker sequence is highly conserved, suggesting that the sequence determinants of the driving forces for phase separation may be generally important to Nck functions. Our studies demonstrate that linker regions between modular domains can contribute to the driving forces for self-assembly and phase separation of multivalent proteins. PMID:26553976

  19. Graphene oxide membrane for liquid phase organic molecular separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Renlong; Arabale, Girish; Kim, Jinseon; Sun, Ke; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Lee, Changgu

    2015-03-01

    The selective permeation of organic solvents and water through graphene oxide (GO) membranes has been demonstrated. Water was found to permeate through GO membranes faster than various alcohols. The permeation rates of propanol are about 80 times lower than that of water. Taking advantage of the differences in the permeation rates, we separated water from the alcohols and obtained alcohols with high purity. For ethanol and 1-propanol, binary solutions of the alcohol and water were filtered efficiently to produce alcohols with concentration of about 97%. However, the selectivity of the filtration of methanol is significantly lower than those of the other alcohols. To understand the mechanism we followed the structural changes in the GO membranes by X-Ray diffraction analysis. From the X-ray diffraction results we speculate that the selectivity of the permeation of water and alcohols is closely related to the molecular sizes of the solvents and their polarity. In order to demonstrate the potential applications of this process for the selective removal of water from aqueous organic mixtures, we performed the separation of water from a bio-oil containing 73% of water. The majority of the water was filtered out resulting in a higher purity bio-oil.

  20. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2003-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a five-year (1997-2002) grant (Mohan and Shoham, DE-FG26-97BC15024, 1997) to The University of Tulsa, to develop compact multiphase separation components for 3-phase flow. The research activities of this project have been conducted through cost sharing by the member companies of the Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) research consortium and the Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology (OCAST). As part of this project, several individual compact separation components have been developed for onshore and offshore applications. These include gas-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLCC{copyright}), liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (LLCC{copyright}), and the gas-liquid-liquid cylindrical cyclones (GLLCC{copyright}). A detailed study has also been completed for the liquid-liquid hydrocyclones (LLHC). Appropriate control strategies have been developed for proper operation of the GLCC{copyright} and LLCC{copyright}. Testing of GLCC{copyright} at high pressure and real crude conditions for field applications is also completed. Limited studies have been conducted on flow conditioning devices to be used upstream of the compact separators for performance improvement. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the 5-year project period, October 1, 1997-March 31, 2003 (including the no-cost extended period of 6 months). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the 5-year budget periods. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section, followed by relevant references. The publications resulting from this study in the form of MS Theses, Ph.D. Dissertation, Journal Papers and

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of the phase separation of a copolymer blend in a thin film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhexiao; Shao, Jing; Pan, Heng; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Peng; Xia, Ru; Wu, Xiangsong; Qian, Jiasheng

    2015-02-23

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study the phase separation of a copolymer blend comprising an alternating copolymer and/or block copolymer in a thin film, and a phase diagram was constructed with a series of composed recipes. The effects of composition and segregation strength on phase separation were discussed in detail. The chain conformation of the block copolymer and alternating copolymer were investigated with changes of the segregation strength. Our simulations revealed that the segment distribution along the copolymer chain and the segregation strength between coarse-grained beads are two important parameters controlling phase separation and chain conformation in thin films of a copolymer blend. A well-controlled phase separation in the copolymer blend can be used to fabricate novel nanostructures. PMID:25504337

  2. Comparison of analytical protein separation characteristics for three amine-based capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2016-02-01

    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber stationary phases are finding utility in the realms of protein analytics as well as downstream processing. We have recently described the modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) C-CP fibers to affect amine-rich phases for the weak anion-exchange (WAX) separation of proteins. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is covalently coupled to the PET surface, with subsequent cross-linking imparted by treatment with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BUDGE). These modifications yield vastly improved dynamic binding capacities over the unmodified fibers. We have also previously employed native (unmodified) nylon 6 C-CP fibers as weak anion/cation-exchange (mixed-mode) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) phases for protein separations. Polyamide, nylon 6, consists of amide groups along the polymer backbone, with primary amines and carboxylic acid end groups. The analytical separation characteristics of these three amine-based C-CP fiber phases are compared here. Each of the C-CP fiber columns in this study was shown to be able to separate a bovine serum albumin/hemoglobin/lysozyme mixture at high mobile phase linear velocity (∼70 mm s(-1)) but with different elution characteristics. These differences reflect the types of protein-surface interactions that are occurring, based on the active group composition of the fiber surfaces. This study provides important fundamental understanding for the development of surface-modified C-CP fiber columns for protein separation.

  3. Active-Adaptive Control of Inlet Separation Using Supersonic Microjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2007-01-01

    Flow separation in internal and external flows generally results in a significant degradation in aircraft performance. For internal flows, such as inlets and transmission ducts in aircraft propulsion systems, separation is undesirable as it reduces the overall system performance. The aim of this research has been to understand the nature of separation and more importantly, to explore techniques to actively control it. In this research, we extended our investigation of active separation control (under a previous NASA grant) where we explored the use of microjets for the control of boundary layer separation. The geometry used for the initial study was a simple diverging Stratford ramp, equipped with arrays of microjets. These early results clearly show that the activation of microjets eliminated flow separation. Furthermore, the velocity-field measurements, using PIV, also demonstrate that the gain in momentum due to the elimination of separation is at least an order of magnitude larger (two orders of magnitude larger in most cases) than the momentum injected by the microjets and is accomplished with very little mass flow through the microjets. Based on our initial promising results this research was continued under the present grant, using a more flexible model. This model allows for the magnitude and extent of separation as well as the microjet parameters to be independently varied. The results, using this model were even more encouraging and demonstrated that microjet control completely eliminated significant regions of flow separation over a wide range of conditions with almost negligible mass flow. Detailed studies of the flowfield and its response to microjets were further examined using 3-component PIV and unsteady pressure measurements, among others. As the results presented this report will show, microjets were successfully used to control the separation of a much larger extent and magnitude than demonstrated in our earlier experiments. In fact, using the

  4. Solute redistribution during phase separation of ternary Fe-Cu-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S. B.; Wang, W. L.; Xia, Z. C.; Wu, Y. H.; Wei, B.

    2015-06-01

    Ternary Fe48Cu48Si4 immiscible alloy was rapidly solidified under the containerless microgravity condition inside a drop tube. Liquid phase separation took place in the alloy melt and led to the formation of various segregated structures. The core-shell structure consisting of Fe-rich and Cu-rich zones and the homogenously dispersed structure were the major structural morphologies. Phase field simulation results revealed that the two-layer core-shell was the final structure of liquid phase separation. The solute redistribution of liquid Fe48Cu48Si4 alloy experienced the macroscopic solute distribution induced by liquid phase separation, the secondary phase separation within the separated liquid phases and the solute trapping during rapid solidification. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the solute Si was enriched in the Fe-rich zone whereas depleted in the Cu-rich zone. In addition, both αFe and (Cu) phases in the Fe-rich zone exhibited a conspicuous solute trapping effect. As compared with (Cu) phase, αFe phase had a stronger affinity with solute Si.

  5. A fuzzy controlled three-phase centrifuge for waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Miller, N.

    1998-02-01

    The three-phase centrifuge technology discussed in this paper was developed by Neal Miller, president of Centech, Inc. The three-phase centrifuge is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes which are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. The technology is unique. It turns the waste into salable oil, reusable water, and landfill-able solids. No secondary waste is produced. The problem is that only the inventor can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this device has far exceeded a one man operation. There is now a need for several centrifuges to be operated at different locations at the same time. This has produced a demand for an intelligent control system, one that could replace a highly skilled operator, or at least supplement the skills of a less experienced operator. The control problem is ideally suited to fuzzy logic, since the centrifuge is a highly complicated machine operated entirely by the skill and experience of the operator. A fuzzy control system was designed for and used with the centrifuge.

  6. Phase separation of rat intestinal brush border membrane proteins using Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Tiruppathi, C; Alpers, D H; Seetharam, B

    1986-03-01

    Rat intestinal microvillus membrane contains at least 24 polypeptides, of which 18 can be solubilized using Triton X-114 at 4 degrees C. Upon phase separation at 32 degrees C, 11 proteins separated nearly completely into the detergent-rich phase, while 9 proteins were found exclusively in the aqueous phase. Enzymes which were uniquely included in the detergent phase were alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and Ca2+-Mg2+ ATPase. The proteins which were excluded from the detergent phase and found exclusively in the aqueous phase included the disaccharidases (glucoamylase, sucrase-isomaltase, trehalase, lactase) and the ileal receptor for the intrinsic factor-cobalamin complex. Integral membrane proteins can thus be separated during solubilization into two groups prior to further purification or characterization.

  7. Rubber-modified epoxies: Analysis of the phase-separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Verchere, D.; Sautereau, H.; Pascault, J.P.; Moschiar, S.M.; Riccardi, C.C.; Williams, R.J.J.

    1993-12-31

    The phase-separation process of a diepoxide based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether cured with a cycloaliphatic diamine in the presence of an epoxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile random copolymer (ETBN) was experimentally studied and theoretically simulated. The increase in the average molecular weight of the epoxy-amine polymer is shown to be the main thermodynamic factor leading to phase separation. The competition between nucleation-growth and spinodal decomposition is analyzed. Low values of interfacial tensions and polymerization rates favor the first mechanism in most cases. A secondary phase separation must occur inside the dispersed particles, leading to a segregated epoxy-amine phase. The theoretical simulation explains the increase of the average diameter of dispersed-phase particles with increasing polymerization temperature. The volume fraction of dispersed phase is the dominating factor affecting fracture toughness. 49 refs., 16 figs.

  8. New separation methodologies for the distinction of the growth phases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Lainioti, G Ch; Kapolos, J; Koliadima, A; Karaiskakis, G

    2010-03-12

    In the present work two separation techniques, namely the gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) and the reversed-flow gas chromatography (RFGC), are proposed for the distinction of the growth phases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AXAZ-1) yeast cycle at different temperatures (30 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 15 degrees C) and pH (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) values. During the fermentation processes, differences observed in the peak profiles, obtained by GrFFF, can be related with the unlike cell growth. The distinction of the phases of AXAZ-1 cell cycle with the GrFFF, was also confirmed with the RFGC technique, which presented similar fermentation time periods for the alcoholic fermentation phases. Simultaneously, the reaction rate constant for each phase of the fermentation process and the activation energies were determined with the aid of the RFGC technique. Finally, the application of both the GrFFF and the RFGC techniques, in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, allowed us to find the ideal experimental conditions (temperature and pH) for the alcoholic fermentation by AXAZ-1. The results indicate that S. cerevisiae cells performed better at 30 degrees C, whereas at lower temperatures decreases in the fermentation rate and in the number of viable cells were observed. Moreover, the pH of the medium (pH 5.0) resulted in higher fermentation rates and ethanol productivities.

  9. Carbide derived carbon from MAX-phases and their separation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth N.

    Improved sorbents with increased selectivity and permeability are needed to meet growing energy and environmental needs. New forms of carbon based sorbents have been discovered recently, including carbons produced by etching metals from metal carbides, known as carbide derived carbons (CDCs). A common method for the synthesis of CDC is by chlorination at elevated temperatures. The goal of this work is to synthesize CDC from ternary carbides and to explore the links between the initial carbide chemistry and structure with the resulting CDCs properties, including porosity. CDC was produced from MAX-phase carbides, in particular Ti3SiC 2, Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Ta2AlC. Additionally, CDC was produced from Ta-based binary carbides, TaC and Ta 2C, and one carbo-nitride Ti2AlC0.5N0.5. The CDC structure was characterized using XRD, Raman microspectroscopy, and HRTEM. Porosity characterization was performed using sorption analysis with both Ar and N2 as adsorbates. It was determined the microporosity of CDC is related to the density of the initial carbide. The layered structure of the MAX-phase carbides lent toward the formation of larger mesopores within the resulting CDCs, while the amount of mesopores was dependent on the chemistry of the carbide. Furthermore, CDC produced from carbides with extremely high theoretical porosity resulted in small specific surface areas due to a collapse of the carbon structure. To expand the potential applications for CDC beyond powder and bulk forms, CDC membranes were produced from a thin film of TiC deposited by magnetron sputtering onto porous ceramic substrates. The TiC thin film was subsequently chlorinated to produce a bilayer membrane with CDC as the active layer. Both gases and liquids are capable of passing the membrane. The membrane separates based on selective adsorption, rather than a size separation molecular sieving effect. Two applications for CDC produced from MAX-phases were investigated: protein adsorption and gas

  10. Phase separation in star-linear polymer mixtures.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Manuel; Likos, Christos N

    2009-05-28

    We study mixtures of star polymers and linear chains in good solvent conditions. We consider the effect of the addition of small chains on the equilibrium structure as well as on the phase behavior of low- and intermediate-functionality star solutions. By using a recently introduced effective cross interaction between stars and chains [C. Mayer and C. N. Likos, Macromolecules 40, 1196 (2007)], we solve the two-component Ornstein-Zernike equation, finding evidence for cluster formation, which is accompanied by a spinodal instability at moderate chain concentrations. The binodal lines are numerically calculated and the dependence of the observed phenomena on functionality, size, and concentrations is rationalized by considering the attractive contribution, which is displayed by the effective, chain-modified star-star interaction potential.

  11. Spectro-microscopic Characterization of Physical Properties and Phase Separations in Individual Atmospheric Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBrien, R. E.; Wang, B.; Neu, A.; Kelly, S. T.; Lundt, N.; Epstein, S. A.; MacMillan, A.; You, Y.; Laskin, A.; Nizkorodov, S.; Bertram, A. K.; Moffet, R.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    The phase state and liquid-liquid phase separations of ambient and laboratory generated aerosol particles were investigated using (1) scanning transmission x-ray microscopy/near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) coupled to a relative humidity (RH) controlled in-situ chamber and (2) environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The phase states of the particles were determined from measurements of their size and optical density. A comparison is made between the observed phase states of ambient samples and of laboratory generated aerosols to determine how well laboratory samples represent the phase of ambient samples. In addition, liquid-liquid phase separations in laboratory generated particles were investigated. Preliminary results showing that liquid-liquid phase separations occur at RH's between the deliquescence and efflorescence points and that the organic phase surrounds the inorganic phase will be presented. The STXM/NEXAFS technique provides insight into the degree of mixing at the deliquescence point and the degree of phase separation for particles of atmospherically relevant sizes.

  12. Ion-assisted phase separation in compound films: An alternate route to ordered nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Scott A.

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, observations of highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of self-organized nanostructures on binary or impurity-laced targets under normal-incidence ion irradiation have excited interest in this phenomenon as a potential route to high-throughput, low-cost manufacture of nanoscale devices or nanostructured coatings. The currently prominent explanation for these structures is a morphological instability driven by ion erosion discovered by Bradley and Shipman; however, recent parameter estimates via molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this erosive instability may not be active for the representative GaSb system in which hexagonal structures were first observed. Motivated by recent experimental and numerical evidence suggesting the likely importance of phase separation during thin-film processing, we here generalize the Bradley-Shipman theory to include the effect of ion-assisted phase separation. The resulting system admits a chemically driven finite-wavelength instability that can explain the order of observed patterns even when the erosive Bradley-Shipman instability is inactive. In a relevant simplifying limit, it also provides an intuitive instability criterion similar to results in thin-film deposition, as well as predictions on pattern wavelengths that agree qualitatively with experimental observations. Finally, we identify a characteristic experimental signature that distinguishes the chemical and morphological instabilities and highlights the need for specific additional experimental data on the GaSb system.

  13. Interface control in organic heterojunction photovoltaic cells by phase separation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heier, Jakob; Castro, Fernando A.; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2007-09-01

    Significant progress is being made in the photovoltaic energy conversion using organic semiconducting materials. One of the focuses of attention is the nanoscale morphology of the donor-acceptor mixture, to ensure efficient charge generation and loss-free charge transport at the same time. Using small molecule and polymer blend systems, recent efforts highlight the problems to ensure an optimized relationship between molecular structure, morphology and device properties. Here, we present two examples using a host/guest mixture approach for the controlled, sequential design of bilayer organic solar cell architectures that consist of a large interface area with connecting paths to the respective electrodes at the same time. In the first example, we employed polymer demixing during spin coating to produce a rough interface: surface directed spinodal decomposition leads to a 2-dimensional spinodal pattern with submicrometer features at the polymer-polymer interface. The second system consists of a solution of a blend of small molecules, where phase separation into a bilayer during spin coating is followed by dewetting. For both cases, the guest can be removed using a selective solvent after the phase separation process, and the rough host surface can be covered with a second active, semiconducting component. We explain the potential merits of the resulting interdigitated bilayer films, and explore to which extent polymer-polymer and surface interactions can be employed to create surface features in the nanometer range.

  14. Ion-assisted phase separation in compound films: An alternate route to ordered nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Scott A.

    2013-11-28

    In recent years, observations of highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of self-organized nanostructures on binary or impurity-laced targets under normal-incidence ion irradiation have excited interest in this phenomenon as a potential route to high-throughput, low-cost manufacture of nanoscale devices or nanostructured coatings. The currently prominent explanation for these structures is a morphological instability driven by ion erosion discovered by Bradley and Shipman; however, recent parameter estimates via molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this erosive instability may not be active for the representative GaSb system in which hexagonal structures were first observed. Motivated by recent experimental and numerical evidence suggesting the likely importance of phase separation during thin-film processing, we here generalize the Bradley-Shipman theory to include the effect of ion-assisted phase separation. The resulting system admits a chemically driven finite-wavelength instability that can explain the order of observed patterns even when the erosive Bradley-Shipman instability is inactive. In a relevant simplifying limit, it also provides an intuitive instability criterion similar to results in thin-film deposition, as well as predictions on pattern wavelengths that agree qualitatively with experimental observations. Finally, we identify a characteristic experimental signature that distinguishes the chemical and morphological instabilities and highlights the need for specific additional experimental data on the GaSb system.

  15. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Separated via Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Fagan, J. A.; Hight Walker, A. R.

    2014-03-01

    We report Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) measurements of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples dispersed in aqueous solutions via surfactant wrapping and separated using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) into chirality-enriched semiconducting and metallic SWCNT species. ATPE provides a rapid, robust, and remarkably tunable separation technique that allows isolation of high-purity, individual SWCNT chiralities via modification of the surfactant environment. We report RRS measurements of individual SWCNT species of various chiral index including, armchair and zigzag metals. Raman provides a powerful technique to quantify the metallic SWCNTs in ATPE fractions separated for metallicity. We measure Raman spectra over a wide range of excitation wavelengths from 457 nm to 850 nm using a series of discrete and continuously tunable laser sources coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled detector. The spectra reveal Raman-active vibrational modes, including the low-frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) and higher-order modes. SWCNT chiral vectors are determined from the Raman spectra, specifically the RBM frequencies and corresponding energy excitation profiles, together with input from theoretical models.

  16. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Separated via Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. R.; Fagan, J. A.; Hight Walker, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    We report resonance Raman Spectroscopy measurements of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples dispersed in aqueous solutions via surfactant wrapping and separated using aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) into chirality-enriched semiconducting and metallic SWCNT species. ATPE provides a rapid, robust, and remarkably tunable separation technique that allows isolation of high-purity, individual SWCNT chiralities via modification of the surfactant environment. We report RRS measurements of individual SWCNT species of various chiral index including, semiconductors, armchair and zigzag metals. Raman provides a powerful technique to quantify the metallic SWCNTs in ATPE fractions separated for metallicity. We measure Raman spectra over a wide range of excitation wavelengths from (457 to 850) nm using a series of discrete and continuously tunable laser sources coupled to a triple-grating spectrometer. The spectra reveal Raman-active vibrational modes, including the low-frequency radial breathing mode (RBM) and higher-order modes. SWCNT chiral vectors are determined from Raman spectra, specifically the RBM frequencies and corresponding energy excitation profiles, together with input from theoretical models.

  17. HPLC SEPARATION OF CHIRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

  18. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was obtained on polysaccharide enantioselective HPLC columns using alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, fonofos, fenamiph...

  19. Multimodal Responses of Self-Organized Circuitry in Electronically Phase Separated Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Herklotz, Andreas; Guo, Hangwen; Wong, Anthony T.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Rack, Philip D.; Ward, Thomas Z.

    2016-07-13

    When confining an electronically phase we separated manganite film to the scale of its coexisting self-organized metallic and these insulating domains allows resistor-capacitor circuit-like responses while providing both electroresistive and magnetoresistive switching functionality.

  20. Rheological monitoring of phase separation induced by chemical reaction in thermoplastic-modified epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vinh-Tung, C.; Lachenal, G.; Chabert, B.

    1996-12-31

    The phase separation induced by chemical reaction in blends of tetraglycidyl-diaminodiphenylmethane epoxy resin with an aromatic diamine hardener and a thermoplastic was monitored. Rheological measurements and morphologies are described.

  1. The effect of liquid-liquid phase separation of glass on the properties and crystallization behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, J. Z.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical discussion is given of the phase separation mechanism of amorphous materials. This includes nucleus growth, spinoidal decomposition, and nuclei agglomeration and coarsening. Various types of glass are analyzed.

  2. Spontaneous resolution of Julia-Kocienski intermediates facilitates phase separation to produce Z- and E-monofluoroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanchuan; Jiang, Fanzhou; Hu, Jinbo

    2015-04-22

    The monofluoroalkene motif is important in drug development as it serves as a peptide bond isostere and is found in a number of biologically active compounds with various pharmacological activities. Direct olefination of carbonyl compound is a straightforward way to prepare monofluoroalkenes; however, these methods often result in a mixture of Z- and E-isomers that cannot be easily separated. We discovered a unique spontaneous resolving reaction that simultaneously addresses the problems in the synthesis and separation of Z- and E-monofluoroalkenes. The reaction is accompanied by a highly efficient spontaneous kinetic resolution and phase labeling of monofluoroalkene precursors which allows the separation of Z- and E-monofluoroalkenes by liquid-liquid extraction. The application of the method is demonstrated by the synthesis and separation of potential anticancer agents, which are inseparable by HPLC.

  3. Silica-based polypeptide-monolithic stationary phase for hydrophilic chromatography and chiral separation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Licong; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2016-05-13

    Glutathione (GSH)-, somatostatin acetate (ST)- and ovomucoid (OV)-functionalized silica-monolithic stationary phases were designed and synthesized for HILIC and chiral separation using capillary electrochromatography (CEC). GSH, ST and OV were covalently incorporated into the silica skeleton via the epoxy ring-opening reaction between their amino groups and the glycidyl moiety in γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) together with polycondensation and copolymerization of tetramethyloxysilane and GPTMS. Not only could the direction and electroosmotic flow magnitude on the prepared GSH-, ST- and OV-silica hybrid monolithic stationary phases be controlled by the pH of the mobile phase, but also a typical HILIC behavior was observed so that the nucleotides and HPLC peptide standard mixture could be baseline separated using an aqueous mobile phase without any acetonitrile during CEC. Moreover, the prepared monolithic columns had a chiral separation ability to separate dl-amino acids. The OV-silica hybrid monolithic column was most effective in chiral separation and could separate dl-glutamic acid (Glu) (the resolution R=1.07), dl-tyrosine (Tyr) (1.57) and dl-histidine (His) (1.06). Importantly, the chiral separation ability of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column could be remarkably enhanced when using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to fabricate an AuNP-mediated GSH-AuNP-GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The R of dl-Glu, dl-Tyr and dl-His reached 1.19, 1.60 and 2.03. This monolithic column was thus applied to separate drug enantiomers, and quantitative separation of all four R/S drug enantiomers were achieved with R ranging from 4.36 to 5.64. These peptide- and protein-silica monolithic stationary phases with typical HILIC separation behavior and chiral separation ability implied their promise for the analysis of not only the future metabolic studies, but also drug enantiomers recognition.

  4. Phase separation between conductive and insulative materials induced by the electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamine, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    To demonstrate that phase separation is a main mechanism of pattern formation for one of the spatiotemporal patterns emerging in the Ag and Sb electrodeposition system, I performed numerical simulations to model the mixed system of conductive and insulative materials under a steady electric field. For such a dissipative system, I derived the extended Cahn-Hilliard equation using Onsager's variational principle. My results demonstrate that conductive and insulative materials phase separate spatially under the constant-current mode.

  5. Phase separation between conductive and insulative materials induced by the electric field.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    To demonstrate that phase separation is a main mechanism of pattern formation for one of the spatiotemporal patterns emerging in the Ag and Sb electrodeposition system, I performed numerical simulations to model the mixed system of conductive and insulative materials under a steady electric field. For such a dissipative system, I derived the extended Cahn-Hilliard equation using Onsager's variational principle. My results demonstrate that conductive and insulative materials phase separate spatially under the constant-current mode. PMID:27575064

  6. Mathematical study of hydrocyclone dispersed phase separation in clearing viscoplastic drilling fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, O. V.; Evtyushkin, E. V.

    2011-03-01

    On the basis of rheodynamic equations, a numerical investigation of the flow structure of a viscoplastic fluid and dispersed phase separation in a hydrocyclone has been carried out. The proposed mathematical model will make it possible to calculate the separation indices and the velocity, pressure, and particle density fields in the apparatus.

  7. Use of Solid Phase Extraction in the Biochemistry Laboratory to Separate Different Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flurkey, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to demonstrate how various lipids and lipid classes could be separated in a biochemistry laboratory setting. Three different SPE methods were chosen on their ability to separate a lipid mixture, consisting of a combination of a either a fatty acid, a triacylglycerol, a mono- or diacylglycerol, phospholipid,…

  8. Effect of pressure on the chromatographic separation of enantiomers under reversed-phase conditions.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Alexey A; Regalado, Erik L; Welch, Christopher J; Schafer, Wes A

    2014-07-25

    Commercially available ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) equipment offers the ability to explore the influence of backpressure on chromatographic separations. However, the influence of pressure on the chromatographic separation of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases remains largely unexplored. In this investigation we surveyed the effects of pressure on the separation of enantiomers using several reversed-phase chiral stationary phases. The experiments were conducted at constant flow rate and column temperature, using isocratic conditions. The only variable parameter was pressure, which was adjusted using a post-column backpressure regulator. For the separation of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases, an increase in pressure from approximately 2,000 psi (138 bar) to approximately 8,000 psi (552 bar) at constant flow rate and temperature led to an increase of retention factors for some analytes and a decrease for others. Achiral separations on a C-18 stationary phase always led only to an increase of retention factor. Interestingly, changes in pressure led to small changes in enantioselectivity during reversed-phase chiral separation of enantiomers, suggesting that such studies may be of value for better understanding the mechanisms underlying chromatographic enantioseparation.

  9. Suppression of turbulent energy cascade due to phase separation in homogenous binary mixture fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Youhei; Okamoto, Sachiya

    2015-11-01

    When a multi-component fluid mixture becomes themophysically unstable state by quenching from well-melting condition, phase separation due to spinodal decomposition occurs, and a self-organized structure is formed. During phase separation, free energy is consumed for the structure formation. In our previous report, the phase separation in homogenous turbulence was numerically simulated and the coarsening process of phase separation was discussed. In this study, we extended our numerical model to a high Schmidt number fluid corresponding to actual polymer solution. The governing equations were continuity, Navier-Stokes, and Chan-Hiliard equations as same as our previous report. The flow filed was an isotropic homogenous turbulence, and the dimensionless parameters in the Chan-Hilliard equation were estimated based on the thermophysical condition of binary mixture. From the numerical results, it was found that turbulent energy cascade was drastically suppressed in the inertial subrange by phase separation for the high Schmidt number flow. By using the identification of turbulent and phase separation structure, we discussed the relation between total energy balance and the structures formation processes. This study is financially supported by the Grand-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. T26820045) from the Ministry of Education, Cul-ture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  10. Phase separation induced molecular fractionation of gum arabic--sugar beet pectin systems.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Yapeng; Phillips, Glyn O; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Jiang, Fatang

    2013-10-15

    This paper investigates the phase separation and phase separation-induced fractionation of gum arabic (GA)/sugar beet pectin (SBP) mixed solutions. A phase diagram, including cloud and binodal curves, was established by visual observation and phase composition analysis. The deviation of the binodal curve from the cloud curve was a result of phase separation-induced fractionation of polydisperse GA and SBP molecules. Fractionation of GA increased the content of arabinogalactan-protein complex (AGP) from ca. 13% to 27%. The fractionated GA (FGA) showed improved emulsifying functionality, whereas the fractionated SBP (FSBP) had a reduced emulsifying functionality. The changes in emulsifying efficiency can be explained by interfacial adsorption behaviors at the oil-water interface as indicated by interfacial tension measurements.

  11. Phase separation of cesium from lead borosilicate glass by heat treatment under a reducing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanglian; Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    A phase-separation technique for removing sodium from glass using a heat-treatment method under a reducing atmosphere was previously developed for sodium recovery from waste glass. In this study, this technique was applied to cesium-containing lead borosilicate glass to concentrate the cesium in phase-separated sodium-rich materials for efficient cesium extraction. The theoretical phase-separation temperature of the sodium-rich phase was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and was predicted to occur below 700°C for lead borosilicate glass. Experimentally, a simulated lead borosilicate glass was melted at 1000°C and subsequently annealed below 700°C under a CO-containing reducing atmosphere. The phase separation of cesium was found to occur with sodium enrichment on the glass surface that was in contact with the gas phase, promoting cesium extraction from the treated glass using water. The cesium extraction efficiency was affected by the surface area of the treated glass that was in contact with water, and under the examined conditions, the cesium extraction efficiency was up to 66%. Phase separation using reductive heat treatment, combined with a water leaching technique, is suggested to be effective for extracting cesium incorporated in borosilicate glass waste. PMID:27368086

  12. Extent and mechanism of phase separation during the extrusion of calcium phosphate pastes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Rory; McCarthy, Helen O; Cunningham, Eoin; Montufar, Edgar; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Wilson, D Ian; Lennon, Alex; Dunne, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase understanding of the mechanism and dominant drivers influencing phase separation during ram extrusion of calcium phosphate (CaP) paste for orthopaedic applications. The liquid content of extrudate was determined, and the flow of liquid and powder phases within the syringe barrel during extrusion were observed, subject to various extrusion parameters. Increasing the initial liquid-to-powder mass ratio, LPR, (0.4-0.45), plunger rate (5-20 mm/min), and tapering the barrel exit (45°-90°) significantly reduced the extent of phase separation. Phase separation values ranged from (6.22 ± 0.69 to 18.94 ± 0.69 %). However altering needle geometry had no significant effect on phase separation. From powder tracing and liquid content determination, static zones of powder and a non-uniform liquid distribution was observed within the barrel. Measurements of extrudate and paste LPR within the barrel indicated that extrudate LPR remained constant during extrusion, while LPR of paste within the barrel decreased steadily. These observations indicate the mechanism of phase separation was located within the syringe barrel. Therefore phase separation can be attributed to either; (1) the liquid being forced downstream by an increase in pore pressure as a result of powder consolidation due to the pressure exerted by the plunger or (2) the liquid being drawn from paste within the barrel, due to suction, driven by dilation of the solids matrix at the barrel exit. Differentiating between these two mechanisms is difficult; however results obtained suggest that suction is the dominant phase separation mechanism occurring during extrusion of CaP paste. PMID:26704546

  13. Effect of confinement and kinetics on the morphology of phase separating gelatin-maltodextrin droplets.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Sophia; Lorén, Niklas; Altskär, Annika; Hermansson, Anne-Marie

    2009-06-01

    The effect of confinement on the structure evolution and final morphology during phase separation and gelation of gelatin and maltodextrin was investigated and compared to the structures seen in bulk phase. Emulsion droplets with diameters from 4 to 300 mum were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. With the confocal laser scanning microscope it was possible to follow the entire phase separating process inside the droplets in real-time. The samples were either quenched directly from 70 degrees C down to 20 degrees C or exposed to holding times at 40 degrees C. Different cooling procedures were studied to examine the structure evolution both before and after gelation in the restricted geometries. The concentration of the biopolymer mixture was kept constant at 4 w/w% gelatin and 6 w/w% maltodextrin. The results revealed that the size of the confinement had a great effect on both the initiation of phase separation and the final morphology of the microstructure inside the emulsion droplets. The phase separation in small droplets was observed to occur at a temperature above the phase separating temperature for bulk. Small droplets had either a microstructure with a shell of maltodextrin and core of gelatin or a microstructure where the two biopolymers had formed two separate bicontinuous halves. The initiation of phase separation in large droplets was similar to what was seen in bulk. The microstructure in large droplets was discontinuous, resembling the morphology in bulk phase. The kinetics had an effect on the character of the maltodextrin inclusions, as the cooling procedure of a direct quench gave spherical inclusions with an even size distribution, while a holding time at 40 degrees C resulted in asymmetrical and elongated inclusions.

  14. The Two-Phase Flow Separator Experiment Breadboard Model: Reduced Gravity Aircraft Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rame, E; Sharp, L. M.; Chahine, G.; Kamotani, Y.; Gotti, D.; Owens, J.; Gilkey, K.; Pham, N.

    2015-01-01

    Life support systems in space depend on the ability to effectively separate gas from liquid. Passive cyclonic phase separators use the centripetal acceleration of a rotating gas-liquid mixture to carry out phase separation. The gas migrates to the center, while gas-free liquid may be withdrawn from one of the end plates. We have designed, constructed and tested a breadboard that accommodates the test sections of two independent principal investigators and satisfies their respective requirements, including flow rates, pressure and video diagnostics. The breadboard was flown in the NASA low-gravity airplane in order to test the system performance and design under reduced gravity conditions.

  15. A Unified Approach to Sickle Hemoglobin Gelation and Phase Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, F. A.; Palma, M. U.; Palma-Vittorelli, M. B.

    2006-03-01

    Protein aggregation has been identified as a major component in a number of diseases of which the earliest known and most thoroughly studied is sickle cell disease. Because of its direct bearing on pathophysiology, HbS polymer formation has been extensively described. The principal challenge now lies in the need of reconciling well documented but apparently contrasting properties of HbS solutions. These are the purely hard-sphere behavior of HbS under non-gelling conditions (extending to the 7th order in virial coefficients), and the equally well documented existence of a region of liquid-liquid demixing of the solution, from which notable deviations from hard-sphere behavior would be expected. We present a strategy to circumvent this impasse by including explicit and well known activity coefficients in a Flory-Huggins like term in the monomer chemical potential. This preserves the successful thermodynamic treatment of polymer formation while introducing a term leading to a spinodal. The formulation is consistent with known data, and implications for kinetics will be described.

  16. Phase separation in Triton X-114 of antigens of transmission blocking immunity in Plasmodium gallinaceum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N

    1985-12-01

    The distribution of proteins of mosquito midgut forms of Plasmodium gallinaceum in the detergent-free (aqueous) and detergent-enriched phases was studied using a phase separation technique in Triton X-114. Of the three surface proteins on gametes and newly fertilized zygotes (240, 56, and 54 kDa) immunoprecipitated by transmission blocking monoclonal antibodies, 240 kDa protein was recovered in the aqueous phase, whereas 56 and 54 kDa proteins were found preferentially in the detergent phase. The hydrophobic properties of the 56 and 54 kDa proteins were also shown by their strong tendency to interact with the lipid bilayers and a hydrophobic matrix phenyl-Sepharose. Monoclonal antibody IID3B3 immunoprecipitated all the three proteins from the whole Triton extract but in the phase-separated extracts reacted only with the 240 kDa protein in the aqueous phase and not with the 56 and 54 kDa doublet in the detergent phase. In Western blot analysis also monoclonal antibody IID3B3 reacted only with the 240 kDa protein. The 240 kDa protein in the aqueous phase was retained by monoclonal antibody IID3B3 linked to Sepharose 4B beads and could be eluted either with 0.1 M acetic acid or 50 mM diethylamine. The 56 and 54 kDa doublet in the detergent phase could be bound to and eluted from Sepharose 4B beads-linked monoclonal antibody IID4 or rabbit anti-male P. gallinaceum gamete serum. Two stage-specific glycoproteins of 26 and 28 kDa on the surface of ookinetes of P. gallinaceum were also separated in the detergent phase following Triton X-114 extraction. Phase separation in Triton X-114 offers a simple approach to the separation of a select group of proteins from the bulk of the cellular proteins.

  17. Method and apparatus for centrifugal separation of dispersed phase from a continuous liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, D.G.

    1986-12-16

    A method is described of treating a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range and containing wax particles, for separating wax particles from the oil mixture, comprising the steps of: centrifugating the oil mixture to be treated in a centrifugal separation device, for separating a quantity of the wax particles from the oil mixture; introducing free excess charge which is net unipolar into the oil mixture, whereby charge transfers to wax particles in the oil mixture; and collecting charged wax particles, for separation from the oil mixture.

  18. Two-step phase separation of a polymer mixture. II. Time evolution of structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Takeji

    2000-04-01

    Nonlinear time evolution of phase-separating structures in the two-step phase separation process was investigated for a deuterated polybutadiene-polyisoprene mixture by using a time-resolved light scattering technique. The mixture studied has a lower critical solution temperature type phase diagram with a spinodal temperature of 36 °C. The first-step phase separation via spinodal decomposition (SD) was conducted by a temperature jump (T-jump) from 23 °C to 42 °C, and to the late stage of the SD for varying time periods, t0, in order to develop phase-separated domains with varying characteristic size Λm,1. This phase separation was followed by the second-step T-jump to a higher temperature of 70 °C so that each phase-separated domain is again quenched into thermodynamically unstable region. Nonlinear time evolution processes of phase-separating structures after the second-step SD were explored as a function of size of the initial structures Λm,1. We found the following intriguing effects of the initial structures on further evolution of phase-separating structure via the second-step SD: (1) When Λm,1≫Λm,0 (characteristic length of composition fluctuations developed in the early stage SD after quenching the system from a single-phase state to 70 °C), small domains were evolved within the initial domains (defined as large domains) developed during the first-step SD process, while (2) when Λm,1⩽Λm,0, the small domains were not developed, but only the large domains grew at a growth rate larger than that at 42 °C. In the former case (1), we succeeded in separating the scattering due to the small domains and that due to large domains from the observed scattering profile. The separation allows us to investigate a coupling of the time evolution of the large and small domains and nonlinear pathways for the system to achieve a new equilibrium structure after the second-step SD process.

  19. LIPID RAFTS, FLUID/FLUID PHASE SEPARATION, AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO PLASMA MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David

    2007-01-01

    Novel biophysical approaches combined with modeling and new biochemical data have helped to recharge the lipid raft field and have contributed to the generation of a refined model of plasma membrane organization. In this review, we summarize new information in the context of previous literature to provide new insights into the spatial organization and dynamics of lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells. Recent findings of large-scale separation of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases in plasma membrane vesicles demonstrate this capacity within the complex milieu of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. Roles for membrane heterogeneity and reorganization in immune cell activation are discussed in light of this new information. PMID:17764993

  20. Phase-Field Simulation of the Separation Kinetics of a Nanoscale Phase in a Fe-Cr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Yongsheng; Wu, Xingchao; Hou, Zhiyuan; Hu, Kai

    2016-05-01

    The separation of a Cr-enriched nanometer-scale α' phase can induce the embrittlement of Fe-Cr alloys at high temperature, and the separation kinetics of the α' phase determines its spatial morphology. The quantitative kinetics of the α' phase formed by spinodal decomposition was studied in a Fe-42 at.% Cr alloy by phase-field simulation at various aging temperatures; the temporal morphology, average particle radius, volume fraction, particle number density, and particle size distribution of α' phase were investigated. The results indicate that the coarsening rate of the α' phase increases with increasing aging temperature, and the particle number density shows a large slope in the coarsening stage at higher aging temperature. The particle size distribution also demonstrates faster growth and coarsening rates of the α' phase at higher aging temperature. The mutual effects of supercooling and diffusion during phase decomposition result in a highest decomposition rate at 725 K than that of 700 and 750 K in the Fe-42 at.% Cr alloy. The simulation results of the kinetics of the Cr-enriched α' phase provide a basic understanding of the thermal aging and morphology evolution of Fe-Cr alloys.

  1. Hierarchical multiscale hyperporous block copolymer membranes via tunable dual-phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seungmin; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Shin, Myoungsoo; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Young; Park, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    The rational design and realization of revolutionary porous structures have been long-standing challenges in membrane science. We demonstrate a new class of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer (BCP)–based porous membranes featuring hierarchical multiscale hyperporous structures. The introduction of surface energy–modifying agents and the control of major phase separation parameters (such as nonsolvent polarity and solvent drying time) enable tunable dual-phase separation of BCPs, eventually leading to macro/nanoscale porous structures and chemical functionalities far beyond those accessible with conventional approaches. Application of this BCP membrane to a lithium-ion battery separator affords exceptional improvement in electrochemical performance. The dual-phase separation–driven macro/nanopore construction strategy, owing to its simplicity and tunability, is expected to be readily applicable to a rich variety of membrane fields including molecular separation, water purification, and energy-related devices. PMID:26601212

  2. Spectromicroscopy of electronic phase separation in KxFe2−ySe2 superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Bendele, M.; Barinov, A.; Joseph, B.; Innocenti, D.; Iadecola, A.; Bianconi, A.; Takeya, H.; Mizuguchi, Y.; Takano, Y.; Noji, T.; Hatakeda, T.; Koike, Y.; Horio, M.; Fujimori, A.; Ootsuki, D.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Structural phase separation in AxFe2−ySe2 system has been studied by different experimental techniques, however, it should be important to know how the electronic uniformity is influenced, on which length scale the electronic phases coexist, and what is their spatial distribution. Here, we have used novel scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) to study the electronic phase separation in KxFe2−ySe2, providing a direct measurement of the topological spatial distribution of the different electronic phases. The SPEM results reveal a peculiar interconnected conducting filamentary phase that is embedded in the insulating texture. The filamentary structure with a particular topological geometry could be important for the high Tc superconductivity in the presence of a phase with a large magnetic moment in AxFe2−ySe2 materials. PMID:24998816

  3. Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Beattie, Willard H.; Holland, Redus F.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation is achieved by either (a) dissolving a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound in a liquid solvent, or (b) liquefying a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound, the liquid phase thus resulting being kept at a temperature at which spectral features of the feedstock relating to a particular hydrogen isotope are resolved, i.e., a clear-cut isotope shift is delineated, irradiating the liquid phase with monochromatic radiation of a wavelength which at least preferentially excites those molecules of the feedstock containing a first hydrogen isotope, inducing photochemical reaction in the excited molecules, and separating the reaction product containing the first isotope from the liquid phase.

  4. Nanoscopy of Phase Separation in InxGa1-xN Alloys.

    PubMed

    Abate, Yohannes; Seidlitz, Daniel; Fali, Alireza; Gamage, Sampath; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Yakovlev, Vladislav S; Stockman, Mark I; Collazo, Ramon; Alden, Dorian; Dietz, Nikolaus

    2016-09-01

    Phase separations in ternary/multinary semiconductor alloys is a major challenge that limits optical and electronic internal device efficiency. We have found ubiquitous local phase separation in In1-xGaxN alloys that persists to nanoscale spatial extent by employing high-resolution nanoimaging technique. We lithographically patterned InN/sapphire substrates with nanolayers of In1-xGaxN down to few atomic layers thick that enabled us to calibrate the near-field infrared response of the semiconductor nanolayers as a function of composition and thickness. We also developed an advanced theoretical approach that considers the full geometry of the probe tip and all the sample and substrate layers. Combining experiment and theory, we identified and quantified phase separation in epitaxially grown individual nanoalloys. We found that the scale of the phase separation varies widely from particle to particle ranging from all Ga- to all In-rich regions and covering everything in between. We have found that between 20 and 25% of particles show some level of Ga-rich phase separation over the entire sample region, which is in qualitative agreement with the known phase diagram of In1-xGaxN system. PMID:27533107

  5. Phase Separation on Bicontinuous Cubic Membranes: Symmetry Breaking, Reentrant, and Domain Faceting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillusson, Fabien; Pennington, Matthew R.; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-07-01

    We study the phase separation of binary lipid mixtures that form bicontinuous cubic phases. The competition between the nonuniform Gaussian membrane curvature and line tension leads to a very rich phase diagram, where we observe symmetry breaking of the membrane morphologies and reentrant phenomena due to the formation of bridges between segregated domains. Upon increasing the line tension contribution, we also find faceting of lipid domains that we explain using a simple argument based on the symmetry of the underlying surface and topology.

  6. Phase separation as a strategy toward controlling dilution effects in macrocyclic Glaser-Hay couplings.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Anne-Catherine; Collins, Shawn K

    2011-12-14

    Macrocycles are abundant in numerous chemical applications, however the traditional strategy for the preparation of these compounds remains cumbersome and environmentally damaging; involving tedious reaction set-ups and extremely dilute reaction media. The development of a macrocyclization strategy conducted at high concentrations is described which exploits phase separation of the catalyst and substrate, as a strategy to control dilution effects. Sequestering a copper catalyst in a highly polar and/or hydrophilic phase can be achieved using a hydrophilic ligand, T-PEG(1900), a PEGylated TMEDA derivative. Similarly, phase separation is possible when suitable copper complexes are soluble in PEG(400), a green and efficient solvent which can be utilized in biphasic mixtures for promoting macrocyclization at high concentrations. The latter phase separation technique can be exploited for the synthesis of a wide range of industrially relevant macrocycles with varying ring sizes and functional groups. PMID:22029394

  7. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation of glycol ethers for forward osmotic control.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Daichi; Mok, Yeongbong; Noh, Minwoo; Park, Jeongseon; Kang, Sunyoung; Lee, Yan

    2014-03-21

    Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition of glycol ether (GE)-water mixtures induces an abrupt change in osmotic pressure driven by a mild temperature change. The temperature-controlled osmotic change was applied for the forward osmosis (FO) desalination. Among three GEs evaluated, di(ethylene glycol) n-hexyl ether (DEH) was selected as a potential FO draw solute. A DEH-water mixture with a high osmotic pressure could draw fresh water from a high-salt feed solution such as seawater through a semipermeable membrane at around 10 °C. The water-drawn DEH-water mixture was phase-separated into a water-rich phase and a DEH-rich phase at around 30 °C. The water-rich phase with a much reduced osmotic pressure released water into a low-salt solution, and the DEH-rich phase was recovered into the initial DEH-water mixture. The phase separation behaviour, the residual GE concentration in the water-rich phase, the osmotic pressure of the DEH-water mixture, and the osmotic flux between the DEH-water mixture and salt solutions were carefully analysed for FO desalination. The liquid-liquid phase separation of the GE-water mixture driven by the mild temperature change between 10 °C and 30 °C is very attractive for the development of an ideal draw solute for future practical FO desalination.

  8. Characterization of fish gelatin-gum arabic complex coacervates as influenced by phase separation temperature.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mohammad; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Yoon, Won-Byong; Chung, Donghwa

    2015-08-01

    The rheological and structural characteristics of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervate phase, separated from an aqueous mixture of 1% FG and 1% GA at pH 3.5, were investigated as influenced by phase separation temperature. Decreasing the phase separation temperature from 40 to 10 °C lead to: (1) the formation of a coacervate phase with a larger volume fraction and higher biopolymer concentrations, which is more viscous, more structural resistant at low shear rates, more shear-thinning at high shear rates, and more condensed in microstructure, (2) a solid-like elastic behavior of the phase separated at 10 °C at a high oscillatory frequency, (3) the increase in gelling and melting temperatures of the coacervate phase (3.7-3.9 °C and 6.2-6.9 °C, respectively), (4) the formation of a more rigid and thermo-stable coacervate gel. The coacervate phase is regarded as a homogeneously networked biopolymer matrix dispersed with water vacuoles and its gel as a weak physical gel reinforced by FG-GA attractive electrostatic interactions.

  9. Elucidation of adhesion-dependent spontaneous apoptosis in macrophages using phase separated PEG/polyurethane films.

    PubMed

    Zachman, Angela L; Page, Jonathan M; Prabhakar, Gayathri; Guelcher, Scott A; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2013-02-01

    Circulating monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis when there is no activation stimulus, which is critical to population control for proper host response to implants. As activation and apoptosis of monocytes/macrophages are regulated by cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, their regulatory mechanism was investigated in this study using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing polyurethane films in which PEG-rich and polyester-rich domains were phase separated. Human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (HBMs) preferentially adhered to PEG domains (cell-matrix interaction) due to the low molecular weight (600 g mol⁻¹), resulting in increased HBM density (cell-cell interaction). As both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions were promoted, HBM apoptosis increased, while their activation as measured by phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production decreased compared to PEG-free films. When cell seeding density and cell-adhesive gelatin coating on silicone films were controlled, a cooperative role of cell-matrix (adhesion) and cell-cell (density) interactions in inducing HBM apoptosis was observed. Expression of the macrophage adhesion molecule CD11b caused apoptosis in this context, which was mediated by tissue necrosis factor-α signaling but down-regulated by the ROS inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and the anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP, suggesting a new concept for the design of biomaterials that allows for cell adhesion without excessive inflammatory activation. PMID:23128157

  10. Elucidation of adhesion-dependent spontaneous apoptosis in macrophages using phase separated PEG/polyurethane films

    PubMed Central

    Zachman, Angela L.; Page, Jonathan M.; Prabhakar, Gayathri; Guelcher, Scott A.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Circulating monocytes undergo spontaneous apoptosis when there is no activation stimulus, which is critical to population control for proper host response to implants. As activation and apoptosis of monocytes/macrophages are regulated by cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, their regulatory mechanism was investigated in this study using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-containing polyurethane films in which PEG-rich and polyester-rich domains were phase separated. Human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (HBMs) preferentially adhered to PEG domains (cell–matrix interaction) due to the low molecular weight (600 g mol−1), resulting in increased HBM density (cell–cell interaction). As both cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions were promoted, HBM apoptosis increased, while their activation as measured by phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and matrix metalloproteinase-9 production decreased compared to PEG-free films. When cell seeding density and cell-adhesive gelatin coating on silicone films were controlled, a cooperative role of cell–matrix (adhesion) and cell–cell (density) interactions in inducing HBM apoptosis was observed. Expression of the macrophage adhesion molecule CD11b caused apoptosis in this context, which was mediated by tissue necrosis factor-α signaling but down-regulated by the ROS inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and the anti-inflammatory peptide Ac-SDKP, suggesting a new concept for the design of biomaterials that allows for cell adhesion without excessive inflammatory activation. PMID:23128157

  11. Asymmetric oscillations during phase separation under continuous cooling: A simple model.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Yumino; Kobayashi, Mika; Vollmer, Doris; Pleiner, Harald; Auernhammer, Günter K

    2008-11-14

    We investigate the phase separation of binary mixtures under continuous cooling using the Cahn-Hilliard equation including the effect of gravity. In our simple model, sedimentation is accounted for by instantaneously "removing" droplets from the supersaturated mixture into the coexisting phase once the droplets have reached a defined maximum size. Our model predicts an oscillatory variation of turbidity. Depending on the composition, either both phases oscillate (symmetric oscillations) or only one of the phases oscillates (asymmetric oscillations). In the asymmetric case, droplet sedimentation from the majority phase into the minority phase reduces supersaturation in the minority phase. This inhibits droplet formation in the minority phase. The cooling rate dependence of the period agrees with experimental results. PMID:19045388

  12. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2015-01-01

    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification. PMID:26411484

  13. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2015-09-01

    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification.

  14. Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  15. Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.

  16. [Research on the separation of limonoid glucosides by reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tian, Q G; Dai, J; Ding, X L

    2000-03-01

    Obacunone-17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) was isolated from the seeds of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck by using solvent extraction, classical polymer adsorption column separation and weak base anion ion-exchange separation, OG was finally purified by C18 reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography and was identified by thin-layer chromatography. The purity of OG was analyzed by analytical reversed-phase HPLC. At last the structure of OG was determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). In this work, the conditions of the reversed-phase preparative HPLC technique to purify limonoid glucosides was optimized. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC on a C18 column with a mobile phase of acidic acetonitrile-water (about 0.2% TFA, V/V) at pH 3 enabled the baseline separation of limonoid glucosides in the extract. The results show that OG is the predominant limonoid glucoside in the seeds of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck and nomilin glucoside is the second one. The results also show that the classical polymer adsorption column separation and weak base anion ion-exchange separation are effective for purifying limonoid glucosides.

  17. Ternary Phase-Separation Investigation of Sol-Gel Derived Silica from Ethyl Silicate 40.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengnan; Wang, David K; Smart, Simon; da Costa, João C Diniz

    2015-01-01

    A ternary phase-separation investigation of the ethyl silicate 40 (ES40) sol-gel process was conducted using ethanol and water as the solvent and hydrolysing agent, respectively. This oligomeric silica precursor underwent various degrees of phase separation behaviour in solution during the sol-gel reactions as a function of temperature and H2O/Si ratios. The solution composition within the immiscible region of the ES40 phase-separated system shows that the hydrolysis and condensation reactions decreased with decreasing reaction temperature. A mesoporous structure was obtained at low temperature due to weak drying forces from slow solvent evaporation on one hand and formation of unreacted ES40 cages in the other, which reduced network shrinkage and produced larger pores. This was attributed to the concentration of the reactive sites around the phase-separated interface, which enhanced the condensation and crosslinking. Contrary to dense silica structures obtained from sol-gel reactions in the miscible region, higher microporosity was produced via a phase-separated sol-gel system by using high H2O/Si ratios. This tailoring process facilitated further condensation reactions and crosslinking of silica chains, which coupled with stiffening of the network, made it more resistant to compression and densification. PMID:26411484

  18. Phase separation and ordering in InGaAs and InGaAs materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-23

    This report highlights the advances in the understanding of phase separation and atomic ordering in mixed III-V layers. Specifically, the following issues were addressed in the grant period (August 1987 to February 1992): (1) bulk vs surface phase separation; (2) influence of growth technique on phase separation; (3) origin of coarse contrast modulations; (4) influence of dopant diffusion on phase separated microstructures; (5) influence of annealing on carrier mobility in InGaAsP layers; (6) co-existence of CuPt-type ordering and phase separation; (7) influence of growth conditions on ordering; (8) influence of surface reconstruction on atomic ordering.

  19. Grafted nanoparticles as soft patchy colloids: Self-assembly versus phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahynski, Nathan A.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-02-21

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of a model polymer-grafted nanoparticle (GNP) system on a fine lattice, using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, to compare and contrast the validity of two different models for GNPs: “nanoparticle amphiphiles” versus “patchy particles.” In the former model, continuous self-assembly processes are expected to dominate the system, whereas the latter are characterized by first-order phase separation into novel equilibrium phases such as “empty liquids.” We find that, in general, considering GNPs as amphiphiles within the framework of a recent mean-field theory [Pryamtisyn et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 221102 (2009)] provides a qualitatively accurate description of the thermodynamics of GNP systems, revealing either first-order phase separation into two isotropic phases or continuous self-assembly. Our model GNPs display no signs of empty liquid formation, suggesting that these nanoparticles do not provide a route to such phases.

  20. Morphology and Rheology of the Phase-separating Polybutadiene /Polyisoprene Blend under Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Zou, Fasheng; Wang, Dujin; Han, Charles C.

    2013-03-01

    We are mainly focusing on the late stage of phase separation process where the two phases have reach their equilibrium compositions and the droplet dimension or interface area is the key factor in influencing the dynamic moduli. Two kinds of phase-separating structure evolutions of the PB/LPI blend have been investigated. For the near-critical and symmetric blend LPI50, the co-continuous phase-separating structures are observed and lead to a power law behavior of the dynamic storage modulus at low frequencies. With the growth of the co-continuous structure, the storage modulus at low frequency decreases dramatically. For the off-critical and asymmetric blend LPI70, the droplet/matrix two-phase structures appear and result in a rather complex elastic behavior at the mediate and low frequency region. It is observed that with the droplet size increases, the storage modulus at the mediate frequencies generally decreases while the storage modulus at the low frequencies usually increases. Besides, the platform and terminal moduli at a given frequency can be scalable with the phase separation time and the characteristic relaxation time and domain size of the droplets can be obtained by rheology. NSFC No.50930002 and No.51173195.

  1. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Calc. to Determine Need for a N2 Phase Separator

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-04-07

    A nitrogen phase separator is recommended on the liquid supply line at the helium refrigerator plant. This engineering note documents the calculations done to reach that conclusion. The steady state liquid nitrogen consumption rate for the refrigerator, VLPC and solenoid systems is about 30 gal/hr. The estimated heat leak for the piping run to the refrigerator location is 50 watts. The calculated quality at the refrigerator was 0.032. Given this quality, a two phase flow model based on Lockhart-Martinelli and also incorporating Baker diagram nomenclature was run on TK solver. The result of this program was that without the use of a phase separator we could expect a slug flow pattern with a volume fraction of gas of 65%. Based on this, I recommend that we use a phase separator to siphon off the gas before the nitrogen is sent to a standard saver type subcooler. Including the phase separator will help ensure proper operation of the subcooler. The subcooler will help us attempt to deliver single phase liquid to the nitrogen control valves.

  2. Device for two-dimensional gas-phase separation and characterization of ion mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to a device for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions. The device incorporates an ion source, a field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) drift tube, and an ion detector. In one aspect of the invention, FAIMS operating voltages are electrically floated on top of the IMS drift voltage. In the other aspect, the FAIMS/IMS interface is implemented employing an electrodynamic ion funnel, including in particular an hourglass ion funnel. The present invention improves the efficiency (peak capacity) and sensitivity of gas-phase separations; the online FAIMS/IMS coupling creates a fundamentally novel two-dimensional gas-phase separation technology with high peak capacity, specificity, and exceptional throughput.

  3. Effect of Iron Oxide and Phase Separation on the Color of Blue Jun Ware Glaze.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Yang, Changan; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lin, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Based on the traditional Jun ware glaze, the imitated Jun ware glazes were prepared by adding iron oxide and introducing phase separation agent apatite through four-angle-method. The effect of iron oxide contents, phase separation and the firing temperature on the color of Jun ware glazes were investigated by a neutral atmosphere experiment, optical microscope and scanning electronic microscope. The results showed that the colorant, mainly Fe2O3, contributed to the Jun ware glaze blue and cyan colors of Jun ware glaze. The light scatter caused by the small droplets in phase separation structure only influenced the shade of the glaze color, intensify or weaken the color, and thus made the glaze perfect and elegant opal visual effects, but was not the origin of general blue or cyan colors of Jun ware glaze. In addition, the firing temperature and the basic glaze composition affected the glaze colors to some extent. PMID:26716336

  4. Kinetics of phase separation in polymer mixtures: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awaneesh; Puri, Sanjay; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2014-06-01

    We present detailed results from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of phase-separation kinetics in polymer mixtures. Our MD simulations naturally incorporate hydrodynamic effects. We find that polymeric phase separation (with dynamically symmetric components) is in the same universality class as segregation of simple fluids: the degree of polymerization only slows down the segregation kinetics. For d = 2 polymeric fluids, the domain growth law is L(t) ˜ tϕ with ϕ showing a crossover from 1/3 → 1/2 → 2/3. For d = 3 polymeric fluids, we see the crossover ϕ = 1/3 → 1. Our MD simulations do not yet access the inertial hydrodynamic regime (with L ˜ t2/3) of phase separation in 3-d fluids.

  5. Influence of red blood cell clustering on phase separation in capillary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Boucly, Celine; Coupier, Gwennou

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the flow of red blood cell suspensions in microfluidic bifurcations and capillary networks. At strong degrees of confinement, such as those encountered in the microcirculation, phase separation takes place at bifurcations of the network, leading to strong heterogeneities and fluctuations of the hematocrit (blood cell concentration). We highlight the influence of the mechanical properties of cells : an increase of membrane or cytoplasm rigidity, as can happen in pathologies such as sickle cell disease tends to reduce the phase separation. The influence of the attractive interaction between cells, that leads to clustering (rouleau formation) was also investigated by varying the concentration of macromolecules in the solution (dextran or fibrinogen). We show that hydrodynamic stresses in bifurcations can lead to rupture of clusters at a critical speed which increases with interaction energy. Overall, the clustering phenomenon tends to increase phase separation and hematocrit heterogeneities.

  6. Theory of spatiotemporally resolved spectroscopy for phase-separation dynamics in electron-hole systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Akira

    2013-02-01

    Phase separation such as the formation of electron-hole droplets has been observed in semiconductor electron-hole systems. In such conventional experiments, the information averaged in real space was obtained. However, in recent years, optical-near-field techniques have enabled us to acquire spatial information. In this study, I propose a theoretical formulation of spatiotemporal dynamics and spatiotemporally resolved optical response of the gas-liquid phase separation in electron-hole systems. In addition, the nature of the nonequilibrium open system is an essential point in electron-hole systems. Therefore, I investigate the effect of the finite lifetime of electron-hole pairs on phase-separation dynamics. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Excitonic Processes in Condensed Matter, Nanostructured and Molecular Materials", edited by Maria Antonietta Loi, Jasper Knoester and Paul H. M. van Loosdrecht.

  7. Green chromatography separation of analytes of greatly differing properties using a polyethylene glycol stationary phase and a low-toxic water-based mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Brabcová, Ivana; Maroušková, Alena; Chocholouš, Petr; Solich, Petr

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly HPLC method was developed and validated for the separation of four compounds (4-aminophenol, caffeine, paracetamol, and propyphenazone) with different chemical properties. A "green" mobile phase, employing water as the major eluent, was proposed and applied to the separation of analytes with different polarity on polyethylene glycol (PEG) stationary phase. The chromatography separation of all compounds and internal standard benzoic acid was performed using isocratic elution with a low-toxicity mobile phase consisting of 0.04% (v/v) triethylamine and water. HPLC separation was carried out using a PEG reversed-phase stationary phase Supelco Discovery HS PEG column (15 × 4 mm; particle size 3 μm) at a temperature of 30 °C and flow rate at 1.0 mL min(-1). The UV detector was set at 210 nm. In this study, a PEG stationary phase was shown to be suitable for the efficient isocratic separation of compounds that differ widely in hydrophobicity and acid-base properties, particularly 4-aminophenol (log P, 0.30), caffeine (log P, -0.25), and propyphenazone (log P, 2.27). A polar PEG stationary phase provided specific selectivity which allowed traditional chromatographic problems related to the separation of analytes with different polarities to be solved. The retention properties of the group of structurally similar substances (aromatic amines, phenolic compounds, and xanthine derivatives) were tested with different mobile phases. The proposed green chromatography method was successfully applied to the analysis of active substances and one degradation impurity (4-aminophenol) in commercial preparation. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, standard calibration was carried out with good linearity correlation coefficients for all compounds in the range (0.99914-0.99997, n = 6) between the peak areas and concentration of compounds. Recovery of the sample preparation was in the range 100 ± 5% for all compounds

  8. Capillary zone electrophoresis for separation and quantitative determination of mexiletine and its main phase I metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Claudio; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Carocci, Alessia; Catalano, Alessia; Franchini, Carlo; Lentini, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    The simultaneous separation and quantification of the analytes within the minimum analysis time and the maximum resolution and efficiency are the main objectives in the development of a capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of solutes. In this paper we describe a specific, sensitive and robust method, using capillary zone electrophoresis with internal standard and UV detection, for the separation and quantification of the anti-arrhythmic drug mexiletine, its main phase I metabolites, and its main nitrogenous degradation product. PMID:23826880

  9. Therapeutic Antibody Engineering To Improve Viscosity and Phase Separation Guided by Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chi-Kin; Allan, Barrett W; Chai, Qing; Atwell, Shane; Lu, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies at high concentrations often reveal unanticipated biophysical properties suboptimal for therapeutic development. The purpose of this work was to explore the use of point mutations based on crystal structure information to improve antibody physical properties such as viscosity and phase separation (LLPS) at high concentrations. An IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab4) that exhibited high viscosity and phase separation at high concentration was used as a model system. Guided by the crystal structure, four CDR point mutants were made to evaluate the role of hydrophobic and charge interactions on solution behavior. Surprisingly and unpredictably, two of the charge mutants, R33G and N35E, showed a reduction in viscosity and a lower propensity to form LLPS at high concentration compared to the wild-type (WT), while a third charge mutant S28K showed an increased propensity to form LLPS compared to the WT. A fourth mutant, F102H, had reduced hydrophobicity, but unchanged viscosity and phase separation behavior. We further evaluated the correlation of various biophysical measurements including second virial coefficient (A2), interaction parameter (kD), weight-average molecular weight (WAMW), and hydrodynamic diameters (DH), at relatively low protein concentration (4 to 15 mg/mL) to physical properties, such as viscosity and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), at high concentration. Surprisingly, kD measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS) at low antibody concentration correlated better with viscosity and phase separation than did A2 for Mab4. Our results suggest that the high viscosity and phase separation observed at high concentration for Mab4 are mainly driven by charge and not hydrophobicity.

  10. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: imaging at the nanometer scale.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Rachel E; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K; Leone, Stephen R; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micrometer-sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), α, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH's above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the outer phase. The outer phase composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 70:30% organic to inorganic mix in the outer phase. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  11. Exploring the dynamics of phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures with long range attraction.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Juan; Bailey, Arthur E; Frisken, Barbara J

    2016-06-28

    We have studied the kinetics of phase separation and gel formation in a low-dispersity colloid - non-adsorbing polymer system with long range attraction using small-angle light scattering. This system exhibits two-phase and three-phase coexistence of gas, liquid and crystal phases when the strength of attraction is between 2 and 4kBT and gel phases when the strength of attraction is increased. For those samples that undergo macroscopic phase separation, whether to gas-crystal, gas-liquid or gas-liquid-crystal coexistence, we observe dynamic scaling of the structure factor and growth of a characteristic length scale that behaves as expected for phase separation in fluids. In samples that gel, the power law associated with the growth of the dominant length scale is not equal to 1/3, but appears to depend mainly on the strength of attraction, decreasing from 1/3 for samples near the coexistence region to 1/27 at 8kBT, over a wide range of colloid and polymer concentrations.

  12. Titania-based stationary phase in separation of ondansetron and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Zizkovský, Václav; Kucera, Radim; Klimes, Jirí; Dohnal, Jirí

    2008-05-01

    Improvements in stationary phase stability have been and remain a great task for research of new stationary phases. Metal oxide-based stationary phases appear as one of perspective alternatives to classical silica based stationary phases regarding to their similar effectiveness, different selectivity, different retention mechanism and mainly better chemical and thermal stability. In this study, the retention behaviour of ondansetron and its five pharmacopoeial impurities on TiO(2)-based reversed phase was investigated. The influence of buffer type, pH and concentration on retention was studied. Different types and amount of organic solvent in mobile phase were tested. The effect of temperature and flow rate on separation was investigated. The separation conditions were optimized and developed method validated. The retention parameters - retention time (t(R)), retention factor (k'), theoretical plate number (N), resolution between peaks due to nearby peaks (R(s)) and symmetry factor (A(s)) have been compared to parameters achieved on polybutadiene-coated zirconia column. The thermodynamic parameters of retention of analysed compounds - enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy - were calculated and compared to those achieved on polybutadiene-coated zirconia column. This work proves similarity of retention behaviour of ondansetron and its five related compounds on zirconia-based and titania-based stationary phases and potential utilisation of polyethylene covered TiO(2)-based reversed stationary phase as an alternative to polybutadiene-coated ZrO(2) stationary phase in pharmaceutical analysis of ondansetron.

  13. Dynamical Structures in Phase-Separated Films Deposited under Ion Bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    He, J. H.; Carosella, C. A.; Hubler, G. K.; Knies, D. L.; Qadri, S. B.; Grabowski, K. S.

    2009-03-10

    We report our experimental observation of ion bombardment effect on the film structures generated by co-evaporation of Au and silica. Three states are identified depending on the incident ion energy and beam current. Moderate ion bombardment creates nanoscale compositional modulations along the film growth direction. Strong ion bombardment induces disappearance of the compositional modulations. At still higher energy and flux, energetic ions sputter away all deposited atoms. The observed phenomena reflect synergistic effects of ion bombardment on the film growth in phase separated systems. Our observations suggest that ion beams can be employed to control the film structures in the deposition of phase-separated films.

  14. Controlling phase separation of binary Bose-Einstein condensates via mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yoshihisa; Masuyama, Yuta; Hayashi, Taro; Hirano, Takuya; Saito, Hiroki

    2010-09-15

    We investigate controlled phase separation of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate in the proximity of a mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance in the |F=1,m{sub F}=+1> and |F=2,m{sub F}=-1> states of {sup 87}Rb at a magnetic field of 9.10 G. Phase separation occurs on the lower-magnetic-field side of the Feshbach resonance while the two components overlap on the higher-magnetic-field side. The Feshbach resonance curve of the scattering length is obtained from the shape of the atomic cloud by comparison with the numerical analysis of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations.

  15. Influence of recrystallization on phase separation kinetics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe Cr Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Pimentel, G.; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different starting microstructures on the kinetics of Fe-rich ({alpha}) and Cr-rich ({alpha}') phase separation during aging of Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys has been analyzed with a combination of atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements. The results revealed that the high recrystallization temperature necessary to produce a coarse grained microstructure in Fe-base ODS alloys affects the randomness of Cr-atom distributions and defect density, which consequently affect the phase separation kinetics at low annealing temperatures.

  16. Separation and purification of hydrolyzable tannin from Geranium wilfordii Maxim by reversed-phase and normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Changhai; Gu, Ming; Xing, Siliang

    2010-08-01

    Three hydrolyzable tannins, geraniin, corilagin and gallic acid, main active components of Geranium wilfordii Maxim, have been separated and purified in one-step by both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography. Gallic acid, corilagin and geraniin were purified from 70% aqueous acetone extract of G. wilfordii Maxim with solvent system n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid-water (1:10:0.2:0.2:20) by reversed-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography at purities of 94.2, 91.0 and 91.3%, at yields of 89.3, 82.9 and 91.7%, respectively. Gallic acid, corilagin and geraniin were purified with solvent system n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid-water (0.2:10:2:1:5) by normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography at purities of 85.9, 92.2 and 87.6%, at yields of 87.4, 94.6 and 94.3%, respectively. It was successful for both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography to separate high-polarity of low-molecular-weight substances.

  17. An atom probe perspective on phase separation and precipitation in duplex stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Garfinkel, David A; Tucker, Julie D; Haley, Daniel; Young, George A; Poplawsky, Jonathan D

    2016-06-24

    Three-dimensional chemical imaging of Fe-Cr alloys showing Fe-rich (α)/Cr-rich (α') phase separation is reported using atom probe tomography techniques. The extent of phase separation, i.e., amplitude and wavelength, has been quantitatively assessed using the Langer-Bar-on-Miller, proximity histogram, and autocorrelation function methods for two separate Fe-Cr alloys, designated 2101 and 2205. Although the 2101 alloy possesses a larger wavelength and amplitude after annealing at 427 °C for 100-10 000 h, it exhibits a lower hardness than the 2205 alloy. In addition to this phase separation, ultra-fine Ni-Mn-Si-Cu-rich G-phase precipitates form at the α/α' interfaces in both alloys. For the 2101 alloy, Cu clusters act to form a nucleus, around which a Ni-Mn-Si shell develops during the precipitation process. For the 2205 alloy, the Ni and Cu atoms enrich simultaneously and no core-shell chemical distribution was found. This segregation phenomenon may arise from the exact Ni/Cu ratio inside the ferrite. After annealing for 10 000 h, the number density of the G-phase within the 2205 alloy was found to be roughly one order of magnitude higher than in the 2101 alloy. The G-phase precipitates have an additional deleterious effect on the thermal embrittlement, as evaluated by the Ashby-Orowan equation, which explains the discrepancy between the hardness and the rate of phase separation with respect to annealing time (Gladman T 1999 Mater. Sci. Tech. Ser. 15 30-36). PMID:27181108

  18. An atom probe perspective on phase separation and precipitation in duplex stainless steels

    DOE PAGES

    Garfinkel, David A.; Tucker, Julie D.; Haley, Daniel A.; Young, George A.; Guo, Wei; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-05-16

    Here, three-dimensional chemical imaging of Fe–Cr alloys showing Fe-rich (α)/Cr-rich (α') phase separation is reported using atom probe tomography techniques. The extent of phase separation, i.e., amplitude and wavelength, has been quantitatively assessed using the Langer-Bar-on-Miller, proximity histogram, and autocorrelation function methods for two separate Fe–Cr alloys, designated 2101 and 2205. Although the 2101 alloy possesses a larger wavelength and amplitude after annealing at 427 °C for 100–10 000 h, it exhibits a lower hardness than the 2205 alloy. In addition to this phase separation, ultra-fine Ni–Mn–Si–Cu-rich G-phase precipitates form at the α/α' interfaces in both alloys. For the 2101more » alloy, Cu clusters act to form a nucleus, around which a Ni–Mn–Si shell develops during the precipitation process. For the 2205 alloy, the Ni and Cu atoms enrich simultaneously and no core–shell chemical distribution was found. This segregation phenomenon may arise from the exact Ni/Cu ratio inside the ferrite. After annealing for 10 000 h, the number density of the G-phase within the 2205 alloy was found to be roughly one order of magnitude higher than in the 2101 alloy. The G-phase precipitates have an additional deleterious effect on the thermal embrittlement, as evaluated by the Ashby–Orowan equation, which explains the discrepancy between the hardness and the rate of phase separation with respect to annealing time (Gladman T 1999 Mater. Sci. Tech. Ser. 15 30–36).« less

  19. An atom probe perspective on phase separation and precipitation in duplex stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Garfinkel, David A.; Tucker, Julie D.; Haley, Daniel; Young, George A.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional chemical imaging of Fe–Cr alloys showing Fe-rich (α)/Cr-rich (α‧) phase separation is reported using atom probe tomography techniques. The extent of phase separation, i.e., amplitude and wavelength, has been quantitatively assessed using the Langer-Bar-on-Miller, proximity histogram, and autocorrelation function methods for two separate Fe–Cr alloys, designated 2101 and 2205. Although the 2101 alloy possesses a larger wavelength and amplitude after annealing at 427 °C for 100–10 000 h, it exhibits a lower hardness than the 2205 alloy. In addition to this phase separation, ultra-fine Ni–Mn–Si–Cu-rich G-phase precipitates form at the α/α‧ interfaces in both alloys. For the 2101 alloy, Cu clusters act to form a nucleus, around which a Ni–Mn–Si shell develops during the precipitation process. For the 2205 alloy, the Ni and Cu atoms enrich simultaneously and no core–shell chemical distribution was found. This segregation phenomenon may arise from the exact Ni/Cu ratio inside the ferrite. After annealing for 10 000 h, the number density of the G-phase within the 2205 alloy was found to be roughly one order of magnitude higher than in the 2101 alloy. The G-phase precipitates have an additional deleterious effect on the thermal embrittlement, as evaluated by the Ashby–Orowan equation, which explains the discrepancy between the hardness and the rate of phase separation with respect to annealing time (Gladman T 1999 Mater. Sci. Tech. Ser. 15 30–36). ).

  20. An atom probe perspective on phase separation and precipitation in duplex stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Garfinkel, David A.; Tucker, Julie D.; Haley, Daniel; Young, George A.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional chemical imaging of Fe-Cr alloys showing Fe-rich (α)/Cr-rich (α‧) phase separation is reported using atom probe tomography techniques. The extent of phase separation, i.e., amplitude and wavelength, has been quantitatively assessed using the Langer-Bar-on-Miller, proximity histogram, and autocorrelation function methods for two separate Fe-Cr alloys, designated 2101 and 2205. Although the 2101 alloy possesses a larger wavelength and amplitude after annealing at 427 °C for 100-10 000 h, it exhibits a lower hardness than the 2205 alloy. In addition to this phase separation, ultra-fine Ni-Mn-Si-Cu-rich G-phase precipitates form at the α/α‧ interfaces in both alloys. For the 2101 alloy, Cu clusters act to form a nucleus, around which a Ni-Mn-Si shell develops during the precipitation process. For the 2205 alloy, the Ni and Cu atoms enrich simultaneously and no core-shell chemical distribution was found. This segregation phenomenon may arise from the exact Ni/Cu ratio inside the ferrite. After annealing for 10 000 h, the number density of the G-phase within the 2205 alloy was found to be roughly one order of magnitude higher than in the 2101 alloy. The G-phase precipitates have an additional deleterious effect on the thermal embrittlement, as evaluated by the Ashby-Orowan equation, which explains the discrepancy between the hardness and the rate of phase separation with respect to annealing time (Gladman T 1999 Mater. Sci. Tech. Ser. 15 30-36). ).

  1. Dynamics of Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    2000-01-01

    A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted at high Reynolds numbers on a generic separated configuration. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert-Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. The main motivation for the experiments is to generate a comprehensive data base for validation of unsteady numerical simulation as a first step in the development of a CFD design tool, without which it would not be possible to effectively utilize the great potential of unsteady flow control. This paper focuses on the dynamics of several key features of the baseline as well as the controlled flow. It was found that the thickness of the upstream boundary layer has a negligible effect on the flow dynamics. It is speculated that separation is caused mainly by the highly convex surface while viscous effects are less important. The two-dimensional separated flow contains unsteady waves centered on a reduced frequency of 0.8, while in the three dimensional separated flow, frequencies around a reduced frequency of 0.3 and 1 are active. Several scenarios of resonant wave interaction take place at the separated shear-layer and in the pressure recovery region. The unstable reduced frequency bands for periodic excitation are centered on 1.5 and 5, but these reduced frequencies are based on the length of the baseline bubble that shortens due to the excitation. The conventional swept wing-scaling works well for the coherent wave features. Reproduction of these dynamic effects by a numerical simulation would provide benchmark validation.

  2. Stress reduction in phase-separated, cross-linked networks: influence of phase structure and kinetics of reaction

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Caroline R.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanism for polymerization shrinkage and stress reduction was developed for heterogeneous networks formed via ambient, photo-initiated polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS). The material system used consists of a bulk homopolymer matrix of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) modified with one of three non-reactive, linear prepolymers (poly-methyl, ethyl and butyl methacrylate). At higher prepolymer loading levels (10–20 wt%) an enhanced reduction in both shrinkage and polymerization stress is observed. The onset of gelation in these materials is delayed to a higher degree of methacrylate conversion (~15–25%), providing more time for phase structure evolution by thermodynamically driven monomer diffusion between immiscible phases prior to network macro-gelation. The resulting phase structure was probed by introducing a fluorescently tagged prepolymer into the matrix. The phase structure evolves from a dispersion of prepolymer at low loading levels to a fully co-continuous heterogeneous network at higher loadings. The bulk modulus in phase separated networks is equivalent or greater than that of poly(TEGDMA), despite a reduced polymerization rate and cross-link density in the prepolymer-rich domains. PMID:25418999

  3. Inherent structures of phase-separating binary mixtures: Nucleation, spinodal decomposition, and pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    An energy landscape view of phase separation and nonideality in binary mixtures is developed by exploring their potential energy landscape (PEL) as functions of temperature and composition. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study a model that promotes structure breaking in the solute-solvent parent binary liquid, at low temperatures. The PEL of the system captures the potential energy distribution of the inherent structures (IS) of the system and is obtained by removing the kinetic energy (including that of intermolecular vibrations). The broader distribution of the inherent structure energy for structure breaking liquid than that of the structure making liquid demonstrates the larger role of entropy in stabilizing the parent liquid of the structure breaking type of binary mixtures. At high temperature, although the parent structure of the structure breaking binary mixture is homogenous, the corresponding inherent structure is found to be always phase separated, with a density pattern that exhibits marked correlation with the energy of its inherent structure. Over a broad range of intermediate inherent structure energy, bicontinuous phase separation prevails with interpenetrating stripes as signatures of spinodal decomposition. At low inherent structure energy, the structure is largely phase separated with one interface where as at high inherent structure energy we find nucleation type growth. Interestingly, at low temperature, the average inherent structure energy () exhibits a drop with temperature which signals the onset of crystallization in one of the phases while the other remains in the liquid state. The nonideal composition dependence of viscosity is anticorrelated with average inherent structure energy.

  4. Thermal vacancies and phase separation in bcc mixtures of helium-3 and helium-4

    SciTech Connect

    Fraass, Benedick Andrew

    1980-01-01

    Thermal vacancy concentrations in crystals of /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures have been determined. A new x-ray diffractometer-position sensitive detector system is used to make measurements of the absolute lattice parameter of the helium crystals with an accuracy of 300 ppM, and measurements of changes in lattice parameters to better than 60 ppM. The phase separation of the concentrated /sup 3/He-/sup 4/He mixtures has been studied in detail with the x-ray measurements. Vacancy concentrations in crystals with 99%, 51%, 28%, 12%, and 0% /sup 3/He have been determined. Phase separation has been studied in mixed crystals with concentrations of 51%, 28%, and 12% /sup 3/He and melting pressures between 3.0 and 6.1 MPa. The phase separation temperatures determined in this work are in general agreement with previous work. The pressure dependence of T/sub c/, the phase separation temperature for a 50% mixture, is found to be linear: dT/sub c//dP = -34 mdeg/MPa. The x-ray measurements are used to make several comments on the low temperature phase diagram of the helium mixtures.

  5. Phase separation behavior of fusidic acid and rifampicin in PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Samuel E; Rickard, Deborah L; Letchford, Kevin; Needham, David; Burt, Helen M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the phase separation behavior of fusidic acid (FA) and rifampicin (RIF) in poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using a model microsphere formulation. To accomplish this, microspheres containing 20% FA with 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% RIF and 20% RIF with 30%, 20% 10%, 5%, and 0% FA were prepared by solvent evaporation. Drug-polymer and drug-drug compatibility and miscibility were characterized using laser confocal microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, XRPD, DSC, and real-time video recordings of single-microsphere formation. The encapsulation of FA and RIF alone, or in combination, results in a liquid-liquid phase separation of solvent-and-drug-rich microdomains that are excluded from the polymer bulk during microsphere hardening, resulting in amorphous spherical drug-rich domains within the polymer bulk and on the microsphere surface. FA and RIF phase separate from PLGA at relative droplet volumes of 0.311 ± 0.014 and 0.194 ± 0.000, respectively, predictive of the incompatibility of each drug and PLGA. When coloaded, FA and RIF phase separate in a single event at the relative droplet volume 0.251 ± 0.002, intermediate between each of the monoloaded formulations and dependent on the relative contribution of FA or RIF. The release of FA and RIF from phase-separated microspheres was characterized exclusively by a burst release and was dependent on the phase exclusion of surface drug-rich domains. Phase separation results in coalescence of drug-rich microdroplets and polymer phase exclusion, and it is dependent on the compatibility between FA and RIF and PLGA. FA and RIF are mutually miscible in all proportions as an amorphous glass, and they phase separate from the polymer as such. These drug-rich domains were excluded to the surface of the microspheres, and subsequent release of both drugs from the microspheres was rapid and reflected this surface location.

  6. Separation of amino acids by high performance liquid chromatography based on calixarene-bonded stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Zadmard, Reza; Tabar-Heydar, Kourosh; Imani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a new method for synthesis of silica gel stationary phases based on calix[4]arene derivatives. In order to achieve it, 25,27-dipropoxy-26,28-bis-[3-propyloxydimethylsililoxy]calix[4]arene has been synthesized in six steps and immobilized on silica via chlorotrimethylsilane. Stationary phases were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis and used for the separation of amino acid derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of isocratic and gradient elution, pH and column temperature on retention and selectivity of the Fmoc-protected amino acids were studied. The retention mechanism was also discussed. The results indicated that the stationary phase behaves like a reverse phase packing. Size exclusion, electron-π, π-π and hydrophobic interactions seem to be involved in the separation process.

  7. Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T.; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S.; Bakr, Waseem S.

    2016-08-01

    We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions.

  8. Thick silica gel coatings on methylsilsesquioxane monoliths using anisotropic phase separation.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Hanada, Teiichi

    2006-11-01

    Silica gel coatings on methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-derived monoliths have been studied using wetting transition. Wetting transition is observed in a small confined space, where a coating solution phase-separates into a well-coarsened dimension, making all the phase-separating polymerizing silica phase dynamically flow onto the existing surface of a mold. Bulk coating experiments have shown reductions of both macropore volume and diameter due to the coated layer. Comparing HPLC efficiencies of the coated monolith with those of the non-coated MTMS monolith revealed that the retention factors drastically increased in both normal- and reversed-phase modes. This is attributed to the existence of considerable amounts of accessible micropores left inside the coated layer, where analyte molecules travel and adsorb for a considerable period of time.

  9. Glucaminium ionic liquid-functionalized stationary phase for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xusheng; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-10-01

    A glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase was prepared via facile epoxy-amine reaction and subsequent quaternization. Successful immobilization of glucaminium-based ionic liquid onto silica surface was validated by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The new stationary phase was evaluated for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Effects of various factors, such as acetonitrile concentration, salt concentration, pH value, as well as column temperature, on the chromatographic behavior toward nucleosides were studied in detail. The results indicated that this new stationary phase can be used for separation of water-soluble polar substances in HILIC mode. The retention of solutes on the stationary phase was influenced by a mixed-mode retention mechanism with a combination of adsorptive and partitioning interactions. PMID:26231689

  10. Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S; Bakr, Waseem S

    2016-08-26

    We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions. PMID:27610853

  11. Shear viscosity of phase-separating polymer blends with viscous asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, H. S.; Hobbie, E. K.

    2001-06-01

    Rheo-optical measurements of phase separating polymer mixtures under simple shear flow have been used to investigate the influence of domain morphology on the viscosity of emulsionlike polymer blends, in which the morphology under weak shear is droplets of one coexisting phase dispersed in a matrix of the second. The structure and viscosity of low-molecular-weight polybutadiene and polyisoprene mixtures, phase separated by quenching to a temperature inside the coexistence region of the phase diagram, were measured as a function of shear rate and composition. In the weak shear regime, the data are in qualitative agreement with an effective medium model for non-dilute suspensions of slightly deformed interacting droplets. In the strong shear regime, where a stringlike pattern appears en route to a shear-homogenized state, the data are in qualitative agreement with a simple model that accounts for viscous asymmetry in the components.

  12. Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S; Bakr, Waseem S

    2016-08-26

    We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions.

  13. The role of Gauss curvature in a membrane phase separation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmor, Susan; Lee, Jieun; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2011-12-01

    Consider a two-phase lipid vesicle. Below the transition temperature, the phases separate into non-connecting domains that coarsen into larger areas. The free energy of phase properties determines the length of the boundaries separating the regions. The two phases correspond to different lipid compositions, and in cells, this fluctuation in composition is a dynamic process vital to its function. We prove that a small patch of the minority lipids forms at a point of the membrane where the Gauss curvature attains a maximum. This patch has a round shape approximately and its boundary has a constant geodesic curvature. The proof consists of three steps. The construction of a family of good approximate solutions, an improvement of the approximate solutions so that their geodesic curvature is a constant modulo translation, and the identification of an exact solution from the family of the improved approximate solutions. Our theoretical results are supported by vesicle experiments.

  14. Glucaminium ionic liquid-functionalized stationary phase for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiong; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xusheng; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-10-01

    A glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase was prepared via facile epoxy-amine reaction and subsequent quaternization. Successful immobilization of glucaminium-based ionic liquid onto silica surface was validated by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The new stationary phase was evaluated for the separation of nucleosides in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Effects of various factors, such as acetonitrile concentration, salt concentration, pH value, as well as column temperature, on the chromatographic behavior toward nucleosides were studied in detail. The results indicated that this new stationary phase can be used for separation of water-soluble polar substances in HILIC mode. The retention of solutes on the stationary phase was influenced by a mixed-mode retention mechanism with a combination of adsorptive and partitioning interactions.

  15. Interlamellar Organization of Phase Separated Domains in Multi-Component Lipid Multilayers: Energetic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Lobat; Parikh, Atul N.; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2013-01-01

    A recent experimental study [1] has demonstrated the alignment of phase separated domains across hundreds of bilayer units in multicomponent stacked lipid bilayers. The origin of this alignment is the interlamellar coupling of laterally phase separated domains. Here, we develop a theoretical model that presents the energetics description of this phenomenon based on the minimization of the free energy of the system. Specifically, we use solution theory to estimate the competition between energy and entropy in different stacking configurations. The model furnishes an elemental phase diagram, which maps the domain distributions in terms of the strength of the intra- and inter-layer interactions and estimates the value of inter-layer coupling for complete alignment of domains in the stacks of five and ten bilayers. The area fraction occupied by co-existing phases was calculated for the system of the minimum free energy, which showed a good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:23396111

  16. Analysis of Phase Separation in High Performance PbTe–PbS Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, Steven N.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Chasapis, Thomas C.; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides; Njegic, B.; Levin, E. M.; Rawal, A.; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantios M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-02-11

    Phase immiscibility in PbTe–based thermoelectric materials is an effective means of top-down synthesis of nanostructured composites exhibiting low lattice thermal conductivities. PbTe1-x Sx thermoelectric materials can be synthesized as metastable solid solution alloys through rapid quenching. Subsequent post-annealing induces phase separation at the nanometer scale, producing nanostructures that increase phonon scattering and reduce lattice thermal conductivity. However, there has yet to be any study investigating in detail the local chemical structure of both the solid solution and nanostructured variants of this material system. Herein, quenched and annealed (i.e., solid solution and phase-separated) samples of PbTe–PbS are analyzed by in situ high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy analysis. For high concentrations of PbS in PbTe, e.g., x >16%, NMR and IR analyses reveal that rapidly quenched samples exhibit incipient phase separation that is not detected by state-of-the-art synchrotron X-ray diffraction, providing an example of a PbTe thermoelectric “alloy” that is in fact phase inhomogeneous. Thermally-induced PbS phase separation in PbTe–PbS occurs close to 200 °C for all compositions studied, and the solubility of the PbS phase in PbTe at elevated temperatures >500 °C is reported. The findings of this study suggest that there may be a large number of thermoelectric alloy systems that are phase inhomogeneous or nanostructured despite adherence to Vegard's Law of alloys, highlighting the importance of careful chemical characterization to differentiate between thermoelectric alloys and composites.

  17. DHS Phase III activities underway.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Activities and improvements in the third round of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are described for the first year of the five year DHS-III project during 1992-97. Underway are data quality assessments, identification of data needs, development of a new core questionnaire and modules, and fieldwork survey implementation. Data quality studies are conducted on respondent age, age at first marriage, birth history, knowledge and use of contraception, and health of children aged under 5 years. An analysis of reinterview subsamples for Pakistan and Nigeria will test reliability of data. Emerging data needs for the decade are identified through consultations with data users in the population and health fields. A variety of organizational representatives and recognized experts provide valuable inputs on questionnaire content and module topics. This article also reveals that a shorter questionnaire length will be considered. There will be new questionnaire topics on reliance on breast feeding for contraception, induced abortion and complications, and quality of care. Reductions are made in little used data and retrospective data longer than 3-5 years preceding the survey date. Revisions are made in the Interviewer's and Supervisor's Manuals, the Service Availability Questionnaire, the Male/Husbands Questionnaire, and fifteen modules. Fieldwork is either in progress of completion in Ghana, Kenya, the Philippines, and Turkey. Bangladesh and Bolivia are scheduled for 1993. In 1994 surveys will be administered in Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. PMID:12287320

  18. Separable phases of light-evoked depolarizations in the retina of Strombus.

    PubMed

    Quandt, F N; Gillary, H L

    1980-02-01

    The waveforms of light-evoked depolarizations in Strombus retinal neurones can exhibit two sequential peaks or phases, the relative amplitudes of which vary with changes in stimulus intensity and interstimulus interval. Experiments employing either the passage of constant intracellular current or voltage clamp techniques indicate that both phases reverse polarity at intracellular potentials less negative than the resting potential. The potential at which the first phase reverses its polarity is considerably more positive than that of the second phase. The results indicate that the light-evoked depolarizations are generated by at least two different processes; these appear to be separate conductance changes, neither of which is voltage dependent. Under certain conditions, the second phase was inhibited by high extracellular concentrations of Mg2+, indicating that it may arise as a result of chemically mediated synaptic transmission. The first phase did not show such inhibition and appears to be caused by the direct action of light on the cell. PMID:7365412

  19. Nanoscale phase separation and superconductivity in the one-dimensional Hirsch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfossi, Alberto; Degli Esposti Boschi, Cristian; Montorsi, Arianna

    2009-06-01

    We investigate numerically at various fillings the ground state of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with correlated hopping x (Hirsch model). It is found that, for a large range of filling values n around half filling, and for repulsive Coulomb interaction u≤uc(x,n) , phase separation at a nanoscale (NPS phase) between two conducting phases at different densities occurs when x≳2/3 . The NPS phase is accompanied by the opening of a spin gap and the system behaves as a Luther-Emery liquid with dominant superconducting correlations. Close to half filling, an anomalous peak emerges in the charge structure factor related to the density of doubly occupied sites, which determines the size of the droplets in the NPS phase. For 1/2≲x≲2/3 a crossover to a homogeneous phase, still superconducting, takes place.

  20. Hydrodynamic effects on phase separation morphologies in evaporating thin films of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoumpouli, Garyfalia A.; Yiantsios, Stergios G.

    2016-08-01

    We examine effects of hydrodynamics on phase separation morphologies developed during drying of thin films containing a volatile solvent and two dissolved polymers. Cahn-Hilliard and Flory-Huggins theories are used to describe the free energy of the phase separating systems. The thin films, considered as Newtonian fluids, flow in response to Korteweg stresses arising due to concentration non-uniformities that develop during solvent evaporation. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of a Peclet number, defined in terms of system physical properties, as well as the effects of parameters characterizing the speed of evaporation and preferential wetting of the solutes at the gas interface. For systems exhibiting preferential wetting, diffusion alone is known to favor lamellar configurations for the separated phases in the dried film. However, a mechanism of hydrodynamic instability of a short length scale is revealed, which beyond a threshold Peclet number may deform and break the lamellae. The critical Peclet number tends to decrease as the evaporation rate increases and to increase with the tendency of the polymers to selectively wet the gas interface. As the Peclet number increases, the instability moves closer to the gas interface and induces the formation of a lateral segregation template that guides the subsequent evolution of the phase separation process. On the other hand, for systems with no preferential wetting or any other property asymmetries between the two polymers, diffusion alone favors the formation of laterally separated configurations. In this case, concentration perturbation modes that lead to enhanced Korteweg stresses may be favored for sufficiently large Peclet numbers. For such modes, a second mechanism is revealed, which is similar to the solutocapillary Marangoni instability observed in evaporating solutions when interfacial tension increases with the concentration of the non-volatile component. This mechanism may lead

  1. Novel procedure for extraction of a latent grape polyphenoloxidase using temperature-induced phase separation in triton x-114.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ferrer, A; Bru, R; Garcia-Carmona, F

    1989-12-01

    Polyphenoloxidase from grape berries is extracted only by nonionic detergents with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance between 12.4 and 13.5. The enzyme was partially purified in latent form, free of phenolics and chlorophylls, by using temperature phase partitioning in a solution of Triton X-114. This method permits the purification of the enzyme with the same fold purification as the commonly used method, but with a yield three times higher and a 90% reduction in time needed. The latent enzyme can be activated by different treatments, including trypsin and cationic and anionic detergents. Cetyltrimethylamonium bromide was found to be the most effective detergent activator, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate. Polyphenoloxidase in grape berries, in spite of being an integral membrane protein, had an anomalous interaction with Triton X-114, remaining in the detergent-poor phase after phase separation. This could be explained by its having a short hydrophobic tail that anchors it to the membrane.

  2. A Preliminary Assessment of Phase Separator Ground-Based and Reduced-Gravity Testing for ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Nancy Rabel

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of phase separator ground-based and reduced-gravity testing for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Multiphase Flow Technology Program; 2) Types of Separators; 3) MOBI Phase Separators; 4) Experiment set-up; and 5) Preliminary comparison/results.

  3. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Supersaturated Lysozyme Solutions and Associated Precipitate Formation/Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muschol, Martin; Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-01-01

    Using cloud point determinations, the phase boundaries (binodals) for metastable liquid-liquid (L-L) separation in supersaturated hen egg white lysozyme solutions with 3%, 5%, and 7% (wlv) NaCl at pH= 4.5 and protein concentrations c between 40 and 400 mg/ml were determined. The critical temperature for the binodal increased approximately linearly with salt concentration. The coexisting liquid phases both remained supersaturated but differed widely in protein concentration. No salt repartitioning was observed between the initial and the two separated liquid phases. After the L-L separation, due to the presence of the high protein concentration phase, crystallization occurred much more rapidly than in the initial solution. At high initial protein concentrations, a metastable gel phase formed at temperatures above the liquid binodal. Both crystal nucleation and gel formation were accelerated in samples that had been cycled through the binodal. Solutions in the gel and L-L regions yielded various types of precipitates. Based on theoretical considerations, previous observations with other proteins, and our experimental results with lysozyme, a generic phase diagram for globular proteins is put forth. A limited region in the (T,c) plane favorable for the growth of protein single crystals is delineated.

  4. Phase separation dynamics of simple liquids in non-uniform electric fields.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Jennifer; Tsori, Yoav

    2014-03-28

    Spatially non-uniform electric fields can phase separate initially homogeneous mixtures of liquids. Here, we investigate the dynamics of phase separation using a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation and find three kinetically distinct regimes in the phase diagram: (1) discontinuous and (2) continuous interface formation kinetics and (3) a metastable state. By considering all possible solutions of the free energy density, we are able to map the time behavior in the vicinity of the interface as a series of equilibrium interfaces "moving" in the parameter space of the equilibrium phase diagram. The kinetic phase diagram, consequently, contains an "emergence line" that delineates the experimental conditions where a non-equilibrium interface can be forbidden from forming close to a charged surface. When the interface can form on the charged surface, an abrupt transition occurs that produces electrical signatures which distinguish the discontinuous from the continuous transition region. The third kinetic regime describes non-spontaneous phase separation and potential metastable states, and is bounded by the "electrostatic spinodal" line. The equivalent kinetic regimes exist in closed systems and can be found by considering an effective concentration in an open system. PMID:24697457

  5. Photopolymerization-induced crystallization and phase separation in poly(ethylene oxide)/triacrylate blends

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Soo Jeoung; Kyu, Thein

    2008-12-28

    The present article describes experimental and theoretical investigations of miscibility and crystallization behavior of blends of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and triacrylate monomer (TA) using differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. The PEO/TA blends manifested a single T{sub g} varying systematically with composition suggestive of a miscible character in their amorphous states. Moreover, there occurs melting point depression of PEO crystals with increasing TA. A phase diagram was subsequently established that exhibited a solid+liquid coexistence region bound by the liquidus and solidus lines, followed by an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) at a lower temperature. The emerging phase morphology was investigated to verify the coexistence regions. Upon photopolymerization in the isotropic melt above the melting point depression curve, both the UCST and the melting temperatures move upward and eventually surpass the reaction temperature, resulting in phase separation as well as crystallization of PEO driven by the changing supercooling, i.e., the thermodynamic driving force. Of particular interest is the interplay between photopolymerization-induced phase separation and crystallization, which eventually determines the final phase morphology of the PEO/TA blend such as crystalline lamellae, sheaf, or spherulites in isotropic liquid, phase separated domains, and viscous fingering liquids.

  6. Investigation of high velocity separator for particle removal in coal gasification plants. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Linhardt, H.D.

    1980-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of the High Velocity Particle Separator Program performed under Contract EF-77-C-01-2709. This high velocity wedge separator has the potential to reduce equipment size and cost of high temperature and pressurized particulate removal equipment for coal derived gases. Phase II has been directed toward testing and detailed conceptual design of an element suitable for a commercial scale high temperature, high pressure particle separator (HTPS). Concurrently, Phase IA has been conducted, which utilized the ambient analog method (AAM) for aerodynamic and collection performance investigation of each HTPS configuration prior and during hot testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase IA and II. The AAM effort established correlation of theoretical analysis and experiment for HTPS pressure drop, purge flow ratio and collection efficiency potential. Task I defined the initial test conditions to be the contract design point of 1800/sup 0/F and 350 psia. The 1800/sup 0/F, 350 psia testing represents the main high temperature testing with coal-derived particulates in the 2 to 10 micron range. Phase IA and Phase II have demonstrated efficient particle collection with acceptable pressure drop. In view of these encouraging results, it is reasonable to apply the developed technology toward future hot gas particulate cleanup requirements.

  7. Phase separation of the receptor for immunoglobulin E and its subunits in Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, G; Kinet, J P; Kumar, N; Wank, S A; Metzger, H

    1984-12-10

    Above its critical micelle concentration, Triton X-114 in solution forms two phases at room temperature: a lower phase containing supramicellar aggregates and an upper phase largely depleted of detergent. This property of the detergent is potentially useful for separating under mild conditions proteins that bind detergent from those that do not (Bordier, C. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1604-1607). We studied the distribution of the receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) and its subunits in the two phases. IgE and IgE complexed either with intact receptors or with the alpha chains of the receptor alone are principally partitioned into the upper phase, whereas the unliganded receptor as well as the isolated alpha, and especially the beta and gamma chains of the receptor, preferentially partition into the lower detergent phase. Chromatography of IgE and of the subunits of the receptor on a hydrophobic support showed that the beta and gamma chains have a considerably greater hydrophobic surface than the alpha chains or IgE. These results indicate that the distribution of a protein in the two phases of phase-separated Triton X-114 is not an all-or-none effect based upon whether it binds detergent or not. Rather, it reflects the overall balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the protein's surface.

  8. Understanding the mechanism of LCST phase separation of mixed ionic liquids in water by MD simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuling; Wang, Huiyong; Pei, Yuanchao; Liu, Zhiping; Wang, Jianji

    2016-08-17

    Recently, it has been found experimentally that two different amino acid ionic liquids (ILs) can be mixed to show unique lowest critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation in water. However, little is known about the mechanism of phase separation in these IL/water mixtures at the molecular level. In this work, five kinds of amino acid ILs were chosen to study the mechanism of LCST-type phase separation by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Toward this end, a series of all-atom MD simulations were carried out on the ternary mixtures consisting of two different ILs and water at different temperatures. The various interaction energies and radial distribution functions (RDFs) were calculated and analyzed for these mixed systems. It was found that for amino acid ILs, the -NH2 or -COOH group of one anion could have a hydrogen bonding interaction with the -COO(-) group of another anion. With the increase of temperature, this kind of hydrogen bonding interaction between anions was strengthened and then the anion-H2O electrostatic interaction was weakened, which led to the LCST-type phase separation of the mixed ILs in water. In addition, a series of MD simulations for [P6668]1[Lys]n[Asp]1-n/H2O systems were also performed to study the effect of the mixing ratio of ILs on phase separation. It was also noted that the experimental critical composition corresponding to the lowest critical solution temperature was well predicted from the total electrostatic interaction energies as a function of mole fraction of [P6668][Lys] in these systems. The conclusions drawn from this study may provide new insight into the LCST-type phase behavior of ILs in water, and motivate further studies on practical applications. PMID:27498928

  9. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-03-14

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles.

  10. Use of a Ceramic Membrane to Improve the Performance of Two-Separate-Phase Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Giuseppe; Mazzei, Rosalinda; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang; Giorno, Lidietta

    2016-01-01

    Biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMR) combining reaction and separation within the same unit have many advantages over conventional reactor designs. Ceramic membranes are an attractive alternative to polymeric membranes in membrane biotechnology due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. Another important use is their potential application in a biphasic membrane system, where support solvent resistance is highly needed. In this work, the preparation of asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes and their use in a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor will be described. The asymmetric ceramic hollow fibre membranes were prepared using a combined phase inversion and sintering technique. The prepared fibres were then used as support for lipase covalent immobilization in order to develop a two-separate-phase biocatalytic membrane reactor. A functionalization method was proposed in order to increase the density of the reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface of ceramic membranes, which were then amino-activated and treated with a crosslinker. The performance and the stability of the immobilized lipase were investigated as a function of the amount of the immobilized biocatalytst. Results showed that it is possible to immobilize lipase on a ceramic membrane without altering its catalytic performance (initial residual specific activity 93%), which remains constant after 6 reaction cycles. PMID:26985887

  11. 20 CFR 404.1325 - Separation from active service under conditions other than dishonorable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation from active service under... of the Uniformed Services Separation from Active Service § 404.1325 Separation from active service under conditions other than dishonorable. Separation from active service under conditions other...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1325 - Separation from active service under conditions other than dishonorable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation from active service under... of the Uniformed Services Separation from Active Service § 404.1325 Separation from active service under conditions other than dishonorable. Separation from active service under conditions other...

  13. Stability and phase separation in mixed monopolar lipid/bolalipid layers.

    PubMed

    Longo, Gabriel S; Thompson, David H; Szleifer, I

    2007-10-15

    The phase stability of a fluid lipid layer that is a mixture of conventional monopolar lipids and C20 bipolar bolalipids was studied using a mean field theory that explicitly includes molecular details and configurational properties of the lipid molecules. The effect of changing the fraction of bolalipids, as well as the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the monopolar lipids, was probed. A phase separation between two liquid lipid phases was found when a mismatch exists in the optimal hydrophobic thicknesses of the pure bolalipid and monopolar lipid layers. The lipid mixture phase separates into a thin bolalipid-rich layer and a thicker monopolar-rich layer. The thin membrane phase is mainly composed of transmembrane bolalipid molecules whose polar heads are positioned at opposite membrane-water interfaces. In the monopolar lipid-rich phase, bolalipids are the minor component and most of them assume a looping configuration where both headgroups are present at the same membrane-water interface. For mixed layers that form a single lipid phase across all bolalipid concentrations, the hairpin-transmembrane ratio strongly depends on the hydrocarbon chain length of the monopolar lipid and the bolalipid concentration. The C-D bond order parameters of the different species have been calculated. Our findings suggest that the concentration-dependent phase transition should be experimentally observable by measuring of the order parameters through quadrupolar splitting experiments. The driving force for the phase separation in the monopolar lipid/bolalipid mixture is the packing mismatch between hydrophobic regions of the monopolar lipid hydrocarbon chains and the membrane-spanning bolalipid chains. The results from the molecular theory may be useful in the design of stable lipid layers for integral membrane protein sensing.

  14. Realization of a universal and phase-covariant quantum cloning machine in separate cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Baolong; Song Qingming; Ye Liu

    2011-04-15

    We present a scheme to realize a special quantum cloning machine in separate cavities. The quantum cloning machine can copy the quantum information from a photon pulse to two distant atoms. Choosing the different parameters, the method can perform optimal symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning and optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning.

  15. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  16. Formation and Maturation of Phase-Separated Liquid Droplets by RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Protter, David S W; Rosen, Michael K; Parker, Roy

    2015-10-15

    Eukaryotic cells possess numerous dynamic membrane-less organelles, RNP granules, enriched in RNA and RNA-binding proteins containing disordered regions. We demonstrate that the disordered regions of key RNP granule components and the full-length granule protein hnRNPA1 can phase separate in vitro, producing dynamic liquid droplets. Phase separation is promoted by low salt concentrations or RNA. Over time, the droplets mature to more stable states, as assessed by slowed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and resistance to salt. Maturation often coincides with formation of fibrous structures. Different disordered domains can co-assemble into phase-separated droplets. These biophysical properties demonstrate a plausible mechanism by which interactions between disordered regions, coupled with RNA binding, could contribute to RNP granule assembly in vivo through promoting phase separation. Progression from dynamic liquids to stable fibers may be regulated to produce cellular structures with diverse physiochemical properties and functions. Misregulation could contribute to diseases involving aberrant RNA granules. PMID:26412307

  17. Influence of filler particle and clusters on phase separation in binary polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Saxena, A. B.; Lookman, T.; Douglas, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Polymer materials are rarely used in their pure form in applications. They are often filled with additives that improve their processability and mechanical or electrical properties. An understanding of the polymer-filler interaction and the ramifications for the properties of filled polymer blends is a matter of significant practical interest. Phase separation plays an important role in determining the morphology and properties of filled polymer composites, which usually are a blend of various macromolecular fluids, and additive particles. Despite the wide application of these blends, the development and the stability of the phase separating morphology are not fully understood. In particular, the interference of the filler induced composition waves remains unexplored. The presence of a surface induces a composition wave, which consists of stripes parallel to the surface and only exists close to the surface. The morphologies in the bulk take form of the characteristic spinodal decomposition patterns, i.e. the convoluted stripes. This surface directed phase separation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Recent numerical results show that an immobile spherical filler particle introduces transient target patterns in two-dimensional polymer thin films, and experimental results have confirmed the observations. The authors report simulation results of the effect of filler geometry on phase separation morphology, focusing on the interference of the composition waves on the stability of two-dimensional polymer blends (polymer thin films).

  18. Phase Separation on Bicontinuous Cubic Membranes: Symmetry Breaking, Reentrant, and Domain Faceting.

    PubMed

    Paillusson, Fabien; Pennington, Matthew R; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-07-29

    We study the phase separation of binary lipid mixtures that form bicontinuous cubic phases. The competition between the nonuniform Gaussian membrane curvature and line tension leads to a very rich phase diagram, where we observe symmetry breaking of the membrane morphologies and reentrant phenomena due to the formation of bridges between segregated domains. Upon increasing the line tension contribution, we also find faceting of lipid domains that we explain using a simple argument based on the symmetry of the underlying surface and topology. PMID:27517794

  19. Chromatographic separation of phenylpropanol enantiomers on a quinidine carbamate-type chiral stationary phase

    SciTech Connect

    Asnin, Leonid; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-07-01

    The retention and the separation of the enantiomers of 1-phenylpropanol (1PP), 2-phenylpropanol (2PP), and 3-chloro-1-phenylpropanol (3CPP) on silica-bonded quinidine carbamate under normal phase HPLC conditions were investigated. A relatively high selectivity of the stationary phase for 3CPP and 1PP ({alpha} {approx} 1.07-1.09) was achieved with eluents containing ethyl acetate as the polar modifier. These mobile phases were examined in detail. Based on the set of chromatographic and thermodynamic data collected, conclusions regarding the mechanism of enantioselectivity and the structure of the selector chiral center are made.

  20. Development of experiment and theory to detect and predict ligand phase separation on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Zachary; Merz, Steve; Seager, Jon; Dunn, Caroline; Egorov, Sergei; Green, David L

    2015-05-26

    MALDI mass-spectrometry measurements are combined with self-consistent mean-field (SCF) calculations to detect and predict ligand phase separation on Ag nanoparticles. The experimental and theoretical techniques complement each other by enabling quantification of the nearest-neighbor distribution of a ligand mixture in a monolayer shell. By tracking a characteristic metallic fragment family, analysis of a MALDI spectrum produces a frequency distribution corresponding to specific ligand patterning. Inherent to the SCF calculation is the enumeration of local interactions that dictate ligand assembly. Interweaving MALDI and SCF facilitates a comparison between the experimentally and theoretically derived frequency distributions as well as their deviation from a well-mixed state. Thus, we combine these techniques to detect and predict phase separation in monolayers that mix uniformly or experience varying degrees of de-mixing, including microphase separation and stripe formation. Definition of MALDI removed as this is a commonly recognized technique. PMID:25882701

  1. The metabolism of neuropeptides. Phase separation of synaptic membrane preparations with Triton X-114 reveals the presence of aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Matsas, R; Stephenson, S L; Hryszko, J; Kenny, A J; Turner, A J

    1985-10-15

    The property of solutions of Triton X-114 to separate into detergent-rich and detergent-poor phases at 30 degrees C has been exploited to investigate the identities of the aminopeptidases in synaptic membrane preparations from pig striatum. When titrated with an antiserum to aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), synaptic membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 revealed that this enzyme apparently comprises no more than 5% of the activity releasing tyrosine from [Leu]enkephalin. When assayed in the presence of puromycin, this proportion increased to 20%. Three integral membrane proteins were fractionated by phase separation in Triton X-114. Aminopeptidase activity, endopeptidase-24.11 and peptidyl dipeptidase A partitioned predominantly into the detergent-rich phase when kidney microvillar membranes were so treated. However, only 5.5% of synaptic membrane aminopeptidase activity partitioned into this phase, although the other peptidases behaved predictably. About half of the aminopeptidase activity in the detergent-rich phase could now be titrated with the antiserum, showing that aminopeptidase N is an integral membrane protein of this preparation. Three aminopeptidase inhibitors were investigated for their ability to discriminate between the different activities revealed by these experiments. Although amastatin was the most potent (IC50 = 5 X 10(-7) M) it failed to discriminate between pure kidney aminopeptidase N, the total activity of solubilized synaptic membranes and that in the Triton X-114-rich phase. Bestatin was slightly more potent for total activity (IC50 = 6.3 X 10(-6) M) than for the other two forms (IC50 = 1.6 X 10(-5) M). Puromycin was a weak inhibitor, but was more selective. The activity of solubilized membranes was more sensitive (IC50 = 1.6 X 10(-5) M) than that of the pure enzyme or the Triton X-114-rich phase (IC50 = 4 X 10(-4) M). We suggest that the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase activity that predominates in crude synaptic membrane preparations

  2. Direct observation of mesoscopic phase separation in KxFeySe2 by scanning microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imai, Yoshinori

    2015-03-01

    KxFeySe2 is isostructural to 122-FeAs compounds. However, its electronic structure is unique among Fe-based superconductors in the sense that hole Fermi pocket is absent at the center of the Brillouin zone. Therefore, it is important to study this compounds in terms of the mechanism of superconductivity since some pairing (for example, s +/- -wave) needs the interaction between hole and electron Fermi pockets. However, the phase separation in this material makes studies using conventional macroscopic measurement techniques very difficult. Scanning near-field microwave microscope (SMM), which can measure local electric property of inhomogeneous conducting samples, should be a powerful tool. Recently we developed the combined instrument of STM and SMM with high sensitivity, and investigated the local electric property of KxFeySe2 (x = 0.8, y = 1.6 ~2, Tc = 31 K) using this scanning tunneling/microwave microscope. The characteristic pattern of mesoscopic phase separation of the metallic and the semiconducting phase was observed. From the comparison with previously reported SEM/EDS result we identified the metallic phase and the semiconducting phase as the minor Fe-rich phase and the major K2Fe4Se5 phase, respectively.

  3. PHASE SEPARATION IN PM 2000 FE-BASE ODS ALLOY: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Russell, Kaye F; Chao, J.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The coarsening of the three-dimensional microstructure resulting from phase separation during ageing at 748 K of a Fe-based PM 2000{trademark} oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel has been investigated by atom probe tomography and hardness measurements. Phase separation resulted in the formation of isolated particles of the chromium-enriched {alpha}{prime} phase. The aluminum and titanium were found to preferential partition to the iron-rich {alpha} phase. The partitioning of aluminum is consistent with theoretical calculations. The change in the scale of the chromium-enriched {alpha}{prime} phase was found to fit a power law with a time exponent of 0.32 in accordance with that predicted by the classical Lifshitz, Slyozov and Wagner (LSW) theory. The solute concentrations of the coexisting {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} phases were estimated from concentration frequency distributions with the Langer-Bar-on-Miller (LBM) method and proximity histograms. The hardness was linearly related to the chromium content of the {alpha}{prime} phase.

  4. Phase separation of electrons strongly coupled with phonons in cuprates and manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sasha

    2009-03-01

    Recent advanced Monte Carlo simulations have not found superconductivity and phase separation in the Hubbard model with on-site repulsive electron-electron correlations. I argue that microscopic phase separations in cuprate superconductors and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) manganites originate from a strong electron-phonon interaction (EPI) combined with unavoidable disorder. Attractive electron correlations, caused by an almost unretarded EPI, are sufficient to overcome the direct inter-site Coulomb repulsion in these charge-transfer Mott-Hubbard insulators, so that low energy physics is that of small polarons and small bipolarons. They form clusters localized by disorder below the mobility edge, but propagate as the Bloch states above the mobility edge. I identify the Froehlich EPI as the most essential for pairing and phase separation in superconducting layered cuprates. The pairing of oxygen holes into heavy bipolarons in the paramagnetic phase (current-carrier density collapse (CCDC)) explains also CMR and high and low-resistance phase coexistence near the ferromagnetic transition of doped manganites.

  5. Extraordinary phase separation and segregation in vent fluids from the southern East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, K. L.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Brockington, M.; Bray, A.M.; O'Grady, K. M.; Olson, E.; Graham, A.; Proskurowski, G.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of Brandon vent on the southern East Pacific Rise is providing new insights into the controls on midocean ridge hydrothermal vent fluid chemistry. The physical conditions at the time ofsampling (287 bar and 405??C) place the Brandon fluids very close to the critical point of seawater (298 bar and 407??C). This permits in situ study of the effects of near criticalphenomena, which are interpreted to be the primary cause of enhanced transition metal transport in these fluids. Of the five orifices on Brandon sampled, three were venting fluids with less than seawater chlorinity, and two were venting fluids with greater than seawater chlorinity. The liquid phase orifices contain 1.6-1.9 times the chloride content of the vapors. Most other elements, excluding the gases, have this same ratio demonstrating the conservative nature of phase separation and the lack of subsequent water-rock interaction. The vapor and liquid phases vent at the same time from orifices within meters of each other on the Brandon structure. Variations in fluid compositions occur on a time scale of minutes. Our interpretation is that phase separation and segregation must be occurring 'real time' within the sulfide structure itself. Fluids from Brandon therefore provide an unique opportunity to understand in situ phase separation without the overprinting of continued water-rock interaction with the oceanic crust, as well as critical phenomena. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase separation behavior of egg yolk suspensions after anionic polysaccharides addition.

    PubMed

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Temelli, Feral; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the interactions between three anionic polysaccharides (gum arabic, xanthan gum and ι-carrageenan) and egg yolk at pH 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and possible phase separation behavior. Zeta potential of egg yolk was not affected by gum arabic addition while it became more negative at pH 5 after xanthan gum and ι-carrageenan addition. The particle size of ι-carrageenan yolk suspension was considerably higher than the other polysaccharide yolk suspensions at pH below 6 but was dramatically decreased at alkaline pH. Most polysaccharide yolk suspensions formed either a biphasic or a monophasic system, whereas three distinct phases were observed for xanthan gum yolk suspension at pH 6. Protein profile analysis of the lipid-rich cream phase obtained from xanthan gum added yolk showed similarities to apoproteins from low density lipoproteins (LDL) of egg yolk. Microscopy analysis indicated the co-presence of xanthan gum and LDL in the creamy phase, within a network formed by xanthan gum. It was suggested that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the egg yolk and xanthan gum as well as xanthan gum's rheological properties could be responsible for the unique phase separation observed in the study. The findings of this study can form the basis for future studies to develop a new method to separate LDL from egg yolk.

  7. Formation of asymmetrical structured silica controlled by a phase separation process and implication for biosilicification.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia-Yuan; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Li, Xi-Ming; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH3)4) as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL) and dodecylamine (DA) were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), infrared spectra (IR), and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines), phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma) and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification.

  8. Asymmetrical phase separation and gelation in binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yiwu; Yuan, Guangcui; Han, Charles C

    2016-07-01

    Two types of colloidal particles, which are nearly the same in chemical composition but carry opposite surface charges, are mixed in water. Depending on the relative proportion of the oppositely charged particles, the process of aggregation leads to the formation of discrete clusters of various sizes in dilute dispersions, and to the development of particle gel networks in more concentrated systems. Due to the significant difference in the absolute values of surface charges (negative particle: -48 mV, positive particle: +24 mV), the phase separation and the gelation behaviors are asymmetric with respect to the mixing ratio. Mixtures with excess negative particles are more stable, while mixtures with excess positive particles are easily affected by phase separation. The hetero-aggregation triggered by the addition of microscopically large macro-ions is similar to what is often observed in a mono-component charged colloidal system, i.e., phase separation occurs through addition of small electrolyte ions. Within the concentration region investigated here, it is clear that the gel line is buried inside the phase separation region. Gelation occurs only when the number and size of the clusters are large and big enough to connect up into a space-spanning network. Our results indicate that, in this binary mixture of oppositely charged colloids, although the interaction between unlike species is attractive and that between like species is repulsive, the onset of gelation is in fact governed by the equilibrium phase separation, as in the case of purely attractive systems with short-range isotropic interaction. PMID:27394122

  9. Formation of Asymmetrical Structured Silica Controlled by a Phase Separation Process and Implication for Biosilicification

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jia-Yuan; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Li, Xi-Ming; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH3)4) as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL) and dodecylamine (DA) were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), infrared spectra (IR), and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines), phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma) and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification. PMID:23585878

  10. Asymmetrical phase separation and gelation in binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Yiwu; Yuan, Guangcui; Han, Charles C.

    2016-07-01

    Two types of colloidal particles, which are nearly the same in chemical composition but carry opposite surface charges, are mixed in water. Depending on the relative proportion of the oppositely charged particles, the process of aggregation leads to the formation of discrete clusters of various sizes in dilute dispersions, and to the development of particle gel networks in more concentrated systems. Due to the significant difference in the absolute values of surface charges (negative particle: -48 mV, positive particle: +24 mV), the phase separation and the gelation behaviors are asymmetric with respect to the mixing ratio. Mixtures with excess negative particles are more stable, while mixtures with excess positive particles are easily affected by phase separation. The hetero-aggregation triggered by the addition of microscopically large macro-ions is similar to what is often observed in a mono-component charged colloidal system, i.e., phase separation occurs through addition of small electrolyte ions. Within the concentration region investigated here, it is clear that the gel line is buried inside the phase separation region. Gelation occurs only when the number and size of the clusters are large and big enough to connect up into a space-spanning network. Our results indicate that, in this binary mixture of oppositely charged colloids, although the interaction between unlike species is attractive and that between like species is repulsive, the onset of gelation is in fact governed by the equilibrium phase separation, as in the case of purely attractive systems with short-range isotropic interaction.

  11. Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

  12. Supercooling transition in phase separated manganite thin films: An electrical transport study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Tyagi, Pawan Kumar; Singh, H. K.

    2014-05-01

    The impact of variation in the relative fractions of the ferromagnetic metallic and antiferromagnetic/charge ordered insulator phases on the supercooling/superheating transition in strongly phase separated system, La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (y ≈ 0.4), has been studied employing magnetotransport measurements. Our study clearly shows that the supercooling transition temperature is non-unique and strongly depends on the magneto-thermodynamic path through which the low temperature state is accessed. In contrast, the superheating transition temperature remains constant. The thermo-magnetic hysteresis, the separation of the two transitions and the associated resistivity, all are functions of the relative fraction of the coexisting phases.

  13. Long-term stability of phase-separated half-Heusler compounds.

    PubMed

    Krez, J; Balke, B; Ouardi, S; Selle, S; Höche, T; Felser, C; Hermes, W; Schwind, M

    2015-11-28

    Half-Heusler (HH) compounds have shown high figure of merit up to 1.5. Here, we address the long-term stability of n- and p-type HH materials. For this purpose, we investigated HH materials based on the Ti0.3Zr0.35Hf0.35NiSn-system after 500 cycles (1700 h) from 373 to 873 K. Both compounds exhibit a maximum Seebeck coefficient of |α|≈ 210 μV K(-1) and a phase separation into two HH phases. The dendritic microstructure is temperature resistant and upon cycling the changes in the microstructure are so marginal that the low thermal conductivity values (κ < 4 W m(-1) K(-1)) could be maintained. Our results emphasize that phase-separated HH compounds are suitable low cost materials and can lead to enhanced thermoelectric efficiencies beyond the set benchmark for industrial applications.

  14. Manipulating electronic phase separation in strongly correlated oxides with an ordered array of antidots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Du, Kai; Liu, Hao; Zhang, X.-G.; Lan, Fanli; Lin, Hanxuan; Wei, Wengang; Zhu, Yinyan; Kou, Yunfang; Shao, Jian; Niu, Jiebin; Wang, Wenbin; Wu, Ruqian; Yin, Lifeng; Plummer, E. W.; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The interesting transport and magnetic properties in manganites depend sensitively on the nucleation and growth of electronic phase-separated domains. By fabricating antidot arrays in La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 (LPCMO) epitaxial thin films, we create ordered arrays of micrometer-sized ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) rings in the LPCMO films that lead to dramatically increased metal–insulator transition temperatures and reduced resistances. The FMM rings emerge from the edges of the antidots where the lattice symmetry is broken. Based on our Monte Carlo simulation, these FMM rings assist the nucleation and growth of FMM phase domains increasing the metal–insulator transition with decreasing temperature or increasing magnetic field. This study points to a way in which electronic phase separation in manganites can be artificially controlled without changing chemical composition or applying external field. PMID:26195791

  15. Supercooling transition in phase separated manganite thin films: An electrical transport study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Singh, H. K.; Tyagi, Pawan Kumar

    2014-05-26

    The impact of variation in the relative fractions of the ferromagnetic metallic and antiferromagnetic/charge ordered insulator phases on the supercooling/superheating transition in strongly phase separated system, La{sub 5/8−y}Pr{sub y}Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (y ≈ 0.4), has been studied employing magnetotransport measurements. Our study clearly shows that the supercooling transition temperature is non-unique and strongly depends on the magneto-thermodynamic path through which the low temperature state is accessed. In contrast, the superheating transition temperature remains constant. The thermo-magnetic hysteresis, the separation of the two transitions and the associated resistivity, all are functions of the relative fraction of the coexisting phases.

  16. Chemical ordering suppresses large-scale electronic phase separation in doped manganites

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yinyan; Du, Kai; Niu, Jiebin; Lin, Lingfang; Wei, Wengang; Liu, Hao; Lin, Hanxuan; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Tieying; Kou, Yunfang; Shao, Jian; Gao, Xingyu; Xu, Xiaoshan; Wu, Xiaoshan; Dong, Shuai; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    For strongly correlated oxides, it has been a long-standing issue regarding the role of the chemical ordering of the dopants on the physical properties. Here, using unit cell by unit cell superlattice growth technique, we determine the role of chemical ordering of the Pr dopant in a colossal magnetoresistant (La1−yPry)1−xCaxMnO3 (LPCMO) system, which has been well known for its large length-scale electronic phase separation phenomena. Our experimental results show that the chemical ordering of Pr leads to marked reduction of the length scale of electronic phase separations. Moreover, compared with the conventional Pr-disordered LPCMO system, the Pr-ordered LPCMO system has a metal–insulator transition that is ∼100 K higher because the ferromagnetic metallic phase is more dominant at all temperatures below the Curie temperature. PMID:27053071

  17. Vacancy-mediated fcc/bcc phase separation in Fe1 -xNix ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menteş, T. O.; Stojić, N.; Vescovo, E.; Ablett, J. M.; Niño, M. A.; Locatelli, A.

    2016-08-01

    The phase separation occurring in Fe-Ni thin films near the Invar composition is studied by using high-resolution spectromicroscopy techniques and density functional theory calculations. Annealed at temperatures around 300 ∘C ,Fe0.70Ni0.30 films on W(110) break into micron-sized bcc and fcc domains with compositions in agreement with the bulk Fe-Ni phase diagram. Ni is found to be the diffusing species in forming the chemical heterogeneity. The experimentally determined energy barrier of 1.59 ±0.09 eV is identified as the vacancy formation energy via density functional theory calculations. Thus, the principal role of the surface in the phase separation process is attributed to vacancy creation without interstitials.

  18. Tubing modifications for countercurrent chromatography (CCC): Stationary phase retention and separation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter

    2015-07-16

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a separation technique in which two immiscible liquid phases are used for the preparative purification of synthetic and natural products. In CCC the number of repetitive mixing and de-mixing processes, the retention of the stationary phase and the mass transfer between the liquid phases are significant parameters that influence the resolution and separation efficiency. Limited mass transfer is the main reason for peak broadening and a low number of theoretical plates along with impaired peak resolution in CCC. Hence, technical improvements with regard to column design and tubing modifications is an important aspect to enhance mixing and mass transfer. In this study we constructed a crimping tool which allowed us to make reproducible, semi-automated modifications of conventional round-shaped tubing. Six crimped tubing modifications were prepared, mounted onto multilayer coils which were subsequently installed in the CCC system. The stationary phase retention of the tubing modifications were compared to the conventional system with unmodified tubing in a hydrophobic, an intermediate and a hydrophilic two-phase solvent system. Generally, the tubing modifications provided higher capabilities to retain the stationary phase depending on the solvent system and flow rates. In the intermediate solvent system the separation efficiency was evaluated with a mixture of six alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates. The peak resolution could be increased up to 50% with one of the tubing modifications compared to the unmodified tubing. Using the most convincing tubing modification at fixed values for the stationary phase retention, a reasonable comparison to the unmodified tubing was achieved. The peak width could be reduced up to 49% and a strong positive impact at increased flow rates regarding peak resolution and theoretical plate number was observed compared to unmodified tubing. It could be concluded that the tubing modification enhanced the interphase

  19. Tubing modifications for countercurrent chromatography (CCC): Stationary phase retention and separation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter

    2015-07-16

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is a separation technique in which two immiscible liquid phases are used for the preparative purification of synthetic and natural products. In CCC the number of repetitive mixing and de-mixing processes, the retention of the stationary phase and the mass transfer between the liquid phases are significant parameters that influence the resolution and separation efficiency. Limited mass transfer is the main reason for peak broadening and a low number of theoretical plates along with impaired peak resolution in CCC. Hence, technical improvements with regard to column design and tubing modifications is an important aspect to enhance mixing and mass transfer. In this study we constructed a crimping tool which allowed us to make reproducible, semi-automated modifications of conventional round-shaped tubing. Six crimped tubing modifications were prepared, mounted onto multilayer coils which were subsequently installed in the CCC system. The stationary phase retention of the tubing modifications were compared to the conventional system with unmodified tubing in a hydrophobic, an intermediate and a hydrophilic two-phase solvent system. Generally, the tubing modifications provided higher capabilities to retain the stationary phase depending on the solvent system and flow rates. In the intermediate solvent system the separation efficiency was evaluated with a mixture of six alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates. The peak resolution could be increased up to 50% with one of the tubing modifications compared to the unmodified tubing. Using the most convincing tubing modification at fixed values for the stationary phase retention, a reasonable comparison to the unmodified tubing was achieved. The peak width could be reduced up to 49% and a strong positive impact at increased flow rates regarding peak resolution and theoretical plate number was observed compared to unmodified tubing. It could be concluded that the tubing modification enhanced the interphase

  20. Initial stages of phase separation in polymer blends near the limit of metastability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Amy Adams

    Liquid-liquid phase separation in polymethylbutylene/polyethylbutylene blends near the metastable limit was studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In addition, the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the blends were examined over a wide temperature and pressure range. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, chi, was measured by comparing static SANS profiles from single-phase systems with predictions based on the random phase approximation. The pressure dependence of the binodal temperature of one of the blends was experimentally determined from a series of dissolution experiments. The experimental binodal is in quantitative agreement with that computed using the Flory-Huggins theory without any adjustable parameters. Quenching the blends from the single-phase region to deep into the metastable region of the mean-field phase diagram induced phase separation. During the early stage of phase separation in the blends, the time-resolved SANS profiles merged at a time-independent critical scattering vector, qc. The critical size of the phase separated structures, Rc, formed during the early stages of phase separation is defined as Rc = 1/q c. The theory of Cahn and Hilliard predicts that in metastable blends Rc increases with increasing quench depth, and diverges at the spinodal. The experimental measurements show that Rc increases with decreasing quench depth, and diverges between the binodal and spinodal. Some aspects of these results are addressed in recent theoretical work of Wang and Wood wherein the effects of fluctuations on the classical binodal and spinodal curves in polymer blends are incorporated. The evolution of the structure factor was then examined using the Cahn-HilliardCook theory. This enables organizing the data in terms of three parameters that depend on scattering vector, q: S0(q), the initial structure factor, St(q), the terminal structure factor, and R(q) a kinetic parameter that indicates the time scale for the transformation

  1. Calcium Activities During Different Ion Exchange Separation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Calcium is a major element and participates in many geological processes. Investigations on stable calcium isotopic compositions of natural geological samples provide a great powerful tool to understand all kinds of those geological processes from a view of the field of isotope geochemistry. With the development of modern instruments and chemical separation techniques, calcium isotopic compositions could be determined even more precisely if the column chemistry brings no deviation. Usually, Calcium is separated from matrix elements using cation resin columns and the related chemical separation techniques seem to be robust. However, more detailed work still need to be done on matrix effects and calcium isotopic fractionations on column chemistry or during elution processes. If calcium is run on TIMS instruments, the interference effect could be lower and easier controlled, thus, the requirement to the chemistry is relatively not critic, but calcium fractionation on filaments could be much difficult to monitor. If calcium is run on MC-ICP-MS instruments, the interference effect could be huge and is really difficult to be recognized and subtracted, the requirement to the chemistry is much more critical in order to get a real result of the sample, but the instrument fractionation could be easier to monitor. Here we investigate calcium activities on several kinds of cation resins under different column/acid conditions. We seek to find a good balance between recovery and interference effect on column chemistry and are intend to set up a better chemical separation procedure to satisfy the instrument requirements for calcium. In addition, Calcium isotopic fractionation on column will also be discussed further here based on our previous and ongoing results.

  2. Stability and Oil Migration of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Emulsified by Phase-Separating Biopolymer Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Mao, Peng; Lv, Ruihe; Zhang, Ke; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2016-08-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with varying concentration of oil phase, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), were prepared using phase-separating gum arabic (GA)/sugar beet pectin (SBP) mixture as an emulsifier. Stability of the emulsions including emulsion phase separation, droplet size change, and oil migration were investigated by means of visual observation, droplet size analysis, oil partition analysis, backscattering of light, and interfacial tension measurement. It was found that in the emulsions prepared with 4.0% GA/1.0% SBP, when the concentration of MCT was greater than 2.0%, emulsion phase separation was not observed and the emulsions were stable with droplet size unchanged during storage. This result proves the emulsification ability of phase-separating biopolymer mixtures and their potential usage as emulsifiers to prepare O/W emulsion. However, when the concentration of MCT was equal or less than 2.0%, emulsion phase separation occurred after preparation resulting in an upper SBP-rich phase and a lower GA-rich phase. The droplet size increased in the upper phase whereas decreased slightly in the lower phase with time, compared to the freshly prepared emulsions. During storage, the oil droplets exhibited a complex migration process: first moving to the SBP-rich phase, then to the GA-rich phase and finally gathering at the interface between the two phases. The mechanisms of the emulsion stability and oil migration in the phase-separated emulsions were discussed.

  3. Stability and Oil Migration of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Emulsified by Phase-Separating Biopolymer Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Mao, Peng; Lv, Ruihe; Zhang, Ke; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2016-08-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with varying concentration of oil phase, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), were prepared using phase-separating gum arabic (GA)/sugar beet pectin (SBP) mixture as an emulsifier. Stability of the emulsions including emulsion phase separation, droplet size change, and oil migration were investigated by means of visual observation, droplet size analysis, oil partition analysis, backscattering of light, and interfacial tension measurement. It was found that in the emulsions prepared with 4.0% GA/1.0% SBP, when the concentration of MCT was greater than 2.0%, emulsion phase separation was not observed and the emulsions were stable with droplet size unchanged during storage. This result proves the emulsification ability of phase-separating biopolymer mixtures and their potential usage as emulsifiers to prepare O/W emulsion. However, when the concentration of MCT was equal or less than 2.0%, emulsion phase separation occurred after preparation resulting in an upper SBP-rich phase and a lower GA-rich phase. The droplet size increased in the upper phase whereas decreased slightly in the lower phase with time, compared to the freshly prepared emulsions. During storage, the oil droplets exhibited a complex migration process: first moving to the SBP-rich phase, then to the GA-rich phase and finally gathering at the interface between the two phases. The mechanisms of the emulsion stability and oil migration in the phase-separated emulsions were discussed. PMID:27384744

  4. Electrocoagulation: Simply a Phase Separation Technology? The Case of Bronopol Compared to Its Treatment by EAOPs.

    PubMed

    Bocos, Elvira; Brillas, Enric; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Sirés, Ignasi

    2016-07-19

    Electrocoagulation (EC) has long been considered a phase separation process, well suited for industrial wastewater treatment since it causes a quick, drastic decay of organic matter content. This research demonstrates that EC also behaves, at least for some molecules like the industrial preservative bronopol, as an effective transformation technology able to yield several breakdown products. This finding has relevant environmental implications, pointing to EC as a greener process than described in literature. A thorough optimization of EC was performed with solutions of bronopol in a simulated water matrix, yielding the complete disappearance of the parent molecule within 20 min at 200 mA (∼20 mA/cm(2)), using Fe as the anode and cathode. A 25% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement was attained as maximum, with bronopol being converted into bromonitromethane, bromochloromethane, formaldehyde and formic acid. N atoms were accumulated as NO3(-), whereas Br(-) was stable once released. This suggests that mediated oxidation by active chlorine, as well as by hydroxyl radicals resulting from its reaction with iron ions, is the main transformation mechanism. Aiming to enhance the mineralization, a sequential combination of EC with electro-Fenton (EF) as post-treatment process was proposed. EF with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode ensured the gradual TOC removal under the action of (•)OH and BDD((•)OH), also transforming Br(-) into BrO3(-).

  5. Fabrication and photoluminescence of strong phase-separated InGaN based nanopillar LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Chuanrui; Zhou, Yufan; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Baoli; Wang, Xuelin; Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong; Xu, Xiangang; Ji, Ziwu

    2015-12-01

    A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diode (LED) producing a blue-green dual-wavelength spectrum has been grown, and fabricated into two nanopillar array structures with different etching depths: one fabricated only on the p-GaN layer and the other penetrating through the active layers. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectra have shown that compared with the as-grown (planar) LED, light extraction efficiency (LEE) is improved for both the shorter and the longer nanopillar array structures due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect, in contrast, internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is improved for only the longer one due to the relaxation of strain in the MQWs embedded in the nanopillars. Furthermore, the strain relaxation-induced peak blue-shift value is smaller for the green emission from In-rich quantum dots (QDs) than the blue emission from the InGaN matrix, and decreases for both the emissions with increasing temperature. The former is attributed to the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the strong localized QDs of small size being smaller than in the InGaN matrix, the latter is due to the decrease of the thermal-mismatch strain in the MQWs with increasing temperature.

  6. Electrocoagulation: Simply a Phase Separation Technology? The Case of Bronopol Compared to Its Treatment by EAOPs.

    PubMed

    Bocos, Elvira; Brillas, Enric; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Sirés, Ignasi

    2016-07-19

    Electrocoagulation (EC) has long been considered a phase separation process, well suited for industrial wastewater treatment since it causes a quick, drastic decay of organic matter content. This research demonstrates that EC also behaves, at least for some molecules like the industrial preservative bronopol, as an effective transformation technology able to yield several breakdown products. This finding has relevant environmental implications, pointing to EC as a greener process than described in literature. A thorough optimization of EC was performed with solutions of bronopol in a simulated water matrix, yielding the complete disappearance of the parent molecule within 20 min at 200 mA (∼20 mA/cm(2)), using Fe as the anode and cathode. A 25% of total organic carbon (TOC) abatement was attained as maximum, with bronopol being converted into bromonitromethane, bromochloromethane, formaldehyde and formic acid. N atoms were accumulated as NO3(-), whereas Br(-) was stable once released. This suggests that mediated oxidation by active chlorine, as well as by hydroxyl radicals resulting from its reaction with iron ions, is the main transformation mechanism. Aiming to enhance the mineralization, a sequential combination of EC with electro-Fenton (EF) as post-treatment process was proposed. EF with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode ensured the gradual TOC removal under the action of (•)OH and BDD((•)OH), also transforming Br(-) into BrO3(-). PMID:27328254

  7. Phase separation in the iron chalcogenide superconductor Fe1+yTexSe1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hefei; Zuo, Jian-Min; Wen, Jinsheng; Xu, Zhijun; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Qiang; Gu, Genda; Park, Wan Kyu; Greene, Laura H.

    2011-05-01

    We present direct evidence for phase separation and chemical inhomogeneity in Fe1+yTexSe1-x single crystals from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) data. In STEM, images recorded using a high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector show characteristic nanometer-scale patterns of phase separation from the Z-dependent image contrast. The separation was observed both in non-superconducting samples with excess iron and in superconducting samples. Using EELS, we determined ~20% (or lower) fluctuation in Te concentration from the average local compositions by integrating the intensity of the Te-M4,5 edge. The energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of the Fe-L2,3 edge changes with varying composition, especially the L3/L2 white-line intensity ratio, which is sensitive to the d-state occupancy of the Fe. The results suggest a miscibility gap in the Fe1+yTexSe1-x system and changes in the d-electron states at the nanometer scale from the separated phases.

  8. Graphitic carbon nitride as high-resolution stationary phase for gas chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunzhong; Qi, Meiling; Fu, Ruonong

    2016-07-01

    This work presents the first example of utilization of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as stationary phase for capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separations. The statically coated g-C3N4 column showed the column efficiencies of 3760 plates/m and weak polarity. Its resolving capability and retention behaviours were investigated by using the Grob test mixture, and mixtures of diverse types of analytes, and structural and positional isomers. The results showed superior separation performance of the g-C3N4 stationary phase for some critical analytes and preferential retention for aromatic analytes. Specifically, it exhibited high-resolution capability for aromatic and aliphatic isomers such as methylnaphthalenes and dimethylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene and anthracene and alkane isomers. In addition, g-C3N4 column showed excellent thermal stability up to 280°C and good repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD) values less than 0.09% for intra-day, below 0.23% for inter-day and in the range of 1.9-8.4% for between-column, respectively. The advantageous separation performance shows the potential of g-C3N4 and related materials as stationary phase in GC and other separation technologies.

  9. Crystal growth in a three-phase system: diffusion and liquid-liquid phase separation in lysozyme crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Heijna, M C R; van Enckevort, W J P; Vlieg, E

    2007-07-01

    In the phase diagram of the protein hen egg-white lysozyme, a region is present in which the lysozyme solution demixes and forms two liquid phases. In situ observations by optical microscopy show that the dense liquid droplets dissolve when crystals grow in this system. During this process the demixed liquid region retracts from the crystal surface. The spatial distribution of the dense phase droplets present special boundary conditions for Fick's second law for diffusion. In combination with the cylindrical symmetry provided by the kinetically roughened crystals, this system allows for a full numerical analysis. Using experimental data for setting the boundary conditions, a quasi-steady-state solution for the time-dependent concentration profile was shown to be valid. Comparison of kinetically rough growth in a phase separated system and in a nonseparated system shows that the growth kinetics for a three-phase system differs from a two-phase system, in that crystals grow more slowly but the duration of growth is prolonged.

  10. Search for improved fluorinated stationary phases for separation of fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals from their desfluoro analogs.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Makarov, Alexey A; McClain, Ray; Przybyciel, Matthew; Welch, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of a several fluorine-containing stationary phases for the chromatographic separation of fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals from their corresponding desfluoro analogs revealed a number of perfluoroaryl and perfluoroalky stationary phases that afford good separations. These fluorous stationary phases exhibit greater retention for the fluorine-containing compounds relative to the H-containing analogs, consistent with a fluorophilic retention mechanism. While both perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroaryl stationary phases afford adequate resolution, the perfluoroaryl columns generally exhibit superior separation factor (α) and peak efficiency (N), resulting in faster baseline separations, with the Hypersil Gold PFP and Poroshell 120 PFP columns providing the best overall performance for the test group studied.

  11. Search for improved fluorinated stationary phases for separation of fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals from their desfluoro analogs.

    PubMed

    Regalado, Erik L; Makarov, Alexey A; McClain, Ray; Przybyciel, Matthew; Welch, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of a several fluorine-containing stationary phases for the chromatographic separation of fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals from their corresponding desfluoro analogs revealed a number of perfluoroaryl and perfluoroalky stationary phases that afford good separations. These fluorous stationary phases exhibit greater retention for the fluorine-containing compounds relative to the H-containing analogs, consistent with a fluorophilic retention mechanism. While both perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroaryl stationary phases afford adequate resolution, the perfluoroaryl columns generally exhibit superior separation factor (α) and peak efficiency (N), resulting in faster baseline separations, with the Hypersil Gold PFP and Poroshell 120 PFP columns providing the best overall performance for the test group studied. PMID:25595532

  12. Resource Constrained Planning of Multiple Projects with Separable Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Susumu; Morita, Hiroshi; Kanawa, Takuya

    In this study we consider a resource constrained planning problem of multiple projects with separable activities. This problem provides a plan to process the activities considering a resource availability with time window. We propose a solution algorithm based on the branch and bound method to obtain the optimal solution minimizing the completion time of all projects. We develop three methods for improvement of computational efficiency, that is, to obtain initial solution with minimum slack time rule, to estimate lower bound considering both time and resource constraints and to introduce an equivalence relation for bounding operation. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated by numerical examples. Especially as the number of planning projects increases, the average computational time and the number of searched nodes are reduced.

  13. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths.

    PubMed

    Huppert, M; Jordan, I; Wörner, H J

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids.

  14. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, M.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids.

  15. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths.

    PubMed

    Huppert, M; Jordan, I; Wörner, H J

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids. PMID:26724005

  16. Magnetic Tilts and Polarity Separations in Sunspot Groups and Active Regions the Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We present the analysis of magnetic tilts in active regions and sunspot groups for 1996-2005 that are automatically extracted from the Solar Feature Catalogues (http://solar.inf.brad.ac.uk ). We investigate the statistical variations of magnetic field tilt in sunspot groups and whole active regions, their longitudinal and latitudinal distributions, drifts and daily polarity separation during different phases of the solar cycle 23. The classification results are compared with the similar research for the previous cycles and the specifics on the cycle 23 is discussed in conjunction to the solar dynamo theory.

  17. Liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles: Imaging at the Nanometer Scale

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Lundt, Nils; You, Yuan; Bertram, Allan K.; Leone, Stephen R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2015-04-21

    Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micron sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), a, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS with apparent core-shell particle morphology were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH’s above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the shell. The shell composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 50:50% organic to inorganic mix in the shell. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in-situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.

  18. Kinetic evidence suggests spinodal phase separation in stratum corneum models by IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Richard; Selevany, Ibrahim; Moore, David J; Mack Correa, M Catherine; Mao, Guangru; Walters, Russel M; Flach, Carol R

    2014-04-24

    Although lipid structure in models for the stratum corneum (SC), the main barrier to skin permeability, has been extensively studied, only limited data are extant concerning the kinetic mechanism for the formation of domains, lamellar phases, and lipid packing motifs. Such information would be of substantial interest in the characterization of the effects of disease states which disrupt the barrier. Kinetic IR spectroscopy measurements probed the temporal sequence of molecular events producing ordered structures in a three-component SC model of equimolar ceramide[NS] (cer[NS]), perdeuterated stearic acid-d35 (SA-d35), and cholesterol. Samples, heated above Tm, were quenched to 31 °C, and then spectra were recorded at ∼15 min intervals for a total of 20-150 h. IR provides unique molecular structure information about headgroup H-bonding, lipid packing, and lipid chain order. The following sequence for phase separation was observed: (1) Formation of ceramide amide H-bonds from disordered forms to ordered structures (0.5-4 h); (2) appearance of ordered ceramide chains with some orthorhombically packed structures (0.5-8 h); and (3) phase separation of large orthorhombic domains of SA-d35 (4-10 h). A spinodal decomposition mechanism, defined by continuous composition changes during the phase separation, suggests a qualitative description for these events.

  19. Open-tubular CEC with a new triethanolamine bonded stationary phase for biomolecule separation.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Cemil

    2015-01-22

    This study describes the preparation and electrochromatographic application of a new open-tubular capillary column with triethanolamine functionalized stationary phase. The stationary phase was synthesized by in situ grafting polymerization with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate based reactive monomer, and followed triethanolamine functionalization. The different 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate contents on the separation efficiency were studied. The results indicated that the 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate content (e.g., 15.3v/v%) on the inner surface of the capillary was very important for final preparation of the polymer stationary phase. The electrochromatographic characterization of the stationary phase was performed using alkylbenzene derivatives. The pH effect on the electroosmotic flow was also investigated. The open tubular column functionalized with triethanolamine allowed to operate in the anodic electroosmotic flow mode in the system. With anodic electroosmotic flow mode, favorable separations of the amino acids and the nucleosides were successfully achieved with high column efficiens ranging from 142000 to 257000 plates/m. Good repeatability was gained with relative standard deviation of the migration time and peak areas less than 2.2% for run to run (n=5) and less than 3.2% day to day (n=3). Furthermore, real sample applicability of this column to the separation of amino acids in white tea sample was demonstrated.

  20. Phase Separation of Silicon-Containing Polymer/Polystyrene Blends in Spin-Coated Films.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Hu, Kai; Han, Xiao; Yang, Qinyu; Xiong, Yifeng; Bai, Yuhang; Guo, Xu; Cui, Yushuang; Yuan, Changsheng; Ge, Haixiong; Chen, Yanfeng

    2016-04-19

    In this Article, two readily available polymers that contain silicon and have different surface tensions, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyphenylsilsequioxane (PPSQ), were used to produce polymer blends with polystyrene (PS). Spin-coated thin films of the polymer blends were treated by O2 reactive-ion etching (RIE). The PS constituent was selectively removed by O2 RIE, whereas the silicon-containing phase remained because of the high etching resistance of silicon. This selective removal of PS substantially enhanced the contrast of the phase separation morphologies for better scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. We investigated the effects of the silicon-containing constituents, polymer blend composition, concentration of the polymer blend solution, surface tension of the substrate, and the spin-coating speed on the ultimate morphologies of phase separation. The average domain size, ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm, was tuned through an interplay of these factors. In addition, the polymer blend film was formed on a pure organic layer, through which the aspect ratio of the phase separation morphologies was further amplified by a selective etching process. The formed nanostructures are compatible with existing nanofabrication techniques for pattern transfer onto substrates.

  1. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene column for two-stationary phase separations by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Quan, Kai-jun; Huang, Xin-yi; Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Gao-hong; Liu, Yan-juan; Duan, Wen-da; Di, Duo-long

    2015-11-27

    To improve the separation capability of CCC, a novel solid-liquid two-stationary phases CCC (ASP-CCC) column was prepared employing graphene oxide (GO) conjugated poly-dopamine (PD) coating (GO/PD) as auxiliary stationary phase (ASP). The results of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that nanostructured GO and PD were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the PTFE column. Three alkaloid compounds were selected as the target analytes to evaluate the performance of the novel column. Because of the intermolecular force (hydrogen bond, electrostatic interaction and π-π interaction) between the ASP and model compounds, three analytes were well separated with this novel ASP-CCC column. Additionally, the novel column exhibited higher stationary phase retention ratio, about 8%, than original column without changing the chromatographic condition. Furthermore, the eluotropic sequence of analytes on novel column was in accordance with that in the original column. This suggested that the novel column is a CCC column with auxiliary stationary phase (ASP) in its own right, and the present separation mode is the combination of partition chromatography and adsorption chromatography.

  2. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene column for two-stationary phase separations by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Quan, Kai-jun; Huang, Xin-yi; Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Gao-hong; Liu, Yan-juan; Duan, Wen-da; Di, Duo-long

    2015-11-27

    To improve the separation capability of CCC, a novel solid-liquid two-stationary phases CCC (ASP-CCC) column was prepared employing graphene oxide (GO) conjugated poly-dopamine (PD) coating (GO/PD) as auxiliary stationary phase (ASP). The results of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that nanostructured GO and PD were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the PTFE column. Three alkaloid compounds were selected as the target analytes to evaluate the performance of the novel column. Because of the intermolecular force (hydrogen bond, electrostatic interaction and π-π interaction) between the ASP and model compounds, three analytes were well separated with this novel ASP-CCC column. Additionally, the novel column exhibited higher stationary phase retention ratio, about 8%, than original column without changing the chromatographic condition. Furthermore, the eluotropic sequence of analytes on novel column was in accordance with that in the original column. This suggested that the novel column is a CCC column with auxiliary stationary phase (ASP) in its own right, and the present separation mode is the combination of partition chromatography and adsorption chromatography. PMID:26518492

  3. Phase Separation of Silicon-Containing Polymer/Polystyrene Blends in Spin-Coated Films.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Hu, Kai; Han, Xiao; Yang, Qinyu; Xiong, Yifeng; Bai, Yuhang; Guo, Xu; Cui, Yushuang; Yuan, Changsheng; Ge, Haixiong; Chen, Yanfeng

    2016-04-19

    In this Article, two readily available polymers that contain silicon and have different surface tensions, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyphenylsilsequioxane (PPSQ), were used to produce polymer blends with polystyrene (PS). Spin-coated thin films of the polymer blends were treated by O2 reactive-ion etching (RIE). The PS constituent was selectively removed by O2 RIE, whereas the silicon-containing phase remained because of the high etching resistance of silicon. This selective removal of PS substantially enhanced the contrast of the phase separation morphologies for better scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. We investigated the effects of the silicon-containing constituents, polymer blend composition, concentration of the polymer blend solution, surface tension of the substrate, and the spin-coating speed on the ultimate morphologies of phase separation. The average domain size, ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm, was tuned through an interplay of these factors. In addition, the polymer blend film was formed on a pure organic layer, through which the aspect ratio of the phase separation morphologies was further amplified by a selective etching process. The formed nanostructures are compatible with existing nanofabrication techniques for pattern transfer onto substrates. PMID:27052643

  4. Facile synthesis of gradient mesoporous carbon monolith based on polymerization-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Yufeng; Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Ou, Hui; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a gradient mesoporous carbon (GMC) monolith derived from the mixtures of phenolic resin (PF) and ethylene glycol (EG) was prepared by a facile route based on polymerization-induced phase separation under temperature gradient (TG). A graded biphasic structure of PF-rich and EG-rich phases was first formed in preform under a TG, and then the preform was pyrolyzed to obtain the GMC monolith. The TG is mainly induced by the thermal resistance of the preferential phase separation layer at high temperature region. The pore structure of the monolith changes gradually along the TG direction. When the TG varies from 58°C to 29°C, the pore size, apparent porosity and specific surface area of the monolith range respectively from 18 nm to 83 nm, from 32% to 39% and from 140.5 m2/g to 515.3 m2/g. The gradient porous structure of the monolith is inherited from that of the preform, which depends on phase separation under TG in the resin mixtures. The pyrolysis mainly brings about the contraction of the pore size and wall thickness as well as the transformation of polymerized PF into glassy carbon.

  5. Phase separation of two-dimensional Coulombic crystals of mesoscale dipolar particles from mesoscale polarizable ``solvent''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, George K.; Reches, Meital; Thomas, Samuel W.; Feng, Ji; Shaw, Bryan F.; Whitesides, George M.

    2009-01-01

    This letter describes the formation of two-dimensional (2D) crystals of dipolar particles (TN) made of electrostatically charged, joined, millimeter-scale Teflon (T) and nylon-6,6 (N) spheres, and the separation of these crystals, as a distinct phase, from a mixture of TN and similar, capacitively charged particles that were coated with gold (Au2). The extent of separation increased with increasing amplitude of agitation, and with decreasing density of particles. Above a threshold in the amplitude of agitation, the crystals broke apart and the particles remixed. This system is a 2D model of the nucleation of crystals of polar molecules in a polarizable liquid.

  6. Dual Phase Separation for Synthesis of Bimodal Meso/Macroporous Carbon Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Chengdu; Dai, Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Polymerization-induced spinodal decomposition was conducted in glycolic solutions of phloroglucinol/formaldehyde (PF) copolymer and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) to synthesize bicontinuous macroporous morphologies with micro-domains from 0.5 to 6 microns. The polymeric materials were further carbonized at elevated temperature to yield bimodal meso/macroporous carbon monoliths after the thermal decomposition of the PEO-PPO-PEO template. The bimodal porous nature of the resultant carbon monoliths resulted from the dual phase separation, in which spinodal decomposition and microphase separation occurred simultaneously. We demonstrated the tunability of macropores without alteration of mesopore sizes.

  7. Fatty Acid Chain Length Dependence of Phase Separation Kinetics in Stratum Corneum Models by IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Richard; Rabie, Emann; Walters, Russel M; Flach, Carol R

    2015-07-30

    The main barrier to permeability in human skin resides in the stratum corneum (SC), a layered structure consisting of anucleated, flattened cells (corneocytes) embedded in a heterogeneous lamellar lipid matrix. While lipid structures and packing propensities in the SC and in SC models have been extensively investigated, only limited data are available concerning the kinetics and mechanism of formation of lamellar phases and particular lipid packing motifs. In our prior investigation, kinetic IR spectroscopy measurements probed the temporal sequence of phase separation leading to ordered structures in a three component SC model of equimolar structurally heterogeneous ceramide[NS], chain perdeuterated stearic acid, and cholesterol. In the current work, the phase separation kinetic effects of specific fatty acid chain lengths with a synthetic structurally homogeneous ceramide[NS] in similar ternary mixtures are examined. These are compared with a mixture containing ceramide[NS] with an unsaturated acid chain. The kinetic events are sensitive to the difference in chain lengths between the ceramide acid chain and the fatty acid as well as to the presence of unsaturation in the former. The observed kinetic behaviors span a wide range of phase separation times, ranging from the formation of a solid solution stable for at least 200 h, to a system in which an orthorhombic fatty acid structure is essentially completely formed within the time resolution of the experiment (15 min). The data seem to offer some features of a spinodal phase separation at relatively short times. Overall the approach offers a possible means for addressing several unanswered questions pertinent to skin pharmacology, such as the roles of a wide variety of ceramide and fatty acid species and the design of therapeutic interventions for repair of pathological conditions of the SC.

  8. Liquid-liquid phase separation in hemoglobins: distinct aggregation mechanisms of the beta6 mutants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Vekilov, Peter G; Nagel, Ronald L; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2004-03-01

    Reversible liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation in the form of high concentration hemoglobin (Hb) solution droplets is favored in an equilibrium with a low-concentration Hb solution when induced by inositol-hexaphosphate in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000 at pH 6.35 HEPES (50 mM). The L-L phase separation of Hb serves as a model to elucidate intermolecular interactions that may give rise to accelerated nucleation kinetics of liganded HbC (beta6 Lys) compared to HbS (beta6 Val) and HbA (beta6 Glu). Under conditions of low pH (pH 6.35) in the presence of inositol-hexaphosphate, COHb assumes an altered R-state. The phase lines for the three Hb variants in concentration and temperature coordinates indicate that liganded HbC exhibits a stronger net intermolecular attraction with a longer range than liganded HbS and HbA. Over time, L-L phase separation gives rise to amorphous aggregation and subsequent formation of crystals of different kinetics and habits, unique to the individual Hb. The composite of R- and T-like solution aggregation behavior indicates that this is a conformationally driven event. These results indicate that specific contact sites, thermodynamics, and kinetics all play a role in L-L phase separation and differ for the beta6 mutant hemoglobins compared to HbA. In addition, the dense liquid droplet interface or aggregate interface noticeably participates in crystal nucleation.

  9. Polymer-induced phase separation and crystallization in immunoglobulin G solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Rajagopalan, Raj; Jiang, Jianwen

    2008-05-28

    We study the effects of the size of polymer additives and ionic strength on the phase behavior of a nonglobular protein-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-by using a simple four-site model to mimic the shape of IgG. The interaction potential between the protein molecules consists of a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek-type colloidal potential and an Asakura-Oosawa depletion potential arising from the addition of polymer. Liquid-liquid equilibria and fluid-solid equilibria are calculated by using the Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo technique and the Gibbs-Duhem integration (GDI) method, respectively. Absolute Helmholtz energy is also calculated to get an initial coexisting point as required by GDI. The results reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of the critical polymer concentration rho(PEG) (*) (i.e., the minimum polymer concentration needed to induce liquid-liquid phase separation) on the polymer-to-protein size ratio q (equivalently, the range of the polymer-induced depletion interaction potential). We have developed a simple equation for estimating the minimum amount of polymer needed to induce the liquid-liquid phase separation and show that rho(PEG) (*) approximately [q(1+q)(3)]. The results also show that the liquid-liquid phase separation is metastable for low-molecular weight polymers (q=0.2) but stable at large molecular weights (q=1.0), thereby indicating that small sizes of polymer are required for protein crystallization. The simulation results provide practical guidelines for the selection of polymer size and ionic strength for protein phase separation and crystallization.

  10. Statistical thermodynamics of liquid-liquid phase separation in ternary systems during complex coacervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Nisha; Bohidar, H. B.

    2010-09-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation leading to complex coacervation in a ternary system (oppositely charged polyion and macroion in a solvent) is discussed within the framework of a statistical thermodynamics model. The polyion and the macroion in the ternary system interact to form soluble aggregates (complexes) in the solvent, which undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. Four necessary conditions are shown to drive the phase separation: (i) (σ23)3r/Φ23c≥((64)/(9α2))(χ23Φ3)2 , (ii) r≥[(64(χ23Φ3)2)/(9α2σ233)]1/2 , (iii) χ23≥((2χ231-1))/(Φ23cΦ3) , and (iv) (σ23)2/I≥(8)/(3α)(2χ231-1) (where σ23 is the surface charge on the complex formed due to binding of the polyelectrolyte and macroion, Φ23c is the critical volume fraction of the complex, χ23 is the Flory interaction parameter between polyelectrolyte and macroion, χ231 is the same between solvent and the complex, Φ3 is the volume fraction of the macroions, I is the ionic strength of the solution, α is electrostatic interaction parameter and r is typically of the order of molecular weight of the polyions). It has been shown that coacervation always requires a hydrated medium. In the case of a colloidal macroion and polyelectrolyte coacervation, molecular weight of polyelectrolyte must satisfy the condition r≥103Da to exhibit liquid-liquid phase separation. This model has been successfully applied to study the coacervation phenomenon observed in aqueous Laponite (macroion)-gelatin (polyion) system where it was found that the coacervate volume fraction, δΦ23˜χ2312 (where δΦ23 is the volume fraction of coacervates formed during phase separation). The free energy and entropy of this process have been evaluated, and a free-energy landscape has been drawn for this system that maps the pathway leading to phase separation.

  11. Optimum separation and compound class separation of the metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts with reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Rozbeh, M.; Hurtubise, R.J. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Mobile phases were optimized for the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of a complex mixtures of fourteen metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The metabolites constituted groups of isomers that were difficult to separate. The groups of isomers were tetrols, dihydrodiols, diones, and monohydroxyl-benzo[a]pyrenes. The window diagram optimization approach was used to initially optimize the binary mobile phases. Based on the data obtained from the optimum binary mobile phases, a solubility parameter optimization method was employed to obtain an optimum ternary mobile phase. Both the binary and ternary mobile phases were very effective in separating the metabolites. However, complete baseline resolution of the complex mixture of the metabolites was not achieved under the conditions investigated. Nevertheless, it was possible to obtain a separation of all fourteen of the metabolites with some overlap of the chromatographic bands. Also, compound class separation was obtained with the classes separating in the order of tetrols, diones, dihydrodiols, and monohydroxyl-benzo[a]pyrenes.

  12. 20 CFR 404.1370 - Evidence of active service and separation from active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of active service and separation from active service. 404.1370 Section 404.1370 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Evidence of Active Service and Membership in A Uniformed Service § 404.1370 Evidence...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1370 - Evidence of active service and separation from active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of active service and separation from active service. 404.1370 Section 404.1370 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Evidence of Active Service and Membership in A Uniformed Service § 404.1370 Evidence...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1370 - Evidence of active service and separation from active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of active service and separation from active service. 404.1370 Section 404.1370 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Evidence of Active Service and Membership in A Uniformed Service § 404.1370 Evidence...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1370 - Evidence of active service and separation from active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of active service and separation from active service. 404.1370 Section 404.1370 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Evidence of Active Service and Membership in A Uniformed Service § 404.1370 Evidence...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1370 - Evidence of active service and separation from active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of active service and separation from active service. 404.1370 Section 404.1370 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services Evidence of Active Service and Membership in A Uniformed Service § 404.1370 Evidence...

  17. Selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins separated on hydrophilic interaction stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the retention behavior and selectivity differences of water-soluble vitamins were evaluated with three types of polar stationary phases (i.e. an underivatized silica phase, an amide phase, and an amino phase) operated in the hydrophilic interaction chromatographic mode with ESI mass spectrometric detection. The effects of mobile phase composition, including buffer pH and concentration, on the retention and selectivity of the vitamins were investigated. In all stationary phases, the neutral or weakly charged vitamins exhibited very weak retention under each of the pH conditions, while the acidic and more basic vitamins showed diverse retention behaviors. With the underivatized silica phase, increasing the salt concentration of the mobile phase resulted in enhanced retention of the acidic vitamins, but decreased retention of the basic vitamins. These observations thus signify the involvement of secondary mechanisms, such as electrostatic interaction in the retention of these analytes. Under optimized conditions, a baseline separation of all vitamins was achieved with excellent peak efficiency. In addition, the effects of water content in the sample on retention and peak efficiency were examined, with sample stacking effects observed when the injected sample contained a high amount of water.

  18. Computer simulation study of phase separation in a binary mixture with a glass-forming component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappelt, Dirk; Jäckle, Josef

    1997-02-01

    We present a computer simulation study of spinodal decomposition with one of the two phases freezing in a glassy state during phase separation. As a model we used the Cahn-Hilliard equation with a concentration-dependent mobility coefficient which decreases rapidly with increasing concentration of the glass-forming component. We solved the Cahn-Hilliard equation numerically for two dimensions. The domain growth depends crucially on the volume fraction of the glassy phase. For high volume fractions, when the glassy phase forms a percolating matrix, a novel coarsening mechanism is discovered, which arises from the migration and coalescence of liquid droplets within the glassy matrix. Various quantities characterizing the time-dependent domain pattern, like droplet size distribution, one- and two-point distribution function and structure factor of the concentration field, are computed. We checked the validity of the dynamic scaling hypothesis.

  19. Superheated water as chromatographic eluent for parabens separation on octadecyl coated zirconia stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Paola; Buonasera, Katia; Crupi, Maria Lucia; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the use of pure water at superheated temperatures, between 100 and 200 degrees C, as a mobile phase for RP separation is explored. Instrumental parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, preheating and cooling, have shown significant effects on the quality of the chromatographic peaks. The properties of superheated water as an eluent were investigated by observing the chromatographic behaviour of four parabens on a carbon-clad zirconia (ZR) phase with covalently bonded octadecyl groups. Results were compared with those obtained at 30 degrees C on a silica-based phase with octadecyl groups, using water and ACN as mobile phase. The optimized method was finally applied to analyse parabens in a commercial body cream. PMID:17595947

  20. Kinetics of the phase separation transition in cold-atom boson-fermion mixtures.

    PubMed

    Solenov, Dmitry; Mozyrsky, Dmitry

    2008-04-18

    We study the kinetics of the first order phase separation transition in boson-fermion cold-atom mixtures. At sufficiently low temperatures such a transition is driven by quantum fluctuations responsible for the formation of critical nuclei of a stable phase. Based on a microscopic description of interacting boson-fermion mixtures we derive an effective action for the critical droplet and obtain an asymptotic expression for the nucleation rate in the vicinity of the phase transition and near the spinodal instability of the mixed phase. We also discuss effects of dissipation which play a dominant role close to the transition point, and identify the regimes where quantum nucleation can be experimentally observed in cold-atom systems.

  1. Extraction and separation of proteins by ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Zeng, Qun; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    A satisfactory protocol of protein extraction and separation has been established based on the ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS) for the purification of bioactive substances. Compared with the effects of eight different ionic liquids, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([omim][Br]) was selected as the suitable ionic liquid. Based on the single-factor experiment, an initial serial investigative test was used to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction. Owing to their different isoelectric points, bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb) and lysozyme (Lys) were used to determine the effect of pH value on the protein extraction. Trypsin (Try) was used to confirm the protein activity. The linearity for analyzing BSA, Hb, Try and Lys was in the concentration range of 0.05-1.00 mg ml(-1), 0.025-1 mg ml(-1), 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1) and 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of between 0.9985 and 0.9999. Limits of detection (LODs) were 16.47-7.02 μg ml(-1) and RSDs of inter-day stability were less than 2.9%. Repeatability and precision were respectively lower than 5.3% and 1.1%. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of BSA, Hb, Try and Lys were 90.5%, 94.5%, 92.7% and 93.8% and the obtained RSDs were 1.19%, 1.23%, 1.34% and 1.04%, respectively. According to UV spectra, conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the cluster phenomenon originating from IL itself or combined with protein was evaluated. As the driving forces which are involved in the partitioning of protein between the IL-rich phase and the phosphate phase, the cluster phenomenon could, in principle, be applied to a variety of different samples and exhibited potential value. PMID:24013164

  2. Footpoint Separation and Evershed Flow of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Jones, E. H.

    2012-05-01

    The bipolar nature of active regions and sunspot groups within the Sun’s photosphere is generally attributed to the emergence of magnetic flux tubes that originate from shear and turbulent pumping at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. There is debate, however, as to exactly how well-connected active regions are to solar interior. A connection to the solar interior during the ascent of a flux tube through the convection zone is a requirement within numerical models designed to describe the observed characteristics of active regions, e.g. Joy’s law tilt and latitude emergence, however, these models also predict post-emergence behavior of sunspots that is not supported observationally (Schussler and Rempel, 1995; Fan, 2009; Toth and Gerlei, 2003). It has been suggested (Rubio et al., 2008; Schussler and Rempel, 1995) that a bipolar magnetic region might lose its connection quickly upon emergence. Using data from SDO/HMI, we examine the footpoint separation and the Evershed flow of a number of active regions over time to detect the disconnection process of a sunspot from its magnetic roots.

  3. Dehydration induced phase transitions in a microfluidic droplet array for the separation of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Chris; Anna, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    Droplet-based strategies for fluid manipulation have seen significant application in microfluidics due to their ability to compartmentalize solutions and facilitate highly parallelized reactions. Functioning as micro-scale reaction vessels, droplets have been used to study protein crystallization, enzyme kinetics, and to encapsulate whole cells. Recently, the mass transport out of droplets has been used to concentrate solutions and induce phase transitions. Here, we show that droplets trapped in a microfluidic array will spontaneously dehydrate over the course of several hours. By loading these devices with an initially dilute aqueous polymer solution, we use this slow dehydration to observe phase transitions and the evolution of droplet morphology in hundreds of droplets simultaneously. As an example, we trap and dehydrate droplets of a model aqueous two-phase system consisting of polyethylene glycol and dextran. Initially the drops are homogenous, then after some time the polymer concentration reaches a critical point and two phases form. As water continues to leave the system, the drops transition from a microemulsion of DEX in PEG to a core-shell configuration. Eventually, changes in interfacial tension, driven by dehydration, cause the DEX core to completely de-wet from the PEG shell. Since aqueous two phase systems are able to selectively separate a variety of biomolecules, this core shedding behavior has the potential to provide selective, on-chip separation and concentration.

  4. Self-assembly in a polymer matrix and its impact on phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Douglas, Jack F; Freed, Karl F

    2009-03-26

    Molecular self-assembly often occurs in the presence of long chain polymers, and we develop a theory to describe the competition between self-assembly and phase separation that generally occurs in these complex fluid mixtures. The theory includes a description of the particularly interesting situation where the associating "monomeric" species form high molecular mass polymeric structures and where the assembly process transforms the phase boundary from a form typical of a polymer solution to one that more resembles a polymer blend. We consider both self-assembly upon cooling and upon heating, but the van der Waals interactions are chosen so that phase separation occurs only upon cooling in the absence of association. Systems that associate upon heating prove to be particularly rich, and closed loop and ordinary (upper solution critical) phase boundaries are found to coexist over a wide range of interaction parameter values. Each critical temperature in the limit of a large polymerization index for the matrix polymers approaches its respective theta temperature. The calculations elucidate basic physical principles governing the phase behavior of these complex mixtures.

  5. Application of chromatography technology in the separation of active components from nature derived drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H-Y; Jiang, J-G

    2010-11-01

    Chromatography technology has been widely applied in various aspects of the pharmacy research on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This paper reviews literatures, published in the past decades, on the separation of active component from TCM using chromatography technology. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), affinity chromatography (AC), and bio-chromatography (BC) are introduced in detail. Compared to high performance of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), analysis time and solvent loss are significantly reduced by UPLC with increase in resolution and sensitivity. Some ingredients from nature derived drugs can be separated more completely by HSCCC, which has remarkable characteristics such as low cost, simple operation and no pollution. Trace components from complex systems can be selectively and efficiently separated and purified by AC, This feature makes it effective in isolation and identification of active components of Chinese herbs. Interference of some impurities could be excluded by BC. Active ingredients that are difficult to be separated by normal method can be acquired by SFC. Currently, application of novel chromatography techniques in TCM is still in the exploratory stage and many problems, such as preparation of stationary phase and detection, need to be solved.

  6. Observations of homogeneous phase separation in liquid He3-He4 mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, J. K.; Campbell, L. J.; Bartlett, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The so-called miscibility gap that exists below the critical point in liquid He-3 - H-4 mixtures makes it possible to study binary phase composition, and the ensuing dispersions, in a system possessing an additional order parameter in one of the components. The physical behavior of a superfluid dispersion produced by pressure quenching an He-3 - He-4 mixture into the miscibility gap is described. The description applies both to quenches of homogeneous and phase-separated initial states in various regions of the miscibility gap.

  7. Phase separation and pairing regimes in the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiero, L.; Casadei, M.; Dalmonte, M.; Ercolessi, E.; Ortolani, F.

    2010-06-01

    We address some open questions regarding the phase diagram of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with asymmetric hopping coefficients and balanced species. In the attractive regime we present a numerical study of the passage from on-site pairing dominant correlations at small asymmetries to charge-density waves in the region with markedly different hopping coefficients. In the repulsive regime we exploit two analytical treatments in the strong- and weak-coupling regimes in order to locate the onset of phase separation at small and large asymmetries, respectively.

  8. Temperature-triggered Phase Separation of a Hydrophilic Resilin-like Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linqing; Luo, Tianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature-triggered phase separation of recombinant proteins has offered substantial opportunities in the design of nanoparticles for a variety of applications. Herein we describe the temperature-triggered phase separation behavior of a recombinant hydrophilic resilin-like polypeptide (RLP). The transition temperature and sizes of RLP-based nanoparticles can be modulated based on variations in polypeptide concentration, salt identity, ionic strength, pH, and denaturing agents, as indicated via UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The irreversible particle formation is coupled with secondary conformational changes from a random coil conformation to a more ordered β-sheet structure. These RLP-based nanoparticles could find potential use as mechanically-responsive components in drug delivery, nanospring, nanotransducer, and biosensor applications. PMID:25424611

  9. Molecular dynamics study of phase separation in fluids with chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Raishma; Puri, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first d =3 molecular dynamics (MD) study of phase-separating fluid mixtures (AB) with simple chemical reactions (A ⇌B ). We focus on the case where the rates of forward and backward reactions are equal. The chemical reactions compete with segregation, and the coarsening system settles into a steady-state mesoscale morphology. However, hydrodynamic effects destroy the lamellar morphology which characterizes the diffusive case. This has important consequences for the phase-separating structure, which we study in detail. In particular, the equilibrium length scale (ℓeq) in the steady state suggests a power-law dependence on the reaction rate ɛ :ℓeq˜ɛ-θ with θ ≃1.0 .

  10. Molecular dynamics study of phase separation in fluids with chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Raishma; Puri, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first d=3 molecular dynamics (MD) study of phase-separating fluid mixtures (AB) with simple chemical reactions (A⇌B). We focus on the case where the rates of forward and backward reactions are equal. The chemical reactions compete with segregation, and the coarsening system settles into a steady-state mesoscale morphology. However, hydrodynamic effects destroy the lamellar morphology which characterizes the diffusive case. This has important consequences for the phase-separating structure, which we study in detail. In particular, the equilibrium length scale (ℓ(eq)) in the steady state suggests a power-law dependence on the reaction rate ε:ℓ(eq)∼ε(-θ) with θ≃1.0.

  11. Synthesis of semicrystalline nanocapsular structures obtained by Thermally Induced Phase Separation in nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Torino, Enza; Aruta, Rosaria; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-01-01

    Phase separation of a polymer solution exhibits a peculiar behavior when induced in a nanoconfinement. The energetic constraints introduce additional interactions between the polymer segments that reduce the number of available configurations. In our work, this effect is exploited in a one-step strategy called nanoconfined-Thermally Induced Phase Separation (nc-TIPS) to promote the crystallization of polymer chains into nanocapsular structures of controlled size and shell thickness. This is accomplished by performing a quench step of a low-concentrated PLLA-dioxane-water solution included in emulsions of mean droplet size <500 nm acting as nanodomains. The control of nanoconfinement conditions enables not only the production of nanocapsules with a minimum mean particle diameter of 70 nm but also the tunability of shell thickness and its crystallinity degree. The specific properties of the developed nanocapsular architectures have important implications on release mechanism and loading capability of hydrophilic and lipophilic payload compounds.

  12. Morphology and Composition of Structured, Phase-Separated Behenic Acid-Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid Monolayer Films.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jeveria; Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; He, Anqiang; Paige, Matthew F

    2016-05-31

    The phase separation of immiscible surfactants in mixed monolayer films provides an approach to physically manipulate important properties of thin films, including surface morphology, microscale composition, and mechanical properties. In this work, we predict, based upon existing miscibility studies and their thermodynamic underpinnings described in the literature, the miscibility and film morphology of mixed monolayers comprised of behenic acid (C21H43COOH) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (C13F27COOH) in various molar ratios. Predictions are tested using a combination of experimental surface characterization methods for probing miscibility and film morphology at the solid/air and air/water interfaces. Film components were immiscible and phase-separated into chemically well-defined domains under a variety of experimental conditions, with monolayer morphology consistent with initial predictions. The extensibility of these basic predictions to other systems is discussed in the context of using these works for different perfluorinated surfactant molecules. PMID:27163482

  13. Insertion of interlayers in efficient polymer-based organic solar cells for control of phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taima, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Jun; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-02-01

    To improve the solar cell performance of polymer-based organic solar cells, the control of phase separation in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is important. In the case of a thienothiophene-benzodithiophene-based polymer (PTB7)-based solar cell, 1,8-diiodoctane (DIO) is added into the chlorobenzene solvent. However, it is well known that DIO addition causes degradation in long-term operation. Here, we try to improve the performance of the PTB7-based BHJ solar cell by controlling the phase separation in the BHJ layer through the insertion of an inorganic semiconducting copper iodide (CuI) interlayer between the BHJ layer and indium tin oxide. The power conversion efficiency of the PTB7-based solar cell is improved from 3.5 to 3.9% upon inserting the CuI interlayer without DIO addition.

  14. Phase-separation transition in liquid mixtures near curved charged objects.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gilad; Samin, Sela; Tsori, Yoav

    2008-08-14

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of nonpolar liquid mixtures in the vicinity of curved charged objects, such as electrodes or charged colloids. There is a critical value of charge (or potential), above which a phase-separation transition occurs, and the interface between high- and low-dielectric constant components becomes sharp. Analytical and numerical composition profiles are given, and the equilibrium front location as a function of charge or voltage is found. We further employ a simple Cahn-Hilliard type equation to study the dynamics of phase separation in spatially nonuniform electric fields. We find an exponential temporal relaxation of the demixing front location. We give the dependence of the steady-state location and characteristic time on the charge, mixture composition and ambient temperature. PMID:18715044

  15. Kinetics of phase separation in Mn/sub 0. 67/Cu/sub 0. 33/

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulin, B.D.; Spooner, S.; Morii, Y.

    1987-08-10

    We have examined the kinetics of phase separation in Mn/sub 0.67/Cu/sub 0.33/ using time-resolved neutron-scattering techniques. In an early-time regime, the kinetics follows the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook linear theory of spinodal decomposition. There is an intermediate stage. Then, at a late time, dynamic scaling is obeyed. The time dependence of the wave vector at maximum scattering intensity (which is inversely proportional to the average linear domain size) can be well described over the entire late-time regime and much of the intermediate-time regime by arguments recently put forward for earlier-time corrections to the limitingly late-time stages of phase separation.

  16. Homeotropically aligning phase separated columnar structures for fabrication of flexible electrooptical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Bharat R.; Choi, Hyunchul; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Kumar, Satyendra

    2011-11-01

    A method of achieving homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals (LCs) by ultraviolet light induced phase separation of LC from its mixture with photo-curable pre-polymer is reported. Vertical polymer columns and micro-fibrils developed during the phase separation promote homeotropic alignment of the LC director (i.e., alignment perpendicular to the LC-substrate interface), suitable for devices based on LCs possessing negative dielectric anisotropy. These vertical structures extend between two substrates and permit the fabrication of highly flexible electro-optical devices with high contrast coupled with fast response times. This simple single-step technique eliminates the need for the traditional polymer alignment layer pre-deposited on substrates.

  17. How Does Phase Separation Affect Crystallization Kinetics in a Polymer Blend?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Howard; Müller, A. J.; Shimizu, K.; Wang, Z. G.; Han, C. C.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2003-03-01

    Polymer blends can exhibit both liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and crystallization. The effect of LLPS on crystallization kinetics has been investigated in a blend of statistical ethylene/hexane (PEH) and ethylene/butene (PEB) copolymers, where PEH is the predominantly crystallizable component. The composition dependence of the primary crystallization kinetics shows a minimum near the LLPS boundary, resembling a critical slowing down behavior. The kinetics of secondary crystallization, however, shows a minimum near the critical composition of LLPS. Those behaviors are discussed in terms of thermodynamic and circumstantial metastability in polymers. During the primary crystallization, density fluctuations in phase separating melts may effectively lower the free energy barrier for nucleation; during the secondary crystallization, coexisting LLPS domains and crystal superstructures interfere with each other and change the course of their development.

  18. Synthesis of semicrystalline nanocapsular structures obtained by Thermally Induced Phase Separation in nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Torino, Enza; Aruta, Rosaria; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-01-01

    Phase separation of a polymer solution exhibits a peculiar behavior when induced in a nanoconfinement. The energetic constraints introduce additional interactions between the polymer segments that reduce the number of available configurations. In our work, this effect is exploited in a one-step strategy called nanoconfined-Thermally Induced Phase Separation (nc-TIPS) to promote the crystallization of polymer chains into nanocapsular structures of controlled size and shell thickness. This is accomplished by performing a quench step of a low-concentrated PLLA-dioxane-water solution included in emulsions of mean droplet size <500 nm acting as nanodomains. The control of nanoconfinement conditions enables not only the production of nanocapsules with a minimum mean particle diameter of 70 nm but also the tunability of shell thickness and its crystallinity degree. The specific properties of the developed nanocapsular architectures have important implications on release mechanism and loading capability of hydrophilic and lipophilic payload compounds. PMID:27604818

  19. Separation of Quadruplex Polymorphism in DNA Sequences by Reversed-Phase Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miller, M Clarke; Ohrenberg, Carl J; Kuttan, Ashani; Trent, John O

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes a method for the separation of a mixture of quadruplex conformations formed from the same parent sequence via reversed-phase chromatography (RPC). Polymorphism is inherent to quadruplex formation and even relatively simple quadruplex-forming sequences can fold into a cornucopia of possible conformations and topologies. Isolation of a specific conformation for study can be problematic. This is especially true for conformations of the human telomere sequence d(GGG(TTAGGG)3). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), especially reversed-phase chromatography, has been a mainstay of nucleic acid research and purification for many decades. We have successfully applied this method to the problem of separating individual quadruplex species in the ensemble from the same parent sequence. PMID:26344226

  20. Using Image Processing Techniques for Cluster Analysis, and Droplet Formation in Phase Separating Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory; Oprisan, Ana; Hegseth, John; Oprisan, Sorinel; Lecoutre, Carole; Garrabos, Yves; Beysens, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    A series of experiments were performed using the Alice II apparatus in microgravity to study phase separation near critical temperature. Using image analysis techniques, we were able to obtain quantitative information regarding the morphology of gas-liquid interface near critical point of pure SF6 fluid in microgravity. Growth laws for liquid and gas clusters were extracted based on image segmentation both with thresholding and k-means clustering. By measuring the image features we analyzed the formation of spherical droplets during late stage of phase separation for a series of full view images. The growth of a wetting layer around the border of the cell containing the fluid was also investigated using image processing techniques.

  1. Synthesis of semicrystalline nanocapsular structures obtained by Thermally Induced Phase Separation in nanoconfinement

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Enza; Aruta, Rosaria; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Netti, Paolo A.

    2016-01-01

    Phase separation of a polymer solution exhibits a peculiar behavior when induced in a nanoconfinement. The energetic constraints introduce additional interactions between the polymer segments that reduce the number of available configurations. In our work, this effect is exploited in a one-step strategy called nanoconfined-Thermally Induced Phase Separation (nc-TIPS) to promote the crystallization of polymer chains into nanocapsular structures of controlled size and shell thickness. This is accomplished by performing a quench step of a low-concentrated PLLA-dioxane-water solution included in emulsions of mean droplet size <500 nm acting as nanodomains. The control of nanoconfinement conditions enables not only the production of nanocapsules with a minimum mean particle diameter of 70 nm but also the tunability of shell thickness and its crystallinity degree. The specific properties of the developed nanocapsular architectures have important implications on release mechanism and loading capability of hydrophilic and lipophilic payload compounds. PMID:27604818

  2. Tunable tissue scaffolds fabricated by in situ crosslink in phase separation system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xifeng; Chen, Wenjian; Gustafson, Carl T.; Miller, A. Lee; Waletzki, Brian E.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Lu, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds with intrinsic porous structures are desirable in various tissue regeneration applications. In this study, a unique method that combines thermally induced phase separation with a photocrosslinking process was developed for the fabrication of 3-D crosslinked polymer scaffolds with densely interconnected porous structures. Biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(L-lactic acid) with crosslinkable fumarate bonds were used as the structural polymer material and a dioxane/water binary system was applied for the phase separation. By altering the polymer composition (9, 5 and 3 wt%), different types of scaffolds with distinct morphology, mechanical strength, degradation rate, cell growth and morphology, and extracellular matrix production were fabricated. These crosslinked 3-D porous scaffolds with tunable strength and biological responses show promise for potential applications in regenerative therapies, including bone and neural tissue engineering. PMID:26989479

  3. Gas-phase simulated moving bed: Propane/propylene separation on 13X zeolite.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vanessa F D; Ribeiro, Ana M; Plaza, Marta G; Santos, João C; Loureiro, José M; Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Rodrigues, Alírio E

    2015-12-01

    In the last years several studies were carried out in order to separate gas mixtures by SMB technology; however, this technology has never been implemented on an industrial scale. In the present work, a gas phase SMB bench unit was built and tested for the separation of propane and propylene mixtures, using 13X zeolite extrudates as adsorbent and isobutane as desorbent. Three experiments were performed to separate propane/propylene by gas phase SMB in the bench scale unit with a 4-2-2 configuration, i.e., open loop circuit by suppressing section IV (desorbent regeneration followed by a recycle). Consequently, all the experiments were conducted using an external supply of pure isobutane as desorbent. Parameters such as switching time, extract and raffinate stream flow rates were changed to improve the efficiency of the process. Experimental results have shown that it is feasible to separate propylene from propane by gas phase SMB at a bench scale and that this process is a potential candidate to replace the conventional technologies for the propane/propylene separation. The performance parameters obtained are very promising for future development of this technology, since propylene was obtained in the extract stream with a purity of 99.93%, a recovery of 99.51%, and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . Propane was obtained in the raffinate stream with a purity of 98.10%, a recovery of 99.73% and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . The success of the above mentioned bench scale tests is a big step for the future implementation of this technology in a larger scale.

  4. Dynamics of phase separation in poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene)-modified epoxy/DDS system: kinetics and viscoelastic effects.

    PubMed

    Jyotishkumar, P; Özdilek, Ceren; Moldenaers, Paula; Sinturel, Christophe; Janke, Andreas; Pionteck, Jürgen; Thomas, Sabu

    2010-10-28

    The dynamics of phase separation and final morphologies of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) (ABS)-modified epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) cured with 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) have been monitored in situ throughout the entire curing process by using optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometry, and small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). The evolution of phase separation and final morphologies with substructures were explored by OM. The final morphologies of the blend cured at 150 and 165 °C are of phase-inverted type and are quite different from the final morphologies of the same blend cured at 180 °C, in which the final morphologies are cocontinuous. AFM observations of the fully cured sample confirmed the existence of three different phases, the epoxy continuous phase, SAN (styrene/acrylonitrile) continuous phase, and PB droplets at the interface, with a strong tendency to stay at SAN continuous phase. Furthermore, the continuous epoxy phase contains SAN particles and the continuous SAN phase contains epoxy particles. Cure kinetics and rheological results correspond well with the viscoelastic phase separation revealed by OM. The SALLS results display clearly that the phase separation takes place according to nucleation and growth mechanism followed by spinodal decomposition. The development of light scattering patterns during the second stage phase separation follows the Cahn-Hilliard model of spinodal demixing. Furthermore, the evolution of the scattering vector follows a Maxwell-type relaxation equation establishing the viscoelastic behavior of phase separation. The relaxation time of phase separation can be described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation for viscoelasticity. As a whole, the dependence of phase separation on cure temperature and the development of final morphologies and the associated mechanisms were explored in detail for the complex epoxy/ABS system. PMID

  5. Phase separation of critical binary fluids under microgravity: Comparison with matched-density conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beysens, D.; Guenoun, P.; Perrot, F.

    1988-10-15

    A number of phase-separation mechanisms in fluids are hidden in earth-bound experiments due to the influence of gravitationally induced flow. Solutions to this problem can be found by using strictly matched-density systems, such as the partially deuterated cyclohexane and methanol system (C/sup */C-M), or by performing experiments in space so as to benefit from the microgravity environment. Both types of studies have been performed here to determine quantitatively to what extent such matched-density systems could recreate, on earth, microgravity conditions; they were restricted to the neighborhood of the liquid-liquid critical point. A 6-min microgravity environment has been provided in the sounding rockets of the TEXUS program: Two experiments have been performed, one (T11) using the nonmatched-density system of fully deuterated cyclohexane and methanol (C/sup */-M), and one (T13) using the matched-density system C/sup */C-M. In experiment T13 the phase separation was seen to be characterized by a high-contrast, periodiclike pattern, so that the observations could be performed by a simple optical method. In order to analyze quantitatively the possible differences with the earth-based experiments, the origin of the detected images had to be carefully analyzed. It appeared that they are connected to the interface pattern of the phase-separating fluid. Therefore, after digitization and statistical treatment, it was possible to check the important scaling properties of the phase separation: structure factor, reduced moments, typical wavelength pattern. Experiment T11 was qualitatively different from the earth-bound experiment and can be understood only by an unexpected extreme sensitivity of the growth mechanism to the volume fraction.

  6. Macrocyclic olefin metathesis at high concentrations by using a phase-separation strategy.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Michaël; Holtz-Mulholland, Michael; Collins, Shawn K

    2014-09-26

    Macrocyclic olefin metathesis has seen advances in the areas of stereochemistry, chemoselectivity, and catalyst stability, but strategies aimed at controlling dilution effects in macrocyclizations are rare. Herein, a protocol to promote macrocyclic olefin metathesis, one of the most common synthetic tools used to prepare macrocycles, at relatively high concentrations (up to 60 mM) is described by exploitation of a phase-separation strategy. A variety of macrocyclic skeletons could be prepared having either different alkyl, aryl, or amino acids spacers.

  7. Morphology and phase separation of hydrophobic clusters of soy globular protein polymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Lu; Mo, Xiaoqun; Zhu, Li; Bolye, Dan

    2008-04-01

    Protein hydrophobic interaction has been considered the most important factor dominating protein folding, aggregation, gelling, self-assembly, adhesion, and cohesion properties. In this paper, morphology and phase separation of hydrophobic clusters, networks, and aggregates of soy globular protein polymers, induced by using a reducing agent (NaHSO3), are studied using microscopic instruments. The morphology and phase separation of these hydrophobic clusters are sensitive to protein structure and composition, pH, and ionic-strength (I(m)). Most of the clusters are in spherical-shape architecture and mainly consist of hydrophobic polypeptides. Rod-shape clusters were also observed at higher ionic strength, and mainly consist of hydrophilic polypeptides. The ratio of hydrophobic/hydrophilic (HB/HL) polypeptides is important to facilitate the formation of clusters in an environment with a certain pH value and ionic strength. At HB/HL 0.8, uniform spherical clusters were observed and diameters ranged from 30 to 70 nm. At HB/HL <0.8, large spherical clusters were formed with diameters ranging from 100 to 1,000 nm, and at HB/HL >or=1.8, large hydrophobic aggregates formed, and size of aggregates can be up to 2 500 nm. When solid content increased from 3% to 38%, at I(m) or= 0.115 mol x L(-1), HB/HL ratio >or=1.8, the large aggregates became very cohesive and viscoelastic. Clear phase separation was observed during curing between hydrophobic and hydrophilic protein polymers. Phase-separation degree increased as HB/HL ratio increased.

  8. Application of statistical design for the optimization of amino acid separation by reverse-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Gheshlaghi, R; Scharer, J M; Moo-Young, M; Douglas, P L

    2008-12-01

    Modified resolution and overall separation factors used to quantify the separation of complex chromatography systems are described. These factors were proven to be applicable to the optimization of amino acid resolution in reverse-phase (RP) HPLC chromatograms. To optimize precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate, a 2(5-1) fractional factorial design in triplicate was employed. The five independent variables for optimizing the overall separation factor were triethylamine content of the aqueous buffer, pH of the aqueous buffer, separation temperature, methanol/acetonitrile concentration ratio in the organic eluant, and mobile phase flow rate. Of these, triethylamine concentration and methanol/acetonitrile concentration ratio were the most important. The methodology captured the interaction between variables. Temperature appeared in the interaction terms; consequently, it was included in the hierarchic model. The preliminary model based on the factorial experiments was not able to explain the response curvature in the design space; therefore, a central composite design was used to provide a quadratic model. Constrained nonlinear programming was used for optimization purposes. The quadratic model predicted the optimal levels of the variables. In this study, the best levels of the five independent variables that provide the maximum modified resolution for each pair of consecutive amino acids appearing in the chromatograph were determined. These results are of utmost importance for accurate analysis of a subset of amino acids.

  9. Integrated microfluidic device for solid-phase extraction coupled to micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jeremy D; Collins, Greg E

    2005-10-15

    An integrated microdevice was utilized for the autonomous coupling of solid-phase extraction (SPE) to micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Porous plugs of polymethacrylate polymer approximately 200 microm in length) were fabricated by ultraviolet irradiation in microchannels. Microcolumns of hydrophobic beads packed against the polymethacrylate plugs were utilized for the quantitative extraction of rhodamine B, yielding preconcentration factors over 200 for a 90-s extraction. The calculated detection limit for this dye was 60 fM. A sample of coumarin dyes were concentrated by SPE, eluted in a nonaqueous solvent from a separate on-chip reservoir, and injected by a gated valve onto a separate column for MEKC analysis. Using the integrated device, a completely automated sequence of extraction, elution, injection, separation, and detection were performed in less than 5 min. Observed separation efficiencies were high, with plate heights below 2 microm. The analysis was at least 3 times faster than semiautomated, conventional, solid-phase extraction, while requiring no user intervention. The design, fabrication, and autonomous operation of the device is discussed.

  10. Glass-liquid phase separation in highly supersaturated aqueous solutions of telaprevir.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Giraldo, Laura I; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions are of great current interest because they can improve the delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds. It has been recently noted that the highly supersaturated solutions generated by dissolution of some ASDs can undergo a phase transition to a colloidal, disordered, drug-rich phase when the concentration exceeds the "amorphous solubility" of the drug. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phase behavior of supersaturated solutions of telaprevir, which is formulated as an amorphous solid dispersion in the commercial product. Different analytical techniques including proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), fluorescence spectroscopy and flux measurements were used to evaluate the properties of aqueous supersaturated solutions of telaprevir. It was found that highly supersaturated solutions of telaprevir underwent glass-liquid phase separation (GLPS) when the concentration exceeded 90 μg/mL, forming a water-saturated colloidal, amorphous drug-rich phase with a glass transition temperature of 52 °C. From flux measurements, it was observed that the "free" drug concentration reached a maximum at the concentration where GLPS occurred, and did not increase further as the concentration was increased. This phase behavior, which results in a precipitate and a metastable equilibrium between a supersaturated solution and a drug-rich phase, is obviously important in the context of evaluating amorphous solid dispersion formulations and their crystallization routes.

  11. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  12. Lamellar, micro-phase separated blends of methyl cellulose and dendritic polyethylene glycol, POSS-PEG.

    PubMed

    Chinnam, Parameswara Rao; Mantravadi, Ramya; Jimenez, Jayvic C; Dikin, Dmitriy A; Wunder, Stephanie L

    2016-01-20

    Blends of methyl cellulose (MC) and liquid pegylated polyoctahedralsilsesquioxane (POSS-PEG) were prepared from non-gelled, aqueous solutions at room temperature (RT), which was below their gel temperatures (Tm). Lamellar, fibrillated films (pure MC) and increasingly micro-porous morphologies with increasing POSS-PEG content were formed, which had RT moduli between 1 and 5GPa. Evidence of distinct micro-phase separated MC and POSS-PEG domains was indicated by the persistence of the MC and POSS-PEG (at 77K) crystal structures in the X-ray diffraction data, and scanning transmission electron images. Mixing of MC and POSS-PEG in the interface region was indicated by suppression of crystallinity in the POSS-PEG, and increases/decreases in the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of POSS-PEG/MC in the blends compared with the pure components. These interface interactions may serve as cross-link sites between the micro-phase separated domains that permit incorporation of high amounts of POSS-PEG in the blends, prevent macro-phase separation and result in rubbery material properties (at high POSS-PEG content). Above Tg/Tm of POSS-PEG, the moduli of the blends increase with MC content as expected. However, below Tg/Tm of POSS-PEG, the moduli are greater for blends with high POSS-PEG content, suggesting that it behaves like semi-crystalline polyethylene oxide reinforced with silica (SiO1.5).

  13. Correlation between structural heterogeneity and plastic deformation for phase separating FeCu metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Song, Kai-Kai; Wang, Li; Şopu, Daniel; Pauly, Simon; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Unlike crystalline metals, the plastic deformation of metallic glasses (MGs) involves a competition between disordering and structural relaxation ordering, which is not well understood, yet. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the evolutions of strain localizations, short-range order (SRO) as well as the free volume in the glass during compressive deformation of Fe50Cu50 MGs with different degrees of phase separation. Our findings indicate that the free volume in the phase separating MGs decreases while the shear strain localizations increase with increasing degree of phase separation. Cu-centered clusters show higher potential energies and Voronoi volumes, and bear larger local shear strains. On the other hand, Fe-centered pentagon-rich clusters in Cu-rich regions seem to play an important role to resist the shear transformation. The dilatation or annihilation of Voronoi volumes is due to the competition between ordering via structural relaxation and shear stress-induced deformation. The present study could provide a better understanding of the relationship between the structural inhomogeneity and the deformation of MGs. PMID:27681052

  14. Experimental evidence for phase separation in hydrogen-helium mixtures at Jovian planet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. W.; Brygoo, S.; Millot, M.; Rygg, J. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Jeanloz, R.; Loubeyre, P.

    2015-11-01

    Whether or not H-He mixtures phase separate in Jovian planets is important to our understanding of the structure and evolution of Jupiter and Saturn. Also integral to such planet models, as well as mechanisms for H-He phase separation, are the insulating-to-conducting and the molecular-to-atomic-hydrogen transitions in the H-He mixture. Coupling static and dynamic compression techniques has allowed us to make the first thermodynamic and transport measurements of H-He mixtures at deep Jovian planet conditions. These data provide evidence that the H-He fluid demixes at the high pressures and temperatures expected to exist deep inside Saturn and Jupiter. This phase separation may result in the differentiation of heavier helium clusters, leading to helium rain in the deep interior of Saturn and perhaps even in a significant outer layer of Jupiter. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Correlation between structural heterogeneity and plastic deformation for phase separating FeCu metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chuan-Xiao; Song, Kai-Kai; Wang, Li; Şopu, Daniel; Pauly, Simon; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Unlike crystalline metals, the plastic deformation of metallic glasses (MGs) involves a competition between disordering and structural relaxation ordering, which is not well understood, yet. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the evolutions of strain localizations, short-range order (SRO) as well as the free volume in the glass during compressive deformation of Fe50Cu50 MGs with different degrees of phase separation. Our findings indicate that the free volume in the phase separating MGs decreases while the shear strain localizations increase with increasing degree of phase separation. Cu-centered clusters show higher potential energies and Voronoi volumes, and bear larger local shear strains. On the other hand, Fe-centered pentagon-rich clusters in Cu-rich regions seem to play an important role to resist the shear transformation. The dilatation or annihilation of Voronoi volumes is due to the competition between ordering via structural relaxation and shear stress-induced deformation. The present study could provide a better understanding of the relationship between the structural inhomogeneity and the deformation of MGs.

  16. Controlling Phase Separation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Addition of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to produce mechanically superior thermoset blends relative to the neat components. In this study, IPNs were prepared consisting of polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD), contributing high fracture toughness, and an epoxy resin (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with nadic methyl anhydride), contributing high tensile strength and modulus. In the absence of compatibilization, the simultaneous curing of the networks leads to a macroscopically phase separated blend that exhibits poor mechanical behavior. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructured IPNs, block copolymers were designed to compatibilize this system, where one block possesses affinity to polyDCPD (polynorbornene in this study) and the other block possesses affinity to DGEBA (poly(ɛ-caprolactone) in this study). The influence of the block copolymer composition on the degree of phase separation and interfacial adhesion in the IPN was studied using a combination of small-angle scattering and imaging techniques. The resultant mechanical properties were explored and structure-property relationships were developed in this blend system.

  17. Controlling Phase Separation of Tough Interpenetrating Polymer Networks via Addition of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to combine the mechanical properties of two thermoset systems. Often used to create a material that possesses both high toughness and tensile properties, here we use polydicyclopentadiene, cured via ring opening metathesis polymerization, to contribute high toughness and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured via anhydride chemistry to contribute high tensile strength and modulus. As the uncompatibilized system reacts in the presence of one another, mesoscopic phase separation occurs and dictates the overall efficacy of combining mechanical properties. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructed IPNs, amphiphilic block copolymers of polybutadiene- b-polyethylene oxide, where one block possesses strong affinity to polyDCPD and the other the DGEBA, were added to the system. Here we present a systematic study of the influence of block copolymer composition in the overall blend on degree of phase separation and morphology using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resultant mechanical properties are then explored in an effort to link mechanical properties to blend morphology.

  18. Phase separation and antisite defects in the thermoelectric TiNiSn half-Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kirievsky, K.; Gelbstein, Y. Fuks, D.

    2013-07-15

    The half-Heusler TiNiSn alloys have recently gained an attention as promising candidates for thermoelectric applications. Improvement of these alloys for such applications can be obtained by both electronic and compositional optimizations. The latter can result in a miscibility gap, allowing a phase separation in the nano-scale and consequently a thermal conductivity reduction. Combination of ab initio calculations and statistical thermodynamics was applied for studying the relative stability of a number of superstructures in TiNiSn based alloys. The quasi-binary phase diagram beyond T=0 K for TiNiSn–TiNi{sub 2}Sn solid solutions was calculated using energy parameters extracted from the total energy calculations for ordered structures in the Ni sublattice. We demonstrated that a decomposition of the off-stoichiometric Ni-rich half-Heusler alloy into the stoichiometric TiNiSn phase and into Ni deficient Heusler TiNi{sub 2}Sn phase occurs at elevated temperatures—an effect which recently had been observed experimentally. Furthermore, favorable energetic conditions for antisite defects formation were deduced, based on calculations of the energy of formation, an effect which was explained as a cooperative process of partial disordering on the Ni sublattice. The influence of these two effects on improvement of the thermoelectric performance of TiNiSn based half Heusler compounds is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Phase separation and antisite defects in the thermoelectric TiNiSn alloy, are covered as methods for nanostructuring and thereby enhancement of the thermoelectric potential. - Highlights: • Ab initio calculations/statistical thermodynamics was applied for studying the TiNiSn system. • The phase diagram for TiNiSn–TiNi{sub 2}Sn solid solutions was calculated. • Decomposition of the Ni-rich HH into TiNiSn and Ni deficient TiNi{sub 2}Sn phases was observed. • Favorable energetic conditions for antisite defects formation were deduced.

  19. A Robust Computational Method for Coupled Liquid-liquid Phase Separation and Gas-particle Partitioning Predictions of Multicomponent Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Di Stefano, A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing efficient and reliable model predictions for the partitioning of atmospheric aerosol components between different phases (gas, liquids, solids) is a challenging problem. The partitioning of water, various semivolatile organic components, inorganic acids, bases, and salts, depends simultaneously on the chemical properties and interaction effects among all constituents of a gas + aerosol system. The effects of hygroscopic particle growth on the water contents and physical states of potentially two or more liquid and/or solid aerosol phases in turn may significantly affect multiphase chemistry, the direct effect of aerosols on climate, and the ability of specific particles to act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Considering the presence of a liquid-liquid phase separation in aerosol particles, which typically leads to one phase being enriched in rather hydrophobic compounds and the other phase enriched in water and dissolved electrolytes, adds a high degree of complexity to the goal of predicting the gas-particle partitioning of all components. Coupled gas-particle partitioning and phase separation methods are required to correctly account for the phase behaviour of aerosols exposed to varying environmental conditions, such as changes to relative humidity. We present new theoretical insights and a substantially improved algorithm for the reliable prediction of gas-particle partitioning at thermodynamic equilibrium based on the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model. We introduce a new approach for the accurate prediction of the phase distribution of multiple inorganic ions between two liquid phases, constrained by charge balance, and the coupling of the liquid-liquid equilibrium model to a robust gas-particle partitioning algorithm. Such coupled models are useful for exploring the range of environmental conditions leading to complete or incomplete miscibility of aerosol constituents which will affect

  20. Optically controllable dual-gate organic transistor produced via phase separation between polymer semiconductor and photochromic spiropyran molecules.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Wakayama, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    We produced an optically controllable dual-gate organic field-effect transistor by a simple one-step spin-coating of a mixed solution of photochromic spiropyran (SP) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Postannealing enhanced polymer chain ordering of P3HT to induce phase separation into an SP-rich lower layer and an SP-free upper layer. These layers worked independently as transistor channels with distinct optical responsivity. The top channel was optically inactive, but the bottom channel was optically active, because of the photoisomerization of SP. These results demonstrate the potential of our technique to produce a multifunctional photoactive organic transistor by a simple process.

  1. Theory of phase-separate multicomponent contaminant transport in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Sorab; Yavuz Corapcioglu, M.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater is an essential source of water in Arctic regions due to largely frozen surface water resources. Since the development of Alaskan oil fields and the construction of the trans-Alaska pipeline, there have been a large number of accidental oil spillages in the tundra. The physico-, thermo- and ecosystem of the Arctic has unique features requiring special attention due to low temperatures and the presence of ice. Furthermore, a hot oil spill is subjected to large variations of temperature which creates a dominant impact on flow and phase behavior. Modeling studies of phase-separate contaminants for isothermal conditions neglect these crucial factors. A predictive model is developed herein, to simulate the transport and fate of multicomponent petroleum products in Arctic soils and groundwater. The model is based on identification and quantification of the significant physical, thermal, chemical and biological processes, and construction of mathematical representations of these phenomena to describe the transport and fate of petroleum spills in frozen soils. Since a petroleum product consists of many chemically and biologically reactive components, a general compositional-type model is developed to describe multiphase transport of the petroleum products, or any other multicomponent, phase-separate contaminant under non-isothermal conditions. The model incorporates thermodynamic principles to quantify phase partitioning of contaminant components and phase separation. Aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbon constituents is incorporated into the formulation through Monod-type kinetics. A limit on biodegradation is imposed when oxygen is depleted from the system beyond which the biodegradation rate depends on the flux rate of oxygen.

  2. Evaluation of a hydrophilic ionic liquid as a salting-out phase separation agent to a water-tetrahydrofuran homogeneous system for aqueous biphasic extraction separation.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Naoki; Higo, Takaaki; Imura, Hisanori

    2012-01-01

    The use of a hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4)mimCl), as a salting-out phase separation agent to a water-tetrahydrofuran homogeneous system was studied for possible applications to novel aqueous biphasic extraction separation. The IL showed a salting-out phase-separation ability. Also, differences in the polarity between the formed two phases were smaller than that when using NaCl as a salting-out agent. This result suggested that C(4)mimCl remaining in water-rich phase acts not only as a salting-out agent, but also a component of a mixed-solvent. Possible uses of C(4)mimCl/NaCl mixed salting-out agent system were also discussed.

  3. Phase separation of critical binary fluids under microgravity: Comparison with matched-density conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D.; Guenoun, P.; Perrot, F.

    1988-10-01

    A number of phase-separation mechanisms in fluids are hidden in earth-bound experiments due to the influence of gravitationally induced flow. Solutions to this problem can be found by using strictly matched-density systems, such as the partially deuterated cyclohexane and methanol system (C*C-M), or by performing experiments in space so as to benefit from the microgravity environment. Both types of studies have been performed here to determine quantitatively to what extent such matched-density systems could recreate, on earth, microgravity conditions; they were restricted to the neighborhood of the liquid-liquid critical point. A 6-min microgravity environment has been provided in the sounding rockets of the TEXUS program: Two experiments have been performed, one (T11) using the nonmatched-density system of fully deuterated cyclohexane and methanol (C*-M), and one (T13) using the matched-density system C*C-M. In experiment T13 the phase separation was seen to be characterized by a high-contrast, periodiclike pattern, so that the observations could be performed by a simple optical method. In order to analyze quantitatively the possible differences with the earth-based experiments, the origin of the detected images had to be carefully analyzed. It appeared that they are connected to the interface pattern of the phase-separating fluid. Therefore, after digitization and statistical treatment, it was possible to check the important scaling properties of the phase separation: structure factor, reduced moments, typical wavelength pattern. Experiment T11 was qualitatively different from the earth-bound experiment and can be understood only by an unexpected extreme sensitivity of the growth mechanism to the volume fraction. The T13 results did not evidence any deviation between the microgravity and the earth-based experiments, thereby validating a complete study of the phase separation in the critical region using matched-density systems on earth. Gravity effects on very

  4. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    DOE PAGES

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; et al

    2015-09-08

    We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreasesmore » upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.« less

  5. Buckling, driven by constrained phase separation, of toroid-shaped hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriyev, Michael S.; Chang, Ya-Wen; Souslov, Anton; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Goldbart, Paul M.

    We investigate the buckling process observed in connection with the temperature-induced shrinking of an elastic toroid composed of hydrogel. Hydrogels are polymeric network media that become swollen when mixed with water, provided the temperature is low enough. As the temperature is increased beyond a certain point, such gels undergo a first-order de-swelling transition to a de-mixed state, in which the network segregates from the water, resulting in a shrunken phase. It is known that the rapid heating of swollen hydrogels beyond the de-swelling transition results in the formation of a shrunken-phase boundary region, or shell. This shell hinders the expulsion of fluid associated with the equilibration of the sample interior, and gives rise to a prolonged period of coexistence between shrunken and swollen domains in the interior of the sample. In contrast with the spherical case, toroidal samples have been observed to undergo a constrained phase separation that is accompanied by a global buckling (or ``Pringling'') deformation of the sample shape. We present a model of hydrogel toroid Pringling in which such deformations are driven by this phase separation process.

  6. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  7. Nanoparticle Self-Assembly in a Polymer Matrix and Its Impact on Phase Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Jack

    2011-03-01

    The ubiquitous clustering of nanoparticles (NPs) in solutions and polymer melts depends sensitively on the strength and directionality of the effective NP-NP interactions, as well as on the molecular geometry and interactions of the dispersing fluid. Surface functionalization apparently can also lead to emergent anisotropic interactions that can influence NP dispersion. Since NP clustering can strongly influence the properties of polymer nanocomposites and NP solutions, we investigate the reversible self-assembly of model NPs into clusters under equilibrium conditions through a combination of simulation and analytic methods. First, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of polyhedral NPs in a coarse-grained dense bead--spring polymer melt and find a transition from a dispersed to clustered NP state, consistent with the thermodynamic models of equilibrium particle association such as equilibrium polymerization. We also describe the competition between self-assembly and phase separation in an analytic lattice model of a mixture of polymers and NPs. We then focus on the particularly interesting situation where the associating ``monomeric'' NP species form high molecular mass dynamic polymeric clusters and where the assembly process then transforms the phase boundary from a form typical of a polymer solution to one that more resembles a polymer blend with increasing association near the critical point for phase separation. The model calculations elucidate basic physical principles governing the coupling of self-assembly and phase behavior in these complex mixtures.

  8. Cell separation by an aqueous two-phase system in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Masatoshi; Taira, Shu; Yamamura, Shohei; Morita, Yasutaka; Nagatani, Naoki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2009-10-01

    We generated an aqueous two-phase laminar flow in a microfluidic chip and used the system to isolate leukocyte and erythrocyte cells from whole blood cells. The microfluidic system reduced the effect of gravity in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dextran (Dex) solutions were used as the two phases, and the independent flow rates of the solutions were both 2 microL/min. When hydrophobic and hydrophilic polystyrene beads were introduced into the microfluidic device, the hydrophilic beads moved to the Dex layer and the hydrophobic beads to the interface between the two phases. In the case of living cells, Jurkat cells and erythrocytes moved more efficiently to the PEG and Dex layers, respectively, than they move in a conventional ATPS. When whole blood cells were inserted into the microfluidic chip, leukocytes could be separated from erythrocytes because erythrocytes moved to the Dex layer while leukocytes remained outside of this layer in the microfluidic system. The reported microfluidic chip for the whole blood cell separation can effectively be integrated into a Micro Total Analysis System designed for cell-based clinical, forensic, and environmental analyses.

  9. Application of capillary fluid management techniques to the design of a phase separating microgravity bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Barry W.; Neville, Gale E., Jr.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Manned space missions require the development of compact, efficient, and reliable life support systems. A number of aqueous biological conversion processes are associated with bioregenerative life support systems. Vessels, or bioreactors, capable of supporting these processes in microgravity must be developed. An annular flow bioreactor has been conceived. It has the potential to incorporate containment, phase separation, gas exchange, and illumination into a single vessel. The bioreactor utilizes capillary fluid management techniques and is configured as a cylindrical tube in which a two-phase liquid-gas flow is maintained. Vanes placed around the inner perimeter enhance capillary forces and cause the liquid phase to attach and flow along the interior surface of the tube. No physical barrier is required to complete phase separation. It is shown analytically that liquid film thickness is limited only by vane geometry and that an annular flow bioreactor capable of managing 284 liters would occupy 0.7 cubic m, less than half the volume of a Spacelab experiment rack.

  10. Use of vancomycin silica stationary phase in packed capillary electrochromatography I. Enantiomer separation of basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Desiderio, C; Aturki, Z; Fanali, S

    2001-02-01

    Chiral separation of basic compounds was achieved by using 75 or 100 microm ID fused-silica capillaries packed with a vanoomycin-modified diol silica stationary phase. The capillary was firstly packed for about 12 cm with a slurry mixture composed of diolsilica (3:1) then with the vancomycin modified diol-silica (3:1) (23 cm), and finally with diol-silica (3:1) for about 2 cm. Frits were prepared by a heating wire at the two ends of the capillary; the detector window was prepared at 8.5 cm from the end of the capillary where vancomycin was not present. The influence of the mobile phase composition (pH and concentration, organic modifier type and concentration) on the velocity of the electroosmotic flow, chiral resolution and enantioselectivity was studied. Good enantiomeric resolution was achieved for atenolol, oxprenolol, propranolol, and venlafaxine using a mobile phase composition of 100 mM ammonium acetate solution (pH 6)/water/acetonitrile (5:5:90 v/v/v) while for terbutaline a mixture of 5:15:80 v/v/v provided the best separations. The use of methanol instead of acetonitrile caused a general increase of enantiomer resolution of the studied compounds together with a reduction of efficiency and detector response. However, the combination of acetonitrile and methanol in the mobile phase (as, e.g., 10% methanol and 80% acetonitrile) allowed to improve the enantiomer resolution with satisfactory detector response.

  11. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    SciTech Connect

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  12. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    PubMed Central

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  13. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  14. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  15. On-Chip Pressure Generation for Driving Liquid Phase Separations in Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ling; Choi, Chiwoong; Kothekar, Shrinivas C; Dutta, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    In this Article, we describe the generation of pressure gradients on-chip for driving liquid phase separations in submicrometer deep channels. The reported pressure-generation capability was realized by applying an electrical voltage across the interface of two glass channel segments with different depths. A mismatch in the electroosmotic flow rate at this junction led to the generation of pressure-driven flow in our device, a fraction of which was then directed to an analysis channel to carry out the desired separation. Experiments showed the reported strategy to be particularly conducive for miniaturization of pressure-driven separations yielding flow velocities in the separation channel that were nearly unaffected upon scaling down the depth of the entire fluidic network. Moreover, the small dead volume in our system allowed for high dynamic control over this pressure gradient, which otherwise was challenging to accomplish during the sample injection process using external pumps. Pressure-driven velocities up to 3.1 mm/s were realized in separation ducts as shallow as 300 nm using our current design for a maximum applied voltage of 3 kV. The functionality of this integrated device was demonstrated by implementing a pressure-driven ion chromatographic analysis that relied on analyte interaction with the nanochannel surface charges to yield a nonuniform solute concentration across the channel depth. Upon coupling such analyte distribution to the parabolic pressure-driven flow profile in the separation duct, a mixture of amino acids could be resolved. The reported assay yielded a higher separation resolution compared to its electrically driven counterpart in which sample migration was realized using electroosmosis/electrophoresis.

  16. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  17. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems.

  18. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  19. High performance liquid chromatographic separations of gas oil samples and their hydrotreated products using commercial normal phases.

    PubMed

    Oro, Nicole E; Lucy, Charles A

    2011-10-28

    Three commercially available high performance liquid chromatography columns are used in normal phase or quasi-normal phase mode for the separation of gas oil samples. The columns are tested with 20 analytical standards to determine their suitability for separations of petroleum samples and their ability to separate the nitrogen group-types (pyrrole and pyridine) found in petroleum. The columns studied are polymeric hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HGN), a biphenyl phase, and a Chromegabond "DNAP" column from ES Industries. The HGN column separates gas oils based on both ring structure and heteroatom, while the biphenyl phase has low retention of most compounds studied in quasi-normal phase mode. The "DNAP" column is selective for nitrogen-containing compounds, separating them from PAHs as well as oxygen and sulphur compounds. Retention data of standards on all three columns is shown, along with chromatograms of gas oil samples on the HGN and "DNAP" columns.

  20. Heterogeneity of the Liquid Phase, and Vapor Separation in Los Azufres (Mexico) Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, D.; Quijano, L.; Garfias, A.; Barragan, R.M.; Laredo, F.

    1983-12-15

    Data of chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from Los Azufres geothermal wells is interpreted in order to characterize the composition of the liquid phase, and to define the relation between this phase and fluids from steam-producing wells. Chemical and specific enthalpy data show that most wells considered are fed a mixture of steam and liquid. Thus, flashing occurs in the formation. This poses a problem on the interpretation of isotopic data, because the composition of the feeding mixture need not be representative of the composition of the liquid phase in the reservoir. Two extreme alternatives for the interpretation of isotopic data are considered. In the first alternative the composition of the total discharge is considered to be the same as that of the liquid in the reservoir. In the second alternative the feeding fluid is considered to be a mixture of the liquid phase in the reservoir and the calculated fraction of steam. In addition, this steam is assumed to separate from a much larger mass of that liquid phase at the downhole temperature. The contribution of steam is then subtracted from the total discharge to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Using data for silica concentration in total discharge and separated water, the chloride concentration in the reservoir liquid is calculated. This result is used to calculate the fraction of steam in the feeding mixture of each well. The isotopic data is then corrected as proposed for the second alternative, to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Comparison of the corrected and uncorrected isotopic values shows that the correction has an important effect only when the steam mass fraction in the feeding mixture is large (> 20%). The correction tends to reduce the dispersion of data points in a {delta} D vs {delta}{sup 18}O diagram. Points representing composition of liquid phase show an approximately linear distribution, suggesting a process of mixing of two fluids. Available data appears to

  1. Phase Separation in the Heisenberg Spin System, Gd2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. S.; Stewart, J. R.; Ehlers, G.

    2010-01-01

    Gd2Ti2O7 is a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic system with two magnetic phase transitions at 1.1 K and 0.7 K. The determination of the magnetic structure in the ordered phases by a powder measurement is greatly complicated by the ambiguity between 1-k and 4-k structures resulting in identical structure factors. Here we will present data and new analyses showing that, as the system cools from the correlated, paramagnetic regime just above 1 K, (i) the magnetic system freezes into a partially ordered state, and (ii) the 4-k structure is maintained throughout down to a base temperature <50 mK. This clears up the ambiguity in the magnetic structure and confirms the phase separation of the Gd-sites into two in equivalent sites with a 3:1 ratio.

  2. Dynamic evolution of liquid–liquid phase separation during continuous cooling

    DOE PAGES

    Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Katz, Martha R.; Ott, Thomas J.; Patterson, Brian M.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Cooley, Jason C.; Clarke, Amy J.

    2015-01-06

    Solidification from a multiphase fluid involves many unknown quantities due to the difficulty of predicting the impact of fluid flow on chemical partitioning. Real-time x-ray radiography was used to observe liquid-liquid phase separation in Al90In10 prior to solidification. Quantitative image analysis was used to measure the motion and population characteristics of the dispersed indium-rich liquid phase during cooling. Here we determine that the droplet growth characteristics resemble well known steady-state coarsening laws with likely enhancement by concurrent growth due to supersaturation. Simplistic views of droplet motion are found to be insufficient until late in the reaction due to a hydrodynamicmore » instability caused by the large density difference between the dispersed and matrix liquid phases.« less

  3. Dynamic evolution of liquid-liquid phase separation during continuous cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, S. D.; Gibbs, P. J.; Katz, M. R.; Ott, T. J.; Patterson, B. M.; Lee, W. -K.; Fezzaa, K.; Cooley, J. C.; Clarke, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Solidification from a multiphase fluid involves many unknown quantities due to the difficulty of predicting the impact of fluid flow on chemical partitioning. Real-time x-ray radiography has been used to observe liquideliquid phase separation in Al90In10 prior to solidification. Quantitative image analysis has been used to measure the motion and population characteristics of the dispersed indium-rich liquid phase during cooling. Here we determine that the droplet growth characteristics resemble well known steady-state coarsening laws with likely enhancement by concurrent growth due to supersaturation. Simplistic views of droplet motion are found to be insufficient until late in the reaction due to a hydrodynamic instability caused by the large density difference between the dispersed and matrix liquid phases.

  4. Dynamic evolution of liquid–liquid phase separation during continuous cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Katz, Martha R.; Ott, Thomas J.; Patterson, Brian M.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Cooley, Jason C.; Clarke, Amy J.

    2015-01-06

    Solidification from a multiphase fluid involves many unknown quantities due to the difficulty of predicting the impact of fluid flow on chemical partitioning. Real-time x-ray radiography was used to observe liquid-liquid phase separation in Al90In10 prior to solidification. Quantitative image analysis was used to measure the motion and population characteristics of the dispersed indium-rich liquid phase during cooling. Here we determine that the droplet growth characteristics resemble well known steady-state coarsening laws with likely enhancement by concurrent growth due to supersaturation. Simplistic views of droplet motion are found to be insufficient until late in the reaction due to a hydrodynamic instability caused by the large density difference between the dispersed and matrix liquid phases.

  5. Magnetic-field-induced nematic-nematic phase separation and droplet formation in colloidal goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Pol, E.; Verhoeff, A. A.; Lupascu, A.; Diaconeasa, M. A.; Davidson, P.; Dozov, I.; Kuipers, B. W. M.; Thies-Weesie, D. M. E.; Vroege, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate the suitability of polarization microscopy to study the recently discovered (parallel) nematic-(perpendicular) nematic phase separation. This novel type of phase transition is induced by applying an external magnetic field to a nematic liquid crystal of boardlike colloidal goethite and is due to an interplay between the intrinsic magnetic properties of goethite and the collective effect of liquid crystal formation. It is shown that the intense ochre colour of goethite does not preclude the use of polarization microscopy and interference colours, and that dichroism can give valuable qualitative information on the nature of the phases, their anchoring and their sedimentation and order parameter profiles. We also apply these techniques to study 'nematic-nematic tactoids': nematic droplets sedimenting within a nematic medium with mutually perpendicular orientations.

  6. Magnetic-field-induced nematic-nematic phase separation and droplet formation in colloidal goethite.

    PubMed

    van den Pol, E; Verhoeff, A A; Lupascu, A; Diaconeasa, M A; Davidson, P; Dozov, I; Kuipers, B W M; Thies-Weesie, D M E; Vroege, G J

    2011-05-18

    We demonstrate the suitability of polarization microscopy to study the recently discovered (parallel) nematic-(perpendicular) nematic phase separation. This novel type of phase transition is induced by applying an external magnetic field to a nematic liquid crystal of boardlike colloidal goethite and is due to an interplay between the intrinsic magnetic properties of goethite and the collective effect of liquid crystal formation. It is shown that the intense ochre colour of goethite does not preclude the use of polarization microscopy and interference colours, and that dichroism can give valuable qualitative information on the nature of the phases, their anchoring and their sedimentation and order parameter profiles. We also apply these techniques to study 'nematic-nematic tactoids': nematic droplets sedimenting within a nematic medium with mutually perpendicular orientations. PMID:21525548

  7. Insights into the nanoscale lateral and vertical phase separation in organic bulk heterojunctions via scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chintala, R; Tait, J G; Eyben, P; Voroshazi, E; Surana, S; Fleischmann, C; Conard, T; Vandervorst, W

    2016-02-14

    Solution processed polymer (donor) and fullerene (acceptor) bulk heterojunctions are widely used as the photo active layer in organic solar cells. Intimate mixing of these two materials is essential for efficient charge separation and transport. Identifying relative positions of acceptor and donor rich regions in the bulk heterojunction with nanometer scale precision is crucial in understanding intricate details of operation. In this work, a combination of Ar(+)2000 gas cluster ion beam and scanning probe microscopy is used to examine the lateral and vertical phase separation within regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction. While the Ar(+)2000 gas cluster ion beam is used as a sputter tool to expose the underneath layers, scanning probe microscopy techniques are used to obtain two-dimensional (2D) electrical maps (with sub-2 nm lateral resolution). The electrical mapping is decoded to chemical composition, essentially producing lateral and vertical maps of phase separation. Thermal stress causes large PCBM-rich hillocks to form, and consequently affecting the balance of P3HT:PCBM heterojunctions, hence a negative impact on the efficiency of the solar cell. We further developed a method to analyze the efficiency of exciton dissociation based on the current maps and a loss of 20% in efficiency is observed for thermally degraded samples compared to fresh un-annealed samples. PMID:26810305

  8. Cs vacancy ordering and properties of phase separated Csx Fe2-y Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmaissem, Omar; Taddei, K. M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Osborn, R.; Claus, H.; Sturza, M.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Cao, H. B.

    Iron-based selenides are among the most complex and least understood superconductors. At high temperature, a '122'-type structure with random iron vacancies undergoes a complex iron vacancy ordering scheme below ~500K causing the material to phase separate into A2Fe4Se5, known as the 245 phase, and a minority A-site deficient and fully iron stoichiometric AxFe2Se2 phase (122). At slightly lower temperatures, the material undergoes another transition with the Fe spins of the main '245' phase ordering into an exotic checkerboard-type magnetic structure with a large magnetic moment. The minority 122 phase is reported to either remain nonmagnetic or to become magnetic below ~200K. At temperatures below ~30K, the magnetic material becomes superconducting and the two states appear to coexist. I will present and discuss our recent synthesis and characterization of high quality CsxFe2-ySe2 single crystals and bulk samples with various Tc's that form a relatively large superconducting dome. I will discuss our findings of a previously unseen three dimensional cesium vacancy ordering in the low temperature 122 phase in addition to hosting superconductivity. At ANL, work supported by the US DOE Office of Science, MSED.

  9. Microphase-Separated PE/PEO Thin Films Prepared by Plasma-Assisted Vapor Phase Deposition.

    PubMed

    Choukourov, Andrei; Gordeev, Ivan; Ponti, Jessica; Uboldi, Chiara; Melnichuk, Iurii; Vaidulych, Mykhailo; Kousal, Jaroslav; Nikitin, Daniil; Hanyková, Lenka; Krakovský, Ivan; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2016-03-01

    Immiscible polymer blends tend to undergo phase separation with the formation of nanoscale architecture which can be used in a variety of applications. Different wet-chemistry techniques already exist to fix the resultant polymeric structure in predictable manner. In this work, an all-dry and plasma-based strategy is proposed to fabricate thin films of microphase-separated polyolefin/polyether blends. This is achieved by directing (-CH2-)100 and (-CH2-CH2-O-)25 oligomer fluxes produced by vacuum thermal decomposition of poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene oxide) onto silicon substrates through the zone of the glow discharge. The strategy enables mixing of thermodynamically incompatible macromolecules at the molecular level, whereas electron-impact-initiated radicals serve as cross-linkers to arrest the subsequent phase separation at the nanoscale. The mechanism of the phase separation as well as the morphology of the films is found to depend on the ratio between the oligomeric fluxes. For polyolefin-rich mixtures, polyether molecules self-organize by nucleation and growth into spherical domains with average height of 22 nm and average diameter of 170 nm. For equinumerous fluxes and for mixtures with the prevalence of polyethers, spinodal decomposition is detected that results in the formation of bicontinuous structures with the characteristic domain size and spacing ranging between 5 × 10(1) -7 × 10(1) nm and 3 × 10(2)-4 × 10(2) nm, respectively. The method is shown to produce films with tunable wettability and biologically nonfouling properties. PMID:26953817

  10. Microphase-Separated PE/PEO Thin Films Prepared by Plasma-Assisted Vapor Phase Deposition.

    PubMed

    Choukourov, Andrei; Gordeev, Ivan; Ponti, Jessica; Uboldi, Chiara; Melnichuk, Iurii; Vaidulych, Mykhailo; Kousal, Jaroslav; Nikitin, Daniil; Hanyková, Lenka; Krakovský, Ivan; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2016-03-01

    Immiscible polymer blends tend to undergo phase separation with the formation of nanoscale architecture which can be used in a variety of applications. Different wet-chemistry techniques already exist to fix the resultant polymeric structure in predictable manner. In this work, an all-dry and plasma-based strategy is proposed to fabricate thin films of microphase-separated polyolefin/polyether blends. This is achieved by directing (-CH2-)100 and (-CH2-CH2-O-)25 oligomer fluxes produced by vacuum thermal decomposition of poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene oxide) onto silicon substrates through the zone of the glow discharge. The strategy enables mixing of thermodynamically incompatible macromolecules at the molecular level, whereas electron-impact-initiated radicals serve as cross-linkers to arrest the subsequent phase separation at the nanoscale. The mechanism of the phase separation as well as the morphology of the films is found to depend on the ratio between the oligomeric fluxes. For polyolefin-rich mixtures, polyether molecules self-organize by nucleation and growth into spherical domains with average height of 22 nm and average diameter of 170 nm. For equinumerous fluxes and for mixtures with the prevalence of polyethers, spinodal decomposition is detected that results in the formation of bicontinuous structures with the characteristic domain size and spacing ranging between 5 × 10(1) -7 × 10(1) nm and 3 × 10(2)-4 × 10(2) nm, respectively. The method is shown to produce films with tunable wettability and biologically nonfouling properties.

  11. Lateral phase separation gives multiple lamellar phases in a "binary" surfactant/water system: the phase behavior of sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Richards, Claire; Tiddy, Gordon J T; Casey, Siobhan

    2007-01-16

    We have examined the structure of the lamellar phase (Lalpha) that coexists with a micellar solution (L1) for a commercial sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) mixed with water. The surfactant is a mixture containing C10-C13 alkyl chains, having all positional isomers of the benzene sulfonate group present except the 1-isomer. Unusually for ionic surfactants, the difference in compositions between the coexisting L1 and Lalpha phases is large (L1 = approximately 20 wt % LAS; Lalpha = approximately 65 wt %). The main technique employed was X-ray diffraction, supplemented by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). At ambient temperatures, the lamellar phase gives a single diffraction pattern with the main reflection (d) at approximately 32.5 A, whatever the composition. However, above 40 degrees C, the diffraction peak becomes broader and moves to higher d values. At higher temperatures still, several distinct and different diffraction peaks are observed, differing in detail according to composition. The largest d values (approximately 42-4 A) are observed for the lowest LAS concentrations, while the largest number of separate reflections (five) occurs for samples with approximately 44-50% LAS, both at the highest temperatures. Although there are some differences in the data between heating and cooling cycles, the d values return to the original value at low temperature. There are no observable transitions in DSC, nor is there any heterogeneity in the lamellar phase observable by microscopy. The data clearly indicate that there is some lateral separation of the different LAS isomers within the bilayers, which results in the formation of local lamellar regions having different surfactant compositions. This lateral phase separation may arise from the presence of an (electrostatic) attractive interaction, which gives rise to an upper consolute loop within the lamellar phase region of a pure LAS isomer. Similar mechanisms may occur in biological

  12. Formation of metastable structures by phase separation triggered by initial composition gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Prabhat K; Binder, Kurt; Puri, Sanjay

    2012-08-14

    Phase separation kinetics of a binary (A,B) mixture contained in a thin film of thickness D induced by a quench from the one-phase region into the miscibility gap is studied by simulations using a Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model. The initial randomly mixed state (50% A, 50% B) contains a concentration gradient perpendicular to the film, while the surfaces of the film are "neutral" (no preference for either A or B). In thermal equilibrium, a pattern of large A-rich and B-rich domains must result, separated by domain walls oriented perpendicularly to the external surfaces of the thin film. However, it is shown that for many choices of D and the strength of the initial gradient Ψ(g), instead a very long-lived metastable layered structure forms, with two domains separated by a single interface parallel to the external walls. The transient time evolution that leads to this structure is interpreted in terms of a competition between domain growth in the bulk and surface-directed spinodal decomposition caused by the gradient during the initial stages. A surprising and potentially useful finding is that a moderate concentration gradient perpendicular to the film does not favor the layered structure but facilitates the approach toward the true equilibrium with just two domain walls perpendicular to the film. This mechanism may have useful applications in producing layered materials. PMID:22897299

  13. Normal Gravity Testing of a Microchannel Phase Separator for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; McQuillen, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A microchannel separator, with 2.7 millimeters as the smallest dimension, was tested, and a pore throat structure captured and removed liquid from a gas-liquid stream. The microchannel device was tested over a of gas and liquid flow rates ranging from 0.0005 up to 0. 14 volume fraction of liquid. Four liquids were tested with air. The biggest factor affecting the throughput is the capacity of liquid flow through the pore throat, which is dictated by permeability, liquid viscosity, flow area, pore throat thickness, and pressure difference across the pore throat. Typically, complete separation of gas and liquid fractions was lost when the liquid flow rate reached about 40 to 60% of the pore throat capacity. However, this could occur over a range of 10 to 90% utilization of pore throat capacity. Breakthrough occurs in the microchannel phase separator at conditions similar to the annular to plug flow transition of two-phase microgravity pipe flow implying that operating in the proper flow regime is crucial. Analysis indicates that the Bond number did not affect performance, supporting the premise that hydrodynamic, interfacial, and capillary forces are more important than gravity. However, the relative importance of gravity is better discerned through testing under reduced gravity conditions.

  14. Pattern Polymerization-Induced Phase Separation in a Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu, Thein

    2002-03-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)/polymer composite films have gained attention increasingly due to their applications in flat panel displays and shutters. Photopolymerization is a preferred method to produce LC/polymer composite films from mixtures of reactive monomers and LCs. On the basis of the combined Flory-Huggins free energy for isotropic mixing and Maier-Saupe free energy for nematic ordering along with the elastic free energy of the network, phase diagrams have been established by solving self-consistently. A theoretical simulation has been modeled by incorporating the kinetics of crosslinking reaction into the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL-model C) equations to elucidate the emergence of nematic domains during photopolymerization induced phase separation in electrically switchable holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLC). The simulated morphological patterns in the concentration and orientation order parameter fields show discrete layers of liquid crystal droplets alternating periodically with polymer network-rich layers. Furthermore, we recognized the potential for producing electrically tunable microlens from PDLC systems through pattern-photopolymerization-induced phase separation by means of the interference of two horizontal waves and two vertical waves. Our simulation revealed that the emerged LC microlens are of the order of a few hundred nanometers. These LC microlens are not only uniformed in size, but also form in regular arrays, reminiscence of the compound eyes found in flies, ants, and wasps. Supported by ALCOM, NSF DMR 99-03519, and OBR.

  15. Where the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann cell model fails: Spurious phase separation in charged colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamashiro, M. N.; Schiessel, H.

    2003-07-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) spherical Wigner-Seitz cell model—introduced to theoretically describe suspensions of spherical charged colloidal particles—is investigated at the nonlinear and linearized levels. The linearization of the mean-field PB functional yields linearized Debye-Hückel-type equations agreeing asymptotically with the nonlinear PB results in the weak-coupling (high-temperature) limit. Both the canonical (fixed number of microions) as well as the semigrand-canonical (in contact with an infinite salt reservoir) cases are considered and discussed in a unified linearized framework. In disagreement with the exact nonlinear PB solution inside a Wigner-Seitz cell, the linearized theory predicts the occurrence of a thermodynamical instability with an associated phase separation of the homogeneous suspension into dilute (gas) and dense (liquid) phases, being thus a spurious result of the linearization. We show that these artifacts, although thermodynamically consistent with quadratic expansions of the nonlinear functional and osmotic pressure, may be traced back to the nonfulfillment of the underlying assumptions of the linearization. This raises questions about the reliability of the prediction of gas/liquid-like phase separation in deionized aqueous suspensions of charged colloids mediated by monovalent counterions obtained by linearized theories.

  16. Direct single-shot phase retrieval for separated objects (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshem, Ben; Xu, Rui; Miao, Jianwei; Nadler, Boaz; Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit; Raz, Oren

    2016-03-01

    The phase retrieval problem arises in various fields ranging from physics and astronomy to biology and microscopy. Computational reconstruction of the Fourier phase from a single diffraction pattern is typically achieved using iterative alternating projections algorithms imposing a non-convex computational challenge. A different approach is holography, relying on a known reference field. Here we present a conceptually new approach for the reconstruction of two (or more) sufficiently separated objects. In our approach we combine the constraint the objects are finite as well as the information in the interference between them to construct an overdetermined set of linear equations. We show that this set of equations is guaranteed to yield the correct solution almost always and that it can be solved efficiently by standard numerical algebra tools. Essentially, our method combine commonly used constraint (that the object is finite) with a holographic approach (interference information). It differs from holographic methods in the fact that a known reference field is not required, instead the unknown objects serve as reference to one another (hence blind holography). Our method can be applied in a single-shot for two (or more) separated objects or with several measurements with a single object. It can benefit phase imaging techniques such as Fourier phytography microscopy, as well as coherent diffractive X-ray imaging in which the generation of a well-characterized, high resolution reference beam imposes a major challenge. We demonstrate our method experimentally both in the optical domain and in the X-ray domain using XFEL pulses.

  17. Density functional theory of gas-liquid phase separation in dilute binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

    2016-06-22

    We examine statics and dynamics of phase-separated states of dilute binary mixtures using density functional theory. In our systems, the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas [Formula: see text] (the Gibbs energy of transfer) is considerably larger than the thermal energy [Formula: see text] for each solute particle and the attractive interaction among the solute particles is weaker than that among the solvent particles. In these conditions, the saturated vapor pressure increases by [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the solute density added in liquid. For [Formula: see text], phase separation is induced at low solute densities in liquid and the new phase remains in gaseous states, even when the liquid pressure is outside the coexistence curve of the solvent. This explains the widely observed formation of stable nanobubbles in ambient water with a dissolved gas. We calculate the density and stress profiles across planar and spherical interfaces, where the surface tension decreases with increasing interfacial solute adsorption. We realize stable solute-rich bubbles with radius about 30 nm, which minimize the free energy functional. We then study dynamics around such a bubble after a decompression of the surrounding liquid, where the bubble undergoes a damped oscillation. In addition, we present some exact and approximate expressions for the surface tension and the interfacial stress tensor.

  18. Membrane separation in green chemical processing: solvent nanofiltration in liquid phase organic synthesis reactions.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Andrew; Peeva, Ludmila; Han, Shejiao; Nair, Dinesh; Luthra, Satinder Singh; White, Lloyd S; Freitas Dos Santos, Luisa M

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes ideas together with preliminary experimental results for applying solvent nanofiltration to liquid phase organic synthesis reactions. Membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration have only recently (during the 1990s) become available and, to date, have been applied primarily to food processing (vegetable oil processing, in particular) and refinery processes. Applications to organic synthesis, even at a laboratory feasibility level, are few. However, these membranes have great potential to improve the environmental performance of many liquid phase synthesis reactions by reducing the need for complex solvent handling operations. Examples that are shown to be feasible are solvent exchanges, where it is desired to swap a high molecular weight molecule from one solvent to another between separate stages in a complex synthesis, and recycle and reuse of homogeneous catalysts. In solvent exchanges, nanofiltration is shown to provide a fast and effective means of swapping from a high boiling point solvent to a solvent with a lower boiling point-this is a difficult operation by means of distillation. Solvent nanofiltration is shown to be able to separate two distinct types of homogeneous catalysts, phase transfer catalysts and organometallic catalysts, from their respective reaction products. In both cases the application of organic solvent nanofiltration allows several reuses of the same catalyst. Catalyst stability is shown to be an essential requirement for this technique to be effective. Finally, we present a discussion of scale-up aspects including membrane flux and process economics.

  19. Roles of Interleaflet Coupling and Hydrophobic Mismatch in Lipid Membrane Phase-Separation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Philip W; Williamson, John J; Sansom, Mark S P; Olmsted, Peter D

    2016-09-14

    Characterizing the nanoscale dynamic organization within lipid bilayer membranes is central to our understanding of cell membranes at a molecular level. We investigate phase separation and communication across leaflets in ternary lipid bilayers, including saturated lipids with between 12 and 20 carbons per tail. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations reveal a novel two-step kinetics due to hydrophobic mismatch, in which the initial response of the apposed leaflets upon quenching is to increase local asymmetry (antiregistration), followed by dominance of symmetry (registration) as the bilayer equilibrates. Antiregistration can become thermodynamically preferred if domain size is restricted below ∼20 nm, with implications for the symmetry of rafts and nanoclusters in cell membranes, which have similar reported sizes. We relate our findings to theory derived from a semimicroscopic model in which the leaflets experience a "direct" area-dependent coupling, and an "indirect" coupling that arises from hydrophobic mismatch and is most important at domain boundaries. Registered phases differ in composition from antiregistered phases, consistent with a direct coupling between the leaflets. Increased hydrophobic mismatch purifies the phases, suggesting that it contributes to the molecule-level lipid immiscibility. Our results demonstrate an interplay of competing interleaflet couplings that affect phase compositions and kinetics, and lead to a length scale that can influence lateral and transverse bilayer organization within cells. PMID:27574865

  20. Roles of Interleaflet Coupling and Hydrophobic Mismatch in Lipid Membrane Phase-Separation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the nanoscale dynamic organization within lipid bilayer membranes is central to our understanding of cell membranes at a molecular level. We investigate phase separation and communication across leaflets in ternary lipid bilayers, including saturated lipids with between 12 and 20 carbons per tail. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations reveal a novel two-step kinetics due to hydrophobic mismatch, in which the initial response of the apposed leaflets upon quenching is to increase local asymmetry (antiregistration), followed by dominance of symmetry (registration) as the bilayer equilibrates. Antiregistration can become thermodynamically preferred if domain size is restricted below ∼20 nm, with implications for the symmetry of rafts and nanoclusters in cell membranes, which have similar reported sizes. We relate our findings to theory derived from a semimicroscopic model in which the leaflets experience a “direct” area-dependent coupling, and an “indirect” coupling that arises from hydrophobic mismatch and is most important at domain boundaries. Registered phases differ in composition from antiregistered phases, consistent with a direct coupling between the leaflets. Increased hydrophobic mismatch purifies the phases, suggesting that it contributes to the molecule-level lipid immiscibility. Our results demonstrate an interplay of competing interleaflet couplings that affect phase compositions and kinetics, and lead to a length scale that can influence lateral and transverse bilayer organization within cells. PMID:27574865

  1. Anaerobic digestion from residue of industrial cassava industrialization with acidogenic and methanogenic physical separation phases.

    PubMed

    Paixão, M A; Tavares, C R; Bergamasco, R; Bonifácio, A L; Costa, R T

    2000-01-01

    A trial was carried out in a continuous regimen, using a completely stirred tank reactor, at acidogenic phase, and a hybrid reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket + fixed bed) at methanogenic phase at room temperature. The residue to be treated came from a flour and cassava meal industry, and the reactors operated for 300 d with affluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 7500, 9000, 11,000, and 14,000 mg/L. The final results showed a biogas production with a content of 80% methane and an average reduction of COD and free cyanide of nearly 96 and 98%, respectively. The separation of phases selected bacterial groups. At acidogenic phase, a predominance of propionic, n-butyric, and n-valeric acids, as well as a biomass composed of 95% fermentative bacilli, which were responsible for a 90% reduction in free cyanide concentration, was observed. At methanogenic phase, a predominance of methanogenic bacteria that came only from the Methanothrix genus was observed. The bacteria were responsible for high levels of organic matter removal and methane production.

  2. Engineering Cyclodextrin Clicked Chiral Stationary Phase for High-Efficiency Enantiomer Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Shapopeng; Lin, Yuzhou; Zhou, Jie; Pang, Limin; Nie, Xuemei; Zhou, Baojing; Tang, Weihua

    2015-08-01

    The separation of racemic molecules is of crucial significance not only for fundamental research but also for technical application. Enantiomers remain challenging to be separated owing to their identical physical and chemical properties in achiral environments. Chromatographic techniques employing chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been developed as powerful tools for the chiral analysis and preparation of pure enantiomers, most of which are of biological and pharmaceutical interests. Here we report our efforts in developing high-performance phenylcarbamated cyclodextrin (CD) clicked CSPs. Insights on the impact of CD functionalities in structure design are provided. High-efficiency enantioseparation of a range of aryl alcohols and flavanoids with resolution values (Rs) over 10 were demonstrated by per(3-chloro-4-methyl)phenylcarbamated CD clicked CSP. Comparison study and molecular simulations suggest the improved enantioselectivity was attributed to higher interactions energy difference between the complexes of enantiomers and CSPs with phenylcarbamated CD bearing 3-chloro and 4-methyl functionalities.

  3. N-block separable random phase approximation: dipole oscillations in sodium clusters and {C}_{60} fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palade, D. I.; Baran, V.

    2016-09-01

    We generalize the schematic model based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) with separable interaction, to a collection of subspaces of ph excitations which interact with different coupling constants. This ansatz notably lowers the numerical effort involved, by reducing the RPA eigenvalue problem to a finite small dimensional system of equation. We derive the associated dispersion relation and the normalization condition for the newly defined unknowns of the system. In contrast with the standard separable approach, the present formalism is able to describe more than one collective excitation even in the degenerate limit, giving also access to the nature of the resonance. The theoretical framework is tested investigating the dipolar oscillations in various neutral and singly charged sodium clusters and C 60 fullerene with results in good agreement with full RPA calculations and experimental data. It is proven that the 40 eV resonance present in photoabsorption spectra of C 60 is a localized surface plasmon.

  4. Engineering Cyclodextrin Clicked Chiral Stationary Phase for High-Efficiency Enantiomer Separation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Shapopeng; Lin, Yuzhou; Zhou, Jie; Pang, Limin; Nie, Xuemei; Zhou, Baojing; Tang, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    The separation of racemic molecules is of crucial significance not only for fundamental research but also for technical application. Enantiomers remain challenging to be separated owing to their identical physical and chemical properties in achiral environments. Chromatographic techniques employing chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been developed as powerful tools for the chiral analysis and preparation of pure enantiomers, most of which are of biological and pharmaceutical interests. Here we report our efforts in developing high-performance phenylcarbamated cyclodextrin (CD) clicked CSPs. Insights on the impact of CD functionalities in structure design are provided. High-efficiency enantioseparation of a range of aryl alcohols and flavanoids with resolution values (Rs) over 10 were demonstrated by per(3-chloro-4-methyl)phenylcarbamated CD clicked CSP. Comparison study and molecular simulations suggest the improved enantioselectivity was attributed to higher interactions energy difference between the complexes of enantiomers and CSPs with phenylcarbamated CD bearing 3-chloro and 4-methyl functionalities. PMID:26235204

  5. Thermal conductivity and phase separation of the crust of accreting neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C J; Caballero, O L; Berry, D K

    2009-02-01

    Recently, crust cooling times have been measured for neutron stars after extended outbursts. These observations are very sensitive to the thermal conductivity kappa of the crust and strongly suggest that kappa is large. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the crust of an accreting neutron star using a complex composition that includes many impurities. The composition comes from simulations of rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis followed by electron captures. We find that the thermal conductivity is reduced by impurity scattering. In addition, we find phase separation. Some impurities with low atomic number Z are concentrated in a subregion of the simulation volume. For our composition, the solid crust must separate into regions of different compositions. This could lead to an asymmetric star with a quadrupole deformation. Observations of crust cooling can constrain impurity concentrations. PMID:19391802

  6. Evaluation of the separation performance of polyvinylpyrrolidone as a virtual stationary phase for chromatographic NMR.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaohua; Wu, Rui; Bai, Zhengwu; Yang, Ying; Li, Suying; Dou, Xiaowei

    2014-09-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a virtual stationary phase to separate p-xylene, benzyl alcohol, and p-methylphenol by the chromatographic NMR technique. The effects of concentration and weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of PVP, solvent viscosity, solvent polarity, and sample temperature on the resolution of these components were investigated. It was found that both higher PVP concentration and higher PVP Mw caused the increase of diffusion resolution for the three components. Moreover, the diffusion resolution did not change at viscosity-higher solvents. Moreover, the three components showed different resolution at different solvents. As temperature increased, the diffusion resolution between p-xylene and benzyl alcohol gradually increased, and the one between p-xylene and p-methylphenol slightly increased from 278 to 298 K and then decreased above 298 K. It was also found that the polarity of the analytes played an important role for the separation by affecting the diffusion coefficient.

  7. Self-organization in phase separation of a lyotropic liquid crystal into cellular, network and droplet morphologies.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Hajime

    2006-02-01

    Phase separation is one of the most fundamental physical phenomena that controls the morphology of heterogeneous structures. Phase separation of a binary mixture of simple liquids produces only two morphologies: a bicontinuous or a droplet structure in the case of a symmetric or an asymmetric composition, respectively. For complex fluids, there is a possibility to produce other interesting morphologies. We found that a network structure of the minority phase can also be induced transiently on phase separation if the dynamics of the minority phase are much slower than those of the majority phase. Here we induce a cellular structure of the minority phase intentionally with the help of its smectic ordering, using phase separation of a lyotropic liquid crystal into the isotropic and smectic phase. We can control the three morphologies, cellular, network and droplet structures, solely by changing the heating rate. We demonstrate that the kinetic interplay between phase separation and smectic ordering is a key to the morphological selection. This may provide a new route to the formation of network and cellular morphologies in soft materials.

  8. Phase separation in thermal systems: a lattice Boltzmann study and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yanbiao; Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun; Li, Hua

    2011-10-01

    We investigate thermal and isothermal symmetric liquid-vapor separations via a fast Fourier transform thermal lattice Boltzmann (FFT-TLB) model. Structure factor, domain size, and Minkowski functionals are employed to characterize the density and velocity fields, as well as to understand the configurations and the kinetic processes. Compared with the isothermal phase separation, the freedom in temperature prolongs the spinodal decomposition (SD) stage and induces different rheological and morphological behaviors in the thermal system. After the transient procedure, both the thermal and isothermal separations show power-law scalings in domain growth, while the exponent for thermal system is lower than that for isothermal system. With respect to the density field, the isothermal system presents more likely bicontinuous configurations with narrower interfaces, while the thermal system presents more likely configurations with scattered bubbles. Heat creation, conduction, and lower interfacial stresses are the main reasons for the differences in thermal system. Different from the isothermal case, the release of latent heat causes the changing of local temperature, which results in new local mechanical balance. When the Prandtl number becomes smaller, the system approaches thermodynamical equilibrium much more quickly. The increasing of mean temperature makes the interfacial stress lower in the following way: σ=σ(0)[(T(c)-T)/(T(c)-T(0))](3/2), where T(c) is the critical temperature and σ(0) is the interfacial stress at a reference temperature T(0), which is the main reason for the prolonged SD stage and the lower growth exponent in the thermal case. Besides thermodynamics, we probe how the local viscosities influence the morphology of the phase separating system. We find that, for both the isothermal and thermal cases, the growth exponents and local flow velocities are inversely proportional to the corresponding viscosities. Compared with the isothermal case, the

  9. Effects of Syndiotacticity on the Dynamic and Static Phase Separation Properties of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Tada, Takanori; Hirano, Tomohiro; Ute, Koichi; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Shoji, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Noboru; Tsuboi, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-11

    The dynamic and static phase separation behavior in aqueous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) solutions is highly sensitive to the tacticity of PNIPAM. We investigated the phase separation dynamics of aqueous solutions of PNIPAM with different tacticities (atactic and syndiotactic-rich types) and found that the phase separation dynamics of syndiotactic-rich PNIPAM was much different from that of atactic-type PNIPAM. First, phase separation in syndiotactic-rich PNIPAM was faster. Second, there was a critical point (Ccp) in the concentration dependence of the phase separation rate: the phase separation accelerated dramatically when the solution concentration was higher than 2.0 wt % (= Ccp). Third, syndiotactic-rich PNIPAM required a higher thermal energy for phase separation compared to atactic PNIPAM. Such behavior can be explained on the basis of the high hydrophobicity of syndiotactic-rich PNIPAM in a dehydrated state and a diffusion-controlled aggregation model. The present study shows that precise control of the stereoregularity will open new channels toward the design and development of stimuli-responsive-polymer-based smart materials. PMID:27414162

  10. Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Koga, Tsuyoshi; Kaneda, Isamu; Winnik, Françoise M

    2011-07-20

    The collapse of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chain upon heating and the phase diagrams of aqueous PNIPAM solutions with a very flat lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation line are theoretically studied on the basis of cooperative dehydration (simultaneous dissociation of bound water molecules in a group of correlated sequence), and compared with the experimental observation of temperature-induced coil-globule transition by light scattering methods. The transition becomes sharper with the cooperativity parameter σ of hydration. The reentrant coil-globule-coil transition and cononsolvency in a mixed solvent of water and methanol are also studied from the viewpoint of competitive hydrogen bonds between polymer-water and polymer-methanol. The downward shift of the cloud-point curves (LCST cononsolvency) with the mol fraction of methanol due to the competition is calculated and compared with the experimental data. Aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified PNIPAM carrying short alkyl chains at both chain ends (telechelic PNIPAM) are theoretically and experimentally studied. The LCST of these solutions is found to shift downward along the sol-gel transition curve as a result of end-chain association (association-induced phase separation), and separate from the coil-globule transition line. Associated structures in the solution, such as flower micelles, mesoglobules, and higher fractal assembly, are studied by ultra small-angle neutron scattering with theoretical modeling of the scattering function. Dynamic-mechanical modulus, nonlinear stationary viscosity, and stress build-up in start-up shear flows of the associated networks are studied on the basis of the affine and non-affine transient network theory. The molecular conditions for thickening, strain hardening, and stress overshoot are found in terms of the nonlinear amplitude A of the chain tension and the tension-dissociation coupling constant g.

  11. Dimensionality dependence of aging in kinetics of diffusive phase separation: Behavior of order-parameter autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Midya, Jiarul; Majumder, Suman; Das, Subir K

    2015-08-01

    Behavior of two-time autocorrelation during the phase separation in solid binary mixtures is studied via numerical solutions of the Cahn-Hilliard equation as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model. Results are analyzed via state-of-the-art methods, including the finite-size scaling technique. Full forms of the autocorrelation in space dimensions 2 and 3 are obtained empirically. The long-time behavior is found to be power law, with exponents unexpectedly higher than the ones for the ferromagnetic ordering. Both Cahn-Hilliard and Ising models provide consistent results.

  12. Phase separation of fluids in porous media: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shaista; Puri, Sanjay; Das, Subir K.

    2014-10-01

    We present comprehensive molecular dynamics results for phase-separation kinetics of fluids in a porous medium. This system is modeled by a symmetric Lennard-Jones fluid mixture with a quenched random field. The presence of disorder slows down domain growth from power-law to a logarithmic form. It also modifies the correlation functions and structure factors which characterize the morphology. In particular, the structure-factor tail shows a non-Porod behavior, which is the consequence of scattering from rough interfaces.

  13. Phase separation on the sphere: Patchy particles and self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, M. C.; Brader, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by observations of heterogeneous domain structure on the surface of cells, we consider a minimal model to describe the dynamics of phase separation on the surface of a spherical particle. Finite-size effects on the curved particle surface lead to the formation of long-lived, metastable states for which the density is distributed in patches over the particle surface. We study the time evolution and stability of these states as a function of both the particle size and the thermodynamic parameters. Finally, by connecting our findings with studies of patchy particles, we consider the implications for self-assembly in many-particle systems.

  14. Macrocyclic olefin metathesis at high concentrations by using a phase-separation strategy.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Michaël; Holtz-Mulholland, Michael; Collins, Shawn K

    2014-09-26

    Macrocyclic olefin metathesis has seen advances in the areas of stereochemistry, chemoselectivity, and catalyst stability, but strategies aimed at controlling dilution effects in macrocyclizations are rare. Herein, a protocol to promote macrocyclic olefin metathesis, one of the most common synthetic tools used to prepare macrocycles, at relatively high concentrations (up to 60 mM) is described by exploitation of a phase-separation strategy. A variety of macrocyclic skeletons could be prepared having either different alkyl, aryl, or amino acids spacers. PMID:25145960

  15. Evolution of pattern complexity in the Cahn-Hilliard theory of phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Gameiro, Marcio; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Wanner, Thomas . E-mail: wanner@math.gmu.edu

    2005-02-01

    Phase separation processes in compound materials can produce intriguing and complicated patterns. Yet, characterizing the geometry of these patterns quantitatively can be quite challenging. In this paper we propose the use of computational algebraic topology to obtain such a characterization. Our method is illustrated for the complex microstructures observed during spinodal decomposition and early coarsening in both the deterministic Cahn-Hilliard theory, as well as in the stochastic Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model. While both models produce microstructures that are qualitatively similar to the ones observed experimentally, our topological characterization points to significant differences. One particular aspect of our method is its ability to quantify boundary effects in finite size systems.

  16. Preconditioners based on approximation of non-standard norms for phase separation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Some of the phase separation processes are typically modeled by well known Cahn-Hilliard equation with obstacle potential. Solving these equations correspond to a nonsmooth and nonlinear optimization problem. Recently a globally convergent Newton Schur method was proposed for the non-linear Schur complement corresponding to this 2 × 2 non-linear system. The discrete linear problem has essentially three parameters: the mesh size, time step, and a parameter related to interface width. The preconditioners considered so far has not been robust to one of these parameters. We propose preconditioners that seem to be robust provided the mesh is sufficiently refined.

  17. Phase separation in mixtures of ionized iron in a hydrogen plasma

    PubMed Central

    Alder, B. J.; Pollock, E. L.; Hansen, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of the hypernetted chain theory for mixtures of iron nuclei and protons in a charge-neutralizing background is demonstrated by comparison with molecular dynamics calculations. Near critical conditions the Debye-Hückel approximation fails to converge, even with second-order concentration corrections. The critical conditions, determined by assuming a uniform electron gas background, have a critical temperature more than a factor of 2 lower than present estimates of interior solar conditions. Qualitative arguments are made that including the polarization of the electron gas background would not change this result significantly and thus phase separation of iron in the interior of the sun is unlikely. PMID:16592905

  18. Phase separation on the sphere: Patchy particles and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Bott, M C; Brader, J M

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by observations of heterogeneous domain structure on the surface of cells, we consider a minimal model to describe the dynamics of phase separation on the surface of a spherical particle. Finite-size effects on the curved particle surface lead to the formation of long-lived, metastable states for which the density is distributed in patches over the particle surface. We study the time evolution and stability of these states as a function of both the particle size and the thermodynamic parameters. Finally, by connecting our findings with studies of patchy particles, we consider the implications for self-assembly in many-particle systems. PMID:27575175

  19. Dimensionality dependence of aging in kinetics of diffusive phase separation: Behavior of order-parameter autocorrelation.

    PubMed

    Midya, Jiarul; Majumder, Suman; Das, Subir K

    2015-08-01

    Behavior of two-time autocorrelation during the phase separation in solid binary mixtures is studied via numerical solutions of the Cahn-Hilliard equation as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the Ising model. Results are analyzed via state-of-the-art methods, including the finite-size scaling technique. Full forms of the autocorrelation in space dimensions 2 and 3 are obtained empirically. The long-time behavior is found to be power law, with exponents unexpectedly higher than the ones for the ferromagnetic ordering. Both Cahn-Hilliard and Ising models provide consistent results. PMID:26382361

  20. Fabrication of triple layered vascular scaffolds by combining electrospinning, braiding, and thermally induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Jing, Xin; Yu, Emily; McNulty, Jason; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Triple layered small diameter vascular scaffolds, which consisted of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and silk, were fabricated in this study for the first time by combining electrospinning, braiding, and thermally induced phase separation methods. These novel vascular scaffolds, which possess three layers of different structures (nanofibrous inner layer, woven silk filament middle layer, and porous outer layer) have a desired toe region in the tensile test and sufficient suture retention and burst pressure for vascular graft applications. The endothelia cell culture tests showed that a cell layer could form on the inner surface of a scaffold with high cell viability. Furthermore, the cells showed favorable morphology on the scaffold.